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man pages section 8: System Administration Commands

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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

ipsecconf(8)

Name

ipsecconf - configure system wide IPsec policy

Synopsis

/usr/sbin/ipsecconf 
/usr/sbin/ipsecconf -a 
file [-q]
/usr/sbin/ipsecconf -c 
file
/usr/sbin/ipsecconf -d [
-i tunnel-name] {index, 
tunnel-name, index}
/usr/sbin/ipsecconf -f [
-i tunnel-name]
/usr/sbin/ipsecconf -F
/usr/sbin/ipsecconf -Fa 
file [-q]
/usr/sbin/ipsecconf -l [
-i tunnel-name] [-n]
/usr/sbin/ipsecconf -L [
-n]
/usr/sbin/ipsecconf -r 
file [-q]

Description

The ipsecconf utility configures the IPsec policy for a host or for one of its tunnels. Once the policy is configured, all outbound and inbound datagrams are subject to policy checks as they exit and enter the host or tunnel. For the host policy, if no entry is found, no policy checks will be completed, and all the traffic will pass through. For a tunnel, if no entry is found and there is at least one entry for the tunnel, the traffic will automatically drop. The difference in behavior is because of the assumptions about IPsec tunnels made in many implementations. Datagrams that are being forwarded will not be subjected to policy checks that are added using this command. See ifconfig(8) and dladm(8) for information on how to protect forwarded packets. Depending upon the match of the policy entry, a specific action will be taken.

This command can be run only by superuser.

Each entry can protect traffic in either one direction (requiring a pair of entries) or by a single policy entry which installs the needed symmetric sadb rules.

When the command is issued without any arguments, the list of file policy entries loaded are shown. To display the SPD policy entries use the –l option. Both will display the index number for the entry. To specify a single tunnel's SPD, use the –i option in combination with –l. To specify all SPDs, both host and for all tunnels, use –L.

Note, since one file policy entry (FPE) can generate multiple SPD pol entries (SPEs), the list of FPEs may not show all the actual entries. However, it is still useful in determining what what rules have been added to get the spd into its current state.

You can use the –d option with the index to delete a given policy in the system. If the –d option removes an FPE entry that produces multiple SPEs, only then SPD with the same policy index as the FPE will be removed. This can produce a situation where there may be SPEs when there are no FPEs.

As with –l, –d can use the –i flag to indicate a tunnel. An alternate syntax is to specify a tunnel name, followed by a comma (,), followed by an index. For example, ip.tun0,1.

With no options, the entries are displayed in the order that they were added, which is not necessarily the order in which the traffic match takes place.

To view the order in which the traffic match will take place, use the –l option. The rules are ordered such that all bypass rules are checked first, then ESP rules, then AH rules. After that, they are checked in the order entered.

Policy entries are not preserved across system restarts. Permanent policy entries should be added to /etc/inet/ipsecinit.conf. This file is read by the following smf(7) service:

svc:/network/ipsec/policy

See NOTES for more information on managing IPsec security policy and SECURITY for issues in securing /etc/inet/ipsecinit.conf.

Options

ipsecconf supports the following options:

–a file

Add the IPsec policy to the system as specified by each entry in the file. An IPsec configuration file contains one or more entries that specify the configuration. Once the policy is added, all outbound and inbound datagrams are subject to policy checks.

Policy is latched for TCP/UDP sockets on which a connect(3C) or accept(3C) is issued. So, the addition of new policy entries may not affect such endpoints or sockets. However, the policy will be latched for a socket with an existing non-null policy. Thus, make sure that there are no preexisting connections that will be subject to checks by the new policy entries.

The feature of policy latching explained above may change in the future. It is not advisable to depend upon this feature.

The default behavior is to append new rules to the existing policy. If a new rule conflicts with an existing rule, an error is reported, the new rule will not be added.

To add a new rule that conflicts with an existing rule, the existing rule must be removed (see below) or the existing policy flushed. If the policy is flushed, IPsec will not protect any network traffic until a new policy is added.

The –F (flush) flag can be combined with –a to perform an atomic policy replacement; the existing policy will be replaced by the new policy described in the config file. By combining these two flags, there is not even a small window when the system is without a policy, which is the case when the flush and add commands are run sequentially.

–c file

Check the syntax of the configuration file and report any errors without making any changes to the policy. This option is useful when debugging configurations and when smf(7) reports a configuration error. See SECURITY.

–d index

Delete the host policy denoted by the index. The index is obtained by invoking ipsecconf without any arguments, or with the –l option. See DESCRIPTION for more information. Once the entry is deleted, all outbound and inbound datagrams affected by this policy entry will not be subjected to policy checks. Be advised that with connections for which the policy has been latched, packets will continue to go out with the same policy, even if it has been deleted. It is advisable to use the –l option to find the correct policy index.

–d name, index

Delete the policy entry denoted by index on a tunnel denoted by name. Since tunnels affect traffic that might originate off-node, latching does not apply as it does in the host policy case. Equivalent to: –d index –i name.

–f

Flush all the policies in the system. Constraints are similar to the –d option with respect to latching and host versus per-tunnel behavior.

–F

Flush all policies on all tunnels and also flush all host policies. See discussion of combining the –F and –a options, under –a, above.

–i name

Specify a tunnel interface name for use with the –d, –f, or –l flags.

–l

Listing of a single policy table, defaulting to the host policy. When ipsecconf is invoked without any arguments, a complete list of policy entries with indexes added by the user since boot is displayed. The current table can differ from the previous one if, for example, a multi-homed entry was added or policy reordering occurred, or if a single rule entry generates two spd rules. In the case of a multi-homed entry, all the addresses are listed explicitly. If a mask was not specified earlier but was instead inferred from the address, it will be explicitly listed here. This option is used to view policy entries in the correct order. The outbound and inbound policy entries are listed separately.

–L

Lists all policy tables, including host policy and all tunnel instances (including configured but unplumbed).

If –i is specified, –L lists the policy table for a specific tunnel interface.

–n

Show network addresses, ports, protocols in numbers. The –n option may only be used with the –l option.

–q

Quiet mode. Suppresses the warning message generated when adding policies.

–r file

Remove IPsec policy rules from the system as specified by each entry in file. The format of the file contents is the same as is specified with the –a option. The file could be created with ipsecconf –l and then modified with an editor.

Operands

Each policy entry contains three parts specified as follows:

{pattern} action {properties}

or

{pattern} action {properties} ["or" action {properties}]*

Every policy entry begins on a new line and can span multiple lines. If an entry exceeds the length of a line, you should split it only within a “braced” section or immediately before the first (left-hand) brace of a braced section. Avoid using the backslash character (\). See EXAMPLES.

The pattern section, as shown in the syntax above, specifies the traffic pattern that should be matched against the outbound and inbound datagrams. If there is a match, a specific action determined by the second argument will be taken, depending upon the properties of the policy entry.

If there is an or in the rule (multiple action-properties for a given pattern), a transmitter will use the first action-property pair that works, while a receiver will use any that are acceptable.

pattern and properties are name-value pairs where name and value are separated by a <space>, <tab> or <newline>. Multiple name-value pairs should be separated by <space>, <tab> or <newline>. The beginning and end of the pattern and properties are marked by { and } respectively.

Files can contain multiple policy entries. An unspecified name-value pair in the pattern will be considered as a wildcard. Wildcard entries match any corresponding entry in the datagram.

One thing to remember is that UDP port 500 is always bypassed for the key management daemons themselves regardless of any policy entries. This is a requirement for in.iked(8) to work.

File can be commented by using a # as the first character. Comments may be inserted either at the beginning or the end of a line.

The complete syntax of a policy entry is:


policy ::= { <pattern1> } <action1> { <properties1> } |
     { <pattern2> } <action2> { <properties2> } 
     [ 'or' <action2> { <properties2>} ]*

     pattern1 ::=  <pattern_name_value_pair1>*

     pattern2 ::=  <pattern_name_value_pair2>*
 
     action1 ::= apply | permit | bypass | pass
     action2 ::=  bypass | pass | drop | ipsec

     properties1 ::=   {<prop_name_value_pair1>}
     properties2 ::=   {<prop_name_value_pair2>}


     pattern_name_value_pair1 ::=
        saddr <address>/<prefix> |
        src  <address>/<prefix> |
        srcaddr <address>/<prefix> |      
        smask <mask> |
        sport <port> |
        daddr <address>/<prefix> |
        dst <address>/<prefix> |
        dstaddr <address>/<prefix> |
        dmask <mask> |
        dport <port> |
        ulp <protocol> |
        proto <protocol> |
        type <icmp-type> |
        type <number>-<number> |
        code <icmp-code>
        code <number>-<number>
        tunnel <interface-name> |
        negotiate <tunnel,transport> |
        dir <dir_val2>

     pattern_name_value_pair2 ::=
        raddr <address>/<prefix> |
        remote <address>/<prefix> |
        rport <port> |
        laddr <address>/<prefix> |
        local <address>/<prefix> |
        lport <port> |
        ulp <protocol> |
        type <icmp-type> |
        type <number>-<number> |
        code <icmp-code> |
        code <number>-<number>
        proto <protocol>  |
        tunnel <interface-name> |
        negotiate <tunnel,transport> |
        dir <dir_val2>

     address ::=  <IPv4 dot notation> | <IPv6 colon notation> |
                  <String recognized by gethostbyname>|
                  <String recognized by getnetbyname>

     prefix ::=  <number>

     mask ::= <0xhexdigit[hexdigit]> | <0Xhexdigit[hexdigit]> |
              <IPv4 dot notation>

     port ::= <number>| <String recognized by getservbyname>

     protocol ::=  <number>| <String recognized by getprotobyname>

     prop_name_value_pair1 ::=
          auth_algs <auth_alg> |
          encr_algs <encr_alg> |
          encr_auth_algs <auth_alg> |
          sa <sa_val> |
          dir <dir_val1> |
          ike_version <version> |
         tfc mtu

     prop_name_value_pair2 ::=
          auth_algs <auth_alg> |
          encr_algs <encr_alg> |
          encr_auth_algs <auth_alg> |
          sa <sa_val>

     auth_alg ::=  <auth_algname> 
     auth_algname ::= <auth_algname>

     encr_alg ::= <encr_algname> ['(' <keylen> ')']
     encr_algname ::= <encr_algname> ['(' <keylen> ')']
     
     keylen ::= <number> | <number>'..' | '..'<number> | <number>'..' \
     <number>

     sa_val ::= shared | unique

     dir_val1 ::= out | in
     dir_val2 ::= out | in | both
     version  ::= 1 | 2

     number ::= < 0 | 1 | 2 ... 9> <number>
     icmp-type ::= <number> | unreach | echo | echorep | squench |
                   redir | timex | paramprob | timest | timestrep |
                   inforeq | inforep | maskreq | maskrep | unreach6 |
                   pkttoobig6 | timex6 | paramprob6 | echo6 | echorep6 |
                   router-sol6 | router-ad6 | neigh-sol6 | neigh-ad6 |
                   redir6

     icmp-code ::= <number> | net-unr | host-unr | proto-unr | port-unr |
                   needfrag | srcfail | net-unk | host-unk | isolate |
                   net-prohib | host-prohib | net-tos | host-tos |
                   filter-prohib | host-preced | cutoff-preced |
                   no-route6 | adm-prohib6 | addr-unr6 | port-unr6 |
                   hop-limex6 | frag-re-timex6 | err-head6 | unrec-head6 |
                   unreq-opt6

Policy entries may contain the following (name value) pairs in the pattern field. Each (name value) pair may appear only once in given policy entry.

laddr/plen
local/plen

The value that follows is the local address of the datagram with the prefix length. Only plen leading bits of the source address of the packet will be matched. plen is optional. Local means destination on incoming and source on outgoing packets. The source address value can be a hostname as described in getaddrinfo(3SOCKET) or a network name as described in getnetbyname(3C) or a host address or network address in the Internet standard dot notation. See inet_addr(3C). If a hostname is given and getaddrinfo(3SOCKET) returns multiple addresses for the host, then policy will be added for each of the addresses with other entries remaining the same.

raddr/plen
remote/plen

The value that follows is the remote address of the datagram with the prefix length. Only plen leading bits of the remote address of the packet will be matched. plen is optional. Remote means source on incoming packets and destination on outgoing packets. The remote address value can be a hostname as described in getaddrinfo(3C) or a network name as described in getnetbyname(3C) or a host address or network address in the Internet standard dot notation. See inet_addr(3C). If a hostname is given and getaddrinfo(3C) returns multiple addresses for the host, then policy will be added for each of the addresses with other entries remaining the same.

src/plen
srcaddr/plen
saddr/plen

The value that follows is the source address of the datagram with the prefix length. Only plen leading bits of the source address of the packet will be matched. plen is optional.

The source address value can be a hostname as described in getaddrinfo(3C) or a network name as described in getnetbyname(3C) or a host address or network address in the Internet standard dot notation. See inet_addr(3C).

If a hostname is given and getaddrinfo(3C) returns multiple addresses for the host, then policy will be added for each of the addresses with other entries remaining the same.

daddr/plen
dest/plen
dstaddr/plen

The value that follows is the destination address of the datagram with the prefix length. Only plen leading bits of the destination address of the packet will be matched. plen is optional.

See saddr for valid values that can be given. If multiple source and destination addresses are found, then a policy entry that covers each source address-destination address pair will be added to the system.

smask

For IPv4 only. The value that follows is the source mask. If prefix length is given with saddr, this should not be given. This can be represented either in hexadecimal number with a leading 0x or 0X, for example, 0xffff0000, 0Xffff0000 or in the Internet decimal dot notation, for example, 255.255.0.0 and 255.255.255.0. The mask should be contiguous and the behavior is not defined for non-contiguous masks.

smask is considered only when saddr is given.

For both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, the same information can be specified as a slen value attached to the saddr parameter.

dmask

Analogous to smask.

lport

The value that follows is the local port of the datagram. This can be either a port number or a string searched with a NULL proto argument, as described in getservbyname(3XNET)

rport

The value that follows is the remote port of the datagram. This can be either a port number or a string searched with a NULL proto argument, as described in getservbyname(3XNET)

sport

The value that follows is the source port of the datagram. This can be either a port number or a string searched with a NULL proto argument, as described in getservbyname(3C)

dport

The value that follows is the destination port of the datagram. This can be either a port number or a string as described in getservbyname(3C) searched with NULL proto argument.

proto ulp

The value that follows is the Upper Layer Protocol that this entry should be matched against. It could be a number or a string as described in getprotobyname(3C). If no smask or plen is specified, a plen of 32 for IPv4 or 128 for IPv6 will be used, meaning a host. If the ulp is icmp or ipv6-icmp, any action applying IPsec must be the same for all icmp rules.

type num or num-num

The value that follows is the ICMP type that this entry should be matched against. type must be a number from 0 to 255, or one of the appropriate icmp-type keywords. Also, ulp must be present and must specify either icmp or ipv6-icmp. A range of types can be specified with a hyphen separating numbers.


Note -  If icmp-code is to be specified, it must be done in conjunction with icmp-type. The icmp-code should be specified after icmp-type, otherwise an error will occur.
code num or num-num

The value that follows is the ICMP code that this entry should be matched against. The value following the keyword code must be a number from 0 to 254 or one of the appropriate icmp-code keywords. Also, type must be present. A range of codes can be specified with a hyphen separating numbers.

tunnel name

Specifies a tunnel network interface, as configured with ifconfig(8). If a tunnel of name does not yet exist, the policy entries are added anyway, and joined with the tunnel state when it is created. If a tunnel is unplumbed, its policy entries disappear.

negotiate tunnel
negotiate transport

For per-tunnel security, specify whether the IPsec SAs protecting the traffic should be tunnel-mode SAs or transport-mode SAs. If transport-mode SAs are specified, no addresses can appear in the policy entry. Transport-mode is backward compatible with Solaris 9, and tunnel IPsec policies configured with ifconfig(8) will show up as transport mode entries here.

Policy entries may contain the following (name-value) pairs in the properties field. Each (name-value) pair may appear only once in a given policy entry.

auth_algs

An acceptable value following this implies that IPsec AH header will be present in the outbound datagram, after the outer IP header. The algorithm specified after the auth_algs keyword will be used to generate an Integrity Check Value (ICV) based on the contents of the original packet. The following algorithms do not encrypt the contents of the packet, just provide a mechanism to verify the packets contents have not been modified in transit. See RFC 2402.

If auth_algs is used in conjunction with encr_algs, the original payload will be encrypted using the algorithm specified after encr_algs. The ICV generated by AH in this case will be of the encrypted packet and the ESP header that was inserted after the encryption.

Different authentication algorithms produce different length ICV's. Generally, the longer the ICV, the stronger the authentication. The stronger algorithms usually come with a performance penalty.

This entry should contain a string.

string

Can be one of the following:

    string value:	   Algorithm Used:	    See RFC:
--------------------------------------------------------------------
sha256 or hmac-sha256	  HMAC-SHA256	       4868
sha384 or hmac-sha384	  HMAC-SHA384	       4868
sha512 or hmac-sha512	  HMAC-SHA512	       4868
aes-xcbc                   AES-XCBC-MAC-96       3566
aes-gmac128                AES-GMAC              4543
aes-gmac192                AES-GMAC              4543
aes-gmac256                 AES-GMAC              4543

Note -  The values of auth_algs that use the AES-GMAC algorithm all generate the same length ICV, but take different length keys, 128, 192 or 256 bits respectively.

For backward compatibility reasons, the following deprecated authentication algorithms are also allowed. However, administrators are encouraged to migrate away from these obsolete algorithms as soon as feasible.

        string value:	   Algorithm Used:	    See RFC:
--------------------------------------------------------------------
sha1 or hmac-sha1 or sha	 HMAC-SHA1	         2404

You can use the ipsecalgs(8) command to obtain the complete list of authentication algorithms.

Strings are not case-sensitive.

If auth_algs is not present, the AH header will not be present in the outbound datagram, and the same will be verified for the inbound datagram.

encr_algs

An acceptable value following this keyword implies that IPsec ESP header will be present in the outbound datagram. The value describes the encryption algorithm that will be used to encrypt original payload of the outbound datagram. Some of the algorithms listed below also generate an Integrity Check Value (ICV) based on the contents of the encrypted packet and the ESP header. The ICV generated is added to the end of the datagram, after the encrypted payload and can be used by the receiving system to verify the packet has not been modified in transit. See RFC 2406.

Algorithms that do not generate an ICV as part of the encryption operation should be used in conjunction with an authentication algorithm specified with the encr_auth_algs keyword.

The following tables list supported encryption only algorithms and combined mode encryption algorithms.

This entry should contain a string. Strings are not case-sensitive.

string

The following encryption algorithms provide encryption only and require an authentication algorithm to generate an ICV. They should be used in conjunction with the encr_auth_algs keyword.

Each of the following algorithms support key lengths of 128, 192, or 256 bits.

string value:                Algorithm Used:        See RFC:
--------------------------------------------------------------------
aes or aes-cbc                AES-CBC	           2451
camellia or camellia-cbc      Camellia-CBC          4312

The following combined modes algorithms combine encryption and ICV generation into a single operation. They should not be used in conjunction with the encr_auth_algs keyword.

Each of the following algorithms support key lengths of 128, 192, or 256 bits.

string value:            Algorithm Used:        ICV Length    See RFC:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
aes-ccm or aes-ccm16        AES-CCM	         16 bytes	  4309
aes-ccm8                    AES-CCM	         8 bytes       4309
aes-ccm12                   AES-CCM	         12 bytes	  4309
aes-gcm or aes-gcm16        AES-GCM	         16 bytes      4106
aes-gcm8                    AES-GCM	         8 bytes       4106
aes-gcm12                   AES-GCM	         12 bytes	  4106
aes-none-gmac [*]           AES-GMAC            16 bytes	  4543

[*] Generates ICV for authentication only, without encryption. See the example on using AES GMAC, in the Examples section below.

For backwards compatibility reasons, the following deprecated encryption only algorithms are also allowed. However, administrators are encouraged to migrate away from these obsolete algorithms as soon as feasible.

string value:
Algorithm Used:
See RFC:
3des or 3des-cbc
3DES-CBC
2451

You can use the ipsecalgs(8) command to obtain the complete list of authentication algorithms.

The value can be NULL, which implies a NULL encryption, pursuant to RFC 2410. This means that the payload will not be encrypted. The string can also be ANY, which indicates no-preference for the algorithm. Default algorithms will be chosen depending upon the SAs available at the time for manual SAs and upon the key negotiating daemon for automatic SAs. Strings are not case-sensitive.

encr_auth_algs

An acceptable value following encr_auth_algs implies that the IPsec ESP header will be present in the outbound datagram. The values following encr_auth_algs describe the authentication algorithms that will be used while applying the IPsec ESP protocol on outbound datagrams and verified to be present on inbound datagrams. See RFC 2406. This entry can must contain a string. Strings are case-insensitive.

string

Can be one of the following:

    string value:	   Algorithm Used:	    See RFC:
--------------------------------------------------------------------
sha256 or hmac-sha256	  HMAC-SHA256	       4868
sha384 or hmac-sha384	  HMAC-SHA384	       4868
sha512 or hmac-sha512	  HMAC-SHA512	       4868
aes-xcbc                   AES-XCBC-MAC-96       3566

For backwards compatibility reasons, the following deprecated authentication algorithms are also allowed. Hhowever, administrators are encouraged to migrate away from these obsolete algorithms as soon as feasible.

    string value:	      Algorithm Used:	  See RFC:
--------------------------------------------------------------------
sha1 or hmac-sha1 or sha	 HMAC-SHA1	      2404

You can use the ipsecalgs(8) command to obtain the complete list of authentication algorithms. Strings are not case-sensitive.

If encr_algs is present and encr_auth_algs is not present in a policy entry, the system will use an ESP SA regardless of whether the SA has an authentication algorithm or not.

If encr_algs is not present and encr_auth_algs is present in a policy entry, null encryption will be provided, which is equivalent to encr_algs with NULL, for outbound and inbound datagrams.

If both encr_algs and encr_auth_algs are not present in a policy entry, ESP header will not be present for outbound datagrams and the same will be verified for inbound datagrams.

If both encr_algs and encr_auth_algs are present in a policy entry, ESP header with integrity checksum will be present on outbound datagrams and the same will be verified for inbound datagrams.

For encr_algs, encr_auth_algs, and auth_algs a key length specification may be present. This is either a single value specifying the only valid key length for the algorithm or a range specifying the valid minimum and/or maximum key lengths. Minimum or maximum lengths may be omitted.

dir

Values following this decides whether this policy entry is applied to outbound and/or inbound datagrams. Generally this value should not be specified, because for typical network traffic an IPsec policy should apply to both inbound and outbound traffic. Most common network protocols are bidirectional.

This entry is not needed when the action is "apply" or "permit" because it is implied with those actions. It is not valid when the action is "ipsec" because this implies both directions.

The exception is the "bypass" action, when this is mandatory.

If a direction is specified, great care should be taken to ensure the peer has a matching reverse policy, otherwise IKE negotiation may fail.

Valid values are strings that should be one of the following:

out

This means that this policy entry should be considered only for outbound datagrams. This is equivalent to not specifying anything.

in

This means that this policy entry should be considered only for inbound datagrams.

both

This means that this policy entry should be considered for both inbound and outbound datagrams

sa

Values following this decide the attribute of the security association. Value indicates whether a unique security association should be used or any existing SA can be used. If there is a policy requirement, SAs are created dynamically on the first outbound datagram using the key management daemon. Static SAs can be created using ipseckey(8). The values used here determine whether a new SA will be used/obtained. Valid values are strings that could be one of the following:

unique

Unique Association. A new/unused association will be obtained/used for packets matching this policy entry. If an SA that was previously used by the same 5 tuples, that is, {Source address, Destination address, Source port, Destination Port, Protocol (for example, TCP/UDP)} exists, it will be reused. Thus uniqueness is expressed by the 5 tuples given above. The security association used by the above 5 tuples will not be used by any other socket. For inbound datagrams, uniqueness will not be verified.

For tunnel-mode tunnels, unique is ignored. SAs are assigned per-rule in tunnel-mode tunnels. For transport-mode tunnels, unique is implicit, because the enforcement happens only on the outer-packet addresses and protocol value of either IPv4-in-IP or IPv6-in-IP.

shared

Shared association. If an SA exists already for this source-destination pair, it will be used. Otherwise a new SA will be obtained. This is the default.

This is mandatory only for outbound policy entries and should not be given for entries whose action is “bypass”. If this entry is not given for inbound entries, for example, when “dir” is in or “action” is permit, it will be assumed to be shared.

ike_version

Constrain this policy so that requests for IPsec SAs are only processed by a specific version of IKE daemon. Specify ike_version 1 for in.iked(8) and ike_version 2 for in.ikev2d(8). Lack of this action shall be interpreted as a wild card, that is, any suitably configured daemon can respond.

tfc

Enable Traffic Flow Confidentiality (TFC) on this rule. When TFC is enabled, ESP protected packets are padded with dummy data before being encrypted. This helps disguise traffic patterns. The packets are padded to the MTU. The generation, encryption and processing of dummy data requires resources so there is a performance impact. TFC is only supported in tunnel mode.

mtu

The only supported value of tfc is padding of the packet to the path MTU of that connection. The value of MTU is calculated by IP. This property is optional. If it is not set, in.ikev2d will send the following notification to its peer when negotiating child SAs:

IKEV2_ESP_TFC_PADDING_NOT_SUPPORTED

Action follows the pattern and should be given before properties. It should be one of the following and this field is mandatory.

ipsec

Use IPsec for the datagram as described by the properties, if the pattern matches the datagram. If ipsec is given without a dir spec , the pattern is matched to incoming and outgoing datagrams.

apply

Apply IPsec to the datagram as described by the properties, if the pattern matches the datagram. If apply is given, the pattern is matched only on the outbound datagram.

permit

Permit the datagram if the pattern matches the incoming datagram and satisfies the constraints described by the properties. If it does not satisfy the properties, discard the datagram. If permit is given, the pattern is matched only for inbound datagrams.

bypass
pass

Bypass any policy checks if the pattern matches the datagram. dir in the properties decides whether the check is done on outbound or inbound datagrams. All the bypass entries are checked before checking with any other policy entry in the system. This has the highest precedence over any other entries. dir is the only field that should be present when action is bypass.

drop

Drop any packets that match the pattern.

If the file contains multiple policy entries, for example, they are assumed to be listed in the order in which they are to be applied. In cases of multiple entries matching the outbound and inbound datagram, the first match will be taken.

If the new entry has bypass as action, bypass has the highest precedence. It can be added in any order, and the system will still match all the bypass entries before matching any other entries. This is useful for key management daemons which can use this feature to bypass IPsec as it protects its own traffic.

Entries with both AH (auth_algs present in the policy entry) and ESP (encr_auth_algs or encr_auth_algs present in the policy entry) protection are ordered after all the entries with AH and ESP and before any AH–only and ESP –only entries. In all other cases the order specified by the user is not modified, that is, newer entries are added at the end of all the old entries.

A new entry is considered duplicate of the old entry if an old entry matches the same traffic pattern as the new entry.

Security

If, for example, the policy file comes over the wire from an NFS mounted file system, an adversary can modify the data contained in the file, thus changing the policy configured on the machine to suit their needs. Administrators should be cautious about transmitting a copy of the policy file over a network.

To prevent non-privileged users from modifying the security policy, ensure that the configuration file is writable only by trusted users.

The configuration file is defined by a property of the policy smf(7) service. The default configuration file, is /etc/inet/ipsecinit.conf. This can be changed using the svcprop(1) command. See NOTES for more details.

The policy description language supports the use of tokens that can be resolved by means of a name service, using functions such as gethostbyname(3C). While convenient, these functions are only secure as the name service the system is configured to use. Great care should be taken to secure the name service if it is used to resolve elements of the security policy.

If your source address is a host that can be looked up over the network and your naming system itself is compromised, then any names used will no longer be trustworthy.

If the name switch is configured to use a name service that is not local to the system, bypass policy entries might be required to prevent the policy from preventing communication to the name service. See nsswitch.conf(5).

Policy is latched for TCP/UDP sockets on which a connect(3C) or accept(3C) has been issued. Adding new policy entries will not have any effect on them. This feature of latching may change in the future. It is not advisable to depend upon this feature.

The ipsecconf command can only be run by a user who has sufficient privilege to open the pf_key(4P) socket. The appropriate privilege can be assigned to a user with the Network IPsec Management profile. See profiles(1), rbac(7), prof_attr(5).

Make sure to set up the policies before starting any communications, as existing connections may be affected by the addition of new policy entries. Similarly, do not change policies in the middle of a communication.

Note that certain ndd tunables affect how policies configured with this tool are enforced; see ipsecesp(4P) for more details.

Examples

Example 1 Protecting all Traffic Between Two Hosts by Using ESP

The following example specifies that the traffic is protected by using the AES encryption algorithm and authenticated by using SHA256.

{ laddr spiderweb raddr arachnid } ipsec
    { encr_algs aes encr_auth_algs sha256 }
Example 2 Authenticating all Inbound Traffic to the Telnet Port by Using AH

This entry specifies that any inbound datagram to telnet port should be protected by AH and authenticated with the SHA1 algorithm. Otherwise, the datagram will be discarded. Without this entry, traffic destined to port number 23 would be permitted without any protection. Traffic that does not use port 23 will not match this rule, if this is the only rule, all other traffic will not need IPsec protection.

#
# All the inbound traffic to the telnet port should be
# authenticated.
#
{ lport telnet dir in } ipsec { auth_algs sha1 }
Example 3 Verifying Inbound Traffic by Using ESP Null-Encrypted

The first entry permits any packets from address host-B to enter the system without IPsec protection. The second entry requires packets from an address machine, the network-B specification to be protected with ESP, NULL encrypted but use sha512 for authentication.

Null-Encrypted ESP gives a similar level of protection as AH.

#
# Make sure that all inbound traffic from network-B is NULL
# encrypted, but bypass for host-B alone from that network.
# Add the bypass first.

{ raddr host-B dir in } bypass {}

# Now add for network-B.
{ raddr network-B/16 dir in } ipsec
     { encr_algs NULL encr_auth_algs sha512 }
Example 4 Entries to Allow DNS Traffic to Bypass IPsec

The first two entries permit any datagram leaving the machine with source port 53 or coming into port number 53 to pass without IPsec protection, irrespective of any other policy entry in the system. Thus the latter two entries will be considered only for ports other than port number 53.

#
# Bypass traffic for port number 53
#
{lport 53 dir out} bypass {}
{rport 53 dir in} bypass {}
{raddr spiderweb } ipsec {encr_algs aes-ccm sa unique}
Example 5 Protecting Outbound Traffic

 #
     # Protect the outbound traffic from all interfaces.
     #
{raddr spiderweb dir out} ipsec {auth_algs any sa unique}
{ laddr arachnid raddr spiderweb dir in } ipsec
      {auth_algs sha256 sa unique}

If the gethostbyname(3C) call for spiderweb yields multiple addresses, multiple policy entries will be added for all the source address with the same properties.


{ 
    laddr arachnid 
    raddr spiderweb 
    dir in 
} ipsec {auth_algs any sa unique}

If the gethostbyname (3C) call for spiderweb and the gethostbyname (3C) call for arachnid yield multiple addresses, multiple policy entries will be added for each (saddr daddr) pair with the same properties. Use ipsecconf –l to view all the policy entries added.

Example 6 Bypassing Unauthenticated Traffic

#
# Protect all the outbound traffic with ESP except any traffic
# to network-b which should be authenticated and bypass anything
# to network-c
#
{raddr network-b/16 dir out} ipsec {auth_algs sha256 }
{dir out} ipsec {encr_algs aes-ccm}
{raddr	network-c/16 dir out} bypass {}

Note that bypass can be given anywhere and it will take precedence over all other entries. NULL pattern in the second rule matches all the traffic.

Example 7 Encrypting IPv6 Traffic With Camellia and sha256

Requires packets between the host with the address fe80::a00:20ff:fe21:4483 and the host with the address fe80::a00:20ff:felf:e346 to use ESP, encrypted with Camellia and sha256 for authentication.


{
    laddr fe80::a00:20ff:fe21:4483
    raddr fe80::a00:20ff:felf:e346
    
} ipsec {
    encr_algs camellia
    encr_auth_algs sha256
}
Example 8 Verifying IPv6 Traffic uses AH, Authenticated with sha384

The following two entries require that all IPv6 traffic to and from the IPv6 site-local network fec0:abcd::0/32 be authenticated with sha384.


{raddr fec0:abcd::0/32} ipsec { auth_algs sha384 }

Example 9 Key Lengths

# use aes at any key length defined my ipsecalgs(8)
{raddr	spiderweb} ipsec {encr_algs aes encr_auth_algs sha256}
# This has the same effect
{raddr spiderweb} ipsec {encr_algs aes(128..256) encr_auth_algs sha256}

# Only use aes with a 192 bit key
{raddr spiderweb} ipsec {encr_algs aes(192) encr_auth_algs sha256}

# use aes with any key length up to 192 bits
# i.e. 192 bits or less
{raddr spiderweb} ipsec {encr_algs aes(..192) encr_auth_algs sha256}

# use aes with any key length of 192 or more
# i.e. 192 bits or more
{raddr spiderweb} ipsec {encr_algs aes(192..) encr_auth_algs sha256}

#use aes with any key from 192 to 256 bits
{raddr spiderweb} ipsec {encr_algs aes(192..256) encr_auth_algs sha256}

#use any algorithm with a key of 192 bits or longer
{raddr spiderweb} ipsec {encr_algs any(192..) encr_auth_algs sha256}

Note that when using IKE, a policy entry that specifies more than a single key length will generate multiple proposals to its peer. It is up to the peer to select the proposal that most closely matches its local IPsec policy.

Example 10 Correct and Incorrect Policy Entries

The following are examples of correctly formed policy entries:

{ raddr that_system rport telnet } ipsec { encr_algs aes
 encr_auth_algs sha256 sa shared}

{
        raddr that_system
        rport telnet
} ipsec {
        encr_algs aes
        encr_auth_algs sha256
        sa shared
}

{ raddr that_system rport telnet } ipsec
        { encr_algs aes encr_auth_algs sha1 sa shared}

{ raddr that_system rport telnet } ipsec
        { encr_algs 3des encr_auth_algs sha256 sa shared} or ipsec
        { encr_algs aes encr_auth_algs sha256 sa shared}

...and the following is an incorrectly formed entry:

{ raddr that_system rport telnet } ipsec
        { encr_algs 3des encr_auth_algs sha1 sa shared}
        or ipsec { encr_algs aes encr_auth_algs sha1 sa shared}

In the preceding, incorrect entry, note that the third line begins with “or ipsec”. Such an entry causes ipsecconf to return an error.

Example 11 Allowing Neighbor Discovery to Bypass IPsec

The following two entries require that all IPv6 traffic to and from the IPv6 site-local network fec0:abcd::0/32 be authenticated with sha256. The second entry allows neighbor discovery to operate correctly.

{raddr fec0:abcd::0/32} ipsec { auth_algs sha256 }
{raddr fec0:abcd::0/32 ulp ipv6-icmp type 133-137
   dir both } pass { }
Example 12 Using “or”

The following entry allows IPsec traffic using the AES or Camellia algorithms from the remote machine spiderweb. It will also allow unencrypted traffic from spiderweb under certain circumstances:

{raddr spiderweb} ipsec {encr_auth_algs sha256 encr_algs aes} 
        or ipsec {encr_algs camellia} or pass {}

For outgoing traffic initiated from this system, the first packet will trigger an ACQUIRE message to be sent from the kernel to the key management daemon (in.iked(8) or in.ikev2d(8)).

The ACQUIRE will contain both algorithm combinations and the peer system will pick one that its acceptable to it and IPsec SAs will be added. The traffic will use those SAs.

For inbound traffic, IPsec protected packets will require an SA on the receiving system to decrypt the packet. For protocols that support latching (for example, TCP) the first packet to use an SA will be checked against the policy after it was decrypted, then the policy will be latched. For protocols that do not latch (for example, UDP) packets will always be checked against the inbound policy.

The example above has a third action "pass". For inbound traffic, this system will accept IPsec packets or unprotected packets from spiderweb.

When this system responds, it will need to make a decision about what IPsec algorithm it uses, if any. The response will use any matching SA thats already in the SADB. If the inbound packet was IPsec protected, there must have been an IKE exchange to generate the SAs. As IPsec SAs are added in pairs, one inbound and one outbound, there should already be an SA in place. The outbound packet will be IPsec protected.

Conversely, if there is no SA in place the packet will be sent unprotected. Its important to understand that packet latching plays an important role here.

Policy entries that use "pass" as an action are a useful migration tool to allow systems to make use of IPsec if its available. Rules using "pass" as an action should be written with care.

Example 13 Configuring a Tunnel to be Backward-Compatible with Solaris 9

The following example is equivalent to “encr_algs aes encr_auth_algs sha1” in ifconfig(8):

{tunnel ip.tun0 negotiate transport} ipsec
                  {encr_algs aes encr_auth_algs sha1}
Example 14 Configuring a Tunnel to a VPN client with an Assigned Address

The following example assumes a distinct “inside” network with its own topology, such that a client's default route goes “inside”.

# Unlike route(8), the default route has to be spelled-out.
{tunnel ip.tun0 negotiate tunnel raddr client-inside/32
laddr 0.0.0.0/0} ipsec {encr_algs aes encr_auth_algs sha256}
Example 15 Transit VPN router between Two Tunnelled Subnets and a Third

The following example specifies a configuration for a VPN router that routes between two tunnelled subnets and a third subnet that is on-link. Consider remote-site A, remote-site B, and local site C, each with a /24 address allocation.

# ip.tun0 between me (C) and remote-site A.
# Cover remote-site A to remote-side B.
{tunnel ip.tun0 negotiate tunnel
    raddr A-prefix/24 laddr B-prefix/24} ipsec
     {encr_algs aes encr_auth_algs sha256}

# Cover remote-site A traffic to my subnet.
{tunnel ip.tun0 negotiate tunnel
    raddr A-prefix/24 laddr C-prefix/24}
    ipsec {encr_algs aes encr_auth_algs sha256}

# ip.tun1 between me (C) and remote-site B.
# Cover remote-site B to remote-site A.
{tunnel ip.tun1 negotiate tunnel
    raddr B-prefix/24 laddr A-prefix/24} ipsec
    {encr_algs camellia encr_auth_algs sha256}

# Cover remote-site B traffic to my subnet.
{tunnel ip.tun1 negotiate tunnel
    raddr B-prefix/24 laddr C-prefix/24} ipsec
    {encr_algs camellia encr_auth_algs sha256}
Example 16 Using Combined Mode Ciphers

The parameters used are the same as any other encr_algs value. In both examples, the number in the algorithm token indicates the length of the Integrity Check Value (ICV). See ipsecalgs(8).

# simple example using GCM in transport mode
{laddr 192.168.99.2 raddr 192.168.99.3} ipsec
    {encr_algs aes-gcm sa shared}
# simple example using CCM mode and 128 bit keys
{laddr 192.168.99.100 raddr 192.168.99.200} ipsec
    {encr_algs aes-ccm(128) sa shared}
Example 17 Using AES GMAC

The AES GMAC algorithm is a hash algorithm that provides message authentication. An Integrity Check Vector (ICV) is calculated and transmitted as part of the authenticated packet.

The AES GMAC algorithm can be used in ESP mode, in which case the packet data and the ESP header are authenticated. When used with IPsec ESP, AES GMAC can only be specified as an encryption algorithm, even though it does not provide any encryption.

# simple example using AES GMAC and 128 bit keys for ESP

{laddr 192.168.99.100 raddr 192.168.99.200} ipsec
    {encr_algs aes-none-gmac(128) sa shared}

The above example is analogous to the following invalid example:

{laddr 192.168.99.100 raddr 192.168.99.200} ipsec
    {encr_algs null encr_auth_algs aes-gmac(128) sa shared}

When used with ESP, the aes-none-gmac algorithm takes the key length as an optional argument, the supported key lengths can be displayed using the ipsecalgs(8) command.

The AES GMAC algorithm can be used in AH mode, in which case the whole packet, including the IP header, is authenticated. When used with IPsec AH, AES GMAC can only be specified as an authentication algorithm.

# simple example using AES GMAC and 128 bit keys for AH

{laddr 192.168.99.100 raddr 192.168.99.200} ipsec
    {auth_algs aes-gmac128 sa shared}

When used with AH, each key length has its own DOI number, the key length does not need to be specified as an argument.

Example 18 Specifying Only IKEv2 to be Used for Keying Material

The following example shows policy that specifies that IKEv2 will be used to negotiate keying material for IPsec SAs and any IKEv1 requests for IPsec SAs will be ignored.

# Only allow in.ikev2d(8) to respond 
{raddr A laddr B} ipsec {encr_algs aes-ccm ike_version 2}

Files

/var/run/ipsecpolicy.conf

Cache of IPsec policies currently configured for the system, maintained by ipsecconf command. Do not edit this file.

/etc/inet/ipsecinit.conf

File containing IPsec policies to be installed at system restart by the policy smf(7) service. See NOTES for more information.

/etc/inet/ipsecinit.sample

Sample input file for ipsecconf.

Attributes

See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

ATTRIBUTE TYPE
ATTRIBUTE VALUE
Availability
system/network
Interface Stability
Committed

See Also

auths(1), profiles(1), svcprop(1), svcs(1), gethostbyname(3C), accept(3C), connect(3C), getaddrinfo(3C), socket(3C), gethostbyname(3C), getnetbyname(3C), getprotobyname(3C), getservbyname(3C), ipsecah(4P), ipsecesp(4P), pf_key(4P), ike.config(5), nsswitch.conf(5), prof_attr(5), user_attr(5), attributes(7), rbac(7), smf(7), ifconfig(8), in.iked(8), init(8), ipsecalgs(8), ipseckey(8), netcfg(8), svcadm(8), svccfg(8)

Glenn, R. and Kent, S. RFC 2410, The NULL Encryption Algorithm and Its Use With IPsec. The Internet Society. 1998.

Kent, S. and Atkinson, R. RFC 2402, IP Authentication Header. The Internet Society. 1998.

Kent, S. and Atkinson, R. RFC 2406, IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). The Internet Society. 1998.

Madsen, C. and Glenn, R. RFC 2404, The Use of HMAC-SHA-1-96 within ESP and AH. The Internet Society. 1998.

Madsen, C. and Doraswamy, N. RFC 2405, The ESP DES-CBC Cipher Algorithm With Explicit IV. The Internet Society. 1998.

Pereira, R. and Adams, R. RFC 2451, The ESP CBC-Mode Cipher Algorithms. The Internet Society. 1998.

Frankel, S. and Kelly, R. Glenn, The AES Cipher Algorithm and Its Use With IPsec. 2001.

Kelly, S. and Frankel, S. RFC 4868, Using HMAC-SHA-256, HMAC-SHA-384, and HMAC-SHA-512 with IPsec, The Internet Society. 2007.

Kato, A., Moriai, S., and Kanda, M. RFC 4312, The Camellia Cipher Algorithm and Its Use With IPsec, The Internet Society. 2005.

McGrew, D., and Viega, J. RFC 4543, The Use of Galois Message Authentication Code (GMAC) in IPsec ESP and AH. The Internet Society. 2006.

Frankel, S. and Herbert, H. RFC 3566, The AES-XCBC-MAC-96 Algorithm and Its Use With IPsec. The Internet Society. 2003.

Diagnostics

Bad “string” on line N.
Duplicate “string” on line N.

string refers to one of the names in pattern or properties. A Bad string indicates that an argument is malformed; a Duplicate string indicates that there are multiple arguments of a similar type, for example, multiple Source Address arguments.

Interface name already selected

Dual use of –i name and name,index for an interface.

Error before or at line N.

Indicates parsing error before or at line N.

Non-existent index

Reported when the index for delete is not a valid one.

spd_msg return: File exists

Reported when there is already a policy entry that matches the traffic of this new entry.

Notes

IPsec manual keys are managed by the service management facility, smf(7). The services listed below manage the components of IPsec. These services are delivered as follows:

svc:/network/ipsec/policy:default (enabled)
svc:/network/ipsec/ipsecalgs:default (enabled)
svc:/network/ipsec/manual-key:default (disabled)
svc:/network/ipsec/ike:default (disabled)

The manual-key service is delivered disabled. The system administrator must create manual IPsec Security Associations (SAs), as described in ipseckey(8), before enabling that service.

The policy service is delivered enabled, but without a configuration file, so that, as a starting condition, packets are not protected by IPsec. After you create the configuration file /etc/inet/ipsecinit.conf , as described in this man page, and refresh the service (svcadm refresh, see below), the policy contained in the configuration file is applied. If there is an error in this file, the service enters maintenance mode.

Services that are delivered disabled are delivered that way because the system administrator must create configuration files for those services before enabling them. See ike.config(5) for the ike service.

See ipsecalgs(8) for the ipsecalgs service.

The correct administrative procedure is to create the configuration file for each service, then enable each service using svcadm(8).

If the configuration needs to be changed, edit the configuration file then refresh the service, as follows:

example# svcadm refresh policy

The smf(7) framework will record any errors in the service-specific log file. Use any of the following commands to examine the logfile property:

example# svcs -l policy
example# svcprop policy
example# svccfg -s policy listprop

The following property is defined for the policy service:

config/config_file

This property can be modified using svccfg(8) by users who have been assigned the following authorization:

solaris.smf.value.ipsec

See auths(1), user_attr(5), rbac(7).

The service needs to be refreshed using svcadm(8) before the new property is effective. General non-modifiable properties can be viewed with the svcprop(1) command.

# svccfg -s ipsec/policy setprop config/config_file = /new/config_file

# svcadm refresh policy

Administrative actions on this service, such as enabling, disabling, refreshing, and requesting restart can be performed using svcadm(8). A user who has been assigned the authorization shown below can perform these actions:

solaris.smf.manage.ipsec

The service's status can be queried using the svcs(1) command.

The ipsecconf command is designed to be managed by the policy smf(7) service. While the ipsecconf command can be run from the command line, this is discouraged. If the ipsecconf command is to be run from the command line, the policy smf(7) service should be disabled first. See svcadm(8).