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man pages section 8: System Administration Commands

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Updated: Wednesday, July 27, 2022

slapd (8oldap)


slapd - alone LDAP Daemon


/usr/lib/amd64/slapd         [-4|-6]         [-T {acl|a[dd]|auth|c[at]|
d[n]|i[ndex]|p[asswd]|s[chema]|t[est]}] [-d debug-level] [-f slapd-con-
fig-file]   [-F slapd-config-directory]   [-h URLs]   [-n service-name]
[-s syslog-level] [-l syslog-local-user] [-o option[=value]] [-r direc-
tory] [-u user] [-g group] [-c cookie]


SLAPD(8oldap)                                                    SLAPD(8oldap)

       slapd - Stand-alone LDAP Daemon

       /usr/lib/amd64/slapd         [-4|-6]         [-T {acl|a[dd]|auth|c[at]|
       d[n]|i[ndex]|p[asswd]|s[chema]|t[est]}] [-d debug-level] [-f slapd-con-
       fig-file]   [-F slapd-config-directory]   [-h URLs]   [-n service-name]
       [-s syslog-level] [-l syslog-local-user] [-o option[=value]] [-r direc-
       tory] [-u user] [-g group] [-c cookie]

       Slapd  is  the stand-alone LDAP daemon. It listens for LDAP connections
       on any number of ports (default 389), responding to the LDAP operations
       it receives over these connections.  slapd is typically invoked at boot
       time, usually out of /etc/rc.local.  Upon startup, slapd normally forks
       and  disassociates  itself from the invoking tty.  If configured in the
       config file (or config directory), the slapd  process  will  print  its
       process  ID (see getpid(2)) to a .pid file, as well as the command line
       options during invocation to an .args file (see slapd.conf(5)).  If the
       -d  flag  is  given, even with a zero argument, slapd will not fork and
       disassociate from the invoking tty.

       See the "OpenLDAP Administrator's Guide" for more details on slapd.

       -4     Listen on IPv4 addresses only.

       -6     Listen on IPv6 addresses only.

       -T tool
              Run in Tool mode. The tool argument selects whether  to  run  as
              slapadd,  slapcat, slapdn, slapindex, slappasswd, slapschema, or
              slaptest (slapacl and slapauth need  the  entire  acl  and  auth
              option  value  to  be spelled out, as a is reserved to slapadd).
              This option should be the first  option  specified  when  it  is
              used;  any  remaining  options will be interpreted by the corre-
              sponding slap tool program,  according  to  the  respective  man
              pages.   Note  that these tool programs will usually be symbolic
              links to slapd.  This option is provided  for  situations  where
              symbolic links are not provided or not usable.

       -d debug-level
              Turn  on debugging as defined by debug-level.  If this option is
              specified, even with a zero argument, slapd  will  not  fork  or
              disassociate from the invoking terminal.  Some general operation
              and status messages are printed for any  value  of  debug-level.
              debug-level  is taken as a bit string, with each bit correspond-
              ing  to  a  different  kind  of  debugging   information.    See
              <ldap_log.h>  for  details.   Comma-separated arrays of friendly
              names can be specified to select debugging output of the  corre-
              sponding debugging information.  All the names recognized by the
              loglevel directive described in slapd.conf(5) are supported.  If
              debug-level  is  ?, a list of installed debug-levels is printed,
              and slapd exits.

              Remember that if you turn on packet logging, packets  containing
              bind  passwords  will be output, so if you redirect the log to a
              logfile, that file should be read-protected.

       -s syslog-level
              This option tells slapd at what debug-level debugging statements
              should  be  logged to the syslog(8) facility.  The value syslog-
              level can be set to any value or combination allowed by  the  -d
              switch.  Slapd logs all messages selected by syslog-level at the
              syslog(3) severity debug-level DEBUG, on the unit specified with

       -n service-name
              Specifies  the  service  name  for  logging  and other purposes.
              Defaults to basename of argv[0], i.e.: "slapd".

       -l syslog-local-user
              Selects the local user of the syslog(8) facility. Value  can  be
              LOCAL0, through LOCAL7, as well as USER and DAEMON.  The default
              is LOCAL4.  However, this option is only  permitted  on  systems
              that  support  local users with the syslog(8) facility.  Logging
              to syslog(8) occurs at the "DEBUG" severity debug-level.

       -f slapd-config-file
              Specifies  the  slapd  configuration  file.   The   default   is

       -F slapd-config-directory
              Specifies  the  slapd  configuration  directory.  The default is
              /etc/openldap/slapd.d.  If both -f and  -F  are  specified,  the
              config  file will be read and converted to config directory for-
              mat and written to the specified directory.  If  neither  option
              is  specified,  slapd  will  attempt  to read the default config
              directory before trying to use the default  config  file.  If  a
              valid  config  directory  exists then the default config file is
              ignored. All of the slap  tools  that  use  the  config  options
              observe this same behavior.

       -h URLlist
              slapd  will  by  default  serve  ldap:///  (LDAP over TCP on all
              interfaces on default LDAP port).  That is, it will  bind  using
              INADDR_ANY  and  port 389.  The -h option may be used to specify
              LDAP (and other scheme) URLs to serve.  For example, if slapd is
              given  -h  "ldap:// ldaps:/// ldapi:///", it will
              listen on for LDAP,  for  LDAP  over
              TLS, and LDAP over IPC (Unix domain sockets).  Host rep-
              resents INADDR_ANY (any interface).  A space separated  list  of
              URLs  is  expected.   The  URLs should be of the LDAP, LDAPS, or
              LDAPI schemes, and generally without  a  DN  or  other  optional
              parameters (excepting as discussed below).  Support for the lat-
              ter two  schemes  depends  on  selected  configuration  options.
              Hosts may be specified by name or IPv4 and IPv6 address formats.
              Ports, if specified, must be numeric.  The default ldap://  port
              is 389 and the default ldaps:// port is 636.

              For  LDAP  over IPC, name is the name of the socket, and no port
              is required, nor allowed; note that directory separators must be
              URL-encoded, like any other characters that are special to URLs;
              so the socket


              must be specified as


              The  default  location  for  the  IPC  socket   is   /var/openl-

              The  listener  permissions  are indicated by "x-mod=-rwxrwxrwx",
              "x-mod=0777" or "x-mod=777", where any of the "rwx" can  be  "-"
              to  suppress the related permission, while any of the "7" can be
              any legal octal digit, according to chmod(1).  The listeners can
              take  advantage  of the "x-mod" extension to apply rough limita-
              tions to operations, e.g.  allow  read  operations  ("r",  which
              applies  to  search  and  compare), write operations ("w", which
              applies to add, delete, modify and modrdn), and  execute  opera-
              tions  ("x",  which means bind is required).  "User" permissions
              apply to authenticated users, while "other" apply  to  anonymous
              users;   "group"   permissions   are   ignored.    For  example,
              "ldap:///????x-mod=-rw-------" means that read and write is only
              allowed  for authenticated connections, and bind is required for
              all operations.  This feature is experimental, and  requires  to
              be manually enabled at configure time.

       -r directory
              Specifies  a directory to become the root directory.  slapd will
              change the current working directory to this directory and  then
              chroot(2) to this directory.  This is done after opening listen-
              ers but before reading any configuration  file  or  initializing
              any  backend.   When  used as a security mechanism, it should be
              used in conjunction with -u and -g options.

       -u user
              slapd will run slapd with the specified user  name  or  id,  and
              that  user's  supplementary  group access list as set with init-
              groups(3).  The group ID is also changed  to  this  user's  gid,
              unless  the  -g option is used to override.  Note when used with
              -r, slapd will use the user database in the change root environ-

              Note that on some systems, running as a non-privileged user will
              prevent passwd back-ends from accessing the encrypted passwords.
              Note  also  that  any  shell back-ends will run as the specified
              non-privileged user.

       -g group
              slapd will run with the specified group name or id.   Note  when
              used  with  -r,  slapd will use the group database in the change
              root environment.

       -c cookie
              This option provides a cookie for the syncrepl replication  con-
              sumer.   The  cookie  is  a  comma  separated list of name=value
              pairs.  Currently supported syncrepl cookie fields are rid, sid,
              and  csn.   rid  identifies a replication thread within the con-
              sumer server and is used to find the syncrepl  specification  in
              slapd.conf(5) or slapd-config(5) having the matching replication
              identifier in its definition. The rid must be provided in  order
              for any other specified values to be used.  sid is the server id
              in a multi-provider configuration.  csn is the  commit  sequence
              number received by a previous synchronization and represents the
              state of the consumer content which  the  syncrepl  engine  will
              synchronize  to the current provider content.  In case of multi-
              provider replication agreement, multiple csn  values,  semicolon
              separated,  can  appear.   Use only the rid part to force a full

       -o option[=value]
              This option provides a generic means to specify options  without
              the need to reserve a separate letter for them.

              It supports the following options:

                     When  SLP  support  is  compiled  into  slapd, disable it
                      enable it by registering at SLP DAs without specific SLP
                     attributes  (on),  or  with  specific SLP attributes slp-
                     attrs that must  be  an  SLP  attribute  list  definition
                     according to the SLP standard.

                     For  example,  "slp=(tree=production),(server-type=OpenL-
                     DAP),(server-version=2.4.15)" registers at SLP  DAs  with
                     the  three  SLP  attributes tree, server-type and server-
                     version that have the values given  above.   This  allows
                     one  to  specifically  query the SLP DAs for LDAP servers
                     holding the production tree in case  multiple  trees  are

       To  start slapd and have it fork and detach from the terminal and start
       serving the LDAP databases defined in the  default  config  file,  just


       To  start slapd with an alternate configuration file, and turn on volu-
       minous debugging which will be printed on standard error, type:

            /usr/lib/amd64/slapd -f /var/tmp/slapd.conf -d 255

       To test whether the configuration file is correct or not, type:

            /usr/lib/amd64/slapd -Tt

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE         |
       |Availability   | service/network/ldap/openldap |
       |Stability      | Pass-through uncommitted      |

       ldap(3), slapd.conf(5), slapd-config(5),  slapd.access(5),  slapacl(8),
       slapadd(8),  slapauth(8),  slapcat(8),  slapdn(8),  slapindex(8), slap-
       passwd(8), slapschema(8), slaptest(8).

       "OpenLDAP Administrator's Guide" (http://www.OpenLDAP.org/doc/admin/)

       See http://www.openldap.org/its/

       OpenLDAP Software is developed and maintained by The  OpenLDAP  Project
       <http://www.openldap.org/>.  OpenLDAP Software is derived from the Uni-
       versity of Michigan LDAP 3.3 Release.

       Source code for open source software components in Oracle  Solaris  can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-

       This    software    was    built    from    source     available     at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.    The  original  community
       source was downloaded from   ftp://ftp.openldap.org/pub/OpenLDAP/openl-

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://www.openldap.org/.

OpenLDAP 2.4.59                   2021/06/03                     SLAPD(8oldap)