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man pages section 8: System Administration Commands

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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019

sg_ses_microcode (8)


sg_ses_microcode - send microcode to a SCSI enclosure


sg_ses_microcode     [--bpw=CS]    [--help]    [--id=ID]    [--in=FILE]
[--length=LEN]   [--mode=MO]   [--non]   [--offset=OFF]   [--skip=SKIP]
[--subenc=MS] [--tlength=TLEN] [--verbose] [--version] DEVICE


SG_SES_MICROCODE(8)                SG3_UTILS               SG_SES_MICROCODE(8)

       sg_ses_microcode - send microcode to a SCSI enclosure

       sg_ses_microcode     [--bpw=CS]    [--help]    [--id=ID]    [--in=FILE]
       [--length=LEN]   [--mode=MO]   [--non]   [--offset=OFF]   [--skip=SKIP]
       [--subenc=MS] [--tlength=TLEN] [--verbose] [--version] DEVICE

       This  utility attempts to download microcode to an enclosure (or one of
       its sub-enclosures) associated with the DEVICE. The process  for  doing
       this  is  defined  in  the  SCSI Enclosure Services (SES) standards and
       drafts maintained by the T10 committee.

       The process is to send one or more sequences  containing  a  SCSI  SEND
       DIAGNOSTIC  command followed optionally by a RECEIVE DIAGNOSTIC RESULTS
       command. The former sends a Download microcode Control diagnostic  page
       (dpage)  and the latter fetches a Download microcode status dpage which
       can be viewed as a report on the former command.

       The default action (i.e. when the --mode=MO option is not given) is  to
       fetch  the Download microcode status dpage and decode it. This does not
       require the microcode (firmware) itself so the --in=FILE option is  not

       The  most recent reference for this utility is the draft SCSI Enclosure
       Services 3 (SES-3) document T10/2149-D Revision 7 at http://www.t10.org
       .   Existing  standards  for SES and SES-2 are ANSI INCITS 305-1998 and
       ANSI INCITS 448-2008 respectively.

       Most other support for SES in  this  package  (apart  from  downloading
       microcode) can be found in the sg_ses utility. Another way of download-
       ing firmware to a SCSI device is with the WRITE BUFFER command  defined
       in SPC-4, see the sg_write_buffer utility.

       Arguments to long options are mandatory for short options as well.

       -b, --bpw=CS
              where  CS is the chunk size in bytes and should be a multiple of
              4.  This will be the maximum number of bytes sent per SEND DIAG-
              NOSTIC  command.   So if CS is less than the effective length of
              the microcode then multiple SEND DIAGNOSTIC commands  are  sent,
              each taking the next chunk from the read data and increasing the
              buffer offset field in the Download microcode control  dpage  by
              the  appropriate  amount. The default is a chunk size of 0 which
              is interpreted as a very large number hence only one SEND  DIAG-
              NOSTIC command will be sent.
              The number in CS can optionally be followed by ",act" or ",acti-
              vate".  In this case after the microcode has  been  successfully
              sent  to  the  DEVICE,  an additional Download microcode control
              dpage with its mode set to "Activate deferred  microcode"  [0xf]
              is sent.

       -h, --help
              output  the usage message then exit. If used multiple times also
              prints the mode names and their acronyms.

       -i, --id=ID
              this option sets the BUFFER ID field in the  Download  microcode
              control  dpage. ID is a value between 0 (default) and 255 inclu-

       -I, --in=FILE
              read data from file FILE that will be sent with the  SEND  DIAG-
              NOSTIC  command.  If FILE is '-' then stdin is read until an EOF
              is detected (this is the same action as  --raw).  Data  is  read
              from the beginning of FILE except in the case when it is a regu-
              lar file and the --skip=SKIP option is given.

       -l, --length=LEN
              where LEN is the length, in bytes, of data to be written to  the
              device.   If  not  given  (and the length cannot be deduced from
              --in=FILE or --raw) then defaults to  zero.  If  the  option  is
              given and the length deduced from --in=FILE or --raw is less (or
              no data is provided), then bytes of 0xff are used as fill bytes.

       -m, --mode=MO
              this option sets the MODE. MO is a value  between  0  (which  is
              dmc_status  and the default) and 255 inclusive. Alternatively an
              abbreviation can be given. See the MODES section below. To  list
              the available mode abbreviations at run time give an invalid one
              (e.g. '--mode=xxx') or use the '-h' option.

       -N, --non
              allow for non-standard implementations that reset their Download
              microcode engine after a RECEIVE DIAGNOSTIC RESULTS command with
              the Download microcode status dpage is sent. When this option is
              given  sending  that  command  and  dpage combination is avoided
              unless an error has already occurred.

       -o, --offset=OFF
              this option  sets  the  BUFFER  OFFSET  field  in  the  Download
              microcode  control dpage. OFF is a value between 0 (default) and
              2**32-1 . It is a byte offset.

       -s, --skip=SKIP
              this option is only active when --in=FILE is given and FILE is a
              regular  file,  rather than stdin. Data is read starting at byte
              offset SKIP  to  the  end  of  file  (or  the  amount  given  by
              --length=LEN).  If not given the byte offset defaults to 0 (i.e.
              the start of the file).

       -S, --subenc=SEID
              SEID is the subenclosure identify. It defaults to 0 which is the
              primary enclosure identifier.

       -t, --tlength=TLEN
              TLEN  is  the  total  length in bytes of the microcode to be (or
              being) downloaded. It defaults to 0 which is okay in most cases.
              This  option is only needed when sections of microcode and being
              sent in separate invocations of this utility.

       -v, --verbose
              increase the level of verbosity, (i.e. debug output).

       -V, --version
              print the version string and then exit.

       Following is a list accepted by the MO argument of this utility.  First
       shown  is  an  acronym followed in square brackets by the corresponding
       decimal and hex values that may also be given for MO.

       dmc_status  [0, 0x0]
              Use RECEIVE DIAGNOSTIC RESULTS to fetch the  Download  microcode
              status dpage and print it out.

       dmc_offs  [6, 0x6]
              Download microcode with offsets and activate.

       dmc_offs_save  [7, 0x7]
              Download microcode with offsets, save, and activate.

       dmc_offs_defer  [14, 0xe]
              Download microcode with offsets, save, and defer activate.

       activate_mc  [15, 0xf]
              Activate deferred microcode. There is no follow-up RECEIVE DIAG-
              NOSTIC RESULTS to fetch  the  Download  microcode  status  dpage
              since the DEVICE might be resetting.

       Apart  from dmc_status, these are placed in the Download microcode mode
       field in the Download microcode control dpage. In the case of  dmc_sta-
       tus the Download microcode status dpage is fetch with the RECEIVE DIAG-
       NOSTIC RESULTS command and decoded.

       Firstly, if it succeeds, this utility should stay  silent  and  return.
       Typically vendors will change the "revision" string (which is 4 charac-
       ters long) whenever they release new firmware. That can be seen in  the
       response  to  a  SCSI  INQUIRY command, for example by using the sg_inq
       utility.  It is possible that the  device  needs  to  be  power  cycled
       before  the  new  microcode becomes active. Also if mode dmc_offs_defer
       [0xe] is used to download the microcode, then another  invocation  with
       activate_mc may be needed.

       If  something  goes wrong, there will typically be messages printed out
       by this utility. The first thing to check is the  microcode  (firmware)
       file  itself.  Is  it  designed  for the device model; has it been cor-
       rupted, and if downgrading (i.e. trying to re-instate older  firmware),
       does the vendor allow that?

       Getting  new  firmware  on a device is a delicate operation that is not
       always well defined by T10's standards and drafts. One might  speculate
       that  they are deliberately vague. In testing this utility one vendor's
       interpretation of the  standard  was  somewhat  surprising.  The  --non
       option  was  added  to  cope with their interpretation. So if the above
       suggestions don't help, try adding the --non option.

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | system/storage/sg3_utils |
       |Stability      | Pass-through uncommitted |
       This utility can handle a maximum size of 128  MB  of  microcode  which
       should be sufficient for most purposes. In a system that is memory con-
       strained, such large allocations of memory may fail.

       The user should be aware that most operating systems have limits on the
       amount  of  data  that can be sent with one SCSI command. In Linux this
       depends on the pass through mechanism used (e.g. block SG_IO or the  sg
       driver) and various setting in sysfs in the Linux lk 2.6/3 series (e.g.
       /sys/block/sda/queue/max_sectors_kb). Devices (i.e. logical units) also
       typically  have limits on the maximum amount of data they can handle in
       one command. These two limitations suggest that  modes  containing  the
       word  "offset"  together  with  the  --bpw=CS  option  are  required as
       firmware files get larger and larger. And CS can be  quite  small,  for
       example  4096  bytes,  resulting in many SEND DIAGNOSTIC commands being

       The exact error from the non-standard implementation was a sense key of
       ILLEGAL  REQUEST  and  an  asc/ascq  code of 0x26,0x0 which is "Invalid
       field in parameter list". If that is seen  try  again  with  the  --non

       Downloading incorrect microcode into a device has the ability to render
       that device inoperable. One would hope that the device vendor  verifies
       the data before activating it.

       A  long  (operating system) timeout of 7200 seconds is set on each SEND
       DIAGNOSTIC command.

       All numbers given with options are assumed  to  be  decimal.   Alterna-
       tively  numerical values can be given in hexadecimal preceded by either
       "0x" or "0X" (or has a trailing "h" or "H").

       If no microcode/firmware file is given then this  utility  fetches  and
       decodes  the  Download microcode status dpage which could possibly show
       another initiator in the process of updating  the  microcode.  Even  if
       that  is happening, fetching the status page should not cause any prob-

         sg_ses_microcode /dev/sg3
       Download microcode status diagnostic page:
         number of secondary subenclosures: 0
         generation code: 0x0
          subenclosure identifier: 0 [primary]
            download microcode status:  No  download  microcode  operation  in
       progress [0x0]
            download microcode additional status: 0x0
            download microcode maximum size: 1048576 bytes
            download microcode expected buffer id: 0x0
            download microcode expected buffer id offset: 0

       The  following  sends new microcode/firmware to an enclosure. Sending a
       1.5 MB file in one command caused the enclosure to lock up  temporarily
       and  did  not update the firmware. Breaking the firmware file into 4 KB
       chunks (an educated guess) was more successful:

         sg_ses_microcode -b 4k -m dmc_offs_save -I firmware.bin /dev/sg4

       The firmware update occurred in the following  enclosure  power  cycle.
       With a modern enclosure the Extended Inquiry VPD page gives indications
       in which situations a firmware upgrade will take place.

       The exit status of sg_ses_microcode is 0 when it is successful.  Other-
       wise see the sg3_utils(8) man page.

       Written by Douglas Gilbert.

       Report bugs to <dgilbert at interlog dot com>.

       Copyright (C) 2014 Douglas Gilbert
       This  software is distributed under a FreeBSD license. There is NO war-
       ranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR  A  PARTICULAR  PUR-

       sg_ses, sg_write_buffer(sg3_utils)

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source was downloaded from  http://sg.danny.cz/sg/p/sg3_utils-1.42.tgz

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://sg.danny.cz/sg/sg3_utils.html.

sg3_utils-1.40                   October 2014              SG_SES_MICROCODE(8)