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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

mkisofs (8)

Name

mkisofs - image with optional Rock Ridge attributes.

Synopsis

mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]
mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] -find [find expression]

Description

MKISOFS(8)                  System Manager's Manual                 MKISOFS(8)



NAME
       mkisofs  -  create  an  hybrid ISO-9660/JOLIET/HFS/UDF filesystem-image
       with optional Rock Ridge attributes.

SYNOPSIS
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] -find [find expression]

DESCRIPTION
       mkisofs  is  effectively  a  pre-mastering  program  to   generate   an
       ISO-9660/JOLIET/HFS/UDF hybrid filesystem.

       ISO-9660/JOLIET/UDF  filesystems are limited to a maximum size of 8 TB.
       The maximum size of a single file is 8 TB (single files in UDF are cur-
       rently limited to aprox. 200 GB).  If yo like to have files larger than
       2 GB, you need to specify -iso-level 3 or above.  If a  HFS  hybrid  is
       created,  the  maximum file size for files in the HFS hybrid is 2 GB in
       any case.

   Hybrid filesystem support
       mkisofs is capable  of  generating  the  System  Use  Sharing  Protocol
       records  (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.  This
       is used to further describe the files in the ISO-9660 filesystem  to  a
       UNIX  host, and provides information such as longer filenames, uid/gid,
       posix permissions, symbolic links,  hard  links,  block  and  character
       devices.

       If  Joliet,  HFS  or  UDF  hybrid  command  line options are specified,
       mkisofs will  create  additional  separate  filesystem  meta  data  for
       Joliet,  HFS  or UDF.  The file content in this case refers to the same
       data blocks on the media.  It will generate a pure ISO-9660  filesystem
       unless the Joliet, HFS or UDF hybrid command line options are given.

       mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same
       files are seen as HFS files when  accessed  from  a  Macintosh  and  as
       ISO-9660  files when accessed from other machines. HFS stands for Hier-
       archical File System and is the native file system  used  on  Macintosh
       computers up to Mac OS 9.

       As  an  alternative,  mkisofs  can  generate  the  Apple  Extensions to
       ISO-9660 or UDF for each file. These extensions provide each file  with
       CREATOR,  TYPE and certain Finder Flags when accessed from a Macintosh.
       See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

   Functional description
       mkisofs takes a snapshot of a given directory  tree,  and  generates  a
       binary  image  which  will  correspond to an ISO-9660 or Joliet/HFS/UDF
       filesystem when written to a block device.

       Each file written to the ISO-9660 filesystem must have  a  filename  in
       the  8.3  format  (8 characters, period, 3 characters, all upper case),
       even if Rock Ridge attributes are in use.  This  filename  is  used  on
       systems  that  are  not  able  to make use of the Rock Ridge extensions
       (such as MS-DOS), and each filename in each directory must be different
       from  the  other  filenames  in  the same directory.  mkisofs generally
       tries to form correct names by forcing the UNIX filename to upper  case
       and  truncating as required, but often times this yields unsatisfactory
       results when there are cases where the  truncated  names  are  not  all
       unique.   mkisofs assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names
       that are otherwise the same are found the name with the lower  priority
       is  renamed  to have a 3 digit number as an extension (where the number
       is guaranteed to be unique).  An example of this  would  be  the  files
       foo.bar  and  foo.bar.~1~  -  the  file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as
       FOO000.BAR;1 and the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

       When used with various HFS or UDF  options,  mkisofs  will  attempt  to
       recognise  files stored in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will
       copy the data and resource forks as well as any relevant finder  infor-
       mation. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more about
       formats mkisofs supports.

       Note that mkisofs is not designed to communicate with writers for opti-
       cal  media  directly.  Most writers have proprietary command sets which
       vary from one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized  tool
       like cdrecord to actually burn the disk.

       The  cdrecord  utility  is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.
       The    latest    version    of    cdrecord    is     available     from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord                                    or
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/alpha

       Also you should know that most CD writers  are  very  particular  about
       timing.   Once  you  start  to burn a disc, you cannot let their buffer
       empty before you are done, or you will end  up  with  a  corrupt  disc.
       Thus  it is critical that you be able to maintain an uninterrupted data
       stream to the writer for the entire time that the disc is  being  writ-
       ten.

   Dealing with path names
       pathspec  is  the  path  of  the  directory  tree to be copied into the
       ISO-9660 filesystem.  Multiple paths can be specified, and mkisofs will
       merge  the  files found in all of the specified path components to form
       the cdrom image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
       the  paths  at points other than the root directory, and it is possible
       to graft files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
       than  what  they  have  in  the  source filesystem.  This is easiest to
       illustrate with a couple of examples.   Let's start by assuming that  a
       local  file  ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom
       image.


            foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image  at  /foo/bar/old.lis,
       while

            foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will  include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The
       same sort of syntax can be used with directories as well.  mkisofs will
       create any directories required such that the graft points exist on the
       cdrom image - the directories do not need  to  appear  in  one  of  the
       paths.   By  default,  any directories that are created on the fly like
       this will have permissions 0555 and appear to be owned  by  the  person
       running mkisofs.  If you wish other permissions or owners of the inter-
       mediate  directories,  see  -uid,  -gid,  -dir-mode,   -file-mode   and
       -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs  will also run on Win9x/NTx machines when compiled with Cygnus'
       cygwin (available from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore
       most references in this man page to Unix also apply to Win32 or Win64.


OPTIONS
       -abstract FILE
              Specifies  the abstract file name in the primary volume descrip-
              tor.  There is space on the disc for 37 characters  of  informa-
              tion.   The  related  Joliet  entry is limited to 18 characters.
              This parameter can also be  set  in  the  file  .mkisofsrc  with
              ABST=filename.   If  specified  in both places, the command line
              version is used.

              It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file with the apro-
              priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -A application_id

       -appid application_id
              Specifies  a  text  string  that will be written into the volume
              header.  This should describe the application that  will  be  on
              the  disc.   There  is  space  on the disc for 128 characters of
              information.  The related Joliet entry is limited to 64  charac-
              ters.   This  parameter  can  also be set in the file .mkisofsrc
              with APPI=id.  If specified in both  places,  the  command  line
              version is used.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow  ISO-9660  filenames  to  begin with a period.  Usually, a
              leading dot is replaced with an underscore in order to  maintain
              MS-DOS compatibility.
              This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
              This options allows lower case characters to appear in  ISO-9660
              filenames.
              This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
              This options allows more than one  dot  to  appear  in  ISO-9660
              filenames.  A leading dot is not affected by this option, it may
              be allowed separately using the -allow-leading-dots option.
              This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio FILE
              Specifies  the  bibliographic  file  name  in the primary volume
              descriptor.  There is space on the disc  for  37  characters  of
              information.   The related Joliet entry is limited to 18 charac-
              ters.  This parameter can also be set  in  the  file  .mkisofsrc
              with  BIBLO=filename.   If specified in both places, the command
              line version is used.

              It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file with the apro-
              priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -cache-inodes
              Cache  inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
              mkisofs finds a hard link (a file with multiple names), then the
              file  will  only appear once on the CD. This helps to save space
              on the CD.  The option -cache-inodes is  default  on  UNIX  like
              operating  systems.   Be  careful  when  using  this option on a
              filesystem without unique inode numbers  as  it  may  result  in
              files containing the wrong content on CD.

              If  inodes  are  not cached, mkisofs will revert to the old Rrip
              Version-1.10 (see -rrip110) and mkisofs will not be able to cre-
              ate correct inode numbers for zero sized files.

       -no-cache-inodes
              Do  not  cache  inode and device numbers.  This option is needed
              whenever a filesystem does not have unique inode numbers. It  is
              the  default on old Cygwin versions.  As the Microsoft operating
              system that runs below Cygwin uses  64  bit  inode  numbers  for
              NTFS, it does not have unique inode numbers in the 32 bit range.
              Old Cygwin versions create fake 32-bit inode numbers from a hash
              algorithm  and thus create non-unique numbers.  If mkisofs would
              cache inodes on old Cygwin versions, it would believe that  some
              files  are  identical  although they are not. The result in this
              case are files that contain the wrong content if  a  significant
              amount  of  different files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that
              is  to  be  archived.    This   does   not   happen   when   the
              -no-cache-inodes  is  used, but the disadvantage is that mkisofs
              cannot detect hardlinks anymore and the resulting CD  image  may
              be larger than expected.

              If  inodes  are  not cached, mkisofs will revert to the old Rrip
              Version-1.10 (see -rrip110) and mkisofs will not be able to cre-
              ate correct inode numbers for zero sized files.

       -b eltorito_boot_image

       -eltorito-boot eltorito_boot_image
              Specifies  the  path  and  filename of the boot image to be used
              when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
              relative to the source path and inside the source tree specified
              to mkisofs.  This option is required  to  make  an  "El  Torito"
              bootable  CD.  The boot image must be exactly the size of either
              a 1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB floppy, and  mkisofs  will  use  this
              size when creating the output ISO-9660 filesystem. It is assumed
              that the first 512 byte sector should  be  read  from  the  boot
              image (it is essentially emulating a normal floppy drive).  This
              will work, for example, if the boot image is a boot floppy.

              If the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need  to  add
              one  of  the  options: -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot.  If the
              system should not boot off the emulated disk, use -no-boot.

              More than one boot entry may be specified,  see  -eltorito-plat-
              form and -eltorito-alt-boot on how to specify more boot entries.
              The first boot entry is the default boot entry.  Additional boot
              entries are members for a multi boot configuration.

              If  the -sort option has not been specified, the boot images are
              sorted with low priority (+2) to the beginning  of  the  medium.
              If  you  don't like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0
              for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
              Start with a new set  of  "El  Torito"  boot  parameters.   This
              allows  to  have  more than one El Torito boot entry on a CD.  A
              maximum of 63 El Torito boot entries may be put on a single CD.

              The -eltorito-alt-boot option starts a new boot entry  with  the
              same  platform id but no new boot section except when it appears
              past the first boot entry which is the default boot entry.

       -eltorito-platform id
              Set the "El Torito" platform id for a boot record or  a  section
              of boot records.  The.  id parameter may be either:

              x86    This  is  the  default  platform  id  value and specifies
                     entries for the PC platform.   If  no  -eltorito-platform
                     option  appears  before  the first -eltorito-boot option,
                     the default boot entry becomes an entry for  the  x86  PC
                     platform.

              PPC    Boot entries for the Power PC platform.

              Mac    Boot entries for the Apple Mac platform.

              efi    Boot entries for EFI based PCs.

              #      A numeric value specifying any platform id.

              If  the  option  -eltorito-platform  appears  before  the  first
              -eltorito-boot option, it sets the platform id for  the  default
              boot entry.

              If the option -eltorito-platform appears after an -eltorito-boot
              option and sets the platform id to a value  different  from  the
              previous value, it starts a new set of boot entries.

              The second boot entry and any new platform id creates a new sec-
              tion header and reduces the number of boot  entries  per  CD  by
              one.


       errctl= name

       errctl= error control spec
              Add  the content from file name to the error control definitions
              or add error control spec  to  the  error  control  definitions.
              More than one error control file and more than one error control
              spec as well as a mixture of both forms is possible.

              The reason for using error control  is  to  make  mkisofs  quiet
              about  error  conditions  that are known to be irrelevant on the
              quality of the created filesystem or to tell mkisofs to abort on
              certain  error conditions instead of trying to continue with the
              filesystem.

              A typical reason to use error control is  to  suppress  warnings
              about growing log files while doing a backup on a live file sys-
              tem.  Another typical reason to use error  control  is  to  tell
              mkisofs to abort if e.g. a file could not be archived instead of
              continuing to archive other files from a list.

              The error control file contains a set of  lines,  each  starting
              with  a list of error conditions to be ignored followed by white
              space followed by a file name  pattern  (see  match(1)  or  pat-
              match(3) for more information).  The error control spec uses the
              same syntax as a single line from the error  control  file.   If
              the  file  name  pattern  needs to start with white space, use a
              backslash to escape the start of the file name. It is not possi-
              ble to have new line characters in the file name pattern.  When-
              ever an error situation is encountered, mkisofs checks the lines
              in the error control file starting from the top.  If the current
              error condition is listed on a line in the error  control  file,
              then  mkisofs checks whether the pattern on the rest of the line
              matches the current file name.  If this  is  the  case,  mkisofs
              uses the current error control specification to control the cur-
              rent error condition.

              The list of error conditions to be handled may use one  or  more
              (in this case separated by a '|' character) identifiers from the
              list below:

              ABORT       If this meta condition is included in an error  con-
                          dition,  mkisofs  aborts (exits) as soon as possible
                          after this error condition has been seen instead  of
                          making  mkisofs  quiet  about  the  condition.  This
                          error condition flag may only be used together  with
                          at another error condition or a list of error condi-
                          tions (separated by a '|' character).

              WARN        If this meta condition is included in an error  con-
                          dition,  mkisofs  prints the warning about the error
                          condition but the error condition  does  not  affect
                          the  exit  code  of mkisofs and the error statistics
                          (which is printed to the end) does not  include  the
                          related  errors.  This error condition flag may only
                          be used together with at another error condition  or
                          a list of error conditions (separated by a '|' char-
                          acter).  The WARN meta condition has a lower  prece-
                          dence than ABORT.

              ALL         This is a shortcut for all error conditions below.

              STAT        Suppress  warnings  that mkisofs could not stat(2) a
                          file.

              GETACL      Suppress warnings about files on which  mkisofs  had
                          problems to retrieve the ACL information.

              OPEN        Suppress  warnings  about  files  that  could not be
                          opened.

              READ        Suppress warnings read errors on files.

              WRITE       Suppress warnings write errors on files.

              READLINK    Suppress warnings  readlink(2)  errors  on  symbolic
                          links.

              GROW        Suppress  warnings  about  files that did grow while
                          they have been archived.

              SHRINK      Suppress warnings about files that did shrink  while
                          they have been archived.

              MISSLINK    Suppress  warnings about files for which mkisofs was
                          unable to archive all hard links.

              NAMETOOLONG Suppress warnings about  files  that  could  not  be
                          archived  because  the  name of the file is too long
                          for the archive format.

              FILETOOBIG  Suppress warnings about  files  that  could  not  be
                          archived because the size of the file is too big for
                          the archive format.

              SPECIALFILE Suppress warnings about  files  that  could  not  be
                          archived  because  the file type is not supported by
                          the archive format.

              GETXATTR    Suppress warnings about files on that mkisofs  could
                          not  retrieve  the  extended file attribute informa-
                          tion.

              SETTIME     Suppress warnings about files on that mkisofs  could
                          not set the time information during extraction.

              SETMODE     Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could
                          not set the access modes during extraction.

              SECURITY    Suppress warnings about files that have been skipped
                          on  extraction  because they have been considered to
                          be a security risk.  This currently applies  to  all
                          files  that  have  a '/../' sequence inside when -..
                          has not been specified.

              LSECURITY   Suppress warnings about links that have been skipped
                          on  extraction  because they have been considered to
                          be a security risk.  This currently applies  to  all
                          link  names  that  start  with  '/' or have a '/../'
                          sequence inside when -secure-links has  been  speci-
                          fied.  In this case, mkisofs tries to match the link
                          name against the pattern in the error control file.

              SAMEFILE    Suppress warnings about links that have been skipped
                          on  extraction because source and target of the link
                          are pointing to the same file.  If mkisofs would not
                          skip  these files, it would end up with removing the
                          file completely.  In this  case,  mkisofs  tries  to
                          match the link name against the pattern in the error
                          control file.

              BADACL      Suppress warnings  access  control  list  conversion
                          problems.

              SETACL      Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could
                          not set the ACL information during extraction.

              SETXATTR    Suppress warnings about files on that mkisofs  could
                          not set the extended file attribute information dur-
                          ing extraction.

       If a specific error condition is ignored, then the error  condition  is
       not  only handled in a silent way but also excluded from the error sta-
       tistics that are printed at the end of the mkisofs run.

       Be very careful when using error control as you may  ignore  any  error
       condition.   If  you  ignore the wrong error conditions, you may not be
       able to see real problems anymore.

       Note that currently only the tags OPEN, READ, GROW, SHRINK, are checked
       from mkisofs.


       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              Specifies  a comma separated list of boot images that are needed
              to make a bootable CD for sparc systems.  Partition  0  is  used
              for the ISO-9660 image, the first image file is mapped to parti-
              tion 1.  There may be empty fields in the comma separated  list.
              The maximum number of possible partitions is 8 so it is impossi-
              ble to specify more than 7 partition  images.   This  option  is
              required to make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.  If the -B
              or -sparc-boot option has been specified, the  first  sector  of
              the  resulting  image  will  contain a Sun disk label. This disk
              label specifies slice 0 for the ISO-9660 image and slice  1  ...
              slice  7  for the boot images that have been specified with this
              option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of  the  additional
              boot  images  must  contain  a  primary  boot that works for the
              appropriate sparc architecture. The rest of each of  the  images
              usually  contains  an ufs filesystem that is used primary kernel
              boot stage.

              The implemented boot method is the boot method found with  SunOS
              4.x  and SunOS 5.x.  However, it does not depend on SunOS inter-
              nals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom. For this rea-
              son,  it should be usable for any OS that boots off a sparc sys-
              tem.

              For more information also see the NOTES section below.

              If the special filename ...  is used, the actual and all follow-
              ing  boot  partitions  are  mapped to the previous partition. If
              mkisofs is called with -G image -B ...  all boot partitions  are
              mapped  to  the  partition that contains the ISO-9660 filesystem
              image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
              sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
              Specifies  the path and filename of the generic boot image to be
              used when making a generic bootable CD.  The  generic_boot_image
              will  be  placed on the first 16 sectors of the CD. The first 16
              sectors are the sectors that are  located  before  the  ISO-9660
              primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used together with
              the -sparc-boot option, the Sun  disk  label  will  overlay  the
              first 512 bytes of the generic boot image.

       -hard-disk-boot
              Specifies  that  the  boot  image  used  to  create  "El Torito"
              bootable CDs is a hard disk image.  The  hard  disk  image  must
              begin  with  a  master boot record that contains a single parti-
              tion.

       -ignore-error
              Ignore errors.  mkisofs by default  aborts  on  several  errors,
              such  as  read errors. With this option in effect, mkisofs tries
              to continue.  Use with care.

       -no-emul-boot
              Specifies that  the  boot  image  used  to  create  "El  Torito"
              bootable CDs is a 'no emulation' image. The system will load and
              execute this image without performing any disk emulation.

       -no-boot
              Specifies that the created "El Torito" CD should  be  marked  as
              not  bootable. The system will provide an emulated drive for the
              image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
              Specifies the load segment address of the boot image for no-emu-
              lation "El Torito" CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
              Specifies  the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in
              no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the entire boot file.
              Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
              Specifies  that  a  56-byte table with information of the CD-ROM
              layout will be patched in at offset 8 in the boot file.  If this
              option  is  given,  the  boot  file  is  modified  in the source
              filesystem, so make sure to make a copy if this file  cannot  be
              easily  regenerated!   See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section
              for a description of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start

       -cdrecord-params last_sess_start,next_sess_start
              This option is needed when mkisofs is used to create  a  CDextra
              or the image of a second session or a higher level session for a
              multi session disk.  The option -C takes a pair of  two  numbers
              separated  by  a comma. The first number is the sector number of
              the first sector in the last session of the disk that should  be
              appended to.  The second number is the starting sector number of
              the new session.  The expected pair of numbers may be  retrieved
              by  calling  cdrecord  -msinfo  ...  If the -C option is used in
              conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem
              image that is intended to be a continuation of the previous ses-
              sion.  If the -C option is used without the -M  option,  mkisofs
              will create a filesystem image that is intended to be used for a
              second session on a CDextra. This is a  multi  session  CD  that
              holds  audio data in the first session and a ISO-9660 filesystem
              in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog

       -eltorito-catalog boot_catalog
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog to  be  used
              when  making  an  "El  Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be
              relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.   This  option
              is  required  to make a bootable CD.  This file will be inserted
              into the output tree and not created in the  source  filesystem,
              so  be  sure  the  specified  filename does not conflict with an
              existing file, as it will  be  excluded.  Usually  a  name  like
              "boot.catalog" is chosen.

              If  the  -sort  option  has not been specified, the boot catalog
              sorted with low priority (+1) to the beginning  of  the  medium.
              If  you  don't like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0
              for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
              Check all filenames imported from  old  session  for  compliance
              with  actual  mkisofs ISO-9660 file naming rules.  It his option
              is not present, only names with a length >  31  are  checked  as
              these files are a hard violation of the ISO-9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
              Check  all  old  sessions  for  compliance  with  actual mkisofs
              ISO-9660 file naming rules.  This is a high level option that is
              a combination of the options: -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For
              the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
              Specifies the Copyright file name in the primary volume descrip-
              tor.   There  is space on the disc for 37 characters of informa-
              tion.  The related Joliet entry is  limited  to  18  characters.
              This  parameter  can  also  be  set  in the file .mkisofsrc with
              COPY=filename.  If specified in both places,  the  command  line
              version is used.

              It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file with the apro-
              priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -d

       -omit-period
              Omit trailing period from files that do not have a period.
              This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D

       -disable-deep-relocation
              Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them
              in the way we see them.
              If ISO-9660:1999  has  not  been  selected,  this  violates  the
              ISO-9660  standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
              with caution.

       -data-change-warn
              If the size of a file changes while the file is being  archived,
              treat  this  condition  as  a  warning  only that does not cause
              mkisofs to abort.  A warning message is  still  written  if  the
              condition  is  not  otherwise  ignored  by  another rule from an
              errctl= option.  The -data-change-warn option works  as  if  the
              last error control option was

                   errctl="WARN|GROW|SHRINK *"


       -debug Increment debug value by one.

       -dir-mode mode
              Overrides  the  mode  of directories used to create the image to
              mode.  See -new-dir-mode on how to specify a different mode that
              is  used for directories that do not exist in the tree specified
              by the source-path.  Specifying the -dir-mode  option  automati-
              cally enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -dvd-video
              Generate  DVD-Video  compliant  UDF file system. This is done by
              sorting the order of the content of the appropriate files and by
              adding padding between the files if needed.  Note that the sort-
              ing only works if the DVD-Video  filenames  include  upper  case
              characters only.
              Note  that  in  order  to  get  a DVD-Video compliant filesystem
              image, you need to prepare a DVD-Video compliant directory tree.
              This  means  you need to have a directory VIDEO_TS (all caps) in
              the root directory of the resulting DVD and you  should  have  a
              directory  AUDIO_TS. The directory VIDEO_TS needs to include all
              needed files (file names must be all caps) for a compliant  DVD-
              Video filesystem.

       -f

       -follow-links
              Follow  all symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When
              this option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered  using
              Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file will be ignored.

              See also -posix-L option.

       -file-mode mode
              Overrides  the mode of regular files used to create the image to
              mode.  Specifying this option automatically enables  Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -find  This  option  acts  a  separator.   If  it  is used, all mkisofs
              options must be to the left of the -find option. To the right of
              the  -find  option, mkisofs accepts the find command line syntax
              only.

              The find expression acts as a filter between the source of  file
              names  and the consumer, which is archiving engine.  If the find
              expression evaluated as TRUE, then the related file is  selected
              for processing, otherwise it is omited.

              In order to make the evaluation of the find expression more con-
              venient, mkisofs implements additional find primaries that  have
              side effects on the file meta data.  Mkisofs implements the fol-
              lowing additional find primaries:

              -help  Lists the available find(1) syntax.

              -chgrp gname
                     The primary always evaluates as true; it sets  the  group
                     of the file to gname.

              -chmod mode
                     The primary always evaluates as true; it sets the permis-
                     sions of the file to mode.  Octal  and  symbolic  permis-
                     sions are accepted for mode as with chmod(1).

              -chown uname
                     The  primary  always evaluates as true; it sets the owner
                     of the file to uname.

              -false The primary always evaluates as false; it allows to  make
                     the  result  of  the  full  expression different from the
                     result of a part of the expression.

              -true  The primary always evaluates as true; it allows  to  make
                     the  result  of  the  full  expression different from the
                     result of a part of the expression.

              The command line:

              mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -ls -o false ) -o ! -type d

              lists all directories and puts all non-directories to the  image
              o.iso.

              The command line:

              mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -chown root -o true )

              archives  all  directories so they appear to be owned by root in
              the archive, all non-directories are archived as they are in the
              file system.

              Note  that  the -ls, -exec and the -ok primary cannot be used if
              stdin or stdout has not been redirected.

       -gid gid
              Overrides the gid read from the source files  to  the  value  of
              gid.   Specifying  this  option automatically enables Rock Ridge
              extensions.

       -gui   Switch the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the  output
              more verbose but may have other effects in future.

       -graft-points
              Allow to use graft points for filenames. If this option is used,
              all filenames are checked for  graft  points.  The  filename  is
              divided  at  the  first unescaped equal sign. All occurrences of
              '\\'  and  '='  characters  must  be  escaped   with   '\\'   if
              -graft-points has been specified.

       -hide glob
              Hide  glob  from being seen on the ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge direc-
              tory.  glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that  must  match
              any part of the filename or path.  Multiple globs may be hidden.
              If glob matches a directory, then the contents of that directory
              will  be  hidden.  In order to match a directory name, make sure
              the pathname does not include a trailing '/' character.  All the
              hidden  files will still be written to the output CD image file.
              Should be used with the -hide-joliet option. See README.hide for
              more details.

       -hide-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hidden glob
              Add  the  hidden  (existence)  ISO-9660  directory attribute for
              glob.  This attribute will prevent glob from being listed on DOS
              based  systems if the /A flag is not used for the listing.  glob
              is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any  part  of
              the  filename or path.  In order to match a directory name, make
              sure the pathname does not include  a  trailing  '/'  character.
              Multiple globs may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to get the hidden attribute as
              above.

       -hide-joliet glob
              Hide glob from being seen on the Joliet directory.   glob  is  a
              shell  wild-card-style  pattern  that must match any part of the
              filename or path.   Multiple  globs  may  be  hidden.   If  glob
              matches a directory, then the contents of that directory will be
              hidden.  In order to match a directory name, make sure the path-
              name  does not include a trailing '/' character.  All the hidden
              files will still be written to the output CD image file.  Should
              be used with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
              Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the Joliet tree.  These files usu-
              ally don't make sense in the Joliet World as they list the  real
              name  and the ISO-9660 name which may both be different from the
              Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
              Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved  in  the  Rock  Ridge
              tree.  This option has been introduced when mkisofs was not able
              to hide the directory in the Rock Ridge tree.  This  version  of
              mkisofs always automatically hides the RR_MOVED directory in the
              Rock Ridge tree.  If you need to have no RR_MOVED  directory  at
              all  (even  in the ISO-9660 tree), you should use the -D option.
              Note that in case that the -D option  has  been  specified,  the
              resulting  filesystem is not ISO-9660 level-1 compliant and will
              not be readable on MS-DOS.  See  also  NOTES  section  for  more
              information on the RR_MOVED directory.


       -hide-udf glob
              Hide glob from being seen on the UDF directory.  glob is a shell
              wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename
              or  path.   Multiple  globs  may  be  hidden.  If glob matches a
              directory, then the contents of that directory will  be  hidden.
              In  order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does
              not include a trailing '/' character.  All the hidden files will
              still  be  written  to the output CD image file.  Should be used
              with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-udf-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.


       -input-charset charset
              Set up the input charset that defines  the  characters  used  in
              local  file  names.   To get a list of valid charset names, call
              mkisofs -input-charset help.  To get a 1:1 mapping, you may  use
              default  as  charset name. If the input charset has not been set
              up from the locale in the environment, the default initial  val-
              ues  are  cp437  on DOS based systems and iso8859-1 on all other
              systems.  See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

              If -input-charset has not been specified, it will be set up from
              the locale in the environment. If you like to disable this auto-
              matic setup, use the empty string as locale name.

       -output-charset charset
              Set up the output charset that defines the characters that  will
              be used in Rock Ridge file names. Defaults to the input charset.
              See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -iso-level level
              Set the ISO-9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are  1..3  and
              4.

              With  level  1,  files may only consist of one section and file-
              names are restricted to 8.3 characters.

              With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

              With level 3, no  restrictions  (other  than  ISO-9660:1988)  do
              apply.   Starting  with this level, mkisofs also allows files to
              be larger than 4 GB by implementing ISO-9660 multi-extent files.

              With all ISO-9660 levels from 1..3, all filenames are restricted
              to upper case letters, numbers and the underscore (_). The maxi-
              mum filename length is restricted to 31 characters,  the  direc-
              tory  nesting  level  is  restricted  to  8 and the maximum path
              length is limited to 255 characters.

              Level 4 officially does  not  exists  but  mkisofs  maps  it  to
              ISO-9660:1999 which is ISO-9660 version 2.

              With  level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version number
              and file structure version number set to 2  is  emitted.   There
              may be more than 8 levels of directory nesting, there is no need
              for a file to contain a dot and the  dot  has  no  more  special
              meaning,  file  names  do  not have version numbers, the maximum
              length for files and directory is raised to 207.  If Rock  Ridge
              is used, the maximum ISO-9660 name length is reduced to 197.

              When creating Version 2 images, mkisofs emits an enhanced volume
              descriptor which looks similar to a  primary  volume  descriptor
              but is slightly different. Be careful not to use broken software
              to make ISO-9660 images bootable by assuming a second  PVD  copy
              and patching this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate   Joliet  directory  records  in  addition  to  regular
              ISO-9660 file names.  This is primarily useful  when  the  discs
              are to be used on Windows-NT or Windows-95 machines.  The Joliet
              filenames are specified in Unicode and each path  component  can
              be  up  to  64  Unicode characters long.  Note that Joliet is no
              standard - CD's that use only Joliet extensions but no  standard
              Rock  Ridge  extensions  may  usually  only be used on Microsoft
              Win32 systems. Furthermore, the fact that the filenames are lim-
              ited  to  64 characters and the fact that Joliet uses the UTF-16
              coding for Unicode characters causes interoperability problems.

       -joliet-long
              Allow Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters.  This
              breaks  the Joliet specification - but appears to work. Use with
              caution. The number 103 is derived from: the  maximum  Directory
              Record  Length (254), minus the length of Directory Record (33),
              minus CD-ROM XA System Use Extension Information  (14),  divided
              by the UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
              Same as using -input-charset charset and -J options. See CHARAC-
              TER SETS section below for more details.

       -l

       -full-iso9660-filenames
              Allow full 31 character filenames.  Normally the ISO-9660  file-
              name  will  be in an 8.3 format which is compatible with MS-DOS,
              even though the ISO-9660 standard allows filenames of up  to  31
              characters.   If  you use this option, the disc may be difficult
              to use on a MS-DOS system, but this comes in handy on some other
              systems (such as the Amiga).  Use with caution.

       -L     Outdated  option  reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,  use  -allow-lead-
              ing-dots instead.  This option will get  POSIX.1-2001  semantics
              with mkisofs-3.02.

       -log-file log_file
              Redirect  all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
              log_file instead of the standard error.

       -long-rr-time
              Use the long ISO-9660 time format for the file time stamps  used
              in  Rock  Ridge.  This time format allows to represent year 0 ..
              year 9999 with a granularity of 10ms.

              The short ISO-9660 time format only  allows  to  represent  year
              1900 .. year 2155 with a granularity of 1s.

       -m glob
              Exclude glob from being written to CDROM.  glob is a shell wild-
              card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the
              path  as  with  option -x).  Technically glob is matched against
              the d->d_name part of the directory entry.  Multiple  globs  may
              be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

              would  exclude  all files ending in ".o", called "core" or "foo-
              bar" to be copied to CDROM. Note that if  you  had  a  directory
              called "foobar" it too (and of course all its descendants) would
              be excluded.

              NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
              they  are wrong.  Both now work identical and use filename glob-
              bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
              the whole path matches.

       -exclude-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be excluded as above.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
              Allow 37 chars in ISO-9660 filenames.  This option forces the -N
              option as the extra name space is taken from the space  reserved
              for ISO-9660 version numbers.
              This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Although a conforming application needs  to  pro-
              vide  a  buffer  space  of at least 37 characters, disks created
              with this option may cause a  buffer  overflow  in  the  reading
              operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path
              or

       -M device
              or

       -dev device
              Specifies  path  to  existing  ISO-9660  image to be merged. The
              alternate form takes a SCSI device specifier that uses the  same
              syntax as the dev= parameter of cdrecord.  The output of mkisofs
              will be a new session which should get written to the end of the
              image  specified  in  -M.  Typically this requires multi-session
              capability for  the  recorder  and  cdrom  drive  that  you  are
              attempting to write this image to.  This option may only be used
              in conjunction with the -C option.

       -modification-date date-spec
              Set the modification date in the primary volume descriptor (PVD)
              to a value different from the current time.  This allows e.g. to
              set up an intentional UUID for grub.

              The format of date-spec is:

                   yyyy[mm[dd[hh[mm[ss]]]]][.hh][+-ghgm]

              The fields are year, month, day of month, hour, minute,  second,
              hundreds of a second, GMT offset in hours and minutes.  The time
              is interpreted as local time.

              Year and the GMT offset are four digit fields, all other  fields
              take  two  digits.   The  GMT  offset may be between -12 and +13
              hours in 15 minute steps. Locations east to Greenwich have posi-
              tive  values.  The  value is the sum of the time zone offset and
              the effects  from  daylight  saving  time.   Omited  values  are
              replaced  by  the minimal possible values.  If the GMT offset is
              omited, it is computed from the local time value that  has  been
              supplied.

              Between  year  and  month  as  well  as between month and day of
              month, a separator chosen from '/' and '-' may appear.  In  this
              case, the year may be a two digit number with values 69..99 rep-
              resenting 1969..1999 and values 00..68 representing  2000..2068.
              Between  date  and  time  spec,  an optional space is permitted.
              Between hours and minutes as well as between  minutes  and  sec-
              onds,  an  optional  ':'  separator  is  permitted.  This allows
              mkisofs to parse the popular POSIX date format created by:

                   date "+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z"

              Note that the possible range for date-spec for 32  bit  programs
              is limited to values up to 2038 Jan 19 04:14:07 GMT.

       -N

       -omit-version-number
              Omit version numbers from ISO-9660 file names.
              This  violates the ISO-9660 standard, but no one really uses the
              version numbers anyway.  Use with caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
              Mode to use when creating new directories in the iso  fs  image.
              The default mode in the absence of a -dir-mode option is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
              Do  not  include  backup files files on the ISO-9660 filesystem.
              If the -no-bak option is specified, files that contain the char-
              acters  '~'  or '#' or end in '.bak' will not be included (these
              are typically backup files for editors under UNIX).

       -no-limit-pathtables
              A ISO-9660 filesystem contains path tables that contain  a  list
              of directories.  This list may contain many directories but only
              65535 of them may be parent directories.  When -no-limit-pathta-
              bles is in use, further parent directories will be folded to the
              root directory and the resulting filesystem will  no  longer  be
              usable on DOS.

       -no-long-rr-time
              Use the short ISO-9660 time format for the file time stamps used
              in Rock Ridge.  This time format allows to represent  year  1990
              .. year 2155 with a granularity of one second.

       -force-rr
              Do  not  use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for
              previous sessions.  This helps to show rotten ISO-9660 extension
              records as e.g. created by NERO burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do  not  use  the  Rock Ridge attributes from previous sessions.
              This may help to avoid getting into trouble when  mkisofs  finds
              illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
              Don't split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area
              (CE) instead. This may waste some space,  but  the  SunOS  4.1.4
              cdrom driver has a bug in reading split SL components (link_size
              = component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

              Note that this option has been introduced by Eric  Youngdale  in
              1997.   It  is questionable whether it makes sense at all.  When
              it has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that  did
              create  defective  CE  signatures if a symlink contained `/../'.
              This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
              Don't split the SL fields, but begin  a  new  Continuation  Area
              (CE) instead. This may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and
              Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug in reading split SL fields
              (a `/' can be dropped).

              Note  that  this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in
              1997.  It is questionable whether it makes sense at  all.   When
              it  has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that did
              create defective CE signatures if a  symlink  contained  `/../'.
              This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -o filename
              is  the  name of the file to which the ISO-9660 filesystem image
              should be written.  This can be a disk file, a tape drive, or it
              can  correspond  directly to the device name of the optical disc
              writer.  If not specified, stdout is used.  Note that the output
              can  also be a block special device for a regular disk drive, in
              which case the disk partition can be  mounted  and  examined  to
              ensure that the premastering was done correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).  If the
              option -B is used, then there is a padding at  the  end  of  the
              ISO-9660  partition  and before the beginning of the boot parti-
              tions.  The size of this padding is chosen  to  make  the  first
              boot  partition  start  on a sector number that is a multiple of
              16.

              The padding is needed as many  operating  systems  (e.g.  Linux)
              implement  read  ahead  bugs in their filesystem I/O. These bugs
              result in read errors on one or more files that are  located  at
              the  end  of  a  track.  They are usually present when the CD is
              written in Track at Once mode or when the  disk  is  written  as
              mixed mode CD where an audio track follows the data track.

              To  avoid  problems  with  I/O  error  on  the  last file on the
              filesystem, the -pad option has been made the default.

       -no-pad
              Do not Pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not  make  the
              the boot partitions start on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
              A  file  containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames
              to be added to the ISO-9660 filesystem. This list  of  pathspecs
              are  processed after any that appear on the command line. If the
              argument is -, then the list is read from the standard input.

       -P     Outdated  option  reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,   use   -publisher
              instead.   This  option  will  get  POSIX.1-2001  semantics with
              mkisofs-3.02.

       -publisher publisher_id
              Specifies a text string that will be  written  into  the  volume
              header.   This  should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usu-
              ally with a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on
              the  disc for 128 characters of information.  The related Joliet
              entry is limited to 64 characters.  This parameter can  also  be
              set  in  the  file  .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.  If specified in both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id

       -preparer preparer_id
              Specifies a text string that will be  written  into  the  volume
              header.  This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually
              with a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on  the
              disc  for  128  characters  of  information.  The related Joliet
              entry is limited to 64 characters.  This parameter can  also  be
              set  in  the  file  .mkisofsrc with PREP=.  If specified in both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -posix-H
              Follow all symbolic links encountered on command line when  gen-
              erating the filesystem.

       -posix-L
              Follow  all symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When
              this option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered  using
              Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file will be ignored.

       -posix-P
              Do  not  follow  symbolic  links  when generating the filesystem
              (this is the default).  If -posix-P is specified after  -posix-H
              or -posix-L, the effect of these options will be reset.

       -print-size
              Print  estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size
              (2048 bytes) and exit. This option is needed for  Disk  At  Once
              mode  and  with  some  CD-R  drives  when  piping  directly into
              cdrecord.  In this case it is needed to know  the  size  of  the
              filesystem  before  the  actual CD-creation is done.  The option
              -print-size allows to get this size from a "dry-run" before  the
              CD  is actually written.  Old versions of mkisofs did write this
              information (among other information) to stderr.  As this  turns
              out  to  be hard to parse, the number without any other informa-
              tion is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a  sim-
              ple shell script, redirect stderr and catch the number from std-
              out.  This may be done with:

              cdblocks=` mkisofs -print-size -quiet ... `

              mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes mkisofs even less verbose.  No progress  output  will
              be provided.

       -R

       -rock  Generate  SUSP  and  RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to
              further describe the files on the ISO-9660 filesystem.  The Rock
              Ridge  protocol  is  needed in order to add POSIX like file meta
              data like permissions, extended time  stamps,  user/group  is'd,
              link  counts,  inode  numbers and symbolic links. The Rock Ridge
              protocol allows to archive hierarchy trees with unlimited depth.

       -r

       -rational-rock
              This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
              to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
              they are usually only useful on the  author's  system,  and  not
              useful  to  the client.  All the file read bits are set true, so
              that files and directories are globally readable on the  client.
              If  any  execute  bit  is set for a file, set all of the execute
              bits, so that executables are globally executable on the client.
              If  any search bit is set for a directory, set all of the search
              bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client.
              All  write  bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will be mounted
              read-only in any case.  If any of the special mode bits are set,
              clear  them,  because  file  locks are not useful on a read-only
              file system, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid 0 or  gid
              0.   When  used  on  Win32, the execute bit is set on all files.
              This is a result of the lack of file permissions  on  Win32  and
              the   Cygwin   POSIX  emulation  layer.   See  also  -uid  -gid,
              -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
              The  option  -relaxed-filenames  allows  ISO-9660  filenames  to
              include  digits, upper case characters and all other 7 bit ASCII
              characters (resp. anything except lowercase characters).
              This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
              Moves  all  files and directories into dir in the image. This is
              essentially the same as using -graft-points and  adding  dir  in
              front of every pathspec, but is easier to use.

              dir  may actually be several levels deep. It is created with the
              same permissions as other graft points.

       -rrip110
              Create ISO-9660 file system images that follow the old Rrip Ver-
              sion-1.10  standard  from 1993. This option may be needed if you
              know of systems that do not implement  the  Rrip  protocol  cor-
              rectly  and  like  the  file system to be read by such a system.
              Currently no such system is known.

              If a file system has been created with -rrip110, the Rock  Ridge
              attributes do not include inode number information.

       -rrip112
              Create ISO-9660 file system images that follow the new Rrip Ver-
              sion-1.12 standard from 1994, this is the default.

       -old-root dir
              This option is necessary when writing a multisession  image  and
              the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
              Using a directory name not found in the previous session  causes
              mkisofs to abort with an error.

              Without  this  option, mkisofs would not be able to find unmodi-
              fied files and would be forced to  write  their  data  into  the
              image once more.

              -root  and  -old-root are meant to be used together to do incre-
              mental backups.  The initial session  would  e.g.  use:  mkisofs
              -root  backup_1  dirs.  The next incremental backup with mkisofs
              -root backup_2 -old-root  backup_1  dirs.   would  take  another
              snapshot of these directories. The first snapshot would be found
              in backup_1, the second one in backup_2, but  only  modified  or
              new files need to be written into the second session.

              Without  these  options,  new  files would be added and old ones
              would be preserved. But old ones would  be  overwritten  if  the
              file  was  modified.  Recovering  the files by copying the whole
              directory back from  CD  would  also  restore  files  that  were
              deleted  intentionally.  Accessing  several  older versions of a
              file requires support by the operating system  to  choose  which
              sessions are to be mounted.

       -short-rr-time
              Use the short ISO-9660 time format for the file time stamps used
              in Rock Ridge.  This time format allows to represent  year  1990
              .. year 2155 with a granularity of one second.

       -s sector type

       -sectype sector type
              Set  the  sector  type  to  be used for the output file with the
              ISO-9660 filesystem.  The sector type may be one of:

              data   This is the default. It results in standard  CD-ROM  data
                     sectors with 2048 bytes per sector.

              xa1    This  sets  the sector type to CD-ROM XA mode 1 with 2056
                     bytes per sector.  This sector type is the official  sec-
                     tor  type  for  multi-session  CDs,  it  should  be  used
                     together with the -XA option of mkisofs.  It is  required
                     to  write Kodak Photo CDs and Kodak Picture CDs.  Use the
                     -xa1 option from cdrecord to tell cdrecord to  write  CD-
                     ROM  XA  mode  1  sectors.   Do not use for DVD or BluRay
                     media.

              raw    This sets the sector type to raw audio sectors with  2352
                     bytes  per  sector.  This is reserved for future enhance-
                     ments.  Do not use for DVD or BluRay media.

       -sort sort file
              Sort file locations on the media. Sorting  is  controlled  by  a
              file that contains pairs of filenames and sorting offset weight-
              ing.  If the weighting is  higher,  the  file  will  be  located
              closer to the beginning of the media, if the weighting is lower,
              the file will be located closer to the end of the  media.  There
              must  be  only  one space or tabs character between the filename
              and the weight and the weight must be the last characters  on  a
              line. The filename is taken to include all the characters up to,
              but not including the last space or tab  character  on  a  line.
              This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the end of
              a filename.  This option does not sort the  order  of  the  file
              names  that appear in the ISO-9660 directory. It sorts the order
              in which the file data is written to the CD image - which may be
              useful  in  order  to  optimize  the  data  layout  on a CD. See
              README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              See -B option above.

       -sparc-label label
              Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that is  cre-
              ated with the -sparc-boot option.

       -split-output
              Split the output image into several files of approximately 1 GB.
              This helps to create DVD sized ISO-9660 images on operating sys-
              tems without large file support.  Cdrecord will concatenate more
              than one file into a single track if writing to a DVD.  To  make
              -split-output  work,  the  -o filename option must be specified.
              The resulting output images  will  be  named:  filename_00,file-
              name_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
              Select  streaming operation and set the media size to # sectors.
              This allows you to pipe the  output  of  the  tar  program  into
              mkisofs  and to create a ISO-9660 filesystem without the need of
              an intermediate tar archive file.  If this option has been spec-
              ified, mkisofs reads from stdin and creates a file with the name
              STREAM.IMG.  The maximum size of the file (with padding) is  200
              sectors  less than the specified media size. If -no-pad has been
              specified, the file size is 50 sectors less than  the  specified
              media  size.   If  the  file is smaller, then mkisofs will write
              padding. This may take a while.

              The option -stream-media-size creates simple  ISO-9660  filesys-
              tems only and may not used together with multi-session or hybrid
              filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
              Set the file name used with -stream-media-size # to a value dif-
              ferent  from STREAM.IMG.  If this option is used, the filesystem
              is created as if -iso-level 4 has been specified.

       -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
              Specifies a comma separated list of filesystem images  that  are
              needed to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

              Note  that  partition  1 is used for the ISO-9660 image and that
              partition 2 is the whole disk, so partition 1 and 2 may  not  be
              used by external partition data.  The first image file is mapped
              to partition 0.  There may be empty fields in  the  comma  sepa-
              rated  list,  and  list  entries  for  partition 1 and 2 must be
              empty.   The  maximum  number  of  supported  partitions  is   8
              (although the Solaris x86 partition table could support up to 16
              partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than  6  parti-
              tion  images.  This option is required to make a bootable CD for
              Solaris x86 systems.

              If the -sunx86-boot option has been specified, the first  sector
              of  the  resulting  image  will  contain a PC fdisk label with a
              Solaris type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at offset 512  and
              spans  the  whole  CD.   In  addition, for the Solaris type 0x82
              fdisk partition, there is a SVr4 disk label at  offset  1024  in
              the  first  sector of the CD.  This disk label specifies slice 0
              for the first (usually UFS type) filesystem image that  is  used
              to  boot  the  PC  and  slice 1 for the ISO-9660 image.  Slice 2
              spans the whole CD slice 3 ... slice 7 may  be  used  for  addi-
              tional  filesystem  images  that  have  been specified with this
              option.

              A Solaris x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary  boot  that
              uses  the  El-Torito  no-emulation  boot  mode  and  a secondary
              generic boot that is in CD sectors 1..15.  For this reason, both
              -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must be specified.

       -sunx86-label label
              Set  the  SVr4  disk  label name for the SVr4 disk label that is
              created with the -sunx86-boot option.

       -sysid ID
              Specifies the system ID.  There is space  on  the  disc  for  32
              characters  of  information.   This parameter can also be set in
              the file .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.  If specified  in  both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -T

       -translation-table
              Generate  a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM, which
              can be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to help  establish
              the  correct  file  names.  There is also information present in
              the file that indicates the major and minor  numbers  for  block
              and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link
              file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
              Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the
              -T  option.   If you are creating a multi-session image you must
              use the same name as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
              Set Unicode conformance level in the  Joliet  SVD.  The  default
              level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -UDF   Include  a  UDF  hybrid  in  the generated filesystem image.  As
              mkisofs always creates a ISO-9660 filesystem, it is not possible
              to  create UDF only images.  Note that UDF wastes the space from
              sector ~20 to sector 256 at the beginning of the disk  in  addi-
              tion to the space needed for real UDF data structures.

       -udf   Rationalized  UDF  with user and group set to 0 and with simpli-
              fied permissions.  See -r option for more information.

       -udf-symlinks
              Support symlinks in UDF filesystems. This is the default.

       -no-udf-symlinks
              Do not support symlinks in UDF filesystems.

       -uid uid
              Overrides the uid read from the source files  to  the  value  of
              uid.   Specifying  this  option automatically enables Rock Ridge
              extensions.

       -use-fileversion
              The option -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use  file  version
              numbers  from  the  filesystem.  If the option is not specified,
              mkisofs creates a version number of 1 for all files.  File  ver-
              sions  are  strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This option is the
              default on VMS.

       -U

       -untranslated-filenames
              Allows  "Untranslated"  filenames,  completely   violating   the
              ISO-9660  standards  described  above. Forces on the -d, -l, -N,
              -allow-leading-dots,    -relaxed-filenames,    -allow-lowercase,
              -allow-multidot and -no-iso-translate flags. It allows more than
              one '.' character in the filename, as well as mixed  case  file-
              names.   This is useful on HP-UX system, where the built-in CDFS
              filesystem does not recognize ANY extensions. Use  with  extreme
              caution.

       -no-iso-translate
              Do  not  translate  the characters '#' and '~' which are invalid
              for ISO-9660 filenames.  These  characters  are  though  invalid
              often used by Microsoft systems.
              This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
              Specifies the volume ID (volume name or  label)  to  be  written
              into  the master block.  There is space on the disc for 32 char-
              acters of information.  This parameter can also be  set  in  the
              file  .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.  If specified in both places, the
              command line version is used.  Note that if you assign a  volume
              ID,  this  is the name that will be used as the mount point used
              by the Solaris volume management system and  the  name  that  is
              assigned to the disc on a Microsoft Win32 or Apple Mac platform.

       -volset ID
              Specifies  the  volset  ID.   There is space on the disc for 128
              characters of information.  The related Joliet entry is  limited
              to  64  characters.   This parameter can also be set in the file
              .mkisofsrc with VOLS=volset_id.  If specified  in  both  places,
              the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
              Sets  the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the num-
              ber of CD's that are in a CD volume set.  A volume set is a col-
              lection  of  one  or  more  volumes,  on which a set of files is
              recorded.

              Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create a set numbered
              CD's  that  are part of e.g. a Operation System installation set
              of CD's.  Volume Sets are rather used to record a big  directory
              tree  that  would  not fit on a single volume.  Each volume of a
              Volume Set contains a description of  all  the  directories  and
              files  that  are recorded on the volumes where the sequence num-
              bers are less than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of
              the current volume.

              Mkisofs currently does not support a -volset-size that is larger
              than 1.

              The option -volset-size must be specified  before  -volset-seqno
              on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
              Sets  the  volume  set  sequence  number  to  #.  The volume set
              sequence number is the index number of the current CD  in  a  CD
              set.    The   option   -volset-size  must  be  specified  before
              -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v

       -verbose
              Verbose execution. If given twice on  the  command  line,  extra
              debug information will be printed.

       -x path
              Exclude path from being written to CDROM.  path must be the com-
              plete pathname that  results  from  concatenating  the  pathname
              given  as  command  line  argument and the path relative to this
              directory.  Multiple paths may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

              NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
              they  are wrong.  Both now work identical and use filename glob-
              bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
              the whole path matches.

       -XA    Generate  XA  iso-directory  attributes  with original owner and
              mode information.  This option is required to create  conforming
              multi  session  CDs  as used by the Kodak Photo CD and the Kodak
              Picture CD.  A conforming XA CD uses CD-ROM XA mode  1  sectors,
              see the -sector xa2 option for more information.

       -xa    Generate XA iso-directory attributes with rationalized owner and
              mode information.  User ID and group ID are set to 0.   See  -XA
              for more information.

       -z     Generate  special  RRIP  records  for  transparently  compressed
              files.  This is only of use and interest for hosts that  support
              transparent  decompression,  such as Linux 2.4.14 or later.  You
              must specify the -R or -r options to enable RockRidge, and  gen-
              erate compressed files using the mkzftree utility before running
              mkisofs.  Note that transparent  compression  is  a  nonstandard
              Rock  Ridge  extension.   The resulting disks are only transpar-
              ently readable if used on Linux.  On other operating systems you
              will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.


HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create  an ISO-9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in
              conjunction with the -map, -magic and/or the various double dash
              options given below.

       -no-hfs
              Do  not  create  an  ISO-9660/HFS  hybrid  CD  even though other
              options may imply to do so.

       -apple Create an ISO-9660 CD with Apple's extensions.  Similar  to  the
              -hfs  option,  except  that the Apple Extensions to ISO-9660 are
              added instead of creating an HFS hybrid volume.  Former  mkisofs
              versions  did include Rock Ridge attributes by default if -apple
              was specified. This versions of mkisofs does not  do  this  any-
              more.  If  you  like  to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need to
              specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
              Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
              a  file  based on the filename's extension. A filename is mapped
              only if it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file  formats.  See
              the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
              The  CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's magic
              number (usually the first few bytes of a file).  The  magic_file
              is  only  used if a file is not one of the known Apple/Unix file
              formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using the
              -map  option.  See  the  HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more
              details.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
              Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
              ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
              Set  the  default  TYPE for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
              ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search the contents of files for all the known  Apple/Unix  file
              formats.   See  the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for
              more about these formats.  However, the only way  to  check  for
              MacBinary and AppleSingle files is to open and read them. There-
              fore this option may increase processing time. It is  better  to
              use  one  or  more  double  dash  options  given  below  if  the
              Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
              Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files  will
              be created when the CD is used on a Macintosh (and stored in the
              System Folder).  By default, empty Desktop files  are  added  to
              the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
              Use  the  HFS  filename  as the starting point for the ISO-9660,
              Joliet and Rock Ridge file names. See  the  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
              NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
              Installs the driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Mac-
              intosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate an HFS partition table. By default, no partition  table
              is generated, but some older Macintosh CDROM drivers need an HFS
              partition table on the CDROM to be able to  recognize  a  hybrid
              CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
              Make  the  HFS  CD  use  the  QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature to
              launch an application or document. The given  filename  must  be
              the  name  of a document or application located at the top level
              of the CD.  The  filename  must  be  less  than  12  characters.
              (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
              Set  the  size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units of PC
              Exchange files. Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS  MAC-
              INTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
              Hide  glob from the HFS volume. The file or directory will still
              exist in the ISO-9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob is a  shell
              wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename
              Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

              would exclude all files ending in ".o" or called  "foobar"  from
              the HFS volume. Note that if you had a directory called "foobar"
              it too (and of course all its descendants)  would  be  excluded.
              The glob can also be a path name relative to the source directo-
              ries given on the command line. Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

              would exclude just the file or directory called "html" from  the
              "src"  directory.  Any  other file or directory called "html" in
              the tree will not be excluded.  Should be used  with  the  -hide
              and/or  -hide-joliet  options.   In  order  to match a directory
              name, make sure the pathname does not  include  a  trailing  '/'
              character. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
              Volume  name  for  the  HFS  partition. This is the name that is
              assigned to the disc on a Macintosh and replaces the volid  used
              with the -V option

       -icon-position
              Use  the  icon  position  information,  if  it  exists, from the
              Apple/Unix file.  The icons will appear in the same position  as
              they  would  on a Macintosh desktop. Folder location and size on
              screen, its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons,  Small
              Icons,  etc.) are also preserved.  This option may become set by
              default in the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
              Set the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder  View
              etc.  for  the root folder of an HFS volume. See README.rootinfo
              for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
              PReP boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See  README.prep_boot
              (Alpha)

       -chrp-t
              Create a CHRP boot in boot partition 1.  See -prep-boot for fur-
              ther information.

       -input-hfs-charset charset
              Input charset that defines the characters used in HFS file names
              when  used  with  the  -mac-name option.  The default charset is
              cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman) See CHARACTER  SETS  and
              HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
              Output  charset that defines the characters that will be used in
              the HFS file names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHARACTER
              SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
              By  default,  mkisofs  will create an HFS volume that is locked.
              This option leaves the volume unlocked so  that  other  applica-
              tions  (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify the volume. See the HFS PROB-
              LEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for  warnings  about  using  this
              option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
              "Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System
              Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the
              directory  must  be the whole path name as mkisofs sees it. e.g.
              if the given pathspec is ./cddata and  the  required  folder  is
              called System Folder, then the whole path name is "./cddata/Sys-
              tem Folder" (remember to use quotes if the  name  contains  spa-
              ces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
              Override  certain parameters used to create the HFS file system.
              Unlikely to be  used  in  normal  circumstances.  See  the  lib-
              hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look  for  AUFS  CAP  Macintosh files. Search for CAP Apple/Unix
              file formats only. Searching for the other  possible  Apple/Unix
              file  formats  is disabled, unless other double dash options are
              given.

       --netatalk
              Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
              Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
              Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
              Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
              Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
              Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
              Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
              Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services  for  Macintosh  files  (NT  only)
              (Alpha)

       --osx-double
              Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
              Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files


CHARACTER SETS
       mkisofs  processes  file  names  in a POSIX compliant way as strings of
       8-bit characters.  To represent all codings for  all  languages,  8-bit
       characters  are  not  sufficient. Unicode or ISO-10646 define character
       codings that need at least 21 bits to represent  all  known  languages.
       They  may  be  represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.  UTF-32
       uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UCS-2 is used  by
       Microsoft with Win32.  This coding is similar to UTF-16 with the disad-
       vantage that it only supports a 16 bit subset (except  when  surrogates
       are  used)  of  all  codes and that 16-bit characters are not compliant
       with the POSIX filesystem interface.

       Modern UNIX operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames.  This
       coding  allows to use the complete Unicode code set.  Each 32-bit char-
       acter is represented by one or more 8-bit characters.  If  a  character
       is  coded  in  ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and North America) it
       maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.  If a character
       is  coded  in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other countries with limited
       character set) it maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8  coded  Unicode
       character.  Character codes that cannot be represented as a single byte
       in UTF-8 (typically if the value is > 0x7F) use escape  sequences  that
       map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If all operating systems would use UTF-8 coding, mkisofs would not need
       to recode characters in file names.   Unfortunately,  Apple  uses  com-
       pletely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a Unicode coding that is
       not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For all non UTF-8 coded operating systems, the  actual  character  that
       each  byte  represents, depends on the character set or codepage (which
       is the name used by Microsoft) used by the local  operating  system  in
       use - the characters in a character set will reflect the region or nat-
       ural language used by the user.

       Usually  character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,   codes
       0x20-0x7f  are  the  7  bit  ASCII  characters  and (on PC's and Mac's)
       0x80-0xff are used for other characters.  Unfortunately even this  does
       not  follow  ISO standards that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f for control
       characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small
       subset are represented in a character set. Therefore the same character
       code may represent a different character in different  character  sets.
       So  a  file  name generated, say in central Europe, may not display the
       same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use  dif-
       ferent character sets for the region or language. For example the char-
       acter code for "small e with acute accent" may be character  code  0x82
       on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system.  Note
       while the codings used on a PC or Mac are  nonstandard,  Unicode  codes
       this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically the same value as the
       value used by most UNIX systems.

       As long as not all operating systems and applications will use the Uni-
       code  character set as the basis for file names in a unique way, it may
       be necessary to specify which character set your file names use in  and
       which character set the file names should appear on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
              Defines  the  local  character  set  you  are using on your host
              machine.  Any character set conversions that take place will use
              this character set as the staring point. The default input char-
              acter sets are cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1  on  all
              other systems.

              If  the  -J option is given, then the Unicode equivalents of the
              input character set will be used in the Joliet directory.  Using
              the -jcharset option is the same as using the -input-charset and
              -J options.

       -output-charset
              Defines the character set that will be used with  for  the  Rock
              Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only
              likely to be useful if used on a non-Unix platform.  e.g.  using
              mkisofs  on  a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock Ridge CDs.
              If you are using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it  is  likely  that
              the output character set will be the same as the input character
              set.

       -input-hfs-charset
              Defines the HFS character set used for HFS  file  names  decoded
              from  any  of  the  various Apple/Unix file formats. Only useful
              when used with -mac-name option.  See  the  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
              NAMES for more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
              Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS file names from
              the input character set in use. In most cases this will be  from
              the character set given with the -input-charset option. Defaults
              to the input HFS character set.

       The default character set is built into mkisofs.  A number  of  further
       character sets are read in from the filesystem by mkisofs from a direc-
       tory relatively to the install path.  To get  a  listing,  use  mkisofs
       -input-charset help.

       Additional  character  sets  from iconv(1) may be used on systems, that
       support iconv(1).  In this case, call iconv -l to get a list  of  valid
       character  sets  from  this  coding method.  To force an iconv(1) based
       coding, use iconv:name instead of name for the character set.

       If using non iconv(1) based character sets, additional  character  sets
       can  be read from file for any of the character set options by giving a
       filename as the argument to the options. A given character set will  be
       read from a file whenever the supplied name contains a '/'.

       The  format of the character set files is the same as the mapping files
       available from  http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS  The  format  of
       these files is:

            Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
            Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
            Rest of the line is ignored.

       Any  blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format
       or comments lines (starting with the # character) are  ignored  without
       any  warnings.  Any  missing  input code is mapped to Unicode character
       0x0000.

       Note that there is no support for 16 bit UNICODE  (UTF-16)  or  32  bit
       UNICODE  (UTF-32)  coding  because  this coding is not POSIX compliant.
       There should be support for UTF-8 UNICODE coding which is compatible to
       POSIX  filenames  and  supported  by moder UNIX implementations such as
       Solaris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
       as the argument to any of the character set options. This is the behav-
       iour of older (v1.12) versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO-9660 file names generated from the input filenames are not con-
       verted  from  the  input character set. The ISO-9660 character set is a
       very limited subset of the ASCII characters, so any conversion would be
       pointless.

       Any  character that mkisofs can not convert will be replaced with a '_'
       character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A Macintosh file has two properties associated  with  it  which  define
       which  application created the file, the CREATOR and what data the file
       contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually  this
       allows  a  Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch the cor-
       rect application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can  be
       found by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The  CREATOR  and  TYPE  information  is  stored  in  all  the  various
       Apple/Unix encoded files.  For other files it is possible to  base  the
       CREATOR  and TYPE on the filename's extension using a mapping file (the
       -map option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in  the
       first  few  bytes) of a file (the -magic option). If both these options
       are given, then their order on the command line is  important.  If  the
       -map  option  is  given  first,  then  a  filename  extension  match is
       attempted before a magic number match. However, if the -magic option is
       given  first,  then a magic number match is attempted before a filename
       extension match.

       If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found  then  the
       default  CREATOR  and  TYPE  for  all regular files can be set by using
       entries in  the  .mkisofsrc  file  or  using  the  -hfs-creator  and/or
       -hfs-type  options,  otherwise  the default CREATOR and TYPE are 'unix'
       and 'TEXT'.

       The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format  as  used  by
       aufs.   This file has five columns for the extension, file translation,
       CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.  Lines starting with the '#'  character  are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN   XLate   CREATOR   TYPE     Comment
       .tif     Raw     '8BIM'    'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx     Ascii   'BnHq'    'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc     Raw     'MSWD'    'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov     Raw     'TVOD'    'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *        Ascii   'ttxt'    'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

              The  first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be
              mapped. The default mapping  for  any  filename  extension  that
              doesn't match is defined with the "*" character.

              The  Xlate  column  defines the type of text translation between
              the Unix and Macintosh file it is ignored  by  mkisofs,  but  is
              kept  to  be compatible with aufs(1).  Although mkisofs does not
              alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has its TYPE  set
              as  'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore
              a better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

              The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must  be  4  characters  long  and
              enclosed in single quotes.

              The  comment  field is enclosed in double quotes - it is ignored
              by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The format of the magic file is almost identical to the  magic(5)  file
       used by the Linux file(1) command - the routines for reading and decod-
       ing the magic file are based on the Linux file(1) command.

       This file has four tab separated columns for  the  byte  offset,  type,
       test  and  message.   Lines starting with the '#' character are comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type      test       message
       0       string    GIF8       8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort   0xffd8     8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string    SIT!       SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string    \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard unix compress
       0       string    \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string    %!         ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string    \004%!     ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string    moov       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string    mdat       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in the magic(5) man page. The  only
       difference  here  is that for each entry in the magic file, the message
       for the initial offset must be 4 characters for the CREATOR followed by
       4  characters  for the TYPE - white space is optional between them. Any
       other characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines  (start-
       ing with a '>') are also ignored i.e. only the initial offset lines are
       used.

       Using the -magic option may significantly increase processing  time  as
       each file has to opened and read to find its magic number.

       In  summary,  for  all  files,  the  default  CREATOR is 'unix' and the
       default TYPE is 'TEXT'.  These can be changed by using entries  in  the
       .mkisofsrc file or by using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options.

       If the a file is in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the format
       has been selected), then the CREATOR and TYPE are taken from the values
       stored in the Apple/Unix file.

       Other  files  can  have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their file name
       extension (the -map option), or their magic number (the -magic option).
       If  the  default  match  is used in the mapping file, then these values
       override the default CREATOR and TYPE.

       A    full     CREATOR/TYPE     database     can     be     found     at
       http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html


HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh  files  have  two  parts  called  the Data and Resource fork.
       Either may be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files
       having  one part (or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have a num-
       ber of attributes associated with them - probably  the  most  important
       are  the  TYPE and CREATOR. Again Unix has no concept of these types of
       attributes.

       e.g. a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored  in
       the  Data  fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource fork. It
       is usually the information in the data fork that is useful across plat-
       forms.

       Therefore  to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has to
       be found to cope with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
       referred  to  as  the finder info).  Unfortunately, it seems that every
       software package that stores Macintosh files on Unix has chosen a  com-
       pletely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
              Data  fork  stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork in subdirectory
              .resource with same filename as data fork. Finder info in .find-
              erinfo subdirectory with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
              Data  fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with
              same name prefixed with "%". Finder info also stored in same "%"
              file. Netatalk uses the same format, but the resource fork/find-
              erinfo stored in subdirectory .AppleDouble  with  same  name  as
              data fork.

       AppleSingle
              Data  structures  similar to above, except both forks and finder
              info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
              Data fork stored in  a  file.  Resource  fork  and  finder  info
              together in subdirectory .rsrc with same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
              Very  similar  to  the EtherShare format, but the finder info is
              stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
              Both forks and finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
              Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files  on  DOS  (FAT)  disks.
              Data  fork  stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork in subdirectory
              resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info  as  one  record  in
              file  finder.dat  (or  FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat for each
              data fork directory.

              Note: mkisofs needs to know the native FAT cluster size  of  the
              disk  that  the  PC  Exchange  files are on (or have been copied
              from). This size is given  by  the  -cluster-size  option.   The
              cluster or allocation size can be found by using the DOS utility
              CHKDSK.

              May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or  higher  files  (available
              with  MacOS 8.1).  DOS media containing PC Exchange files should
              be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
              Used by SGI machines when they mount HFS disks. Data fork stored
              in  a  file. Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same
              name. Finder info as one record in file  .HSancillary.  Separate
              .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
              Allows  Macintoshes  to  store Apple files on SMB servers.  Data
              fork  stored  in  a  file.   Resource   fork   in   subdirectory
              resource.frk.  Uses  the  AppleDouble  format  to store resource
              fork.

       Services for Macintosh
              Format of files stored by NT Servers on NTFS  filesystems.  Data
              fork  is  stored  as  "filename". Resource fork stored as a NTFS
              stream called "filename:AFP_Resource". The finder info is stored
              as  a  NTFS  stream called "filename:Afp_AfpInfo". These streams
              are normally invisible to the user.

              Warning: mkisofs only partially supports the SFM format.  If  an
              HFS  file  or folder stored on the NT server contains an illegal
              NT character in its name, then NT converts these  characters  to
              Private  Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * / < > ?
               | also a space or period if it is the  last  character  of  the
              file name, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
              Apple' apple logo.

              Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
              by  the  mkisofs  NT executable. Therefore any file or directory
              name containing these characters will be ignored - including the
              contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
              When  HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS X on to a non-
              HFS file system (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files  are  stored  in
              AppleDouble  format.   Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
              stored in a file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder  info
              also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
              Not  really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on
              a MacOS X system. Data fork stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork
              stored  in  a  pseudo  file  with  the same name with the suffix
              '/rsrc'. The finderinfo is only available via a MacOS X  library
              call.

              Notes: (also see README.macosx)

              Only works when used on MacOS X.

              If  a  file  is found with a zero length resource fork and empty
              finderinfo, it is assumed not to have any Apple/Unix encoding  -
              therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       mkisofs  will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly other
       flags from the finder info. Additionally, if it exists,  the  Macintosh
       filename  is  set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh name is
       based on the Unix filename - see the HFS MACINTOSH FILE  NAMES  section
       below.

       When  using  the  -apple option, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored in the
       optional System Use or SUSP field in the ISO-9660 Directory Record - in
       much  the  same  way  as the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make
       life easy, the Apple extensions are  added  at  the  beginning  of  the
       existing  Rock  Ridge  attributes (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you
       get the Rock Ridge extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the resource  fork  to  be  stored  as  an
       ISO-9660  associated  file. This is just like any normal file stored in
       the ISO-9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is set  in
       the  Directory  Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data
       fork (the file seen by non-Apple machines). Associated files  are  nor-
       mally ignored by other OSs

       When  using  the  -hfs  option,  the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder
       info, are stored in a  separate  HFS  directory,  not  visible  on  the
       ISO-9660  volume.  The  HFS  directory  references  the  same  data and
       resource fork files described above.

       In most cases, it is better to use  the  -hfs  option  instead  of  the
       -apple  option,  as  the latter imposes the limited ISO-9660 characters
       allowed in filenames. However, the Apple extensions do give the  advan-
       tage  that the files are packed on the disk more efficiently and it may
       be possible to fit more files on a CD - important when the  total  size
       of the source files is approaching 650MB.


HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file
       is used for the HFS part of the CD. However,  not  all  the  Apple/Unix
       encodings  store  the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases,
       the Unix filename is used - with escaped  special  characters.  Special
       characters include '/' and characters with codes over 127.

       Aufs  escapes  these  characters by using ":" followed by the character
       code as two hex digits. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar  scheme,
       but uses "%" instead of a ":".

       If mkisofs can't find an HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with
       any %xx or :xx characters (xx == two hex digits) converted to a  single
       character code. If "xx" are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are
       left alone - although any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon is
       the  HFS  directory  separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix
       file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a unique name by
       adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as
       the  starting  point  for the ISO-9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames
       using the -mac-name option. Normal Unix files without an HFS name  will
       still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If  a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on
       the Unix filesystem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then
       this  is the name that would appear on the HFS part of the CD. However,
       as mkisofs uses the Unix name as  the  starting  point  for  the  other
       names,  then  the ISO-9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN
       and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would  be  someimage.gif.bin.   Although  the
       actual data (in this case) is a GIF image. This option will use the HFS
       filename as the starting point and the ISO-9660 name will  probably  be
       SOMEIMAG.GIF and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL  file,  not  the  Macintosh
       name.

       The  character  set  used to convert any HFS file name to a Joliet/Rock
       Ridge file name defaults to cp10000 (Mac  Roman).   The  character  set
       used  can be specified using the -input-hfs-charset option. Other built
       in HFS character sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek),  cp10007  (MacCyrillic),
       cp10029 (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandic) and cp10081 (MacTurkish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS file names taken from the various
       Apple/Unix formats will not be converted as they are assumed to  be  in
       the  correct  Apple  character  set.  Only  the Joliet/Rock Ridge names
       derived from the HFS file names will be converted.

       The existing mkisofs code will filter out any  illegal  characters  for
       the ISO-9660 and Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be dealing
       directly with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names as is.  But as
       '/'  is  a  legal HFS filename character, the -mac-name option converts
       '/' to a '_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO-9660 filenames will
       appear on the Macintosh. However, as the Macintosh ISO-9660 drivers can
       use Level 2 filenames, then you can use  options  like  -allow-multidot
       without  problems  on a Macintosh - still take care over the names, for
       example this.file.name will be converted to THIS.FILE  i.e.  only  have
       one  '.', also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi
       will be seen as ABCDEFGHI.  i.e. with a '.' at the end - don't know  if
       this  is a Macintosh problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid problem. All filenames
       will be in upper case when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
       machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...


HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To  give  a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top level) folder
       includes a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume a cus-
       tom  icon  on  a  Macintosh, an icon has to be pasted over the volume's
       icon in the "Get Info" box of the volume.  This  creates  an  invisible
       file  called  'Icon\r' ('\r' is the 'carriage return' character) in the
       root folder.

       A custom folder icon  is  very  similar  -  an  invisible  file  called
       'Icon\r' exits in the folder itself.

       Probably  the easiest way to create a custom icon that mkisofs can use,
       is to format a blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac, paste  an  icon  to  its
       "Get Info" box. If using Linux with the HFS module installed, mount the
       floppy using something like:

                  mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The floppy will be mounted as a CAP file system by  default.  Then  run
       mkisofs using something like:

                  mkisofs --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If  you  are not using Linux, then you can use the hfsutils to copy the
       icon file from the floppy. However, care has to be taken, as  the  icon
       file contains a control character. e.g.

                  hmount /dev/fd0
                  hdir -a
                  hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where  '^V^M'  is  control-V followed by control-M. Then run mkisofs by
       using something like:

                  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar  -
       paste  an  icon  to  folder's "Get Info" box and transfer the resulting
       'Icon\r' file to the relevant directory in the mkisofs source tree.

       You may want to hide the icon files from the ISO-9660 and Joliet trees.

       To give a custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found at:
       http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]


HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A  bootable  HFS  CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a
       bootable HFS partition and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

       A driver can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
       the  apple_driver  utility.  This  file  can  then  be  used  with  the
       -boot-hfs-file option.

       The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in our  case)  must  contain  a
       suitable System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For  a  partition  to be bootable, it must have its boot block set. The
       boot block is in the first two  blocks  of  a  partition.  For  a  non-
       bootable  partition  the  boot block is full of zeros. Normally, when a
       System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot  block
       is  filled  with  a number of required settings - unfortunately I don't
       know the full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the follow-
       ing will work OK.

       Therefore,  the  utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block from
       the first HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this  is  used
       for the HFS partition created by mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
              By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple software to
              your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software
              License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When the -boot-info-table option is given, mkisofs will modify the boot
       file specified by the -b option by inserting a 56-byte  "boot  informa-
       tion  table" at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is done in the
       source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this file is not eas-
       ily  recreated!  This file contains pointers which may not be easily or
       reliably obtained at boot time.

       The format of this table is as follows; all  integers  are  in  section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

         Offset    Name           Size      Meaning
          8        bi_pvd         4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
         12        bi_file        4 bytes   LBA of boot file
         16        bi_length      4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
         20        bi_csum        4 bytes   32-bit checksum
         24        bi_reserved    40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the boot file
       starting at byte offset 64.  All  linear  block  addresses  (LBAs)  are
       given in CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

CONFIGURATION
       mkisofs  looks  for  the  .mkisofsrc file, first in the current working
       directory, then in the user's home directory, and then in the directory
       in which the mkisofs binary is stored.  This file is assumed to contain
       a series of lines of the form TAG=value , and in this way you can spec-
       ify  certain  options.   The  case of the tag is not significant.  Some
       fields in the volume header are not settable on the command  line,  but
       can  be  altered through this facility.  Comments may be placed in this
       file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The application identifier should describe the application  that
              will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
              ters of information.  The related Joliet entry is limited to  64
              characters.  May be overridden using the -A command line option.

       COPY   The  copyright information, often the name of a file on the disc
              containing the copyright notice.  There is space in the disc for
              37  characters of information.  The related Joliet entry is lim-
              ited to 18 characters.  May be overridden using  the  -copyright
              command line option.

       ABST   The  abstract  information, often the name of a file on the disc
              containing an abstract.  There is space in the disc for 37 char-
              acters  of  information.  The related Joliet entry is limited to
              18 characters.  May be overridden using  the  -abstract  command
              line option.

       BIBL   The  bibliographic  information, often the name of a file on the
              disc containing a bibliography.  There is space in the disc  for
              37  characters of information.  The related Joliet entry is lim-
              ited to 18 characters.  May be overridden using the -bilio  com-
              mand line option.

       PREP   This  should  describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually with a
              mailing address and phone number.  There is space  on  the  disc
              for  128 characters of information.  The related Joliet entry is
              limited to 64 characters.  May be overridden using the  -p  com-
              mand line option.

       PUBL   This  should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a
              mailing address and phone number.  There is space  on  the  disc
              for  128 characters of information.  The related Joliet entry is
              limited to 64 characters.  May be  overridden  using  the  -pub-
              lisher command line option.

       SYSI   The  System Identifier.  There is space on the disc for 32 char-
              acters of information.  May be overridden using the -sysid  com-
              mand line option.

       VOLI   The  Volume Identifier.  There is space on the disc for 32 char-
              acters of information.  May be overridden using the  -V  command
              line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
              ters of information.  The related Joliet entry is limited to  64
              characters.   May  be  overridden using the -volset command line
              option.

       HFS_TYPE
              The default TYPE for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4  charac-
              ters.   May  be  overridden  using  the  -hfs-type  command line
              option.

       HFS_CREATOR
              The default CREATOR for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 char-
              acters.   May  be overridden using the -hfs-creator command line
              option.

       mkisofs can also be configured at compile time with defaults  for  many
       of these fields.  See the file defaults.h.


EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in the file cd.iso, where
       the directory cd_dir will become the  root  directory  of  the  CD  ISO
       image, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with  Rock  Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock  Ridge  extensions  of  the  source  directory
       cd_dir  where all files have at least read permission and all files are
       owned by root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To write a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a  sim-
       ple ISO-9660 filesystem with the tar archive call:

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size 333000 | \
               cdrecord dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To  create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of
       the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory  cd_dir  that  con-
       tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To  create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all
       files CREATOR and TYPES based on just their filename extensions  listed
       in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To create a CD with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO-9660', from the source
       directories cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known  Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other files are given CREATOR and TYPE based
       on their magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
               cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have  the
       name  README, but have different contents when seen as a ISO-9660/Rock-
       Ridge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The following command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on  the
       CD  along  with the three README files - but only one will be seen from
       each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
               -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
               -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix \
               -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
               README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
               README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD  and  the
       other  two  README  files  will be hidden. Similarly for the Joliet and
       ISO-9660/RockRidge CD.

       There are probably all sorts of strange results possible with  combina-
       tions of the hide options ...


AUTHOR
       Eric  Youngdale  <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or <eric@andante.org> wrote the
       first versions (1993 ... 1998) of the mkisofs utility.   The  copyright
       for old versions of the mkisofs utility is held by Yggdrasil Computing,
       Incorporated.  Joerg Schilling wrote the SCSI transport library and its
       adaptation layer to mkisofs and newer parts (starting from 1997) of the
       utility.  Joerg Schilling is the primary maintainer  since  1999,  this
       makes mkisofs Copyright (C) 1997-2014 Joerg Schilling.

       HFS hybrid code Copyright (C) James Pearson 1997 ... 2001.

       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie.

       libfile  code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991,
       1992, 1994, 1995.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Availability   | media/cdrtools   |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
       +---------------+------------------+
NOTES
       Mkisofs may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to  allow
       mkisofs  to  read  the  previous  session when creating a multi session
       image.

       mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix,  because  we
       must  generate  a  complete copy of an existing filesystem on a disk in
       the  ISO-9660 filesystem.  The name mkisofs is probably a bit of a mis-
       nomer,  since it not only creates the filesystem, but it also populates
       it as well.  However, the appropriate tool name for a  UNIX  tool  that
       creates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not well known.

       If  mkisofs  is  creating a filesystem image with Rock Ridge attributes
       and the directory nesting level of the source  directory  tree  is  too
       much  for  ISO-9660,  mkisofs  will do deep directory relocation.  This
       results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD.
       You  cannot  avoid this directory in the directory tree that is visible
       with ISO-9660 but it it automatically hidden in the Rock Ridge tree.

       The sparc boot support that is implemented with the -sparc-boot options
       completely  follows  the  official  Sparc CD boot requirements from the
       Boot prom in Sun Sparc systems. Some Linux distributions for Sparc sys-
       tems  use  a boot loader called SILO that unfortunately is not Sparc CD
       boot compliant.  It is annoyingly to see that the Authors of SILO don't
       fix  SILO  but instead provide a completely unneeded "patch" to mkisofs
       that incorporates far more source than the fix for SILO would need.

BUGS
       o      Does not properly read relocated  directories  in  multi-session
              mode when adding data.

              Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not
              include the deep directory.

              Repeat by: create first session with deep  directory  relocation
              then add new session with a single dir that differs from the old
              deep path.

       o      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session from TRANS.TBL

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.


HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I have had to make several assumptions on how  I  expect  the  modified
       libhfs  routines to work, however there may be situations that either I
       haven't thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail.  There-
       fore  I  can't guarantee that mkisofs will work as expected (although I
       haven't had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features  work  fine,
       however, some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although  HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters,
       the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and  "AbC"
       are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name,
       then mkisofs will attempt, where possible, to make  a  unique  name  by
       adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names that share the first 31 characters have _N' (N
       == decimal number) substituted for the last few characters to  generate
       unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see
       above for the method and syntax involved). It is not possible to use  a
       new name for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
       encoded file called "oldname" is to added to the CD, then you  can  not
       use the command line:

              mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs  will  be  unable  to  decode "oldname". However, you can graft
       Apple/Unix encoded files or directories as long as you do  not  attempt
       to give them new names as above.

       When  creating  an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M and -C,
       only files in the last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e.  mkisofs
       can not add existing files from previous sessions to the HFS volume.

       However,  if  each  session is created with the -part option, then each
       session will appear as separate volumes when mounted on a Mac. In  this
       case,  it  is worth using the -V or -hfs-volid option to give each ses-
       sion a unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will appear  on  the
       Desktop with the same name.

       Symbolic  links  (as with all other non-regular files) are not added to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid volumes may be larger than pure ISO-9660 volumes containing  the
       same data. In some cases (e.g. DVD sized volumes) the hybrid volume may
       be significantly larger. As an HFS volume  gets  bigger,  so  does  the
       allocation block size (the smallest amount of space a file can occupy).
       For a 650Mb CD, the allocation block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb DVD  it  will
       be about 70Kb.

       The  maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 - although
       the real limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a Unix machine by  using
       the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
       it is set as locked.  The option  -hfs-unlock  will  create  an  output
       image  that is unlocked - however no changes should be made to the con-
       tents of the volume (unless you really know what you are doing) as it's
       not a "real" HFS volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL  file,  not  the  Macintosh
       name.

       Although  mkisofs  does  not  alter the contents of a file, if a binary
       file has its TYPE set as 'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on a Macin-
       tosh. Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with Mac-
       OS 8.1).  DOS media containing PC Exchange files should be  mounted  as
       type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The  SFM  format  is  only partially supported - see HFS MACINTOSH FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or -generic-boot  options
       with the -boot-hfs-file the -prep-boot or -chrp-boot options.

       mkisofs  should  be able to create HFS hybrid images over 4Gb, although
       this has not been fully tested.


SEE ALSO
       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).


FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
       Some sort of gui interface.

AVAILABILITY
       mkisofs  is  available  as  part   of   the   cdrecord   package   from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

       hfsutils from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree  is  available  as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools  package  from
       ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/

MAILING LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the development  of  mkisofs,  you
       may join the developer mailing list via this URL:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers


MAINTAINER
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER
       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk


       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de

       If you definitely found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

INTERFACE STABILITY
       The  interfaces  provided by mkisofs are designed for long term stabil-
       ity.  As mkisofs depends on interfaces provided by the underlying oper-
       ating  system,  the  stability  of  the  interfaces  offered by mkisofs
       depends on the interface stability  of  the  OS  interfaces.   Modified
       interfaces in the OS may enforce modified interfaces in mkisofs.


       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source   was   downloaded  from   https://sourceforge.net/projects/cdr-
       tools/files/alpha/OLD/3.01aX/cdrtools-3.01a22.tar.gz/download

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://cdrecord.org/.



Version 3.0                       2014/01/19                        MKISOFS(8)