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man pages section 8: System Administration Commands

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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

ldapclient(8)

Name

ldapclient - initialize LDAP client machine or output an LDAP client profile in LDIF format

Synopsis

/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] init [-a profileName=profileName]
     [-a domainName=domain] [-a proxyDN=proxyDN]
     [-a proxyPassword=password]
     [-a authenticationMethod=authenticationMethod]
     [-a enableShadowUpdate=true | false]
     [-a adminDN=adminDN]
     [-a adminPassword=adminPassword]
     [-a certificatePath=path] [-d bindDN] [-w bindPassword]
     [-j passwdFile] [-y passwdFile]
     [-z adminrPasswdFile] LDAP_server[:port_number]
/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] manual [-a attrName=attrVal]
/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] mod [-a attrName=attrVal]
/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] list
/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] uninit
/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] genprofile -a profileName=profileName
     [-a attrName=attrVal]

Description

The ldapclient utility can be used to:

  • initialize LDAP client machines

  • restore the network service environment on LDAP clients

  • list the contents of the LDAP client cache in human readable format.

The init form of the ldapclient utility is used to initialize an LDAP client machine, using a profile stored on an LDAP server specified by LDAP_server. The LDAP client will use the attributes in the specified profile to determine the configuration of the LDAP client. Using a configuration profile allows for easy installation of LDAP client and propagation of configuration changes to LDAP clients. The ldap_cachemgr(8) utility will update the LDAP client configuration when its cache expires by reading the profile. For more information on the configuration profile refer to IETF document A Configuration Schema for LDAP Based Directory User Agents.

The manual form of the ldapclient utility is used to initialize an LDAP client machine manually. The LDAP client will use the attributes specified on the command line. Any unspecified attributes will be assigned their default values. At least one server must be specified in the defaultServerList or the preferredServerList attributes. The domainName attribute must be specified if the client's domainName is not set.

The mod form of the ldapclient utility is used to modify the configuration of an LDAP client machine that was setup manually. This option modifies only those LDAP client configuration attributes specified on the command line. The mod option should only be used on LDAP clients that were initialized using the manual option.

Regardless of which method is used for initialization, if a client is to be configured to use a proxy credentialLevel, proxy credentials must be provided using –a proxyDN=proxyDN and –a proxyPassword= proxyPassword options. However, if –a proxyPassword=proxyPassword is not specified, ldapclient will prompt for it. Note that NULL passwords are not allowed in LDAP. If a self credentialLevel is configured, authenticationMethod must be sasl/GSSAPI.

Similarly, if a client is to be configured to enable shadow information update and use a proxy credentialLevel, administrator credentials must be provided using –a adminDN=adminDN and –a adminPassword= adminPassword. However, the shadow information update does not need the administrator credentials if a self credentialLevel is configured.

The naming service-specific configuration properties are stored in the svc:/network/ldap/client SMF service. Modifying the SMF properties directly is not advised. Use this tool instead.

Other configuration might be modified during installation. It will be backed up to /var/ldap/restore. The files that are typically modified during initialization are:

  • /etc/nsswitch.conf

  • /etc/defaultdomain (if it exists)

  • /var/yp/binding/`domainname` (for a NIS [YP] client)

ldapclient does not set up a client to resolve hostnames using DNS. It simply copies /etc/nsswitch.ldap to /etc/nsswitch.conf. If you prefer to use DNS for host resolution, please refer to the DNS documentation for information on setting up DNS. See resolv.conf(5). If you want to use sasl/GSSAPI as the authentication method, you have to use DNS for hosts and ipnodes resolution.

The list form of the ldapclient utility is used to list the LDAP client configuration. The output will be human readable. LDAP configuration files are not guaranteed to be human readable. Note that for security reason, the values for adminDN and adminPassword will not be displayed.

The uninit form of the ldapclient utility is used to uninitialize the network service environment, restoring it to the state it was in prior to the last execution of ldapclient using init or manual. The restoration will succeed only if the machine was initialized with the init or manual form of ldapclient, as it uses the backup files created by these options.

The genprofile option is used to write an LDIF formatted configuration profile based on the attributes specified on the command line to standard output. This profile can then be loaded into an LDAP server to be used as the client profile, which can be downloaded by means of the ldapclient init command. Loading the LDIF formatted profile to the directory server can be done through ldapadd, or through any server specific import tool. Note that the attributes proxyDN, proxyPassword, certificatePath, domainName, enableShadowUpdate, adminDN, and adminPassword are not part of the configuration profile and thus are not permitted.

You must have superuser privileges to run the ldapclient command, except with the genprofile option.

To access the information stored in the directory, clients can either authenticate to the directory, or use an unauthenticated connection. The LDAP client is configured to have a credential level of either anonymous or proxy. In the first case, the client does not authenticate to the directory. In the second case, client authenticates to the directory using a proxy identity for read access, and using a administrator identity for write access if enableShadowUpdate is configured. In the third case, client authenticates to the directory using a Kerberos principal that is mapped to an LDAP identity by the LDAP server.

If a client is configured to use an identity, you can configure which authentication method the client will use. The LDAP client supports the following authentication methods:

  • none
  • simple
  • sasl/CRAM-MD5
  • sasl/DIGEST-MD5
  • sasl/GSSAPI
  • tls:simple
  • tls:sasl/CRAM-MD5
  • tls:sasl/DIGEST-MD5

Note that some directory servers may not support all of these authentication methods. For example, be aware that the bind password will be sent in the clear to the LDAP server. For those authentication methods using TLS (transport layer security), the entire session is encrypted. You will need to install the appropriate PEM certificate files to use TLS.

Commands

The following commands are supported:

init

Initialize client from a profile on a server.

manual

Manually initialize client with the specified attribute values.

mod

Modify attribute values in the configuration file after a manual initialization of the client.

list

Write the contents of the LDAP client cache to standard output in human readable form.

uninit

Uninitialize an LDAP client, assuming that ldapclient was used to initialize the client.

genprofile

Generate a configuration profile in LDIF format that can then be stored in the directory for clients to use, with the init form of this command.

Attributes

The following attributes are supported:

adminDN

Specify the Bind Distinguished Name for the administrator identity that is used for shadow information update. This option is required if the credential level is proxy, and enableShadowUpdate is set to true. There is no default value.

adminPassword

Specify the administrator password. This option is required if the credential level is proxy, and enableShadowUpdate is set to true. There is no default value.

attributeMap

Specify a mapping from an attribute defined by a service to an attribute in an alternative schema. This can be used to change the default schema used for a given service. The syntax of attributeMap is defined in the profile IETF draft. This option can be specified multiple times. The default value for all services is NULL. In the example,

attributeMap: passwd:uid=employeeNumber

the LDAP client would use the LDAP attribute employeeNumber rather than uid for the passwd service. This is a multivalued attribute.

authenticationMethod

Specify the default authentication method used by all services unless overridden by the serviceAuthenticationMethod attribute. Multiple values can be specified by using a semicolon-separated list. The default value is none. For those services that use credentialLevel and credentialLevel is anonymous, this attribute is ignored. Services such as pam_ldap will use this attribute, even if credentialLevel is anonymous. The supported authentication methods are described above. If the authenticationMethod is sasl/GSSAPI, the hosts and ipnodes of /etc/nsswitch.conf must be configured with DNS support, for example:

hosts: dns files
ipnodes: dns files
bindTimeLimit

The maximum time in seconds that a client should spend performing a bind operation. Set this to a positive integer. The default value is 30.

debugLevel

Sets the ldap_cachemgr(8) debug option level. Set this to a positive integer between 0 and 6. The default value of 0, disables debugging.

certificatePath

The certificate path for the location of the certificate files. The value is the path where PEM format certificate files reside. This is used for TLS support, which is specified in the authenticationMethod and serviceAuthenticationMethod attributes. The default is /var/ldap.

credentialLevel

Specify the credential level the client should use to contact the directory. The credential levels supported are anonymous, proxy, and self. If a proxy credential level is specified, then the authenticationMethod attribute must be specified to determine the authentication mechanism. Also, if the credential level is proxy and at least one of the authentication methods require a bind DN, the proxyDN and proxyPassword attribute values must be set. In addition, if enableShadowUpdate is set to true, the adminDN and adminPassword values must be set. If a self credential level is specified, the authenticationMethod must be sasl/GSSAPI.

defaultSearchBase

Specify the default search base DN. There is no default. The serviceSearchDescriptor attribute can be used to override the defaultSearchBase for given services.

defaultSearchScope=one | sub

Specify the default search scope for the client's search operations. This default can be overridden for a given service by specifying a serviceSearchDescriptor. The default is one level search.

defaultServerList

A space separated list of server names or server addresses, either IPv4 or IPv6. If you specify server names, be sure that the LDAP client can resolve the name without the LDAP name service. You must resolve the LDAP servers' names by using either files or dns. If the LDAP server name cannot be resolved, your naming service will fail.

The port number is optional. If not specified, the default LDAP server port number 389 is used, except when TLS is specified in the authentication method. In this case, the default LDAP server port number is 636.

The format to specify the port number for an IPv6 address is:

[ipv6_addr]:port

To specify the port number for an IPv4 address, use the following format:

ipv4_addr:port

If the host name is specified, use the format:

host_name:port

If you use TLS, the LDAP server's hostname must match the hostname in the TLS certificate. Typically, the hostname in the TLS certificate is a fully qualified domain name. With TLS, the LDAP server host addresses must resolve to the hostnames in the TLS certificate. You must use files or dns to resolve the host address.

domainName

Specify the DNS domain name. This becomes the default domain for the machine. The default is the current domain name. This attribute is only used in client initialization.

enableShadowUpdate=true | false

Specify whether the client is allowed to update shadow information. If set to true and the credential level is proxy, adminDN and adminPassword must be specified.

followReferrals=true | false

Specify the referral setting. A setting of true implies that referrals will be automatically followed and false would result in referrals not being followed. The default is true.

objectclassMap

Specify a mapping from an objectclass defined by a service to an objectclass in an alternative schema. This can be used to change the default schema used for a given service. The syntax of objectclassMap is defined in the profile IETF draft. This option can be specified multiple times. The default value for all services is NULL. In the example,

objectclassMap=passwd:posixAccount=unixAccount 

the LDAP client would use the LDAP objectclass of unixAccount rather than the posixAccount for the passwd service. This is a multivalued attribute.

preferredServerList

Specify the space separated list of server names or server addresses, either IPv4 or IPv6, to be contacted before servers specified by the defaultServerList attribute. If you specify server names, be sure that the LDAP client can resolve the name without the LDAP name service. You must resolve the LDAP servers' names by using either files or dns. If the LDAP server name cannot be resolved, your naming service will fail.

The port number is optional. If not specified, the default LDAP server port number 389 is used, except when TLS is specified in the authentication method. In this case, the default LDAP server port number is 636.

The format to specify the port number for an IPv6 address is:

[ipv6_addr]:port

To specify the port number for an IPv4 address, use the following format:

ipv4_addr:port

If the host name is specified, use the format:

host_name:port

If you use TLS, the LDAP server's hostname must match the hostname in the TLS certificate. Typically, the hostname in the TLS certificate is a fully qualified domain name. With TLS, the LDAP server host addresses must resolve to the hostnames in the TLS certificate. You must use files or dns to resolve the host address.

profileName

Specify the profile name. For ldapclient init, this attribute is the name of an existing profile which may be downloaded periodically depending on the value of the profileTTL attribute. For ldapclient genprofile, this is the name of the profile to be generated. The default value is default.

profileTTL

Specify the TTL value in seconds for the client information. This is only relevant if the machine was initialized with a client profile. If you do not want ldap_cachemgr(8) to attempt to refresh the LDAP client configuration from the LDAP server, set profileTTL to 0 (zero). Valid values are either zero 0 (for no expiration) or a positive integer in seconds. The default value is 12 hours.

proxyDN

Specify the Bind Distinguished Name for the proxy identity. This option is required if the credential level is proxy, and at least one of the authentication methods requires a bind DN. There is no default value.

proxyPassword

Specify client proxy password. This option is required if the credential level is proxy, and at least one of the authentication methods requires a bind DN. There is no default.

searchTimeLimit

Specify maximum number of seconds allowed for an LDAP search operation. The default is 30 seconds. The server may have its own search time limit.

serviceAuthenticationMethod

Specify authentication methods to be used by a service in the form servicename:authenticationmethod, for example:

pam_ldap:tls:simple

For multiple authentication methods, use a semicolon-separated list. The default value is no service authentication methods, in which case, each service would default to the authenticationMethod value. The supported authentications are described above.

Three services support this feature: passwd-cmd, keyserv, and pam_ldap. The passwd-cmd service is used to define the authentication method to be used by passwd(1) to change the user's password and other attributes. The keyserv service is used to identify the authentication method to be used by the chkey(1) and newkey(8) utilities. The pam_ldap service defines the authentication method to be used for authenticating users when pam_ldap(7) is configured. If this attribute is not set for any of these services, the authenticationMethod attribute is used to define the authentication method. This is a multivalued attribute.

serviceCredentialLevel

Specify credential level to be used by a service. Multiple values can be specified in a space-separated list. The default value for all services is NULL. The supported credential levels are: anonymous or proxy. At present, no service uses this attribute. This is a multivalued attribute.

serviceSearchDescriptor

Override the default base DN for LDAP searches for a given service. The format of the descriptors also allow overriding the default search scope and search filter for each service. The syntax of serviceSearchDescriptor is defined in the profile IETF draft. The default value for all services is NULL. This is a multivalued attribute. In the example,

serviceSearchDescriptor=passwd:ou=people,dc=a1,dc=acme,dc=com?one

the LDAP client would do a one level search in ou=people,dc=a1,dc=acme,dc=com rather than ou=people,defaultSearchBase for the passwd service.

Options

The following options are supported:

–a attrName=attrValue

Specify attrName and its value. See SYNOPSIS for a complete list of possible attribute names and values.

–D bindDN

Specifies an entry that has read permission for the requested database.

–j passwdFile

Specify a file containing the password for the bind DN or the password for the SSL client's key database. To protect the password, use this option in scripts and place the password in a secure file. This option is mutually exclusive of the –w option.

–q

Quiet mode. No output is generated.

–v

Verbose output. Specifying additional –v options displays more detailed information.

–w bindPassword

Password to be used for authenticating the bind DN. If this parameter is missing, the command will prompt for a password. NULL passwords are not supported in LDAP.

When you use –w bindPassword to specify the password to be used for authentication, the password is visible to other users of the system by means of the ps command, in script files, or in shell history.

If you supply “-” (hyphen) as a password, the command will prompt for a password.

–y passwdFile

Specify a file containing the password for the proxy DN. To protect the password, use this option in scripts and place the password in a secure file. This option is mutually exclusive of the –a proxyPassword option.

–z adminrPasswdFile

Specify a file containing the password for the adminDN. To protect the password, use this option in scripts and place the password in a secure file. This option is mutually exclusive of the –a adminPassword option.

Operands

The following operand is supported:

LDAP_server

An address or a name for the LDAP server from which the profile will be loaded. The current naming service specified in the nsswitch.conf file is used. Once the profile is loaded, the preferredServerList and defaultServerList specified in the profile are used.

Examples

Example 1 Setting Up a Client By Using the Default Profile Stored on a Specified LDAP Server

The following example shows how to set up a client using the default profile stored on the specified LDAP server. This command will only be successful if either the credential level in the profile is set to anonymous or the authentication method is set to none.

example# ldapclient init 172.16.100.1
Example 2 Setting Up a Client By Using the simple Profile Stored on a Specified LDAP Server

The following example shows how to set up a client using the simple profile stored on the specified LDAP server. The domainname is set to xyz.mycompany.com and the proxyPassword is secret.

example# ldapclient init -a profileName=simple \
-a domainName=xyz.mycompany.com \
-a proxyDN=cn=proxyagent,ou=profile,dc=xyz,dc=mycompany,dc=com \
-a proxyPassword=secret '['fe80::a00:20ff:fea3:388']':386
Example 3 Setting Up a Client Using Only One Server

The following example shows how to set up a client using only one server. The authentication method is set to none, and the search base is dc=mycompany,dc=com.

example# ldapclient manual -a authenticationMethod=none \
-a defaultSearchBase=dc=mycompany,dc=com \
-a defaultServerList=172.16.100.1
Example 4 Setting Up a Client Using Only One Server That Does Not Follow Referrals

The following example shows how to set up a client using only one server. The credential level is set to proxy. The authentication method of is sasl/CRAM-MD5, with the option not to follow referrals. The domain name is xyz.mycompany.com, and the LDAP server is running on port number 386 at IP address 172.16.100.1.

example# ldapclient manual \
-a credentialLevel=proxy \
-a authenticationMethod=sasl/CRAM-MD5 \
-a proxyPassword=secret \
-a proxyDN=cn=proxyagent,ou=profile,dc=xyz,dc=mycompany,dc=com \
-a defaultSearchBase=dc=xyz,dc=mycompany,dc=com \
-a domainName=xyz.mycompany.com \
-a followReferrals=false \
-a defaultServerList=172.16.100.1:386
Example 5 Using genprofile to Set Only the defaultSearchBase and the Server Addresses

The following example shows how to use the genprofile command to set the defaultSearchBase and the server addresses.

example# ldapclient genprofile -a profileName=myprofile \
-a defaultSearchBase=dc=eng,dc=sun,dc=com \
-a "defaultServerList=172.16.100.1 172.16.234.15:386" \
> myprofile.ldif
Example 6 Creating a Profile on IPv6 servers

The following example creates a profile on IPv6 servers

example# ldapclient genprofile -a profileName=eng \
-a credentialLevel=proxy \
-a authenticationMethod=sasl/DIGEST-MD5 \
-a defaultSearchBase=dc=eng,dc=acme,dc=com \
-a "serviceSearchDescriptor=passwd:ou=people,dc=a1,dc=acme,dc=com?one"\
-a preferredServerList= '['fe80::a00:20ff:fea3:388']' \
-a "defaultServerList='['fec0::111:a00:20ff:fea3:edcf']' \
    '['fec0::111:a00:20ff:feb5:e41']'" > eng.ldif

Example 7 Creating a Profile That Overrides Every Default Value

The following example shows a profile that overrides every default value.

example# ldapclient genprofile -a profileName=eng \
-a credentialLevel=proxy -a authenticationMethod=sasl/DIGEST-MD5 \
-a bindTimeLimit=20 \
-a defaultSearchBase=dc=eng,dc=acme,dc=com \
-a "serviceSearchDescriptor=passwd:ou=people,dc=a1,dc=acme,dc=com?one"\
-a serviceAuthenticationMethod=pam_ldap:tls:simple \
-a defaultSearchScope=sub \
-a attributeMap=passwd:uid=employeeNumber \
-a objectclassMap=passwd:posixAccount=unixAccount \
-a followReferrals=false -a profileTTL=6000 \
-a preferredServerList=172.16.100.30 -a searchTimeLimit=30 \
-a "defaultServerList=172.16.200.1 172.16.100.1 192.168.5.6" > eng.ldif

Exit Status

The following exit values are returned:

0

The command successfully executed.

1

An error occurred. An error message is output.

2

proxyDN and proxyPassword attributes are required, but they are not provided.

Files

/var/ldap/ldap_client_cred
/var/ldap/ldap_client_file

Contain the LDAP configuration of the client. These files are not to be modified manually. Their content is not guaranteed to be human readable. Use ldapclient to update them.

/etc/defaultdomain

System default domain name, matching the domain name of the data in the LDAP servers. See defaultdomain(5).

/etc/nsswitch.conf

Configuration file for the name-service switch. See nsswitch.conf(5).

/etc/nsswitch.ldap

Sample configuration file for the name-service switch configured with LDAP and files.

Attributes

See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

ATTRIBUTE TYPE
ATTRIBUTE VALUE
Availability
system/network/ldap
Interface Stability
Committed

See Also

chkey(1), ldaplist(1), defaultdomain(5), nsswitch.conf(5), resolv.conf(5), attributes(7), idsconfig(8), ldap_cachemgr(8), ldapaddent(8)

Caution

The CRAM-MD5 and DIGEST-MD5 mechanisms are considered weak, obsolete, and insecure. They should not be used without an encrypted TLS connection.

Notes

Both StartTLS and raw TLS are supported. A StartTLS request will be used on any connection not specifying port 636.

For example:

defaultServerList= foo:636 bar:1000 baz:389
authenticationMethod= tls:simple

This will attempt a raw TLS open on port 636, followed by an insecure connection on port 1000 with a StartTLS request to secure the connection, finally followed by a similar insecure connection and follow-up StartTLS request on port 389.

This is somewhat different than the behavior observed on older Solaris systems. On older systems, in all three cases the system would attempt a raw TLS connection on all three hosts, on those specified ports. A single port servicing both secure and not secure connections was not supported.

In the following example, there will be a significant timeout delay while attempting the connection to foo:636:

defaultServerList= foo:636 foo:389
authenticationMethod= simple

This is because port 636 is normally the default TLS port and and "simple" authentication will not attempt an SSL or StartTLS connection on that port. A delay will occur while waiting for the connection to foo:636 to fail, followed by a successful retry on foo:389.

The LDAP client's SMF properties are contained in the svc:/network/ldap/client service. In addition to the SMF properties managed by the ldapclient tool, and described above, the following SMF property controls the LDAP client.

config/group_return_members

Controls what users as part of the user or member list are returned when obtaining a group from an LDAP server. This applies to getting a group specified by name or GID or through enumeration.

The possible property values are:

"nomember"

Stops the LDAP client from fetching the LDAP attributes, "member" and "uniqueMember", and not returning the associated users as part of the user or member list. Values of these attributes are the group members' LDAP Distinguished Name.

"nomemberuid"

Stops the LDAP client from fetching the LDAP attribute, "memberUid", and not returning the associated users as part of the user or member list. Values of the attribute are the group members' user name.

Processing group members which are Distinguished Name values can be expense as each Distinguished Name value can require a further LDAP lookup to find the user name. The Distinguished Name values can also be other LDAP groups which need to be processed to find all the group members.

Setting "nomember" changes Solaris to pre Solaris 11 behavior where group user or member list was just by the LDAP "memberUid" attribute. This control does not effect what groups are returned by getgrouplist() or groups.