man pages section 1: User Commands

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Updated: July 2014

git-log (1)


git-log - Show commit logs


git log [<options>] [<since>..<until>] [[--] <path>...]


Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

     git-log - Show commit logs

     git log [<options>] [<since>..<until>] [[--] <path>...]

     Shows the commit logs.

     The command takes options applicable to the git rev-list
     command to control what is shown and how, and options
     applicable to the git diff-* commands to control how the
     changes each commit introduces are shown.

         Limits the number of commits to show. Note that this is
         a commit limiting option, see below.

         Show only commits between the named two commits. When
         either <since> or <until> is omitted, it defaults to
         HEAD, i.e. the tip of the current branch. For a more
         complete list of ways to spell <since> and <until>, see

         Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames
         (works only for a single file).

     --no-decorate, --decorate[=short|full|no]
         Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown.
         If short is specified, the ref name prefixes
         refs/heads/, refs/tags/ and refs/remotes/ will not be
         printed. If full is specified, the full ref name
         (including prefix) will be printed. The default option
         is short.

         Print out the ref name given on the command line by
         which each commit was reached.

         Without this flag, "git log -p <path>..." shows commits
         that touch the specified paths, and diffs about the same
         specified paths. With this, the full diff is shown for
         commits that touch the specified paths; this means that
         "<path>..." limits only commits, and doesn't limit diff
         for those commits.

         Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.g.

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

         those produced by --stat etc.

         Before the log message print out its size in bytes.
         Intended mainly for porcelain tools consumption. If git
         is unable to produce a valid value size is set to zero.
         Note that only message is considered, if also a diff is
         shown its size is not included.

     [--] <path>...
         Show only commits that are enough to explain how the
         files that match the specified paths came to be. See
         "History Simplification" below for details and other
         simplification modes.

         To prevent confusion with options and branch names,
         paths may need to be prefixed with "-- " to separate
         them from options or refnames.

  Commit Limiting
     Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed
     using the special notations explained in the description,
     additional commit limiting may be applied. Note that they
     are applied before commit ordering and formatting options,
     such as --reverse.

     -n number, --max-count=<number>
         Limit the number of commits to output.

         Skip number commits before starting to show the commit

     --since=<date>, --after=<date>
         Show commits more recent than a specific date.

     --until=<date>, --before=<date>
         Show commits older than a specific date.

     --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
         Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
         header lines that match the specified pattern (regular

         Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
         matches the specified pattern (regular expression).

         Limit the commits output to ones that match all given
         --grep, --author and --committer instead of ones that
         match at least one.

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

     -i, --regexp-ignore-case
         Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to
         letters case.

     -E, --extended-regexp
         Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular
         expressions instead of the default basic regular

     -F, --fixed-strings
         Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings
         (don't interpret pattern as a regular expression).

         Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

         Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

         Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
         exactly the same as --max-parents=1.

     --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>,
     --no-min-parents, --no-max-parents
         Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that
         many commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same
         as --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.
         --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and
         --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

         --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits
         (to no limit) again. Equivalent forms are
         --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0 or more parents) and
         --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no upper

         Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
         commit. This option can give a better overview when
         viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
         because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
         adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
         this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
         brought in to your history by such a merge.

         Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof)
         for all following revision specifiers, up to the next

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

         Pretend as if all the refs in refs/ are listed on the
         command line as <commit>.

         Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on
         the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given,
         limit branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
         pattern lacks ?, , or [, / at the end is implied.

         Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on
         the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given,
         limit tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern
         lacks ?, , or [, / at the end is implied.

         Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on
         the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given,
         limit remote-tracking branches to ones matching given
         shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, , or [, / at the end is

         Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob
         <glob-pattern> are listed on the command line as
         <commit>. Leading refs/, is automatically prepended if
         missing. If pattern lacks ?, , or [, / at the end is

         Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend
         as if the bad input was not given.

         Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was
         listed and as if it was followed by --not and the good
         bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* on the command line.

         In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line,
         read them from the standard input. If a -- separator is
         seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to
         limit the result.

         Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent
         commits with = rather than omitting them, and
         inequivalent ones with +.

         Omit any commit that introduces the same change as

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

         another commit on the "other side" when the set of
         commits are limited with symmetric difference.

         For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual
         way to list all commits on only one side of them is with
         --left-right (see the example below in the description
         of the --left-right option). It however shows the
         commits that were cherry-picked from the other branch
         (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from
         branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
         excluded from the output.

     --left-only, --right-only
         List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric
         range, i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  >
         by --left-right.

         For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits
         those commits from B which are in A or are
         patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In other words, this
         lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More precisely,
         --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact

         A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges;
         useful to limit the output to the commits on our side
         and mark those that have been applied to the other side
         of a forked history with git log --cherry
         upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream

     -g, --walk-reflogs
         Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
         reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
         When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
         exclude (that is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, nor
         commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

         With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious
         reasons), this causes the output to have two extra lines
         of information taken from the reflog. By default,
         commit@{Nth} notation is used in the output. When the
         starting commit is specified as commit@{now}, output
         also uses commit@{timestamp} notation instead. Under
         --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with
         this information on the same line. This option cannot be
         combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

         After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having
         a conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

         Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are
         usually not shown.

  History Simplification
     Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history,
     for example the commits modifying a particular <path>. But
     there are two parts of History Simplification, one part is
     selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as
     there are various strategies to simplify the history.

     The following options select the commits to be shown:

         Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

         Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are

     Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful

     The following options affect the way the simplification is

     Default mode
         Simplifies the history to the simplest history
         explaining the final state of the tree. Simplest because
         it prunes some side branches if the end result is the
         same (i.e. merging branches with the same content)

         Same as the default mode, but does not prune some

         Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
         meaningful history.

         All commits in the simplified history are shown.

         Additional option to --full-history to remove some
         needless merges from the resulting history, as there are
         no selected commits contributing to this merge.

         When given a range of commits to display (e.g.
         commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1), only display
         commits that exist directly on the ancestry chain

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

         between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits that are
         both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

     A more detailed explanation follows.

     Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call
     commits that modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME.
     (In a diff filtered for foo, they look different and equal,

     In the following, we will always refer to the same example
     history to illustrate the differences between simplification
     settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file foo in
     this commit graph:

                  /     /   /   /   /
                 I     B   C   D   E
                  \   /   /   /   /

     The horizontal line of history A---P is taken to be the
     first parent of each merge. The commits are:

     o    I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with
         contents "asdf", and a file quux exists with contents
         "quux". Initial commits are compared to an empty tree,
         so I is !TREESAME.

     o   In A, foo contains just "foo".

     o    B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial
         and hence TREESAME to all parents.

     o    C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to
         "foobar", so it is not TREESAME to any parent.

     o    D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings
         from N and D to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to
         any parent.

     o    E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the
         strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting,
         P is TREESAME to all parents.

     rev-list walks backwards through history, including or
     excluding commits based on whether --full-history and/or
     parent rewriting (via --parents or --children) are used. The
     following settings are available.

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

     Default mode
         Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any
         parent (though this can be changed, see --sparse below).
         If the commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one
         parent, follow only that parent. (Even if there are
         several TREESAME parents, follow only one of them.)
         Otherwise, follow all parents.

         This results in:

                      /     /   /

         Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if
         one is available, removed B from consideration entirely.
         C was considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits
         are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

         Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents,
         but that does not affect the commits selected in default
         mode, so we have shown the parent lines.

     --full-history without parent rewriting
         This mode differs from the default in one point: always
         follow all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to
         one of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has
         commits that are included, this does not imply that the
         merge itself is! In the example, we get

                     I  A  B  N  D  O

         P and M were excluded because they are TREESAME to a
         parent.  E, C and B were all walked, but only B was
         !TREESAME, so the others do not appear.

         Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really
         possible to talk about the parent/child relationships
         between the commits, so we show them disconnected.

     --full-history with parent rewriting
         Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
         (though this can be changed, see --sparse below).

         Merges are always included. However, their parent list
         is rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that
         are not included themselves. This results in

                      /     /   /   /   /
                     I     B   /   D   /
                      \   /   /   /   /

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)


         Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note
         that E was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the
         parent list of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I.
         The same happened for C and N. Note also that P was
         included despite being TREESAME.

     In addition to the above settings, you can change whether
     TREESAME affects inclusion:

         Commits that are walked are included if they are not
         TREESAME to any parent.

         All commits that are walked are included.

         Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies
         merges: if one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow
         only that one, so the other sides of the merge are never

         First, build a history graph in the same way that
         --full-history with parent rewriting does (see above).

         Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement C' in
         the final history according to the following rules:

         o   Set `C'` to C.

         o   Replace each parent `P` of C' with its
             simplification `P'`. In the process, drop parents
             that are ancestors of other parents, and remove

         o   If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or
             merge commit (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary
             commit, or !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is
             replaced with its only parent.

         The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
         --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns

                      /     /       /
                     I     B       D
                      \   /       /

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

         Note the major differences in N and P over

         o    N's parent list had I removed, because it is an
             ancestor of the other parent M. Still, N remained
             because it is !TREESAME.

         o    P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was
             then removed completely, because it had one parent
             and is TREESAME.

     Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

         Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the
         ancestry chain between the "from" and "to" commits in
         the given commit range. I.e. only display commits that
         are ancestor of the "to" commit, and descendants of the
         "from" commit.

         As an example use case, consider the following commit

                        /     \       \
                      /                     \

         A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are
         ancestors of M, but excludes the ones that are ancestors
         of D. This is useful to see what happened to the history
         leading to M since D, in the sense that "what does M
         have that did not exist in D". The result in this
         example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D
         itself, of course).

         When we want to find out what commits in M are
         contaminated with the bug introduced by D and need
         fixing, however, we might want to view only the subset
         of D..M that are actually descendants of D, i.e.
         excluding C and K. This is exactly what the
         --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M range,
         it results in:

                              \       \

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

     The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only
     the big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting
     commits that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked
     as !TREESAME (in other words, kept after history
     simplification rules described above) if (1) they are
     referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the
     paths given on the command line. All other commits are
     marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

  Commit Ordering
     By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological

         This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
         descendant commits are shown before their parents).

         This option is similar to --topo-order in the sense that
         no parent comes before all of its children, but
         otherwise things are still ordered in the commit
         timestamp order.

         Output the commits in reverse order. Cannot be combined
         with --walk-reflogs.

  Object Traversal
     These options are mostly targeted for packing of git

         Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the
         listed commits.  --objects foo ^bar thus means "send me
         all object IDs which I need to download if I have the
         commit object bar, but not foo".

         Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded
         commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
         git-pack-objects(1) to build "thin" pack, which records
         objects in deltified form based on objects contained in
         these excluded commits to reduce network traffic.

         Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that
         are not in packs.

         Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

         Overrides a previous --no-walk.

  Commit Formatting
     --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
         Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given
         format, where <format> can be one of oneline, short,
         medium, full, fuller, email, raw and format:<string>.
         See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional
         details for each format. When omitted, the format
         defaults to medium.

         Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the
         repository configuration (see git-config(1)).

         Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit
         object name, show only a partial prefix. Non default
         number of digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>"
         (which also modifies diff output, if it is displayed).

         This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more
         readable for people using 80-column terminals.

         Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name.
         This negates --abbrev-commit and those options which
         imply it such as "--oneline". It also overrides the
         log.abbrevCommit variable.

         This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline
         --abbrev-commit" used together.

         The commit objects record the encoding used for the log
         message in their encoding header; this option can be
         used to tell the command to re-code the commit log
         message in the encoding preferred by the user. For non
         plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8.

         Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the
         commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the
         default for git log, git show and git whatchanged
         commands when there is no --pretty, --format nor
         --oneline option given on the command line.

         By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs
         listed in the core.notesRef and notes.displayRef
         variables (or corresponding environment overrides). See
         git-config(1) for more details.

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         With an optional <ref> argument, show this notes ref
         instead of the default notes ref(s). The ref is taken to
         be in refs/notes/ if it is not qualified.

         Multiple --notes options can be combined to control
         which notes are being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo"
         will show only notes from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo
         --notes" will show both notes from "refs/notes/foo" and
         from the default notes ref(s).

         Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes
         option, by resetting the list of notes refs from which
         notes are shown. Options are parsed in the order given
         on the command line, so e.g. "--notes --notes=foo
         --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes from

     --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
         These options are deprecated. Use the above
         --notes/--no-notes options instead.

         Synonym for --date=relative.

         Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable
         format, such as when using "--pretty". config
         variable sets a default value for log command's --date

         --date=relative shows dates relative to the current
         time, e.g. "2 hours ago".

         --date=local shows timestamps in user's local timezone.

         --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in ISO
         8601 format.

         --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC
         2822 format, often found in E-mail messages.

         --date=short shows only date but not time, in YYYY-MM-DD

         --date=raw shows the date in the internal raw git format
         %s %z format.

         --date=default shows timestamps in the original timezone
         (either committer's or author's).

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         Print also the parents of the commit (in the form
         "commit parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see
         History Simplification below.

         Print also the children of the commit (in the form
         "commit child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see
         History Simplification below.

         Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is
         reachable from. Commits from the left side are prefixed
         with < and those from the right with >. If combined with
         --boundary, those commits are prefixed with -.

         For example, if you have this topology:

                          y---b---b  branch B
                         / \ /
                        /   .
                       /   / \
                      o---x---a---a  branch A

         you would get an output like this:

                     $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                     >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                     >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                     <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                     <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                     -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                     -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

         Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit
         history on the left hand side of the output. This may
         cause extra lines to be printed in between commits, in
         order for the graph history to be drawn properly.

         This enables parent rewriting, see History
         Simplification below.

         This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
         --date-order option may also be specified.

  Diff Formatting
     Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff
     output. Some of them are specific to git-rev-list(1),
     however other diff options may be given. See git-diff-

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     files(1) for more options.

         With this option, diff output for a merge commit shows
         the differences from each of the parents to the merge
         result simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff
         between a parent and the result one at a time.
         Furthermore, it lists only files which were modified
         from all parents.

         This flag implies the -c options and further compresses
         the patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose
         contents in the parents have only two variants and the
         merge result picks one of them without modification.

         This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff
         like regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate
         log entry and diff is generated. An exception is that
         only diff against the first parent is shown when
         --first-parent option is given; in that case, the output
         represents the changes the merge brought into the
         then-current branch.

         Show recursive diffs.

         Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies

         Suppress diff output.

     If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not
     oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before
     the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the
     sha1s of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces.
     Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be the list
     of the direct parent commits if you have limited your view
     of history: for example, if you are only interested in
     changes related to a certain directory or file.

     There are several built-in formats, and you can define
     additional formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option
     to either another format name, or a format: string, as
     described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the details of
     the built-in formats:

     o    oneline

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             <sha1> <title line>

         This is designed to be as compact as possible.

     o    short

             commit <sha1>
             Author: <author>

             <title line>

     o    medium

             commit <sha1>
             Author: <author>
             Date:   <author date>

             <title line>

             <full commit message>

     o    full

             commit <sha1>
             Author: <author>
             Commit: <committer>

             <title line>

             <full commit message>

     o    fuller

             commit <sha1>
             Author:     <author>
             AuthorDate: <author date>
             Commit:     <committer>
             CommitDate: <committer date>

             <title line>

             <full commit message>

     o    email

             From <sha1> <date>
             From: <author>
             Date: <author date>
             Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

             <full commit message>

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     o    raw

         The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored
         in the commit object. Notably, the SHA1s are displayed
         in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev
         are used, and parents information show the true parent
         commits, without taking grafts nor history
         simplification into account.

     o    format:<string>

         The format:<string> format allows you to specify which
         information you want to show. It works a little bit like
         printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
         newline with %n instead of \n.

         E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title
         was >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

             The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
             The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

         The placeholders are:

         o    %H: commit hash

         o    %h: abbreviated commit hash

         o    %T: tree hash

         o    %t: abbreviated tree hash

         o    %P: parent hashes

         o    %p: abbreviated parent hashes

         o    %an: author name

         o    %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
             shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %ae: author email

         o    %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
             shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

         o    %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

         o    %ar: author date, relative

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         o    %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

         o    %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format

         o    %cn: committer name

         o    %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
             shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %ce: committer email

         o    %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
             shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %cd: committer date

         o    %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

         o    %cr: committer date, relative

         o    %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

         o    %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format

         o    %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-

         o    %e: encoding

         o    %s: subject

         o    %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

         o    %b: body

         o    %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

         o    %N: commit notes

         o    %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

         o    %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

         o    %gn: reflog identity name

         o    %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
             git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %ge: reflog identity email

         o    %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap,
             see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

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         o    %gs: reflog subject

         o    %Cred: switch color to red

         o    %Cgreen: switch color to green

         o    %Cblue: switch color to blue

         o    %Creset: reset color

         o    %C(...): color specification, as described in
             color.branch.* config option

         o    %m: left, right or boundary mark

         o    %n: newline

         o    %%: a raw %

         o    %x00: print a byte from a hex code

         o    %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like
             the -w option of git-shortlog(1).


         Some placeholders may depend on other options given to
         the revision traversal engine. For example, the %g*
         reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are
         traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d
         placeholder will use the "short" decoration format if
         --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

     If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a
     line-feed is inserted immediately before the expansion if
     and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

     If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder,
     line-feeds that immediately precede the expansion are
     deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty

     If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space
     is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if
     the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

     o    tformat:

         The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except
         that it provides "terminator" semantics instead of
         "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has
         the message terminator character (usually a newline)

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         appended, rather than a separator placed between
         entries. This means that the final entry of a
         single-line format will be properly terminated with a
         new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For

             $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
               | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
             7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

             $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
               | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

         In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it
         is interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For
         example, these two are equivalent:

             $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
             $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

     -p, -u, --patch
         Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

     -U<n>, --unified=<n>
         Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the
         usual three. Implies -p.

         Generate the raw format.

         Synonym for -p --raw.

         Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff
         is produced.

         Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

         Generate a diffstat. You can override the default output
         width for 80-column terminal by --stat=<width>. The
         width of the filename part can be controlled by giving
         another width to it separated by a comma. By giving a
         third parameter <count>, you can limit the output to the
         first <count> lines, followed by ...  if there are more.

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         These parameters can also be set individually with
         --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and

         Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted
         lines in decimal notation and pathname without
         abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
         binary files, outputs two - instead of saying 0 0.

         Output only the last line of the --stat format
         containing total number of modified files, as well as
         number of added and deleted lines.

         Output the distribution of relative amount of changes
         for each sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be
         customized by passing it a comma separated list of
         parameters. The defaults are controlled by the
         diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-config(1)).
         The following parameters are available:

             Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines
             that have been removed from the source, or added to
             the destination. This ignores the amount of pure
             code movements within a file. In other words,
             rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much
             as other changes. This is the default behavior when
             no parameter is given.

             Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular
             line-based diff analysis, and summing the
             removed/added line counts. (For binary files, count
             64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no
             natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
             --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it
             does count rearranged lines within a file as much as
             other changes. The resulting output is consistent
             with what you get from the other --*stat options.

             Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number
             of files changed. Each changed file counts equally
             in the dirstat analysis. This is the computationally
             cheapest --dirstat behavior, since it does not have
             to look at the file contents at all.

             Count changes in a child directory for the parent

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             directory as well. Note that when using cumulative,
             the sum of the percentages reported may exceed 100%.
             The default (non-cumulative) behavior can be
             specified with the noncumulative parameter.

             An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3%
             by default). Directories contributing less than this
             percentage of the changes are not shown in the

         Example: The following will count changed files, while
         ignoring directories with less than 10% of the total
         amount of changed files, and accumulating child
         directory counts in the parent directories:

         Output a condensed summary of extended header
         information such as creations, renames and mode changes.

         Synonym for -p --stat.

         Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new

         Also, when --raw or --numstat has been given, do not
         munge pathnames and use NULs as output field

         Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB,
         LF, double quotes, and backslash characters replaced
         with \t, \n, \", and \\, respectively, and the pathname
         will be enclosed in double quotes if any of those
         replacements occurred.

         Show only names of changed files.

         Show only names and status of changed files. See the
         description of the --diff-filter option on what the
         status letters mean.

         Chose the output format for submodule differences.
         <format> can be one of short and log.  short just shows
         pairs of commit names, this format is used when this
         option is not given.  log is the default value for this
         option and lists the commits in that commit range like

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         the summary option of git-submodule(1) does.

         Show colored diff. The value must be always (the default
         for <when>), never, or auto. The default value is never.

         Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

         Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed
         words. By default, words are delimited by whitespace;
         see --word-diff-regex below. The <mode> defaults to
         plain, and must be one of:

             Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies

             Show words as [-removed-] and {added}. Makes no
             attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear in
             the input, so the output may be ambiguous.

             Use a special line-based format intended for script
             consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are
             printed in the usual unified diff format, starting
             with a +/-/` ` character at the beginning of the
             line and extending to the end of the line. Newlines
             in the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line
             of its own.

             Disable word diff again.

         Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is
         used to highlight the changed parts in all modes if

         Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of
         considering runs of non-whitespace to be a word. Also
         implies --word-diff unless it was already enabled.

         Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered
         a word. Anything between these matches is considered
         whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
         differences. You may want to append |[^[:space:]] to
         your regular expression to make sure that it matches all
         non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a
         newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

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         The regex can also be set via a diff driver or
         configuration option, see gitattributes(1) or git-
         config(1). Giving it explicitly overrides any diff
         driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers override
         configuration settings.

         Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was
         specified) --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

         Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
         file gives the default to do so.

         Warn if changes introduce whitespace errors. What are
         considered whitespace errors is controlled by
         core.whitespace configuration. By default, trailing
         whitespaces (including lines that solely consist of
         whitespaces) and a space character that is immediately
         followed by a tab character inside the initial indent of
         the line are considered whitespace errors. Exits with
         non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
         with --exit-code.

         Instead of the first handful of characters, show the
         full pre- and post-image blob object names on the
         "index" line when generating patch format output.

         In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that
         can be applied with git-apply.

         Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
         name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
         lines, show only a partial prefix. This is independent
         of the --full-index option above, which controls the
         diff-patch output format. Non default number of digits
         can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

     -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
         Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
         create. This serves two purposes:

         It affects the way a change that amounts to a total
         rewrite of a file not as a series of deletion and
         insertion mixed together with a very few lines that
         happen to match textually as the context, but as a
         single deletion of everything old followed by a single
         insertion of everything new, and the number m controls

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         this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70%
         specifies that less than 30% of the original should
         remain in the result for git to consider it a total
         rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a
         series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
         context lines).

         When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also
         considered as the source of a rename (usually -M only
         considers a file that disappeared as the source of a
         rename), and the number n controls this aspect of the -B
         option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies that a change
         with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of
         the file's size are eligible for being picked up as a
         possible source of a rename to another file.

     -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
         If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each
         commit. For following files across renames while
         traversing history, see --follow. If n is specified, it
         is a threshold on the similarity index (i.e. amount of
         addition/deletions compared to the file's size). For
         example, -M90% means git should consider a delete/add
         pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn't

     -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
         Detect copies as well as renames. See also
         --find-copies-harder. If n is specified, it has the same
         meaning as for -M<n>.

         For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds
         copies only if the original file of the copy was
         modified in the same changeset. This flag makes the
         command inspect unmodified files as candidates for the
         source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
         large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than
         one -C option has the same effect.

     -D, --irreversible-delete
         Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the
         header but not the diff between the preimage and
         /dev/null. The resulting patch is not meant to be
         applied with patch nor git apply; this is solely for
         people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
         text after the change. In addition, the output obviously
         lack enough information to apply such a patch in
         reverse, even manually, hence the name of the option.

         When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in
         the deletion part of a delete/create pair.

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         The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time
         where n is the number of potential rename/copy targets.
         This option prevents rename/copy detection from running
         if the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the
         specified number.

         Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C),
         Deleted (D), Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type
         (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, ...) changed
         (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown (X), or have had
         their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the filter
         characters (including none) can be used. When *
         (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all paths are
         selected if there is any file that matches other
         criteria in the comparison; if there is no file that
         matches other criteria, nothing is selected.

         Look for differences that introduce or remove an
         instance of <string>. Note that this is different than
         the string simply appearing in diff output; see the
         pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(5) for more details.

         Look for differences whose added or removed line matches
         the given <regex>.

         When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in
         that changeset, not just the files that contain the
         change in <string>.

         Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended
         POSIX regex to match.

         Output the patch in the order specified in the
         <orderfile>, which has one shell glob pattern per line.

         Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
         on-disk file to tree contents.

         When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be
         told to exclude changes outside the directory and show
         pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are
         not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
         can name which subdirectory to make the output relative

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         to by giving a <path> as an argument.

     -a, --text
         Treat all files as text.

         Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

     -b, --ignore-space-change
         Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores
         whitespace at line end, and considers all other
         sequences of one or more whitespace characters to be

     -w, --ignore-all-space
         Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
         differences even if one line has whitespace where the
         other line has none.

         Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified
         number of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to
         each other.

     -W, --function-context
         Show whole surrounding functions of changes.

         Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set
         an external diff driver with gitattributes(4), you need
         to use this option with git-log(1) and friends.

         Disallow external diff drivers.

     --textconv, --no-textconv
         Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to
         be run when comparing binary files. See gitattributes(4)
         for details. Because textconv filters are typically a
         one-way conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for
         human consumption, but cannot be applied. For this
         reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for
         git-diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-
         patch(1) or diff plumbing commands.

         Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation.
         <when> can be either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or
         "all", which is the default Using "none" will consider
         the submodule modified when it either contains untracked
         or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit
         recorded in the superproject and can be used to override

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         any settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or
         gitmodules(4). When "untracked" is used submodules are
         not considered dirty when they only contain untracked
         content (but they are still scanned for modified
         content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work
         tree of submodules, only changes to the commits stored
         in the superproject are shown (this was the behavior
         until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to

         Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

         Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

         Do not show any source or destination prefix.

     For more detailed explanation on these common options, see
     also gitdiffcore(5).

     When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files"
     are run with a -p option, "git diff" without the --raw
     option, or "git log" with the "-p" option, they do not
     produce the output described above; instead they produce a
     patch file. You can customize the creation of such patches
     via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment

     What the -p option produces is slightly different from the
     traditional diff format:

      1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like

             diff --git a/file1 b/file2

         The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy
         is involved. Especially, even for a creation or a
         deletion, /dev/null is not used in place of the a/ or b/

         When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the
         name of the source file of the rename/copy and the name
         of the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.

      2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

             old mode <mode>
             new mode <mode>

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             deleted file mode <mode>
             new file mode <mode>
             copy from <path>
             copy to <path>
             rename from <path>
             rename to <path>
             similarity index <number>
             dissimilarity index <number>
             index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

         File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers
         including the file type and file permission bits.

         Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and
         b/ prefixes.

         The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged
         lines, and the dissimilarity index is the percentage of
         changed lines. It is a rounded down integer, followed by
         a percent sign. The similarity index value of 100% is
         thus reserved for two equal files, while 100%
         dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made
         it into the new one.

         The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and
         after the change. The <mode> is included if the file
         mode does not change; otherwise, separate lines indicate
         the old and the new mode.

      3. TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in
         pathnames are represented as \t, \n, \" and \\,
         respectively. If there is need for such substitution
         then the whole pathname is put in double quotes.

      4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before
         the commit, and all the file2 files refer to files after
         the commit. It is incorrect to apply each change to each
         file sequentially. For example, this patch will swap a
         and b:

             diff --git a/a b/b
             rename from a
             rename to b
             diff --git a/b b/a
             rename from b
             rename to a

     Any diff-generating command can take the `-c` or --cc option
     to produce a combined diff when showing a merge. This is the
     default format when showing merges with git-diff(1) or git-
     show(1). Note also that you can give the `-m' option to any

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     of these commands to force generation of diffs with
     individual parents of a merge.

     A combined diff format looks like this:

         diff --combined describe.c
         index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
         --- a/describe.c
         +++ b/describe.c
         @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                 return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;

         - static void describe(char *arg)
          -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
         ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
          +      unsigned char sha1[20];
          +      struct commit *cmit;
                 struct commit_list *list;
                 static int initialized = 0;
                 struct commit_name *n;

          +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
          +              usage(describe_usage);
          +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
          +      if (!cmit)
          +              usage(describe_usage);
                 if (!initialized) {
                         initialized = 1;

      1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
         this (when -c option is used):

             diff --combined file

         or like this (when --cc option is used):

             diff --cc file

      2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines
         (this example shows a merge with two parents):

             index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
             mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
             new file mode <mode>
             deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

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         The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at
         least one of the <mode> is different from the rest.
         Extended headers with information about detected
         contents movement (renames and copying detection) are
         designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and are not
         used by combined diff format.

      3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

             --- a/file
             +++ b/file

         Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff
         format, /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted

      4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
         accidentally feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff
         format was created for review of merge commit changes,
         and was not meant for apply. The change is similar to
         the change in the extended index header:

             @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

         There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the
         chunk header for combined diff format.

     Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two
     files A and B with a single column that has - (minus --
     appears in A but removed in B), + (plus -- missing in A but
     added to B), or " " (space -- unchanged) prefix, this format
     compares two or more files file1, file2,... with one file X,
     and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for
     each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how
     X's line is different from it.

     A - character in the column N means that the line appears in
     fileN but it does not appear in the result. A + character in
     the column N means that the line appears in the result, and
     fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was
     added, from the point of view of that parent).

     In the above example output, the function signature was
     changed from both files (hence two - removals from both
     file1 and file2, plus ++ to mean one line that was added
     does not appear in either file1 nor file2). Also eight other
     lines are the same from file1 but do not appear in file2
     (hence prefixed with +).

     When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a
     merge commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are
     the parents). When shown by git diff-files -c, it compares

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     the two unresolved merge parents with the working tree file
     (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our version", file2 is stage 3
     aka "their version").

     git log --no-merges
         Show the whole commit history, but skip any merges

     git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi
         Show all commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any
         file in the include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories

     git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk
         Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file
         gitk. The "--" is necessary to avoid confusion with the
         branch named gitk

     git log --name-status release..test
         Show the commits that are in the "test" branch but not
         yet in the "release" branch, along with the list of
         paths each commit modifies.

     git log --follow builtin-rev-list.c
         Shows the commits that changed builtin-rev-list.c,
         including those commits that occurred before the file
         was given its present name.

     git log --branches --not --remotes=origin
         Shows all commits that are in any of local branches but
         not in any of remote-tracking branches for origin (what
         you have that origin doesn't).

     git log master --not --remotes=*/master
         Shows all commits that are in local master but not in
         any remote repository master branches.

     git log -p -m --first-parent
         Shows the history including change diffs, but only from
         the "main branch" perspective, skipping commits that
         come from merged branches, and showing full diffs of
         changes introduced by the merges. This makes sense only
         when following a strict policy of merging all topic
         branches when staying on a single integration branch.

     At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.

     o   The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree
         objects are treated as uninterpreted sequences of
         non-NUL bytes. What readdir(2) returns are what are
         recorded and compared with the data git keeps track of,
         which in turn are expected to be what lstat(2) and

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         creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname
         encoding translation.

     o   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted
         sequences of bytes. There is no encoding translation at
         the core level.

     o   The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of
         non-NUL bytes.

     Although we encourage that the commit log messages are
     encoded in UTF-8, both the core and git Porcelain are
     designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants
     of a particular project find it more convenient to use
     legacy encodings, git does not forbid it. However, there are
     a few things to keep in mind.

      1.  git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the
         commit log message given to it does not look like a
         valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your
         project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is
         to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like

                     commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

         Commit objects created with the above setting record the
         value of i18n.commitencoding in its encoding header.
         This is to help other people who look at them later.
         Lack of this header implies that the commit log message
         is encoded in UTF-8.

      2.  git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the
         encoding header of a commit object, and try to re-code
         the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified.
         You can specify the desired output encoding with
         i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config file, like this:

                     logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

         If you do not have this configuration variable, the
         value of i18n.commitencoding is used instead.

     Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit
     log message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the
     commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not
     necessarily a reversible operation.

     See git-config(1) for core variables and git-diff(1) for

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

     settings related to diff generation.

         Default for the --format option. (See "PRETTY FORMATS"
         above.) Defaults to "medium".

         Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See "Discussion",
         above.) Defaults to the value of i18n.commitEncoding if
         set, UTF-8 otherwise.
         Default format for human-readable dates. (Compare the
         --date option.) Defaults to "default", which means to
         write dates like Sat May 8 19:35:34 2010 -0500.

         If false, git log and related commands will not treat
         the initial commit as a big creation event. Any root
         commits in git log -p output would be shown without a
         diff attached. The default is true.

         See git-shortlog(1).

         Which refs, in addition to the default set by
         core.notesRef or GIT_NOTES_REF, to read notes from when
         showing commit messages with the log family of commands.
         See git-notes(1).

         May be an unabbreviated ref name or a glob and may be
         specified multiple times. A warning will be issued for
         refs that do not exist, but a glob that does not match
         any refs is silently ignored.

         This setting can be disabled by the --no-notes option,
         overridden by the GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF environment
         variable, and overridden by the --notes=<ref> option.

     Part of the git(1) suite

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following

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Git Manual                                             GIT-LOG(1)

     |Availability   | developer/versioning/git |
     |Stability      | Uncommitted              |
     This software was built from source available at  The original
     community source was downloaded from  http://git-

     Further information about this software can be found on the
     open source community website at

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