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Updated: July 2014

git-rev-list (1)


git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order


git rev-list [ --max-count=<number> ]
[ --skip=<number> ]
[ --max-age=<timestamp> ]
[ --min-age=<timestamp> ]
[ --sparse ]
[ --merges ]
[ --no-merges ]
[ --min-parents=<number> ]
[ --no-min-parents ]
[ --max-parents=<number> ]
[ --no-max-parents ]
[ --first-parent ]
[ --remove-empty ]
[ --full-history ]
[ --not ]
[ --all ]
[ --branches[=<pattern>] ]
[ --tags[=<pattern>] ]
[ --remotes[=<pattern>] ]
[ --glob=<glob-pattern> ]
[ --ignore-missing ]
[ --stdin ]
[ --quiet ]
[ --topo-order ]
[ --parents ]
[ --timestamp ]
[ --left-right ]
[ --left-only ]
[ --right-only ]
[ --cherry-mark ]
[ --cherry-pick ]
[ --encoding[=<encoding>] ]
[ --(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
[ --regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
[ --extended-regexp | -E ]
[ --fixed-strings | -F ]
[ --date=(local|relative|default|iso|rfc|short) ]
[ [--objects | --objects-edge] [ --unpacked ] ]
[ --pretty | --header ]
[ --bisect ]
[ --bisect-vars ]
[ --bisect-all ]
[ --merge ]
[ --reverse ]
[ --walk-reflogs ]
[ --no-walk ] [ --do-walk ]
<commit>... [ -- <paths>... ]


Git Manual                                        GIT-REV-LIST(1)

     git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological

     git rev-list [ --max-count=<number> ]
                  [ --skip=<number> ]
                  [ --max-age=<timestamp> ]
                  [ --min-age=<timestamp> ]
                  [ --sparse ]
                  [ --merges ]
                  [ --no-merges ]
                  [ --min-parents=<number> ]
                  [ --no-min-parents ]
                  [ --max-parents=<number> ]
                  [ --no-max-parents ]
                  [ --first-parent ]
                  [ --remove-empty ]
                  [ --full-history ]
                  [ --not ]
                  [ --all ]
                  [ --branches[=<pattern>] ]
                  [ --tags[=<pattern>] ]
                  [ --remotes[=<pattern>] ]
                  [ --glob=<glob-pattern> ]
                  [ --ignore-missing ]
                  [ --stdin ]
                  [ --quiet ]
                  [ --topo-order ]
                  [ --parents ]
                  [ --timestamp ]
                  [ --left-right ]
                  [ --left-only ]
                  [ --right-only ]
                  [ --cherry-mark ]
                  [ --cherry-pick ]
                  [ --encoding[=<encoding>] ]
                  [ --(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
                  [ --regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
                  [ --extended-regexp | -E ]
                  [ --fixed-strings | -F ]
                  [ --date=(local|relative|default|iso|rfc|short) ]
                  [ [--objects | --objects-edge] [ --unpacked ] ]
                  [ --pretty | --header ]
                  [ --bisect ]
                  [ --bisect-vars ]
                  [ --bisect-all ]
                  [ --merge ]
                  [ --reverse ]
                  [ --walk-reflogs ]
                  [ --no-walk ] [ --do-walk ]
                  <commit>... [ -- <paths>... ]

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Git Manual                                        GIT-REV-LIST(1)

     List commits that are reachable by following the parent
     links from the given commit(s), but exclude commits that are
     reachable from the one(s) given with a ^ in front of them.
     The output is given in reverse chronological order by

     You can think of this as a set operation. Commits given on
     the command line form a set of commits that are reachable
     from any of them, and then commits reachable from any of the
     ones given with ^ in front are subtracted from that set. The
     remaining commits are what comes out in the command's
     output. Various other options and paths parameters can be
     used to further limit the result.

     Thus, the following command:

                 $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

     means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or
     bar, but not from baz".

     A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a
     short-hand for "^<commit1> <commit2>". For example, either
     of the following may be used interchangeably:

                 $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
                 $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

     Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is
     useful for merges. The resulting set of commits is the
     symmetric difference between the two operands. The following
     two commands are equivalent:

                 $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
                 $ git rev-list A...B

     rev-list is a very essential git command, since it provides
     the ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs.
     For this reason, it has a lot of different options that
     enables it to be used by commands as different as git bisect
     and git repack.

  Commit Limiting
     Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed
     using the special notations explained in the description,
     additional commit limiting may be applied. Note that they
     are applied before commit ordering and formatting options,

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Git Manual                                        GIT-REV-LIST(1)

     such as --reverse.

     -n number, --max-count=<number>
         Limit the number of commits to output.

         Skip number commits before starting to show the commit

     --since=<date>, --after=<date>
         Show commits more recent than a specific date.

     --until=<date>, --before=<date>
         Show commits older than a specific date.

     --max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
         Limit the commits output to specified time range.

     --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
         Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
         header lines that match the specified pattern (regular

         Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
         matches the specified pattern (regular expression).

         Limit the commits output to ones that match all given
         --grep, --author and --committer instead of ones that
         match at least one.

     -i, --regexp-ignore-case
         Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to
         letters case.

     -E, --extended-regexp
         Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular
         expressions instead of the default basic regular

     -F, --fixed-strings
         Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings
         (don't interpret pattern as a regular expression).

         Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

         Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

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         Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
         exactly the same as --max-parents=1.

     --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>,
     --no-min-parents, --no-max-parents
         Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that
         many commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same
         as --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.
         --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and
         --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

         --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits
         (to no limit) again. Equivalent forms are
         --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0 or more parents) and
         --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no upper

         Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
         commit. This option can give a better overview when
         viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
         because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
         adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
         this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
         brought in to your history by such a merge.

         Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof)
         for all following revision specifiers, up to the next

         Pretend as if all the refs in refs/ are listed on the
         command line as <commit>.

         Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on
         the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given,
         limit branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
         pattern lacks ?, , or [, / at the end is implied.

         Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on
         the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given,
         limit tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern
         lacks ?, , or [, / at the end is implied.

         Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on
         the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given,
         limit remote-tracking branches to ones matching given

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Git Manual                                        GIT-REV-LIST(1)

         shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, , or [, / at the end is

         Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob
         <glob-pattern> are listed on the command line as
         <commit>. Leading refs/, is automatically prepended if
         missing. If pattern lacks ?, , or [, / at the end is

         Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend
         as if the bad input was not given.

         In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line,
         read them from the standard input. If a -- separator is
         seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to
         limit the result.

         Don't print anything to standard output. This form is
         primarily meant to allow the caller to test the exit
         status to see if a range of objects is fully connected
         (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout to
         /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.

         Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent
         commits with = rather than omitting them, and
         inequivalent ones with +.

         Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
         another commit on the "other side" when the set of
         commits are limited with symmetric difference.

         For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual
         way to list all commits on only one side of them is with
         --left-right (see the example below in the description
         of the --left-right option). It however shows the
         commits that were cherry-picked from the other branch
         (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from
         branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
         excluded from the output.

     --left-only, --right-only
         List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric
         range, i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  >
         by --left-right.

         For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits

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         those commits from B which are in A or are
         patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In other words, this
         lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More precisely,
         --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact

         A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges;
         useful to limit the output to the commits on our side
         and mark those that have been applied to the other side
         of a forked history with git log --cherry
         upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream

     -g, --walk-reflogs
         Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
         reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
         When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
         exclude (that is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, nor
         commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

         With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious
         reasons), this causes the output to have two extra lines
         of information taken from the reflog. By default,
         commit@{Nth} notation is used in the output. When the
         starting commit is specified as commit@{now}, output
         also uses commit@{timestamp} notation instead. Under
         --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with
         this information on the same line. This option cannot be
         combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

         After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having
         a conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.

         Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are
         usually not shown.

  History Simplification
     Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history,
     for example the commits modifying a particular <path>. But
     there are two parts of History Simplification, one part is
     selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as
     there are various strategies to simplify the history.

     The following options select the commits to be shown:

         Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

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         Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are

     Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful

     The following options affect the way the simplification is

     Default mode
         Simplifies the history to the simplest history
         explaining the final state of the tree. Simplest because
         it prunes some side branches if the end result is the
         same (i.e. merging branches with the same content)

         Same as the default mode, but does not prune some

         Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
         meaningful history.

         All commits in the simplified history are shown.

         Additional option to --full-history to remove some
         needless merges from the resulting history, as there are
         no selected commits contributing to this merge.

         When given a range of commits to display (e.g.
         commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1), only display
         commits that exist directly on the ancestry chain
         between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits that are
         both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

     A more detailed explanation follows.

     Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call
     commits that modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME.
     (In a diff filtered for foo, they look different and equal,

     In the following, we will always refer to the same example
     history to illustrate the differences between simplification
     settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file foo in
     this commit graph:


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Git Manual                                        GIT-REV-LIST(1)

                  /     /   /   /   /
                 I     B   C   D   E
                  \   /   /   /   /

     The horizontal line of history A---P is taken to be the
     first parent of each merge. The commits are:

     o    I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with
         contents "asdf", and a file quux exists with contents
         "quux". Initial commits are compared to an empty tree,
         so I is !TREESAME.

     o   In A, foo contains just "foo".

     o    B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial
         and hence TREESAME to all parents.

     o    C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to
         "foobar", so it is not TREESAME to any parent.

     o    D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings
         from N and D to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to
         any parent.

     o    E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the
         strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting,
         P is TREESAME to all parents.

     rev-list walks backwards through history, including or
     excluding commits based on whether --full-history and/or
     parent rewriting (via --parents or --children) are used. The
     following settings are available.

     Default mode
         Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any
         parent (though this can be changed, see --sparse below).
         If the commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one
         parent, follow only that parent. (Even if there are
         several TREESAME parents, follow only one of them.)
         Otherwise, follow all parents.

         This results in:

                      /     /   /

         Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if
         one is available, removed B from consideration entirely.
         C was considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits

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Git Manual                                        GIT-REV-LIST(1)

         are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

         Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents,
         but that does not affect the commits selected in default
         mode, so we have shown the parent lines.

     --full-history without parent rewriting
         This mode differs from the default in one point: always
         follow all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to
         one of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has
         commits that are included, this does not imply that the
         merge itself is! In the example, we get

                     I  A  B  N  D  O

         P and M were excluded because they are TREESAME to a
         parent.  E, C and B were all walked, but only B was
         !TREESAME, so the others do not appear.

         Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really
         possible to talk about the parent/child relationships
         between the commits, so we show them disconnected.

     --full-history with parent rewriting
         Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
         (though this can be changed, see --sparse below).

         Merges are always included. However, their parent list
         is rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that
         are not included themselves. This results in

                      /     /   /   /   /
                     I     B   /   D   /
                      \   /   /   /   /

         Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note
         that E was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the
         parent list of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I.
         The same happened for C and N. Note also that P was
         included despite being TREESAME.

     In addition to the above settings, you can change whether
     TREESAME affects inclusion:

         Commits that are walked are included if they are not
         TREESAME to any parent.

         All commits that are walked are included.

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Git Manual                                        GIT-REV-LIST(1)

         Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies
         merges: if one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow
         only that one, so the other sides of the merge are never

         First, build a history graph in the same way that
         --full-history with parent rewriting does (see above).

         Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement C' in
         the final history according to the following rules:

         o   Set `C'` to C.

         o   Replace each parent `P` of C' with its
             simplification `P'`. In the process, drop parents
             that are ancestors of other parents, and remove

         o   If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or
             merge commit (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary
             commit, or !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is
             replaced with its only parent.

         The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
         --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns

                      /     /       /
                     I     B       D
                      \   /       /

         Note the major differences in N and P over

         o    N's parent list had I removed, because it is an
             ancestor of the other parent M. Still, N remained
             because it is !TREESAME.

         o    P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was
             then removed completely, because it had one parent
             and is TREESAME.

     Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

         Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the
         ancestry chain between the "from" and "to" commits in
         the given commit range. I.e. only display commits that
         are ancestor of the "to" commit, and descendants of the

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Git Manual                                        GIT-REV-LIST(1)

         "from" commit.

         As an example use case, consider the following commit

                        /     \       \
                      /                     \

         A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are
         ancestors of M, but excludes the ones that are ancestors
         of D. This is useful to see what happened to the history
         leading to M since D, in the sense that "what does M
         have that did not exist in D". The result in this
         example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D
         itself, of course).

         When we want to find out what commits in M are
         contaminated with the bug introduced by D and need
         fixing, however, we might want to view only the subset
         of D..M that are actually descendants of D, i.e.
         excluding C and K. This is exactly what the
         --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M range,
         it results in:

                              \       \

     The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only
     the big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting
     commits that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked
     as !TREESAME (in other words, kept after history
     simplification rules described above) if (1) they are
     referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the
     paths given on the command line. All other commits are
     marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

  Bisection Helpers
         Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly
         halfway between included and excluded commits. Note that
         the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad is added to the
         included commits (if it exists) and the good bisection
         refs refs/bisect/good-* are added to the excluded
         commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there are no
         refs in refs/bisect/, if

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Git Manual                                        GIT-REV-LIST(1)

                 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

     outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

                 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
                 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

     would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change
     which introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary
     search: repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint's until
     the commit chain is of length one.

         This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs
         in refs/bisect/ are not used, and except that this
         outputs text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These
         lines will assign the name of the midpoint revision to
         the variable bisect_rev, and the expected number of
         commits to be tested after bisect_rev is tested to
         bisect_nr, the expected number of commits to be tested
         if bisect_rev turns out to be good to bisect_good, the
         expected number of commits to be tested if bisect_rev
         turns out to be bad to bisect_bad, and the number of
         commits we are bisecting right now to bisect_all.

         This outputs all the commit objects between the included
         and excluded commits, ordered by their distance to the
         included and excluded commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are
         not used. The farthest from them is displayed first.
         (This is the only one displayed by --bisect.)

         This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good
         commit to test when you want to avoid to test some of
         them for some reason (they may not compile for example).

         This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in
         this case, after all the sorted commit objects, there
         will be the same text as if --bisect-vars had been used

  Commit Ordering
     By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological

         This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
         descendant commits are shown before their parents).

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         This option is similar to --topo-order in the sense that
         no parent comes before all of its children, but
         otherwise things are still ordered in the commit
         timestamp order.

         Output the commits in reverse order. Cannot be combined
         with --walk-reflogs.

  Object Traversal
     These options are mostly targeted for packing of git

         Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the
         listed commits.  --objects foo ^bar thus means "send me
         all object IDs which I need to download if I have the
         commit object bar, but not foo".

         Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded
         commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
         git-pack-objects(1) to build "thin" pack, which records
         objects in deltified form based on objects contained in
         these excluded commits to reduce network traffic.

         Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that
         are not in packs.

         Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their

         Overrides a previous --no-walk.

  Commit Formatting
     Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the
     more specialized family of commit log tools: git-log(1),
     git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1)

     --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
         Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given
         format, where <format> can be one of oneline, short,
         medium, full, fuller, email, raw and format:<string>.
         See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional
         details for each format. When omitted, the format
         defaults to medium.

         Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the

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         repository configuration (see git-config(1)).

         Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit
         object name, show only a partial prefix. Non default
         number of digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>"
         (which also modifies diff output, if it is displayed).

         This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more
         readable for people using 80-column terminals.

         Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name.
         This negates --abbrev-commit and those options which
         imply it such as "--oneline". It also overrides the
         log.abbrevCommit variable.

         This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline
         --abbrev-commit" used together.

         The commit objects record the encoding used for the log
         message in their encoding header; this option can be
         used to tell the command to re-code the commit log
         message in the encoding preferred by the user. For non
         plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8.

         Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the
         commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the
         default for git log, git show and git whatchanged
         commands when there is no --pretty, --format nor
         --oneline option given on the command line.

         By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs
         listed in the core.notesRef and notes.displayRef
         variables (or corresponding environment overrides). See
         git-config(1) for more details.

         With an optional <ref> argument, show this notes ref
         instead of the default notes ref(s). The ref is taken to
         be in refs/notes/ if it is not qualified.

         Multiple --notes options can be combined to control
         which notes are being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo"
         will show only notes from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo
         --notes" will show both notes from "refs/notes/foo" and
         from the default notes ref(s).

         Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes

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         option, by resetting the list of notes refs from which
         notes are shown. Options are parsed in the order given
         on the command line, so e.g. "--notes --notes=foo
         --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes from

     --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
         These options are deprecated. Use the above
         --notes/--no-notes options instead.

         Synonym for --date=relative.

         Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable
         format, such as when using "--pretty". config
         variable sets a default value for log command's --date

         --date=relative shows dates relative to the current
         time, e.g. "2 hours ago".

         --date=local shows timestamps in user's local timezone.

         --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in ISO
         8601 format.

         --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC
         2822 format, often found in E-mail messages.

         --date=short shows only date but not time, in YYYY-MM-DD

         --date=raw shows the date in the internal raw git format
         %s %z format.

         --date=default shows timestamps in the original timezone
         (either committer's or author's).

         Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each
         record is separated with a NUL character.

         Print also the parents of the commit (in the form
         "commit parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see
         History Simplification below.

         Print also the children of the commit (in the form
         "commit child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see
         History Simplification below.

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         Print the raw commit timestamp.

         Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is
         reachable from. Commits from the left side are prefixed
         with < and those from the right with >. If combined with
         --boundary, those commits are prefixed with -.

         For example, if you have this topology:

                          y---b---b  branch B
                         / \ /
                        /   .
                       /   / \
                      o---x---a---a  branch A

         you would get an output like this:

                     $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                     >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                     >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                     <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                     <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                     -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                     -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

         Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit
         history on the left hand side of the output. This may
         cause extra lines to be printed in between commits, in
         order for the graph history to be drawn properly.

         This enables parent rewriting, see History
         Simplification below.

         This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
         --date-order option may also be specified.

         Print a number stating how many commits would have been
         listed, and suppress all other output. When used
         together with --left-right, instead print the counts for
         left and right commits, separated by a tab. When used
         together with --cherry-mark, omit patch equivalent
         commits from these counts and print the count for
         equivalent commits separated by a tab.

     If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not

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     oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before
     the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the
     sha1s of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces.
     Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be the list
     of the direct parent commits if you have limited your view
     of history: for example, if you are only interested in
     changes related to a certain directory or file.

     There are several built-in formats, and you can define
     additional formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option
     to either another format name, or a format: string, as
     described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the details of
     the built-in formats:

     o    oneline

             <sha1> <title line>

         This is designed to be as compact as possible.

     o    short

             commit <sha1>
             Author: <author>

             <title line>

     o    medium

             commit <sha1>
             Author: <author>
             Date:   <author date>

             <title line>

             <full commit message>

     o    full

             commit <sha1>
             Author: <author>
             Commit: <committer>

             <title line>

             <full commit message>

     o    fuller

             commit <sha1>
             Author:     <author>
             AuthorDate: <author date>

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             Commit:     <committer>
             CommitDate: <committer date>

             <title line>

             <full commit message>

     o    email

             From <sha1> <date>
             From: <author>
             Date: <author date>
             Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

             <full commit message>

     o    raw

         The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored
         in the commit object. Notably, the SHA1s are displayed
         in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev
         are used, and parents information show the true parent
         commits, without taking grafts nor history
         simplification into account.

     o    format:<string>

         The format:<string> format allows you to specify which
         information you want to show. It works a little bit like
         printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
         newline with %n instead of \n.

         E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title
         was >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

             The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
             The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

         The placeholders are:

         o    %H: commit hash

         o    %h: abbreviated commit hash

         o    %T: tree hash

         o    %t: abbreviated tree hash

         o    %P: parent hashes

         o    %p: abbreviated parent hashes

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         o    %an: author name

         o    %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
             shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %ae: author email

         o    %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
             shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

         o    %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

         o    %ar: author date, relative

         o    %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

         o    %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format

         o    %cn: committer name

         o    %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
             shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %ce: committer email

         o    %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
             shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %cd: committer date

         o    %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

         o    %cr: committer date, relative

         o    %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

         o    %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format

         o    %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-

         o    %e: encoding

         o    %s: subject

         o    %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

         o    %b: body

         o    %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

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         o    %N: commit notes

         o    %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

         o    %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

         o    %gn: reflog identity name

         o    %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
             git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %ge: reflog identity email

         o    %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap,
             see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

         o    %gs: reflog subject

         o    %Cred: switch color to red

         o    %Cgreen: switch color to green

         o    %Cblue: switch color to blue

         o    %Creset: reset color

         o    %C(...): color specification, as described in
             color.branch.* config option

         o    %m: left, right or boundary mark

         o    %n: newline

         o    %%: a raw %

         o    %x00: print a byte from a hex code

         o    %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like
             the -w option of git-shortlog(1).


         Some placeholders may depend on other options given to
         the revision traversal engine. For example, the %g*
         reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are
         traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d
         placeholder will use the "short" decoration format if
         --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

     If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a
     line-feed is inserted immediately before the expansion if
     and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

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     If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder,
     line-feeds that immediately precede the expansion are
     deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty

     If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space
     is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if
     the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

     o    tformat:

         The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except
         that it provides "terminator" semantics instead of
         "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has
         the message terminator character (usually a newline)
         appended, rather than a separator placed between
         entries. This means that the final entry of a
         single-line format will be properly terminated with a
         new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For

             $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
               | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
             7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

             $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
               | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

         In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it
         is interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For
         example, these two are equivalent:

             $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
             $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

     Part of the git(1) suite

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following

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     |Availability   | developer/versioning/git |
     |Stability      | Uncommitted              |
     This software was built from source available at  The original
     community source was downloaded from  http://git-

     Further information about this software can be found on the
     open source community website at

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