Go to main content

man pages section 8: System Administration Commands

Exit Print View

Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019

sg_raw (8)


sg_raw - send arbitrary SCSI command to a device




SG_RAW(8)                          SG3_UTILS                         SG_RAW(8)

       sg_raw - send arbitrary SCSI command to a device

       sg_raw [OPTIONS] DEVICE CDB0 CDB1 ...

       This  utility sends an arbitrary SCSI command (between 6 and 256 bytes)
       to the DEVICE. There may be no associated data transfer; or data may be
       read  from  a file and sent to the DEVICE; or data may be received from
       the DEVICE and then displayed or written to a file. If supported by the
       pass  through, bidirectional commands may be sent (i.e. containing both
       data to be sent to the DEVICE and received from the DEVICE).

       The SCSI command may be between 6 and 256 bytes long. Each command byte
       is  specified  in plain hex format (00..FF) without a prefix or suffix.
       See EXAMPLES section below.

       The commands pass through a generic SCSI interface which is implemented
       for several operating systems including Linux, FreeBSD and Windows.

       Arguments to long options are mandatory for short options as well.

       -b, --binary
              Dump data in binary form, even when writing to stdout.

       -h, --help
              Display usage information and exit.

       -i, --infile=IFILE
              Read data from IFILE instead of stdin. This option is ignored if
              --send is not specified.

       -k, --skip=LEN
              Skip the first LEN bytes of  the  input  file  or  stream.  This
              option is ignored if --send is not specified.

       -n, --nosense
              Don't display SCSI Sense information.

       -o, --outfile=OFILE
              Write  data received from the DEVICE to OFILE. The data is writ-
              ten in binary. By default, data is dumped in hex format to  std-
              out.   If  OFILE is '-' then data is dumped in binary to stdout.
              This option is ignored if --request is not specified.

       -r, --request=RLEN
              Expect to receive up to RLEN bytes  of  data  from  the  DEVICE.
              RLEN  may  be  suffixed  with  'k' to use kilobytes (1024 bytes)
              instead of bytes. RLEN is decimal unless it has a  leading  '0x'
              or a trailing 'h'.
              If  RLEN is too small (i.e. either smaller than indicated by the
              cdb (typically the "allocation  length"  field)  and/or  smaller
              than the DEVICE tries to send back) then the HBA driver may com-
              plain. Making RLEN larger than required should  cause  no  prob-
              lems. Most SCSI "data-in" commands return a data block that con-
              tains (in its early bytes) a length that the DEVICE would "like"
              to  send  back  if  the  "allocation length" field in the cdb is
              large enough. In practice, the DEVICE will return no more  bytes
              than indicated in the "allocation length" field of the cdb.

       -R, --readonly
              Open  DEVICE  read-only. The default (without this option) is to
              open it read-write.

       -s, --send=SLEN
              Read SLEN bytes of data, either from stdin or from a  file,  and
              send them to the DEVICE. In the SCSI transport, SLEN becomes the
              length (in bytes) of the  "data-out"  buffer.  SLEN  is  decimal
              unless it has a leading '0x' or a trailing 'h'.
              It  is  the  responsibility  of  the  user to make sure that the
              "data-out" length implied or stated in  the  cdb  matches  SLEN.
              Note  that  some  common  SCSI commands such as WRITE(10) have a
              "transfer length" field whose units are  logical  blocks  (which
              are often 512 bytes long).

       -t, --timeout=SEC
              Wait  up  to  SEC  seconds for command completion (default: 20).
              Note that if a command times out the operating system may  start
              by  aborting  the  command  and  if  that is unsuccessful it may
              attempt to reset the device.

       -v, --verbose
              Increase level of verbosity. Can be used multiple times.

       -V, --version
              Display version and license information and exit.

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | system/storage/sg3_utils |
       |Stability      | Pass-through uncommitted |
       The sg_inq utility can be used to send an INQUIRY command to  a  device
       to  determine  its  peripheral  device  type  (e.g. '1' for a streaming
       device (tape drive)) which determines which SCSI command sets a  device
       should  support (e.g. SPC and SSC). The sg_vpd utility probes the Vital
       Product Pages of a devices which may contain useful information.

       The ability to send more than a 16 byte CDB (in some cases 12 byte CDB)
       may  be  restricted by the pass-through interface, the low level driver
       or the transport. In the Linux series 3 kernels,  the  bsg  driver  can
       handle  longer  CDBs,  block  devices  (e.g. /dev/sdc) accessed via the
       SG_IO ioctl cannot handle CDBs longer than 16 bytes, and the sg  driver
       can handle longer CDBs from lk 3.17 .

       The  CDB  command name defined by T10 for the given CDB is shown if the
       '-vv' option is given. The command line syntax still needs to  be  cor-
       rect,  so  /dev/null  may  be used for the DEVICE since the CDB command
       name decoding is done before the DEVICE is checked.

       These examples, apart from the last one, use Linux  device  names.  For
       suitable  device  names  in  other  supported Operating Systems see the
       sg3_utils(8) man page.

       sg_raw /dev/scd0 1b 00 00 00 02 00
              Eject the medium in CD drive /dev/scd0.

       sg_raw -r 1k /dev/sg0 12 00 00 00 60 00
              Perform an INQUIRY on /dev/sg0 and dump the response data (up to
              1024 bytes) to stdout.

       sg_raw -s 512 -i i512.bin /dev/sda 3b 02 00 00 00 00 00 02 00 00
              Showing an example of writing 512 bytes to a sector on a disk is
              a little dangerous. Instead  this  example  will  read  i512.bin
              (assumed  to  be  512  bytes long) and use the SCSI WRITE BUFFER
              command to send it to the "data" buffer (that is mode  2).  This
              is a safe operation.

       sg_raw -r 512 -o o512.bin /dev/sda 3c 02 00 00 00 00 00 02 00 00
              This  will  use  the  SCSI READ BUFFER command to read 512 bytes
              from the "data" buffer (i.e.  mode  2)  then  write  it  to  the
              o512.bin file.  When used in conjunction with the previous exam-
              ple, if both commands work then 'cmp i512.bin  o512.bin'  should
              show a match.

       sg_raw  --infile=urandom.bin --send=512 --request=512 --outfile=out.bin
       "/dev/bsg/7:0:0:0" 53 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00
              This is a bidirectional XDWRITEREAD(10) command being sent via a
              Linux  bsg  device.  Note  that  data  is being read from "uran-
              dom.bin" and sent to the device (data-out) while resulting  data
              (data-in)  is placed in the "out.bin" file. Also note the length
              of both is 512 bytes which corresponds to the transfer length of
              1 (block) in the cdb (i.e.  the second last byte).

       sg_raw.exe PhysicalDrive1 a1 0c 0e 00 00 00 00 00 00 e0 00 00
              This  example  is from Windows and shows a ATA STANDBY IMMEDIATE
              command being sent to PhysicalDrive1. That ATA command  is  con-
              tained within the SCSI ATA PASS-THROUGH(12) command (see the SAT
              or  SAT-2  standard  at  http://www.t10.org).  Notice  that  the
              STANDBY  IMMEDIATE  command  does  not send or receive any addi-
              tional data, however if it fails sense data should  be  returned
              and displayed.

       The exit status of sg_raw is 0 when it is successful. Otherwise see the
       sg3_utils(8) man page.

       Written by Ingo van Lil

       Report bugs to <inguin at gmx dot de>.

       Copyright (C) 2001-2015 Ingo van Lil
       This software is distributed under the GPL version 2. There is NO  war-
       ranty;  not  even  for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PUR-

       sg_inq, sg_vpd, sg3_utils (sg3_utils), plscsi

       This    software    was    built    from    source     available     at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.    The  original  community
       source was downloaded from  http://sg.danny.cz/sg/p/sg3_utils-1.42.tgz

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://sg.danny.cz/sg/sg3_utils.html.

sg3_utils-1.42                   November 2015                       SG_RAW(8)