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man pages section 8: System Administration Commands

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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

ikeadm(8)

Name

ikeadm - manipulate Internet Key Exchange (IKE) parameters and state

Synopsis

ikeadm [-np] [-v {1|2}]
ikeadm [-np] [-v {1|2}] get [debug | priv | stats | defaults]
ikeadm [-np] [-v {1|2}] set [debug | priv] [level] [file]
ikeadm [-np] [-v {1|2}] [get | del] [p1 | ikesa | rule | preshared] [id]
ikeadm [-np] [-v {1|2}] add [rule | preshared] { description }
ikeadm [-np] [-v {1|2}] token [login | logout] PKCS#11_Token_Object
ikeadm [-np] [-v {1|2}] [read | write] [rule | preshared | certcache] file
ikeadm [-np] [-v {1|2}] dump [p1 | ikesa | rule | preshared | certcache | groups
     | encralgs | authalgs]
ikeadm [-v {1|2}] [-np] flush [p1 | ikesa | certcache]
ikeadm help
     [get | set | add | del | read | write | dump | flush | token]

Description

The ikeadm utility retrieves information from and manipulates the configuration of the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol daemon, in.iked(8).

The ikeadm utility communicates with the running Internet Key Exchange (IKE) daemon(s). This utility can retrieve information from or change the configuration of the running daemon without restarting it. There are two IKE protocol daemons, in.iked(8) and in.ikev2d(8), supporting version one and two of the Internet Key Exchange Protocol respectively.

The ikeadm utility provides an alternate configuration mechanism to the configuration files described in ike.config(5) and ikev2.config(5). Additionally it provides a unique interface for gathering statistics and other information only available from the running daemon(s).

ikeadm supports a set of operations, which may be performed on one or more of the supported object types. When invoked without arguments, ikeadm enters interactive mode which prints a prompt to the standard output and accepts commands from the standard input until the end-of-file is reached.

Because ikeadm manipulates sensitive keying information, you must be superuser or be granted the Network IPsec Management rights profile to use this command. Additionally, some of the commands available require that the daemon be running in a privileged mode, which is established when the daemon is started.

For details on how to use this command securely see SECURITY.

Options

The following options are supported:

–n

Prevent attempts to print host and network names symbolically when reporting actions. This is useful, for example, when all name servers are down or are otherwise unreachable.

–p

Paranoid. Do not print any keying material, even if saving Security Associations. Instead of an actual hexadecimal digit, print an X when this flag is turned on.

–v {1|2}

IKE version number. If only one of the in.iked(8) or in.ikev2d(8) daemons are running, this flag is optional. Otherwise, this flag designates which version of the IKE daemon is the target of this operation.

Usage

Commands

The following commands are supported:

add

Add the specified object. This option can be used to add a new policy rule or a new preshared key to the current (running) IKE configuration. New preshared key values can only be entered by running ikeadm interactively. See SECURITY. The rule or key being added is specified using appropriate id-value pairs as described in the ID FORMATS section.

del

Delete a specific object or objects from the IKE daemon's current configuration. This operation is available for IKE (Phase 1) SAs, IKEv2 IKE SAs, policy rules, and preshared keys. The object to be deleted is specified as described in the Id Formats.

dump

Display all objects of the specified type known to the IKE daemon. This option can be used to display all Phase 1 SAs, IKEv2 IKE SAs, policy rules, preshared keys, implemented Diffie-Hellman groups, encryption, and authentication algorithms available for Phase 1 or IKE SAs, or the certificate cache. A large amount of output might be generated by this command.

flush

Remove all IKE (Phase 1) SAs, IKEv2 IKE SAs, or cached certificates from the IKE daemon.

Note that flushing the certcache will also (as a side-effect) update IKEv1 with any new certificates added or removed. Note that IKEv2 does not have an exposed certificate cache.

get

Lookup and display the specified object. May be used to view the current debug or privilege level, global statistics and default values for the daemon, or a specific IKE (Phase 1) SA, IKEv2 IKE SA, policy rule, or preshared key. The latter three object types require that identifying information be passed in; the appropriate specification for each object type is described below.

help

Print a brief summary of commands, or, when followed by a command, prints information about that command.

read

Update the current IKE configuration by reading the policy rules or preshared keys from either the default location or from the file specified.

set

Adjust the current debug or privilege level. If the debug level is being modified, an output file may optionally be specified; the output file must be specified if the daemon is running in the background and is not currently printing to a file. When changing the privilege level, adjustments may only be made to lower the access level; it cannot be increased using ikeadm. Note that the privilege level applies to IKEv1 only.

write

Write the current IKE/IKEv2 policy rule set or preshared key set to the specified file. A destination file must be specified. This command should not be used to overwrite the existing configuration files.

token

Log into a PKCS#11 token object and grant access to keying material or log out and invalidate access to keying material.

token can be run as a normal user with the Network IPsec Management rights profile.

Object Types

debug

Specifies the daemon's debug level. This determines the amount and type of output provided by the daemon about its operations. The debug level is actually a bitmask, with individual bits enabling different types of information.

IKEv1 and IKEv2

Certificate management   0x00000001               cert
Key management           0x00000002               key
Operational              0x00000004               op
Phase 1 SA creation      0x00000008               phase1
Phase 2 SA creation      0x00000010               phase2
PF_KEY interface         0x00000020               pfkey
Policy management        0x00000040               policy
Proposal construction    0x00000080               prop
Door interface           0x00000100               door
Config file processing   0x00000200               config
Label processing         0x00000400               label

IKEv2 only

Packet processing        0x00000800               packet
Audit interaction        0x00002000               audit
Additional Notes         0x00004000               note
Threading issues         0x00008000               thread
Extra PF_KEY dumps       0x00010000               pfkeymsg
Verbose                  0x00006204               verbose
All debug flags          0x0001ffff               all

When specifying the debug level, either a number (decimal or hexadecimal) or a string of nicknames may be given. For example, 88, 0x58, and phase1+phase2+policy are all equivalent, and will turn on debug for phase 1 sa creation, phase 2 sa creation, and policy management. A string of nicknames may also be used to remove certain types of information; all-op has the effect of turning on all debug except for operational messages; it is equivalent to the numbers 1019 or 0x3fb.

priv

IKEv1 only

Specifies the daemon's access privilege level. The possible values are:


Description                  Level   Nickname
Base level                   0       base
Access to preshared key info 1       modkeys
Access to keying material    2       keymat

By default, in.iked is started at the base level. A command-line option can be used to start the daemon at a higher level. ikeadm can be used to lower the level, but it cannot be used to raise the level.

Either the numerical level or the nickname may be used to specify the target privilege level.

See in.iked(8) for a description of the config/admin_privilege SMF property. This property allows you to establish a baseline privilege level that can be subsequently modified by ikeadm.

In order to get, add, delete, dump, read, or write preshared keys, the privilege level must at least give access to preshared key information. However, when viewing preshared keys (either using the get or dump command), the key itself will only be available if the privilege level gives access to keying material. This is also the case when viewing Phase 1 SAs.

stats

Global statistics from the daemon.

IKEv1 stats cover both successful and failed Phase 1 SA creation.

Reported statistics include:

  • Count of current P1 SAs which the local entity initiated

  • Count of current P1 SAs where the local entity was the responder

  • Count of all P1 SAs which the local entity initiated since boot

  • Count of all P1 SAs where the local entity was the responder since boot

  • Count of all attempted P1 SAs since boot, where the local entity was the initiator; includes failed attempts

  • Count of all attempted P1 SAs since boot, where the local entity was the responder; includes failed attempts

  • Count of all failed attempts to initiate a P1 SA, where the failure occurred because the peer did not respond

  • Count of all failed attempts to initiate a P1 SA, where the peer responded

  • Count of all failed P1 SAs where the peer was the initiator

  • Whether a PKCS#11 library is in use, and if applicable, the PKCS#11 library that is loaded. See ike.config(5).

IKEv2 stats cover both successful and failed IKE SA creation.

  • Count of all successful IKEv2 SA creations

  • Count of all failed IKEv2 SA creations

  • Count of all successful IKEv2 rekeys

  • Count of all failed IKEv2 rekeys

  • Count of all memory allocation failures

defaults

IKEv1 only

Display default values used by the in.iked daemon. Some values can be overridden in the daemon configuration file (see ike.config(5)); for these values, the token name is displayed in the get defaults output. The output will reflect where a configuration token has changed the default.

Default values might be ignored in the event a peer system makes a valid alternative proposal or they can be overridden by per-rule values established in ike.config. In such instances, a get defaults command continues to display the default values, not the values used to override the defaults.

ikesa

An IKEv2 IKE SA. An ikesa object is identified by an IP address pair or a local SPI; identification formats are described below.

p1

An IKE Phase 1 SA. A p1 object is identified by an IP address pair or a cookie pair; identification formats are described below.

rule

An IKE policy rule, defining the acceptable security characteristics for Phase 1 or IKEv2 IKE SAs between specified local and remote identities. A rule is identified by its label; identification formats are described below.

preshared

A preshared key, including the applicable identifier(s). In IKEv1, a preshared key is identified by an IP address pair or an identity pair. In IKEv2, a preshared key is identified by its rule label. Identification formats are described below.

Id Formats

Commands like add, del, and get require that additional information be specified on the command line. In the case of the delete and get commands, all that is required is to minimally identify a given object; for the add command, the full object must be specified.

Minimal identification is accomplished in most cases by a pair of values. For IP addresses, the local addr and then the remote addr are specified, either in dot-notation for IPv4 addresses, colon-separated hexadecimal format for IPv6 addresses, or a host name present in the host name database. If a host name is given that expands to more than one address, the requested operation will be performed multiple times, once for each possible combination of addresses.

Identity pairs are made up of a local type-value pair, followed by the remote type-value pair. Valid types are:

prefix

An address prefix.

fqdn

A fully-qualified domain name.

domain

Domain name, synonym for fqdn.

user_fqdn

User identity of the form user@fqdn. (IKEv1 only)

mailbox

Synonym for user_fqdn.

A cookie pair is made up of the two cookies assigned to a Phase 1 Security Association (SA) when it is created; first is the initiator's, followed by the responder's. A cookie is a 64-bit number.

Finally, a label (which is used to identify a policy rule) is a character string assigned to the rule when it is created.

Formatting a rule or preshared key for the add command follows the format rules for the in.iked or in.ikev2d configuration files. Both are made up of a series of id-value pairs, contained in curly braces ({ and }). For IKEv1, see ike.config(5) and ike.preshared(5) for details on the formatting of rules and preshared keys. For IKEv2, see ikev2.config(5) and ikev2.preshared(5) for its formatting rules.

Security

The ikeadm command allows an authorized user with the Network IPsec Management rights profile to enter cryptographic keying information. If an adversary gains access to such information, the security of IPsec traffic is compromised. The following issues should be taken into account when using the ikeadm command.

  • Is the TTY going over a network (interactive mode)?

    If it is, then the security of the keying material is the security of the network path for this TTY's traffic. Using ikeadm over a clear-text telnet or rlogin session is risky. Even local windows may be vulnerable to attacks where a concealed program that reads window events is present.

  • Is the file accessed over the network or readable to the world (read/write commands)?

    A network-mounted file can be sniffed by an adversary as it is being read. A world-readable file with keying material in it is also risky.

If your source address is a host that can be looked up over the network, and your naming system itself is compromised, then any names used will no longer be trustworthy.

Commands that manage keying material do not generally allow the keying material to be specified on the command line. This is because this keying material may end up in a shell history file or be visible to another user running ps(1) and could therefore be compromised.

Security weaknesses often lie in misapplication of tools, not the tools themselves. It is recommended that administrators are cautious when using the ikeadm command. The safest mode of operation is probably on a console, or other hard-connected TTY.

For additional information regarding this subject, see the afterward by Matt Blaze in Bruce Schneier's Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C.

Examples

Example 1 Emptying out all Phase 1 or IKEv2 IKE Security Associations

IKEv1:

The following command empties out all Phase 1 Security Associations:

example# ikeadm flush p1

IKEv2:

The following command empties out all IKEv2 IKE Security Associations:

example# ikeadm flush ikesa
Example 2 Displaying all Phase 1 or IKEv2 IKE Security Associations

IKEv1:

The following command displays all Phase 1 Security Associations:

example# ikeadm dump p1

IKEv2:

The following command displays all IKEv2 IKE Security Associations:

example# ikeadm dump ikesa
Example 3 Deleting a Specific Phase 1 Security Association

The following command deletes the specified Phase 1 or IKEv2 IKE Security Associations:

IKEv1:

example# ikeadm del p1 local_ip remote_ip

IKEv2:

example# ikeadm del ikesa local_ip remote_ip

...or:

example# ikeadm del ikesa 0x49bf01d5c7585ea8

Note that the value 0x49bf01d5c7585ea8, in the preceding example command, is the local SPI of the IKE SA, as displayed by ikeadm dump ikesa.

Example 4 Adding a Rule From a File

The following command adds a rule from a file:

example# ikeadm add rule rule_file
Example 5 Adding a Preshared Key

The following command adds a preshared key:

IKEv1:

example# ikeadm
     ikeadm> add preshared { localidtype ip localid local_ip
             remoteidtype ip remoteid remote_ip ike_mode main
             key 1234567890abcdef1234567890abcdef }

IKEv2:

example# ikeadm
     ikeadm> add preshared { label "existing rule label"
key 0x4b6562652e0a }
Example 6 Saving All Preshared Keys to a File

The following command saves all preshared keys to a file:

example# ikeadm write preshared target_file
Example 7 Viewing a Particular Rule

The following command views a particular rule:

example# ikeadm get rule rule_label
Example 8 Reading in New Rules from ike.config

The following command reads in new rules from the ike.config file:

example# ikeadm read rules
Example 9 Lowering the Privilege Level

The following command lowers the privilege level for IKEv1:

example# ikeadm set priv base
Example 10 Viewing the Debug Level

The following command shows the current debug level:

example# ikeadm get debug
Example 11 Using stats to Verify Hardware Accelerator in IKEv1

The following example shows how stats may include an optional line at the end to indicate if IKE is using a PKCS#11 library to accelerate public-key operations, if applicable.

example# ikeadm get stats
Phase 1 SA counts:
Current:  initiator:     0    responder:      0
Total:    initiator:    21   responder:      27
Attempted:initiator:    21   responder:      27
Failed:   initiator:     0   responder:       0
	         initiator fails include 0 time-out(s)
PKCS#11 library linked in from /opt/system/core-osonn/lib/libpkcs11.so
example# 
Example 12 Displaying the Certificate Cache in IKEv1

The following command shows the certificate cache and the status of associated private keys, if applicable:

example# ikeadm dump certcache
Example 13 Logging into a PKCS#11 Token

The following command shows logging into a PKCS#11 token object and unlocking private keys:

example# ikeadm token login "Sun Metaslot"
Enter PIN for PKCS#11 token:
ikeadm: PKCS#11 operation successful

Exit Status

The following exit values are returned:

0

Successful completion.

non-zero

An error occurred. Writes an appropriate error message to standard error.

Attributes

See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

ATTRIBUTE TYPE
ATTRIBUTE VALUE
Availability
system/network/ike
Interface Stability
Committed

See Also

ps(1), ipsec(4P), ike.config(5), ike.preshared(5), ikev2.config(5), ikev2.preshared(5), attributes(7), in.iked(8), in.ikev2d(8)

Schneier, Bruce, Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1996.

Notes

As in.iked and in.ikev2d can run only in the global zone and exclusive-IP zones, this command is not useful in shared-IP zones.