ikecert - manipulates the machine's on-filesystem public-key certificate databases
ikecert certlocal [-a | -e | -h | -k | -l | -r | -U | -C | -L] [[-p] -T PKCS#11 token identifier] [option_specific_arguments]...
ikecert certdb [-a | -e | -h | -r | -U | -C | -L | -l [-v [-H [sha1|sha224|sha256|sha384|sha512]]]] [[-p] -T PKCS#11 token identifier] [option_specific_arguments]...
ikecert certrldb [-a | -e | -h | -l | -r] [option_specific_arguments]...
The ikecert command manipulates the machine's on-filesystem public-key certificate databases. See the “Files” section, below.
ikecert has three subcommands, one for each of the three major repositories, plus one for listing available hardware tokens:
certlocal deals with the private-key repository,
certdb deals with the public-key repository, and:
certrldb deals with the certificate revocation list (CRL) repository.
tokens shows the available PKCS#11 tokens for a given PKCS#11 library.
The only supported PKCS#11 library and hardware is the Sun Cryptographic Accelerator 6000.
Except for tokens, each subcommand requires one option, possibly followed by one or more option-specific arguments.
The tokens subcommand lists all available tokens in the PKCS#11 library specified in /etc/inet/ike/config.
The following options are supported:
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option installs (adds) a private key into the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) local ID database. The key data is read from standard input, and is in either Solaris-only format or unencrypted PKCS#8 DER format. Key format is automatically detected. PKCS#8 key files in PEM format and files in password protected, encrypted format are not recognized, but can be converted appropriately using tools available in OpenSSL.
This option cannot be used with PKCS#11 hardware objects when the corresponding public certificate is not already present in the IKE database. When importing both a public certificate and a private key, the public portion must be imported first using the certdb subcommand.
When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option reads a certificate from standard input and adds it to the IKE certificate database. The certificate must be a X.509 certificate in PEM Base64 or ASN.1 BER encoding. The certificate adopts the name of its identity.
This option can import a certificate into a PKCS#11 hardware key store one of two ways: Either a matching public key object and an existing private key object were created using the certlocal –kc option, or if a PKCS#11 token is explicitly specified using the –T option.
When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option installs (adds) a CRL into the IKE database. The CRL reads from standard input.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option extracts a private key from the IKE local ID database. The key data are written to standard output. The slot specifies which private key to extract. Private keys are only extracted in binary/ber format.
Use this option with extreme caution. See the “Security” section, below.
This option will not work with PKCS#11 hardware objects.
When used in conjunction with “–f pkcs8”, the private key is extracted in unencrypted PKCS#8 format.
When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option extracts a certificate from the IKE certificate database which matches the certspec and writes it to standard output. The output-format option specifies the encoding format. Valid options are PEM and BER. This extracts the first matching identity. The default output format is PEM.
When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option extracts a CRL from the IKE database. The key data are written to standard output. The certspec specifies which CRL that is extracted. The first one that matches in the database is extracted. See NOTES, below, for details on certspec patterns.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option generates a IKE public/private key pair and adds it into the local ID database. It also generates a certificate request and sends that to standard output. For details on the above options see Notes for details on the dname argument and see ALTERNATIVE NAMES for details on the altname argument(s) to this command.
If –T is specified, the hardware token will generate the pair of keys.
If –p is specified with –T, the PKCS#11 token PIN is stored in the clear on-disk, with root-protected file permissions. If not specified, one must unlock the token with ikeadm(8) once in.iked(8) is running.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, generates a public/private key pair and adds it into the local ID database. This option also generates a self-signed certificate and installs it into the certificate database. See NOTES, below, for details on the dname and altname arguments to this command.
If –T is specified, the hardware token will generate the pair of keys, and the self-signed certificate will also be stored in the hardware.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option lists private keys in the local ID database. The –v option switches output to a verbose mode where the entire certificate is printed.
Use the –voption with extreme caution. See the “Security” section, below. The –v option will not work with PKCS#11 hardware objects.
When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option lists certificates in the IKE certificate database matching the certspec, if any pattern is given. The list displays the identity string of the certificates, as well as, the private key if in the key database. The –v switches the output to a verbose mode where the entire certificate is printed. The –H option specifies the hash algorithm used to compute the certificate fingerprint.
If the matching certificate is on a hardware token, the token ID is also listed.
When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option lists the CRLs in the IKE database along with any certificates that reside in the database and match the Issuer Name. certspec can be used to specify a specific CRL. The –v option switches the output to a verbose mode where the entire certificate is printed. See NOTES, below, for details on certspec patterns.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, deletes the local ID in the specified slot. If there is a corresponding public key, it is not be deleted. If this slot is deemed as “corrupted” or otherwise unrecognizable, it is deleted as well.
If this is invoked on a PKCS#11 hardware object, it will also delete the PKCS#11 public key and private key objects. If the public key object was already deleted by certdb –r, that is not a problem.
Removes certificates from the IKE certificate database. Certificates matching the specified certificate pattern are deleted. Any private keys in the certlocal database corresponding to these certificates are not deleted. This removes the first matching identity.
If the pattern specifies a slot and the slot is deemed as “corrupted” or otherwise unrecognizable, it is deleted as well.
If this is invoked on a PKCS#11 hardware object, it will also delete the certificate and the PKCS#11 public key object. If the public key object was already deleted by certlocal –r, that is not a problem.
When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option deletes the CRL with the given certspec.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand and the –T flag, this option unlinks a PKCS#11 private key object from the IKE database. There will be no attempt to access the hardware keystore or to validate or remove the on-token private key object. The object is simply disassociated from the IKE database.
When specified with the certdb subcommand and the –T flag, this option unlinks a PKCS#11 certificate object from the IKE database. There will be no attempt to access the hardware keystore or to validate or remove the on-token certificate or public key objects. The objects are simply disassociated from the IKE database.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option copies both the private key and its corresponding certificate and the public key from the on-disk keystore to the hardware keystore specified by its PKCS#11 token. This subcommand attempts to create each of these components, even if one part fails. In all cases, the original on-disk private key and public certificate are still retained and must be deleted separately. Some hardware keystores, such as FIPS-140 compliant devices, may not support migration of private key objects in this manner.
When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option copies the certificate matching the given certspec and corresponding public key from the on-disk keystore to the hardware keystore specified by its PKCS#11 token. The original public certificate is still retained and must be deleted separately, if desired.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option links an existing on-token private key object to the IKE database. The object itself remains on the token. This option simply lets the IKE infrastructure know that the object exists, as if it had been originally created on-token with the Solaris IKE utilities.
When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option links an existing on-token certificate object to the IKE database. The object itself remains on the token. This option simply lets the IKE infrastructure know that the object exists, as if it had been originally created on-token with the Solaris IKE utilities.
The following parameters are supported:
Specifies the pattern matching of certificate specifications. Valid certspecs are the Subject Name, Issuer Name, and Subject Alternative Names.
These can be specified as certificates that match the given certspec values and that do not match other certspec values. To signify a certspec value that is not supposed to be present in a certificate, place an ! in front of the tag.
Valid certspecs are:
<Subject Names> SUBJECT=<Subject Names> ISSUER=<Issuer Names> SLOT=<Slot Number in the certificate database> Example:"ISSUER=C=US, O=SUN" IP=184.108.40.206 !DNS=example.com Example:"C=US, O=CALIFORNIA" IP=220.127.116.11 DNS=example.com
Valid arguments to the alternative names are as follows:
IP=<IPv4 address> DNS=<Domain Name Server address> EMAIL=<email (RFC 822) address> URI=<Uniform Resource Indicator value> DN=<LDAP Directory Name value> RID=<Registered Identifier value>
Valid Slot numbers can be specified without the keyword tag. Alternative name can also be issued with keyword tags.
Subject Alternative Names the certificate. The argument that follows the –A option should be in the form of tag=value. Valid tags are IP, DNS, EMAIL, URI, DN, and RID (see example below).
X.509 distinguished name for the certificate subject. It typically has the form of: C=country, O=organization, OU=organizational unit, CN=common name. Valid tags are: C, O, OU, and CN.
Encoding output format. pem for PEM Base64 or ber for ASN.1 BER. If –f is not specified, pem is assumed.
Finish certificate validity time. If the –F flag is not specified, the validity end time is calculated at four years from the validity start time. See NOTES for an explanation for the validity date and time syntax.
Key size. It can be 1024, 2048, 3072, or 4096. Use the following command to determine the key sizes supported by the Solaris Cryptographic Framework:
% cryptoadm list -vm
The mechanisms displayed by the preceding command are described in pkcs11_softtoken(7). If your system has hardware acceleration, the mechanisms supported by the hardware will be listed in a separate section for each provider. Mechanisms can be any of:
CKM_RSA_PKCS_KEY_PAIR_GEN CKM_DSA_KEY_PAIR_GEN CKM_DH_PKCS_KEY_PAIR_GEN
It is recommended to use a minimum of a 2048-bit keysize for RSA keys. Lower key sizes are considered deprecated.
Start certificate validity time. If the –S flag is not specified, the current date and time is used for the validity start time. See NOTES, below, for an explanation for the validity date and time syntax.
Key type. It can be rsa-sha1, rsa-sha256, rsa-sha384, rsa-sha512, dsa-sha1, or dsa-sha256. Using sha1 and md5 as certificate signature algorithms is considered deprecated.
PKCS#11 token identifier for hardware key storage. This specifies a hardware device instance in conformance to the PKCS#11 standard. A PKCS#11 library must be specified in /etc/inet/ike/config. (See ike.config(5).)
A token identifier is a 32-character space-filled string. If the token given is less than 32 characters long, it will be automatically padded with spaces.
If there is more than one PKCS#11 library on a system, keep in mind that only one can be specified at a time in /etc/inet/ike/config. There can be multiple tokens (each with individual key storage) for a single PKCS#11 library instance.
This command can save private keys of a public-private key pair into a file. Any exposure of a private key may lead to compromise if the key is somehow obtained by an adversary.
The PKCS#11 hardware object functionality can address some of the shortcomings of on-disk private keys. Because IKE is a system service, user intervention at boot is not desirable. The token's PIN, however, is still needed. The PIN for the PKCS#11 token, therefore, is stored where normally the on-disk cryptographic keys would reside. This design decision is deemed acceptable because, with a hardware key store, possession of the key is still unavailable, only use of the key is an issue if the host is compromised. Beyond the PIN, the security of ikecert then reduces to the security of the PKCS#11 implementation. The PKCS#11 implementation should be scrutinized also.
Refer to the afterword by Matt Blaze in Bruce Schneier's Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C for additional information.
The following is an example of a self-signed certificate:
example# ikecert certlocal -ks -m 4096 -t rsa-sha256 -D "C=US, O=SUN" \ -A IP=18.104.22.168 IP=22.214.171.124 Generating, please wait... Certificate generated. Certificate added to database. -----BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE----- MIIBRDCB76ADAgECAgEBMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAMBsxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMQww CgYDVQQKEwNTVU4wHhcNMDEwMzE0MDEzMDM1WhcNMDUwMzE0MDEzMDM1WjAbMQsw CQYDVQQGEwJVUzEMMAoGA1UEChMDU1VOMFowDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADSQAwRgJB APDhqpKgjgRoRUr6twTMTtSuNsReEnFoReVer!ztpXpQK6ybYlRH18JIqU/uCV/r 26R/cVXTy5qc5NbMwA40KzcCASOjIDAeMAsGA1UdDwQEAwIFoDAPBgNVHREECDAG hwQBAgMEMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAA0EApTRD23KzN95GMvPD71hwwClukslKLVg8 f1xm9ZsHLPJLRxHFwsqqjAad4j4wwwriiUmGAHLTGB0lJMl8xsgxag== -----END X509 CERTIFICATE-----Example 2 Generating a CA Request
Generating a CA request appears the same as the self-signed certificate. The only differences between the two is the option –c instead of –s, and the certificate data is a CA request.
example# ikecert certlocal -kc -m 4096 -t rsa-sha256 \ -D "C=US, O=SUN" -A IP=126.96.36.199Example 3 A CA Request Using a Hardware Key Store
The following example illustrates the specification of a token using the –T option.
example# ikecert certlocal -kc -m 2048 -t rsa-sha1 \ -T vca0-keystore -D "C=US, O=SUN" -A IP=188.8.131.52
The following exit values are returned:
An error occurred. Writes an appropriate error message to standard error.
Private keys. A private key must have a matching public-key certificate with the same filename in /etc/inet/ike/publickeys/.
Public-key certificates. The names are only important with regard to matching private key names.
Public key certificate revocation lists.
Consulted for the pathname of a PKCS#11 library.
See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:
Schneier, Bruce. Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY. 1996.
The following is the validity date and time syntax when the –F or –S flags are used:
For relative dates, the syntax is as follows:
represents an integer
These parameters can be given in any order. For example, “+3d12h” is three and a half days from now, and “-3y2M” is three years and 2 months ago.
All parameters with fixed values can be added up in absolute seconds. Months and years, which have variable numbers of seconds, are calculated using calendar time. Months and years, which are not of fixed length, are defined such that adding a year or month means the same day next year or month. For instance, if it is Jan 26, 2005 and the certificate should expire 3 years and 1 month from today, the expiration (end validity time) date will be Feb 26, 2008. Overflows are dealt with accordingly. For example, one month from Jan 31, 2005 is March 3, 2005, since February has only 28 days.
For absolute dates, the syntax of the date formats included in the file /etc/datemsk are accepted (See getdate(3C) for details). Any date string prepended with a “+” or “-” is treated as a time relative to the current time, while others are treated as absolute dates. Sanity checking is also done to ensure that the end validity date is greater than the start validity date. For example, the following command would create a certificate with start date 1 day and 2 hours ago and an end date of Jan 22nd, 2007 at 12:00:00 local time.
# ikecert certlocal -ks -t rsa-sha256 -m 4096 \ -D "CN=mycert, O=Sun, C=US" \ -S -1d2h -F "01/22/2007 12:00:00"
As in.iked(8) can run only in the global zone, kernel zones, and exclusive-IP zones, this command is not useful in shared-IP zones.