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man pages section 8: System Administration Commands

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Updated: Thursday, March 14, 2019
 
 

auditreduce(8)

Name

auditreduce - merge and select audit records from audit trail files

Synopsis

auditreduce [options] [
audit-trail-file]...

Description

auditreduce allows you to select or merge records from audit trail files. Audit files can be from one or more machines.

The merge function merges together audit records from one or more input audit trail files into a single output file. The records in an audit trail file are assumed to be sorted in chronological order (oldest first) and this order is maintained by auditreduce in the output file.

Unless instructed otherwise, auditreduce will merge the entire audit trail, which consists of all the audit trail files in the directory structure audit_root_dir/* (see audit.log(5) for details of the structure of the audit root). Unless specified with the -R or -S option, audit_root_dir defaults to /var/audit. By using the file selection options it is possible to select some subset of these files, or files from another directory, or files named explicitly on the command line.

The select function allows audit records to be selected on the basis of numerous criteria relating to the record's content (see audit.log(5) for details of record content). A record must meet all of the record-selection-option criteria to be selected. Only users with the PRIV_FILE_DAC_READ privilege can use the auditreduce utility. This privilege is included in the Audit Review rights profile.

Audit Trail Filename Format

Any audit trail file not named on the command line must conform to the audit trail filename format. Files produced by the audit system already have this format. Output file names produced by auditreduce are in this format. It is:

start-time. end-time
. suffix

where start-time is the 14-character timestamp of when the file was opened, end-time is the 14-character timestamp of when the file was closed, and suffix is the name of the machine which generated the audit trail file, or some other meaningful suffix (for example, all, if the file contains a combined group of records from many machines). The end-time can be the literal string not_terminated, to indicate that the file is still being written to by the audit system. Timestamps are of the form yyyymmddhhmmss (year, month, day, hour, minute, second). The timestamps are in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

Options

File Selection Options

The file selection options indicate which files are to be processed and certain types of special treatment.

–A

All of the records from the input files will be selected regardless of their timestamp. This option effectively disables the –a, –b, and –d options. This is useful in preventing the loss of records if the –D option is used to delete the input files after they are processed. Note, however, that if a record is not selected due to another option, then –A will not override that.

–C

Only process complete files. Files whose filename end-time timestamp is not_terminated are not processed (such a file is currently being written to by the audit system). This is useful in preventing the loss of records if –D is used to delete the input files after they are processed. It does not apply to files specified on the command line.

–D suffix

Delete input files after they are read if the entire run is successful. If auditreduce detects an error while reading a file, then that file is not deleted. If –D is specified, –A, –C and –O are also implied. suffix is given to the –O option. This helps prevent the loss of audit records by ensuring that all of the records are written, only complete files are processed, and the records are written to a file before being deleted. Note that if both –D and –O are specified in the command line, the order of specification is significant. The suffix associated with the latter specification is in effect.

–M machine

Allows selection of records from files with machine as the filename suffix. If –M is not specified, all files are processed regardless of suffix. –M can also be used to allow selection of records from files that contain combined records from many machines and have a common suffix (such as all).

–N

Select objects in new mode.This flag is off by default, thus retaining backward compatibility. In the existing, old mode, specifying the –e, –f, –g, –r, or –u flags would select not only actions taken with those IDs, but also certain objects owned by those IDs. When running in new mode, only actions are selected. In order to select objects, the –o option must be used.

–O suffix

Direct output stream to a file in the current audit_root_dir with the indicated suffix. suffix can alternatively contain a full pathname, in which case the last component is taken as the suffix, ahead of which the timestamps will be placed, ahead of which the remainder of the pathname will be placed. If the -O option is not specified, the output is sent to the standard output. When auditreduce places timestamps in the filename, it uses the times of the first and last records in the merge as the start-time and end-time.

–Q

Quiet. Suppress notification about errors with input files.

–R pathname

Specify the pathname of an alternate audit root directory audit_root_dir to be pathname. Therefore, rather than using /var/audit by default, pathname/* will be examined instead.


Note - The root file system of any non-global zones must not be referenced with the –R option. Doing so might damage the global zone's file system, might compromise the security of the global zone, and might damage the non-global zone's file system. See zones(7).
–S specific_directory

This option causes auditreduce to read audit trail files from a specific location (specific_directory). specific_directory is normally interpreted as the name of a subdirectory of the audit root, therefore auditreduce will look in audit_root_dir/specific_directory for the audit trail files. But if specific_directory contains any backslash characters (/), it is the name of a directory not necessarily contained in the audit root. In this case, specific_directory will be consulted. This option allows archived files to be manipulated easily, without requiring that they be physically located in a directory structure like that of /var/audit.

–V

Verbose. Display the name of each file as it is opened, and how many records total were written to the output stream.

Record Selection Options

The record selection options listed below are used to indicate which records are written to the output file produced by auditreduce.

Multiple arguments of the same type are not permitted.

–a date-time

Select records that occurred at or after date-time. The date-time argument is described under Option Arguments, below. date-time is in local time. The –a and –b options can be used together to form a range.

–b date-time

Select records that occurred before date-time.

–c audit-classes

Select records by audit class. Records with events that are mapped to the audit classes specified by audit-classes are selected. Audit class names are defined in audit_class(5). The audit-classes can be a comma separated list of audit flags like those described in audit_flags(7). Using the audit flags, one can select records based upon success and failure criteria.

–d date-time

Select records that occurred on a specific day (a 24-hour period beginning at 00:00:00 of the day specified and ending at 23:59:59). The day specified is in local time. The time portion of the argument, if supplied, is ignored. Any records with timestamps during that day are selected. If any hours, minutes, or seconds are given in time, they are ignored. –d can not be used with –a or –b.

–e effective-user

Select records with the specified effective-user.

–f effective-group

Select records with the specified effective-group.

–g real-group

Select records with the specified real-group.

–j subject-ID

Select records with the specified subject-ID where subject-ID is a process ID.

–L clearance

Select records with the specified process clearance (or clearance range), as explained under "Option Arguments" below. This option is not available when Trusted Extensions is enabled.

–l label

Select records with the specified sensitivity label (or label range), as explained under "Option Arguments" below.

–m audit-events

Select records which match one of the indicated events. An audit event is the literal string or the event number. Audit events are defined in audit_event. Multiple events are comma separated. For more information, see the audit_event(5) man page.

–o object_type=objectID_value

Select records by object type. A match occurs when the record contains the information describing the specified object_type and the object ID equals the value specified by objectID_value. The allowable object types and values are as follows:

annotation=text

Select records that contain annotation which contains the text. The text may be a regular expression. For example, annotation='.*' will select all audit records which contain any annotation. For more information, see the regex(7) man page.

auth=authorization

Select records containing information about used authorization. A wild card authorization will have a period or backslash at the end of the authorization name, and records with specific used authorization objects (including the wildcard) are selected.

cipher=name

Select records that contain the names of ciphers. The following command can be used to print out the names of the ciphers that can appear in audit records.

# svccfg -s cryptosvc listprop -G policy
file=pathname

Select records containing path tokens with the specified pathname, where pathname is a comma separated list of regular expressions. If a regular expression is preceded by a tilde (~), files matching the expression are excluded from the output. For example, the option file=~/usr/X11,/usr,/etc would select all files in /usr or /etc except those in /usr/X11. The order of the regular expressions is important because auditreduce processes them from left to right, and stops when a file is known to be either selected or excluded. Thus the option file=/usr,/etc,~/usr/X11 would select all files in /usr and all files in /etc. Files in /usr/X11 are not excluded because the regular expression /usr is matched first. Care should be given in surrounding the pathname with quotes so as to prevent the shell from expanding any tildes.

filegroup=group

Select records containing file system objects with group as the owning group.

fileowner=user

Select records containing file system objects with user as the owning user.

fmri=service_instance

Select records containing fault management resource identifier (FMRI) objects with the specified service instance. See smf(7).

group=group name

Select records containing the group object whose name is specified. Group objects are generally specified for administrative actions on a group.

msgqid=ID

Select records containing message queue objects with the specified ID where ID is a message queue ID.

msgqgroup=group

Select records containing message queue objects with group as the owning or creating group.

msgqowner=user

Select records containing message queue objects with user as the owning or creating user.

path=pathname

Select records containing path tokens with the specified pathname, where pathname is a comma separated list of regular expressions. This is equivalent to "file=pathname". For regular expression semantics see "file=pathname" above.

pid=ID

Select records containing process objects with the specified ID where ID is a process ID. Process are objects when they are receivers of signals.

procgroup=group

Select records containing process objects with group as the real or effective group.

procowner=user

Select records containing process objects with user as the real or effective user.

semid=ID

Select records containing semaphore objects with the specified ID where ID is a semaphore ID.

semgroup=group

Select records containing semaphore objects with group as the owning or creating group.

semowner=user

Select records containing semaphore objects with user as the owning or creating user.

shmid=ID

Select records containing shared memory objects with the specified ID where ID is a shared memory ID.

shmgroup=group

Select records containing shared memory objects with group as the owning or creating group.

shmowner=user

Select records containing shared memory objects with user as the owning or creating user.

sock=port_number|machine

Select records containing socket objects with the specified port_number or the specified machine where machine is a machine name as defined in hosts(5).

user=user

Select records containing the user object for the user specified. User objects are generally specified for administrative actions on a user.

–r real-user

Select records with the specified real-user.

–s session-id

Select audit records with the specified session-id.

–t [tags-file:]tag[,tag ...]

Select audit records which match the definition for one or more of the specified tags. Tags can be specified as provider or tag-name. If a provider is specified then only the corresponding tag definition from that provider is used.

An alternate tags-file can be specified. If no file is specified, then the system tags definitions are used. The tag name and tag filename may not contain ":".

For more details on including information about default tag names, see audit_tags(5).

–u audit-user

Select records with the specified audit-user.

–z zone-name

Select records from the specified zone name. The zone name selection is case-sensitive.

When one or more filename arguments appear on the command line, only the named files are processed. Files specified in this way need not conform to the audit trail filename format. However, –M, –S, and –R must not be used when processing named files. If the filename is ``−'' then the input is taken from the standard input.

Option Arguments

audit-trail-file

An audit trail file as defined in audit.log(5). An audit trail file not named on the command line must conform to the audit trail file name format. Audit trail files produced as output of auditreduce are in this format as well. The format is:

start-time .  end-time .  suffix

start-time is the 14 character time stamp denoting when the file was opened. end-time is the 14 character time stamp denoting when the file was closed. end-time can also be the literal string not_terminated, indicating the file is still be written to by the audit daemon or the file was not closed properly (a system crash or abrupt halt occurred). suffix is the name of the machine that generated the audit trail file (or some other meaningful suffix; for example, all would be a good suffix if the audit trail file contains a combined group of records from many machines).

date-time

The date-time argument to –a, –b, and –d can be of two forms: An absolute date-time takes the form:

yyyymmdd [ hh [ mm [ ss ]]]

where yyyy specifies a year (with 1970 as the earliest value), mm is the month (01-12), dd is the day (01-31), hh is the hour (00-23), mm is the minute (00-59), and ss is the second (00-59). The default is 00 for hh, mm and ss.

An offset can be specified as: +n d|h|m| s where n is a number of units, and the tags d, h, m, and s stand for days, hours, minutes and seconds, respectively. An offset is relative to the starting time. Thus, this form can only be used with the –b option.

event

The literal string or ordinal event number as found in audit_event(5). If event is not found in the audit_event file it is considered invalid.

group

The literal string or ordinal group ID number as found in group(5). If group is not found in the group file it is considered invalid. group can be negative.

label or clearance

The literal string representation of a MAC label or a range of two valid MAC labels. To specify a range, use x;y where x and y are valid MAC labels. Only those records that are fully bounded by x and y will be selected. If x or y is omitted, the default uses ADMIN_LOW or ADMIN_HIGH respectively. Notice that quotes must be used when specifying a range.

Unless Trusted Extensions is enabled, the ADMIN_LOW label is not recorded as a file attribute. Therefore, it will not match any file access events.

pathname

A regular expression describing a pathname.

user

The literal username or ordinal user ID number as found in passwd(5). If the username is not found in the passwd file it is considered invalid. user can be negative.

Examples

Example 1 Using auditreduce

praudit(8) is available to display audit records in a human-readable form.

This will display the entire audit trail in a human-readable form:

% auditreduce | praudit

If all the audit trail files are being combined into one large file, then deleting the original files could be desirable to prevent the records from appearing twice:

% auditreduce -V -D /var/audit/combined/all

This displays what user milner did on April 13, 1988. The output is displayed in a human-readable form to the standard output:

% auditreduce -d 19880413 -u milner | praudit

The above example might produce a large volume of data if milner has been busy. Perhaps looking at only login and logout times would be simpler. The –c option will select records from a specified class:

% auditreduce -d 19880413 -u milner -c lo | praudit

To see milner's login/logout activity for April 13, 14, and 15, the following is used. The results are saved to a file in the current working directory. Notice that the name of the output file will have milnerlo as the suffix, with the appropriate timestamp prefixes. Notice also that the long form of the name is used for the –c option:

% auditreduce -a 19880413 -b +3d -u milner -c login_logout -O milnerlo

To follow milner's movement about the file system on April 13, 14, and 15 the chdir record types could be viewed. Notice that in order to get the same time range as the above example we needed to specify the –b time as the day after our range. This is because 19880416 defaults to midnight of that day, and records before that fall on 0415, the end-day of the range.

% auditreduce -a 19880413 -b 19880416 -u milner -m AUE_CHDIR | praudit

In this example, the audit records are being collected in summary form (the login/logout records only). The records are being written to a summary file in a different directory than the normal audit root to prevent the selected records from existing twice in the audit root.

% auditreduce -d 19880330 -c lo -O /var/audit/audit_summary/logins

If activity for user ID 9944 has been observed, but that user is not known to the system administrator, then the command in the following example searches the entire audit trail for any records generated by that user. auditreduce queries the system about the current validity of ID 9944 and displays a warning message if it is not currently active:

% auditreduce -O /var/audit/audit_suspect/user9944 -u 9944

To get an audit log of only the global zone:

% auditreduce -z global

To see the activity matching only the "file" and "user" tags:

% auditreduce -t file,user | praudit

To see the activity matching only the Solaris "net" tag:

% auditreduce -t solaris/net | praudit

Files

/var/audit/*

Default location of audit trails, when stored

Attributes

See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

ATTRIBUTE TYPE
ATTRIBUTE VALUE
Availability
system/core-os
Interface Stability
See below

The command invocation is Committed. The binary file format is Committed. The binary file contents is Uncommitted.

See Also

praudit(8), audit.log(5), audit_class(5), audit_tags(5), group(5), hosts(5), passwd(5), attributes(7), audit_flags(7), privileges(7), smf(7)

Managing Auditing in Oracle Solaris 11.4

Diagnostics

auditreduce displays error messages if there are command line errors and then exits. If there are fatal errors during the run, auditreduce displays an explanatory message and exits. In this case, the output file might be in an inconsistent state (no trailer or partially written record) and auditreduce displays a warning message before exiting. Successful invocation returns 0 and unsuccessful invocation returns 1.

Since auditreduce might be processing a large number of input files, it is possible that the machine-wide limit on open files will be exceeded. If this happens, auditreduce displays a message to that effect, give information on how many file there are, and exit.

If auditreduce displays a record's timestamp in a diagnostic message, that time is in local time. However, when filenames are displayed, their timestamps are in UTC.

Bugs

Conjunction, disjunction, negation, and grouping of record selection options should be allowed.

Notes

The –z option should be used only if the audit policy zonename is set. If there is no zonename token, then no records will be selected.