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man pages section 8: System Administration Commands

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Updated: Wednesday, February 10, 2021
 
 

usermod(8)

Name

useradd, roleadd, usermod, rolemod - administer an existing or add a new user or role login to the system

Synopsis

useradd [-A authorization
 [,authorization...]]
     [-b base_dir | -d dir] [-c 
comment] [
-e expire]
     [-f inactive] [-g 
group] [-G group [,
group]...]
     [-K key=value] [-m [
-k skel_dir]] [-p 
projname] 
     [-z yes | no | nodelegation]
     [-P profile [,profile...]]
     [-R role [, role...]] 
     [-s shell] [-S 
repository] [-u uid [
-o]] username
roleadd [-A authorization
 [,authorization...]] 
     [-b base_dir | -d dir] [-c 
comment] [
-e expire] 
     [-f inactive] [-g 
group] [-G group [,
group]...] 
     [-K key=value] [-m [
-k skel_dir]] [-p 
projname] 
     [-z yes | no | nodelegation]
     [-P profile [,profile...]]
     [-s shell] [-S 
repository] [-u uid [
-o]] rolename
useradd -D [-A 
authorization [,authorization...]]
     [-b base_dir] [-s 
shell [-k skel_dir]] [
-e expire]
     [-f inactive] [-g 
group] [-K key=value] [
-p projname] 
     [-P profile [,profile...]]
usermod [-A authorization
 [,authorization...]] 
     [-d dir] [-c 
comment] [
-e expire] 
     [-f inactive] [-g 
group] [-G group [,
group]...] 
     [-K key=value] [-m [
-k skel_dir]] [-p 
projname] 
     [-z yes | no | nodelegation]
     [-P profile [,profile...]]
     [-R role [, role...]] 
     [-l new_username]
     [-q qualifier
     [-s shell] [-S 
repository] [-u uid [
-o]] username
rolemod [-A authorization
 [,authorization...]] 
     [-d dir] [-c 
comment] [
-e expire] 
     [-f inactive] [-g 
group] [-G group [,
group]...] 
     [-K key=value] [-m [
-k skel_dir]] [-p 
projname] 
     [-z yes | no | nodelegation]
     [-P profile [,profile...]]
     [-l new_rolename]
     [-q qualifier
     [-s shell] [-S 
repository] [-u uid [
-o]] rolename

Description

useradd adds a new user to the passwd, shadow, and user_attr databases in the files and ldap repositories. The –A and –P options respectively assign authorizations and profiles to the user. The –R option assigns roles to a user. The –p option associates a project with a user. The –K option adds a key=value pair to user_attr entry for the user. Multiple key=value pairs may be added with multiple –K options.

useradd also creates supplementary group memberships for the user (–G option) and creates the home directory (– m option) for the user if requested. The new login remains locked until the passwd(1) command is executed.

Specifying useradd –D with the –s , –k,–g, –b, –f, – e, –A, –P, –p, –R , or –K option (or any combination of these options) sets the default values for the respective fields. See the –D option, below. Subsequent useradd commands without the –D option use these arguments.

Alternatively, default settings may be specified that are applied dynamically at run time. For accounts that are created using –S ldap, the default values for any of the –K attributes may be specified using –S ldap and the special value default@ as the account name. The default@ account is automatically locked since it is not intended to be used for logins. Additional default values may be specified in policy.conf(5).

useradd requires that usernames be in the format described in passwd(5). A warning message is displayed if these restrictions are not met. See passwd(5) for the requirements for usernames.

When used with usermod or rolemod the –A, –G, –K, –P, and –R options may take a list of values to add or remove to the granted set using the [+|-]prefix. A prefix + adds the value to the existing set; a prefix - removes the value from the existing granted set. To remove all values an empty list must be specified using '', or any appropriate equivalent according to the shell in use.

An administrator must be granted the User Management Profile to be able to create a new user. The authorizations required to set the various fields in passwd, shadow and user_attr can be found in passwd(5), shadow(5), and user_attr(5). The authorizations required to assign groups and projects can be found in group(5) and project(5).

Options

The following options are supported:

–A [+|-]authorization

One or more comma-separated authorizations defined in auth_attr(5). Only a user or role who has grant rights to the authorization can assign it to an account.

–b base_dir

The base directory for new login home directories (see the – d option below. When a new user account is being created, base_dir must already exist unless the –m option or the –d option is also specified.

–c comment

Any text string. It is generally a short description of the login, and is currently used as the field for the user's full name. This information is stored in the user's passwd entry.

–d dir | server:dir

Specifies the home directory path for the new user. If no server name is specified, the specified directory is maintained in the passwd(5) database.

The optional server name specifies the host on which the home directory resides. Entries in this form depend on the automounter, and are maintained in the auto_home map. The path /home/ username is maintained in the passwd(5) database. When the user subsequently references /home/username, the automounter will mount the specified directory on /home/ username.

–D

Display the default values for group, base_dir, skel_dir, shell, inactive, expire, proj, projname, zfshome, and key=value pairs. When used with the –g, –b, –f, –e, – A, –P, –p, –R, or – K options, the –D option sets the default values for the specified fields. The default values are:

group

other (GID of 1)

base_dir

/export/home

skel_dir

/etc/skel

shell

/usr/bin/bash

inactive

0

expire

null

auths

null

profiles

null

auth_profiles

null

proj

3

projname

default

zfshome

yes

key=value (pairs defined in user_attr(5)

not present

roles

null

–e expire

Specify the expiration date for a login. After this date, no user will be able to access this login. The expire option argument is a date entered using one of the date formats included in the template file /etc/datemsk. See getdate(3C).

If the date format that you choose includes spaces, it must be quoted. For example, you can enter 10/6/90 or October 6, 1990. A null value (" ") defeats the status of the expired date. This option is useful for creating temporary logins.

–f inactive

The maximum number of days allowed between uses of a login ID before that ID is declared invalid. Normal values are positive integers. A value of 0 defeats the status.

–g group

An existing group's integer ID or character-string name. Without the –D option, it defines the new user's primary group membership and defaults to the default group. You can reset this default value by invoking useradd –D –g group. GIDs 0-99 are reserved for allocation by the Solaris Operating System.

–G [+|-]group

An existing group's integer ID or character-string name. It defines the new user's supplementary group membership. Duplicates between group with the –g and – G options are ignored. No more than NGROUPS_MAX groups can be specified. GIDs 0-99 are reserved for allocation by the Solaris Operating System.

–K key[+|-]=value

A key=value pair to add to the user's attributes. Multiple –K options may be used to add multiple key=value pairs. The generic –K option with the appropriate key may be used instead of the specific implied key options (–A, –P, –R, –p). See user_attr(5) for a list of valid key=value pairs. The “type” key is not a valid key for this option. Keys may not be repeated.

–k skel_dir

A directory that contains skeleton information (such as .profile) that can be copied into a new user's home directory. This directory must already exist. The system provides the /etc/skel directory that can be used for this purpose.

–m

Create the new user's home directory if it does not already exist. If the directory already exists, it must have read, write, and execute permissions by group, where group is the user's primary group. If the server name specified to the –d option is a remote host then the system will not attempt to create the home directory.

When the -z option is not passed and if the directory does not already exist and the parent directory is the mount point of a ZFS dataset, then a child of that dataset will be created and mounted at the specified location. The user is delegated permissions to create ZFS snapshots and promote them. The newly created dataset will inherit the encryption setting from its parent. If it is encrypted, the user is granted permission to change its wrapping key.

The newly created directory is created as multilevel dataset.

–l new_loginname

The new login name for a user or role. Only valid with usermod and rolemod.

–o

This option allows a UID to be duplicated (non-unique).

–P [+|-]profile

One or more comma-separated execution profiles defined in prof_attr(5).

–p projname

Name of the project with which the added user is associated. See the projname field as defined in project(5).

–R [+|-]role

One or more comma-separated execution profiles defined in user_attr(5). Roles cannot be assigned to other roles.

–s shell

Full pathname of the program used as the user's shell on login. If unspecified, it will default to any value previously configured with the –D –s option. If no default has been set with –D –s, then /usr/bin/bash will be used. The value of shell must be a valid executable file.

–z zfshome

Select if a new separate ZFS filesystem is created as the user/role home directory. The option can be set as the system wide default or set per user/role.

yes

User has their own ZFS filesystem with the mount,create,snapshot zfs allow delegations

nodelegation

User has their own ZFS filesystem but with no delegations

no

Users home is a simple directory

–S repository

The repository specifies which name service will be updated. The valid repositories are files and ldap. The default repository is files. When the repository is files, the authorizations, profiles, and roles can be present in other name service repositories and can be assigned to a user in the files repository. When the repository is ldap, all the assignable attributes must be present in the ldap repository, and both the LDAP server and client must be configured with enableShadowUpdate. See ldapclient(8) for details.

–u uid

The UID of the new user. This UID must be a non-negative decimal integer below MAXUID as defined in <sys/param.h>. The UID defaults to the next available (unique) number above the highest number currently assigned. For example, if UIDs 100, 105, and 200 are assigned, the next default UID number will be 201. UIDs 0-99 are reserved for allocation by the Solaris Operating System.

Examples

Example 1 Creating a User

The following command adds adds the user with the default configuration

# useradd jdoe

This results in the system assigning the next available uid, the user will not have a home directory created for them.

Example 2 Creating a User with a specified uid and create a local home directory

The following command adds adds the user and creates their home directory in the default location

# useradd -u 1001 -m jdoe
Example 3 Creating a User with a local home directory that is not a ZFS filesystem

The following command adds adds the user and creates their home directory in the default location

# useradd -z no -m jdoe

This results in new user with a directory in the default location as their home directory.

Example 4 Set the system default for the type of home directory

The following command sets the system wide default to be a directory rather than a per-user ZFS file system as the default home directory type.

# useradd -D -z no
Example 5 Assigning Privileges to a User

The following command adds the privilege that affects high resolution times to a user's initial, inheritable set of privileges.

# usermod -K defaultpriv=basic,proc_clock_highres jdoe

This command results in the following entry in user_attr:

jdoe::::type=normal;defaultpriv=basic,proc_clock_highres
Example 6 Removing a Privilege from a User's Limit Set

The following command removes the privilege that allows the specified user to create hard links to directories and to unlink directories.

# usermod -K limitpriv=all,!sys_linkdir jdoe

This command results in the following entry in user_attr:

jdoe::::type=normal;defaultpriv=basic,limitpriv=all,!sys_linkdir
Example 7 Removing a Privilege from a User's Basic Set

The following command removes the privilege that allows the specified user to examine processes outside the user's session.

# usermod -K defaultpriv=basic,!proc_session jdoe

This command results in the following entry in user_attr:

jdoe::::type=normal;defaultpriv=basic,!proc_session;limitpriv=all
Example 8 Assigning a Role to a User

The following command assigns a role to a user. The role must have been created prior to this command through use of roleadd(8).

# usermod -R mailadm jdoe

This command results in the following entry in user_attr:

jdoe::::type=normal;roles=mailadm;defaultpriv=basic;limitpriv=all
Example 9 Granting Several Rights to a User

The following command grants the solaris.zone.manage authorization, Project Management rights profile, sets limit privilege to basic and assigns the mailadm role to the user.

# usermod -A 'solaris.zone.manage' -P 'Project Management' -K limitpriv=basic
 -R mailadm -S files jdoe_ldap

This command results in the following entry in user_attr:

jdoe_ldap::::auths=solaris.zone.manage;profiles=ProjectManagement;limitpriv=basic;
roles=mailadm
Example 10 Granting an Authenticated Rights Profile to a User

The following command adds an authenticated rights profile to a trusted user.

# usermod -K auth_profiles+="Network Security" jdoe
Example 11 Removing All Profiles from a User

The following command removes all profiles that were granted to a user directly. The user will still have any rights profiles that are granted by means of the PROFS_GRANTED key in policy.conf(5).

# usermod -P "" jdoe
Example 12 Set the root account to be a role

Set the root account to be a role and assign the role to a user.

# usermod -K type=role root
# usermod -R +root jdoe

This will change the root account to be a role and add the root role to any existing role assignments for the user jdoe.

Example 13 Set the root account back to a login account

Change the root account from being a role to a direct login account.

# rolemod -K type=normal root

This will change the root account to no longer be a role, so direct login to it on the console will be allowed.

Example 14 Deleting a User

Delete the user and remove their home directory.

# userdel -r jdoe

This will remove the user entry from the passwd, shadow, group and user_attr databases, and will delete the users home directory and all of its content.

Exit Status

In case of an error, useradd prints an error message and exits with one of the following values:

1

No permission for attempted operation.

2

The command syntax was invalid. A usage message for the usermod command is displayed.

3

An invalid argument was provided to an option.

4

The gid or uid given with the –u option is already in use.

5

The password and shadow files are not consistent with each other. pwconv(8) might be of use to correct possible errors. See passwd(5) and shadow(5).

6

The login to be modified does not exist, the gid or the uid does not exist.

7

The group, passwd, or shadow file is missing.

9

A group or user name is already in use.

10

Cannot update the passwd, shadow, or user_attr file.

11

Insufficient space to move the home directory (–m option).

12

Unable to create, remove, or move the new home directory.

13

Requested login is already in use.

14

Unexpected failure.

16

Unable to update the group database.

17

Unable to update the project database.

18

Insufficient authorization.

19

Does not have role.

20

Does not have profile.

21

Does not have privilege.

22

Does not have label.

23

Does not have group.

24

System not running Trusted Extensions.

25

Does not have project.

26

Unable to update auto_home.

Files

/etc/datemsk

/etc/passwd

/etc/shadow

/etc/group

/etc/skel

/usr/include/limits.h

/etc/user_attr

Attributes

See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

ATTRIBUTE TYPE
ATTRIBUTE VALUE
Availability
system/core-os
Interface Stability
Committed

See Also

auths(1), passwd(1), profiles(1), roles(1), getdate(3C), auth_attr(5), group(5), passwd(5), prof_attr(5), project(5), user_attr(5), attributes(7), labels(7), groupadd(8), groupdel(8), groupmod(8), grpck(8), logins(8), pwck(8), userdel(8), usermod(8)

Managing User Accounts and User Environments in Oracle Solaris 11.4

Working With Oracle Solaris 11.4 Directory and Naming Services: LDAP

Diagnostics

In case of an error, useradd displays an error message and exits with a non-zero status. If the error occurred because LDAP is misconfigured, the error message is preceded by "LDAP configuration problem".

The following indicates that login specified is already in use:

UX: useradd: ERROR: login is already in use. Choose another.

The following indicates that the uid specified with the –u option is not unique:

UX: useradd: ERROR: uid uid is already in use. Choose another.

The following indicates that the group specified with the –g option has not yet been created:

UX: useradd: ERROR: group group does not exist. Choose another.

The following indicates that the uid specified with the –u option is in the range of reserved UIDs (from 0-99):

UX: useradd: WARNING: uid uid is reserved.

The following indicates that the uid specified with the –u option exceeds MAXUID as defined in <sys/param.h>:

UX: useradd: ERROR: uid uid is too big. Choose another.

The following indicates that the /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow files do not exist:

UX: useradd: ERROR: Cannot update system files - login cannot be created.

The following indicates that the user executing the command does not have sufficient authorization to perform the operation:

UX: useradd: ERROR: Permission denied.

The following indicates that an invalid directory was specified in a useradd command:

UX: invalid_directory is not a valid directory. Choose another.

Notes

The useradd utility adds definitions to the passwd, shadow, group, project, and user_attr databases in the scope (default or specified). It will verify the uniqueness of the user name (or role) and user id and the existence of any group names specified against the external name service.