man pages section 1: User Commands

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Updated: July 2014

du (1g)


du - estimate file space usage


du [OPTION]... [FILE]...
du [OPTION]... --files0-from=F


User Commands                                               DU(1)

     du - estimate file space usage

     du [OPTION]... [FILE]...
     du [OPTION]... --files0-from=F

     Summarize  disk usage of each FILE, recursively for directo-

     Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for  short
     options too.

     -a, --all
          write counts for all files, not just directories

          print  apparent sizes, rather than disk usage; although
          the apparent size is usually smaller, it may be  larger
          due  to  holes in ('sparse') files, internal fragmenta-
          tion, indirect blocks, and the like

     -B, --block-size=SIZE
          scale sizes by SIZE before printing them.  E.g.,  '-BM'
          prints  sizes  in  units  of 1,048,576 bytes.  See SIZE
          format below.

     -b, --bytes
          equivalent to '--apparent-size --block-size=1'

     -c, --total
          produce a grand total

     -D, --dereference-args
          dereference only symlinks that are listed on  the  com-
          mand line

          summarize  disk  usage of the NUL-terminated file names
          specified in file F; If F is -  then  read  names  from
          standard input

     -H   equivalent to --dereference-args (-D)

     -h, --human-readable
          print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

     --si like -h, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

     -k   like --block-size=1K

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User Commands                                               DU(1)

     -l, --count-links
          count sizes many times if hard linked

     -m   like --block-size=1M

     -L, --dereference
          dereference all symbolic links

     -P, --no-dereference
          don't follow any symbolic links (this is the default)

     -0, --null
          end each output line with 0 byte rather than newline

     -S, --separate-dirs
          do not include size of subdirectories

     -s, --summarize
          display only a total for each argument

     -x, --one-file-system
          skip directories on different file systems

     -X, --exclude-from=FILE
          exclude files that match any pattern in FILE

          exclude files that match PATTERN

     -d, --max-depth=N
          print the total for a directory (or file,  with  --all)
          only  if it is N or fewer levels below the command line
          argument;  --max-depth=0 is the same as --summarize

          show time of the last modification of any file  in  the
          directory, or any of its subdirectories

          show  time as WORD instead of modification time: atime,
          access, use, ctime or status

          show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,  iso,
          +FORMAT FORMAT is interpreted like 'date'

          display this help and exit

          output version information and exit

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User Commands                                               DU(1)

     Display values are in units of the first available SIZE from
     --block-size, and the DU_BLOCK_SIZE, BLOCK_SIZE  and  BLOCK-
     SIZE  environment  variables.   Otherwise,  units default to
     1024 bytes (or 512 if POSIXLY_CORRECT is set).

     SIZE is an  integer  and  optional  unit  (example:  10M  is
     10*1024*1024).   Units are K, M, G, T, P, E, Z, Y (powers of
     1024) or KB, MB, ... (powers of 1000).

     PATTERN is a shell pattern (not a regular expression).   The
     pattern  ?  matches any one character, whereas * matches any
     string (composed of zero, one or multiple characters).   For
     example,  *.o  will  match  any files whose names end in .o.
     Therefore, the command

          du --exclude='*.o'

     will skip all files and subdirectories ending in .o (includ-
     ing the file .o itself).

     Written  by Torbjorn Granlund, David MacKenzie, Paul Eggert,
     and Jim Meyering.

     Report du bugs to
     GNU coreutils home page:  <
     General  help  using GNU software: <
     Report  du  translation  bugs   to   <http://translationpro->

     Copyright  (C)  2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License
     GPLv3+:     GNU     GPL     version     3      or      later
     This  is  free  software:  you are free to change and redis-
     tribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the  extent  permitted
     by law.

     See   attributes(5)   for   descriptions  of  the  following

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User Commands                                               DU(1)

     |Availability   | file/gnu-coreutils |
     |Stability      | Uncommitted        |
     The full documentation for du is  maintained  as  a  Texinfo
     manual.   If the info and du programs are properly installed
     at your site, the command

          info coreutils 'du invocation'

     should give you access to the complete manual.

     This  software  was   built   from   source   available   at    The  original
     community       source       was       downloaded       from

     Further  information about this software can be found on the
     open source community  website  at

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