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bash (1)

Name

bash - Again SHell

Synopsis

bash [options] [command_string | file]

Description

BASH(1)                     General Commands Manual                    BASH(1)



NAME
       bash - GNU Bourne-Again SHell

SYNOPSIS
       bash [options] [command_string | file]

COPYRIGHT
       Bash is Copyright (C) 1989-2020 by the Free Software Foundation, Inc.

DESCRIPTION
       Bash  is  an  sh-compatible  command language interpreter that executes
       commands read from the standard input or from a file.  Bash also incor-
       porates useful features from the Korn and C shells (ksh and csh).

       Bash  is  intended  to  be a conformant implementation of the Shell and
       Utilities portion  of  the  IEEE  POSIX  specification  (IEEE  Standard
       1003.1).  Bash can be configured to be POSIX-conformant by default.

OPTIONS
       All of the single-character shell options documented in the description
       of the set builtin command, including -o, can be used as  options  when
       the  shell  is  invoked.   In  addition,  bash interprets the following
       options when it is invoked:

       -c        If the -c option is present, then commands are read from  the
                 first non-option argument command_string.  If there are argu-
                 ments  after  the  command_string,  the  first  argument   is
                 assigned  to  $0  and any remaining arguments are assigned to
                 the positional parameters.  The assignment  to  $0  sets  the
                 name  of  the  shell, which is used in warning and error mes-
                 sages.
       -i        If the -i option is present, the shell is interactive.
       -l        Make bash act as if it had been invoked as a login shell (see
                 INVOCATION below).
       -r        If  the  -r  option  is present, the shell becomes restricted
                 (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).
       -s        If the -s option is present, or if no arguments remain  after
                 option  processing,  then commands are read from the standard
                 input.  This option allows the positional  parameters  to  be
                 set  when invoking an interactive shell or when reading input
                 through a pipe.
       -D        A list of all double-quoted strings preceded by $ is  printed
                 on  the standard output.  These are the strings that are sub-
                 ject to language translation when the current locale is not C
                 or  POSIX.   This  implies the -n option; no commands will be
                 executed.
       [-+]O [shopt_option]
                 shopt_option is one of the  shell  options  accepted  by  the
                 shopt   builtin  (see  SHELL  BUILTIN  COMMANDS  below).   If
                 shopt_option is present, -O sets the value of that option; +O
                 unsets  it.   If  shopt_option is not supplied, the names and
                 values of the shell options accepted by shopt are printed  on
                 the  standard  output.   If  the invocation option is +O, the
                 output is displayed in a format that may be reused as input.
       --        A -- signals the end of options and disables  further  option
                 processing.   Any arguments after the -- are treated as file-
                 names and arguments.  An argument of - is equivalent to --.

       Bash also  interprets  a  number  of  multi-character  options.   These
       options  must  appear  on  the command line before the single-character
       options to be recognized.

       --debugger
              Arrange for the debugger profile to be executed before the shell
              starts.   Turns  on extended debugging mode (see the description
              of the extdebug option to the shopt builtin below).
       --dump-po-strings
              Equivalent to -D, but the output is in the GNU gettext po  (por-
              table object) file format.
       --dump-strings
              Equivalent to -D.
       --help Display  a  usage  message  on standard output and exit success-
              fully.
       --init-file file
       --rcfile file
              Execute commands from file instead of the standard personal ini-
              tialization  file  ~/.bashrc  if  the  shell is interactive (see
              INVOCATION below).

       --login
              Equivalent to -l.

       --noediting
              Do not use the GNU readline library to read command  lines  when
              the shell is interactive.

       --noprofile
              Do  not read either the system-wide startup file /etc/profile or
              any  of  the  personal  initialization  files   ~/.bash_profile,
              ~/.bash_login,  or  ~/.profile.   By  default,  bash reads these
              files when it is  invoked  as  a  login  shell  (see  INVOCATION
              below).

       --norc Do  not  read  and  execute  the  personal  initialization  file
              ~/.bashrc if the shell is interactive.  This  option  is  on  by
              default if the shell is invoked as sh.

       --posix
              Change  the behavior of bash where the default operation differs
              from the POSIX standard to match the standard (posix mode).  See
              SEE  ALSO  below  for a reference to a document that details how
              posix mode affects bash's behavior.

       --restricted
              The shell becomes restricted (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).

       --verbose
              Equivalent to -v.

       --version
              Show version information for this instance of bash on the  stan-
              dard output and exit successfully.

ARGUMENTS
       If arguments remain after option processing, and neither the -c nor the
       -s option has been supplied, the first argument is assumed  to  be  the
       name  of  a file containing shell commands.  If bash is invoked in this
       fashion, $0 is set to the name of the file, and the positional  parame-
       ters  are set to the remaining arguments.  Bash reads and executes com-
       mands from this file, then exits.  Bash's exit status is the exit  sta-
       tus  of  the  last  command executed in the script.  If no commands are
       executed, the exit status is 0.  An attempt is first made to  open  the
       file in the current directory, and, if no file is found, then the shell
       searches the directories in PATH for the script.

INVOCATION
       A login shell is one whose first character of argument zero is a -,  or
       one started with the --login option.

       An  interactive  shell  is  one  started  without  non-option arguments
       (unless -s is specified) and without the -c option whose standard input
       and error are both connected to terminals (as determined by isatty(3)),
       or one started with the -i option.  PS1 is set and  $-  includes  i  if
       bash  is interactive, allowing a shell script or a startup file to test
       this state.

       The following paragraphs describe how bash executes its startup  files.
       If  any  of  the files exist but cannot be read, bash reports an error.
       Tildes are expanded in filenames as described below under Tilde  Expan-
       sion in the EXPANSION section.

       When  bash is invoked as an interactive login shell, or as a non-inter-
       active shell with the --login option, it first reads and executes  com-
       mands  from  the file /etc/profile, if that file exists.  After reading
       that file, it looks for ~/.bash_profile, ~/.bash_login, and ~/.profile,
       in  that order, and reads and executes commands from the first one that
       exists and is readable.  The --noprofile option may be  used  when  the
       shell is started to inhibit this behavior.

       When an interactive login shell exits, or a non-interactive login shell
       executes the exit builtin command, bash  reads  and  executes  commands
       from the file ~/.bash_logout, if it exists.

       When  an  interactive  shell that is not a login shell is started, bash
       reads and executes commands from ~/.bashrc, if that file exists.   This
       may  be inhibited by using the --norc option.  The --rcfile file option
       will force bash to read and  execute  commands  from  file  instead  of
       ~/.bashrc.

       When  bash  is  started  non-interactively,  to run a shell script, for
       example, it looks for the variable BASH_ENV in the environment, expands
       its  value if it appears there, and uses the expanded value as the name
       of a file to read and execute.  Bash behaves as if the  following  com-
       mand were executed:
              if [ -n "$BASH_ENV" ]; then . "$BASH_ENV"; fi
       but  the value of the PATH variable is not used to search for the file-
       name.

       If bash is invoked with the name sh, it  tries  to  mimic  the  startup
       behavior  of  historical  versions  of sh as closely as possible, while
       conforming to the POSIX standard as well.  When invoked as an  interac-
       tive  login  shell, or a non-interactive shell with the --login option,
       it first attempts to read and execute commands  from  /etc/profile  and
       ~/.profile,  in  that  order.   The  --noprofile  option may be used to
       inhibit this behavior.  When invoked as an interactive shell  with  the
       name  sh,  bash  looks for the variable ENV, expands its value if it is
       defined, and uses the expanded value as the name of a file to read  and
       execute.  Since a shell invoked as sh does not attempt to read and exe-
       cute commands from any other startup files, the --rcfile option has  no
       effect.   A  non-interactive  shell  invoked  with the name sh does not
       attempt to read any other startup files.   When  invoked  as  sh,  bash
       enters posix mode after the startup files are read.

       When  bash  is  started in posix mode, as with the --posix command line
       option, it follows the POSIX standard for startup files.  In this mode,
       interactive  shells  expand  the ENV variable and commands are read and
       executed from the file whose name is  the  expanded  value.   No  other
       startup files are read.

       Bash attempts to determine when it is being run with its standard input
       connected to a network connection, as when executed by the remote shell
       daemon,  usually rshd, or the secure shell daemon sshd.  If bash deter-
       mines it is being run in this fashion, it reads and  executes  commands
       from  ~/.bashrc,  if  that file exists and is readable.  It will not do
       this if invoked as sh.  The --norc option may be used to  inhibit  this
       behavior,  and the --rcfile option may be used to force another file to
       be read, but neither rshd nor sshd  generally  invoke  the  shell  with
       those options or allow them to be specified.

       If the shell is started with the effective user (group) id not equal to
       the real user (group) id, and the -p option is not supplied, no startup
       files are read, shell functions are not inherited from the environment,
       the SHELLOPTS, BASHOPTS, CDPATH,  and  GLOBIGNORE  variables,  if  they
       appear  in  the  environment, are ignored, and the effective user id is
       set to the real user id.  If the -p option is supplied  at  invocation,
       the  startup  behavior  is  the  same, but the effective user id is not
       reset.

DEFINITIONS
       The following definitions are used throughout the rest  of  this  docu-
       ment.
       blank  A space or tab.
       word   A  sequence  of  characters  considered  as a single unit by the
              shell.  Also known as a token.
       name   A word consisting only of  alphanumeric  characters  and  under-
              scores,  and beginning with an alphabetic character or an under-
              score.  Also referred to as an identifier.
       metacharacter
              A character that, when unquoted, separates words.   One  of  the
              following:
              |  & ; ( ) < > space tab newline
       control operator
              A token that performs a control function.  It is one of the fol-
              lowing symbols:
              || & && ; ;; ;& ;;& ( ) | |& <newline>

RESERVED WORDS
       Reserved words are words that have a special meaning to the shell.  The
       following words are recognized as reserved when unquoted and either the
       first word of a command (see SHELL GRAMMAR below), the third word of  a
       case  or  select command (only in is valid), or the third word of a for
       command (only in and do are valid):

       ! case  coproc  do done elif else esac fi for  function  if  in  select
       then until while { } time [[ ]]

SHELL GRAMMAR
   Simple Commands
       A  simple  command  is a sequence of optional variable assignments fol-
       lowed by blank-separated words and redirections, and  terminated  by  a
       control operator.  The first word specifies the command to be executed,
       and is passed as argument zero.  The  remaining  words  are  passed  as
       arguments to the invoked command.

       The  return  value  of a simple command is its exit status, or 128+n if
       the command is terminated by signal n.

   Pipelines
       A pipeline is a sequence of one or more commands separated  by  one  of
       the control operators | or |&.  The format for a pipeline is:

              [time [-p]] [ ! ] command [ [|||&] command2 ... ]

       The  standard output of command is connected via a pipe to the standard
       input of command2.  This connection is performed  before  any  redirec-
       tions specified by the command (see REDIRECTION below).  If |& is used,
       command's standard error, in addition to its standard output,  is  con-
       nected  to  command2's standard input through the pipe; it is shorthand
       for 2>&1 |.  This implicit redirection of the  standard  error  to  the
       standard  output  is  performed after any redirections specified by the
       command.

       The return status of a pipeline is the exit status of the last command,
       unless  the  pipefail  option  is enabled.  If pipefail is enabled, the
       pipeline's return status is the value of the last  (rightmost)  command
       to  exit  with a non-zero status, or zero if all commands exit success-
       fully.  If the reserved word !  precedes a pipeline, the exit status of
       that  pipeline  is the logical negation of the exit status as described
       above.  The shell waits for all commands in the pipeline  to  terminate
       before returning a value.

       If  the  time reserved word precedes a pipeline, the elapsed as well as
       user and system time consumed by its execution are  reported  when  the
       pipeline  terminates.   The -p option changes the output format to that
       specified by POSIX.  When the shell is in posix mode, it does not  rec-
       ognize  time  as  a  reserved word if the next token begins with a `-'.
       The TIMEFORMAT variable may be set to a format  string  that  specifies
       how  the timing information should be displayed; see the description of
       TIMEFORMAT under Shell Variables below.

       When the shell is in posix mode, time may be followed by a newline.  In
       this  case,  the shell displays the total user and system time consumed
       by the shell and its children.  The TIMEFORMAT variable may be used  to
       specify the format of the time information.

       Each  command in a pipeline is executed as a separate process (i.e., in
       a subshell).  See COMMAND EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT for a description of  a
       subshell  environment.   If  the  lastpipe  option is enabled using the
       shopt builtin (see the description of shopt below), the last element of
       a pipeline may be run by the shell process.

   Lists
       A  list  is a sequence of one or more pipelines separated by one of the
       operators ;, &, &&, or ||, and optionally terminated by one of ;, &, or
       <newline>.

       Of these list operators, && and || have equal precedence, followed by ;
       and &, which have equal precedence.

       A sequence of one or more newlines may appear in a list  instead  of  a
       semicolon to delimit commands.

       If  a  command  is terminated by the control operator &, the shell exe-
       cutes the command in the background in a subshell.  The shell does  not
       wait  for the command to finish, and the return status is 0.  These are
       referred to as asynchronous commands.  Commands separated by  a  ;  are
       executed sequentially; the shell waits for each command to terminate in
       turn.  The return status is the exit status of the  last  command  exe-
       cuted.

       AND  and  OR  lists are sequences of one or more pipelines separated by
       the && and || control operators, respectively.  AND and  OR  lists  are
       executed with left associativity.  An AND list has the form

              command1 && command2

       command2  is  executed if, and only if, command1 returns an exit status
       of zero (success).

       An OR list has the form

              command1 || command2

       command2 is executed if, and only if, command1 returns a non-zero  exit
       status.   The  return  status of AND and OR lists is the exit status of
       the last command executed in the list.

   Compound Commands
       A compound command is one of the following.  In most cases a list in  a
       command's  description may be separated from the rest of the command by
       one or more newlines, and may be followed by a newline in  place  of  a
       semicolon.

       (list) list  is  executed in a subshell environment (see COMMAND EXECU-
              TION ENVIRONMENT below).  Variable assignments and builtin  com-
              mands  that  affect  the  shell's  environment  do not remain in
              effect after the command completes.  The return  status  is  the
              exit status of list.

       { list; }
              list  is simply executed in the current shell environment.  list
              must be terminated with a newline or semicolon.  This  is  known
              as  a  group  command.   The return status is the exit status of
              list.  Note that unlike the metacharacters ( and ), { and }  are
              reserved words and must occur where a reserved word is permitted
              to be recognized.  Since they do not cause a  word  break,  they
              must  be  separated  from  list  by  whitespace or another shell
              metacharacter.

       ((expression))
              The expression is evaluated according  to  the  rules  described
              below  under ARITHMETIC EVALUATION.  If the value of the expres-
              sion is non-zero, the return status is 0; otherwise  the  return
              status is 1.  This is exactly equivalent to let "expression".

       [[ expression ]]
              Return  a  status  of  0 or 1 depending on the evaluation of the
              conditional expression expression.  Expressions are composed  of
              the  primaries  described  below  under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS.
              Word splitting and pathname expansion are not performed  on  the
              words  between  the  [[  and  ]]; tilde expansion, parameter and
              variable expansion, arithmetic expansion, command  substitution,
              process  substitution,  and quote removal are performed.  Condi-
              tional operators such as -f must be unquoted to be recognized as
              primaries.

              When  used with [[, the < and > operators sort lexicographically
              using the current locale.

              When the == and != operators are used, the string to  the  right
              of the operator is considered a pattern and matched according to
              the rules described below under Pattern Matching, as if the ext-
              glob shell option were enabled.  The = operator is equivalent to
              ==.  If the nocasematch shell option is enabled,  the  match  is
              performed  without  regard to the case of alphabetic characters.
              The return value is 0 if the string matches  (==)  or  does  not
              match  (!=)  the pattern, and 1 otherwise.  Any part of the pat-
              tern may be quoted to force the quoted portion to be matched  as
              a string.

              An  additional  binary operator, =~, is available, with the same
              precedence as == and !=.  When it is used,  the  string  to  the
              right  of  the  operator  is considered a POSIX extended regular
              expression and matched accordingly (using the POSIX regcomp  and
              regexec  interfaces  usually described in regex(3)).  The return
              value is 0 if the string matches the pattern, and  1  otherwise.
              If the regular expression is syntactically incorrect, the condi-
              tional expression's return value is 2.  If the nocasematch shell
              option  is enabled, the match is performed without regard to the
              case of alphabetic characters.  Any part of the pattern  may  be
              quoted  to  force  the quoted portion to be matched as a string.
              Bracket expressions in regular expressions must be treated care-
              fully,  since  normal  quoting  characters  lose  their meanings
              between brackets.  If the pattern is stored in a shell variable,
              quoting  the  variable expansion forces the entire pattern to be
              matched as a string.

              The pattern will match if it matches any  part  of  the  string.
              Anchor  the  pattern using the ^ and $ regular expression opera-
              tors to force it to match the entire string.  The array variable
              BASH_REMATCH  records which parts of the string matched the pat-
              tern.  The element of BASH_REMATCH with  index  0  contains  the
              portion  of  the  string matching the entire regular expression.
              Substrings matched by parenthesized  subexpressions  within  the
              regular  expression  are  saved  in  the  remaining BASH_REMATCH
              indices. The element of BASH_REMATCH with index n is the portion
              of the string matching the nth parenthesized subexpression.

              Expressions  may  be  combined  using  the  following operators,
              listed in decreasing order of precedence:

              ( expression )
                     Returns the value of expression.  This  may  be  used  to
                     override the normal precedence of operators.
              ! expression
                     True if expression is false.
              expression1 && expression2
                     True if both expression1 and expression2 are true.
              expression1 || expression2
                     True if either expression1 or expression2 is true.

              The && and || operators do not evaluate expression2 if the value
              of expression1 is sufficient to determine the  return  value  of
              the entire conditional expression.

       for name [ [ in [ word ... ] ] ; ] do list ; done
              The list of words following in is expanded, generating a list of
              items.  The variable name is set to each element of this list in
              turn,  and  list is executed each time.  If the in word is omit-
              ted, the for command executes  list  once  for  each  positional
              parameter that is set (see PARAMETERS below).  The return status
              is the exit status of the last command that  executes.   If  the
              expansion of the items following in results in an empty list, no
              commands are executed, and the return status is 0.

       for (( expr1 ; expr2 ; expr3 )) ; do list ; done
              First, the arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated according to
              the  rules  described  below  under  ARITHMETIC EVALUATION.  The
              arithmetic expression expr2 is then evaluated  repeatedly  until
              it  evaluates  to zero.  Each time expr2 evaluates to a non-zero
              value, list is executed and the arithmetic expression  expr3  is
              evaluated.   If  any  expression is omitted, it behaves as if it
              evaluates to 1.  The return value is the exit status of the last
              command in list that is executed, or false if any of the expres-
              sions is invalid.

       select name [ in word ] ; do list ; done
              The list of words following in is expanded, generating a list of
              items.   The  set  of  expanded words is printed on the standard
              error, each preceded by a number.  If the in  word  is  omitted,
              the  positional  parameters  are printed (see PARAMETERS below).
              The PS3 prompt is then displayed and a line read from the  stan-
              dard  input.   If the line consists of a number corresponding to
              one of the displayed words, then the value of  name  is  set  to
              that  word.  If the line is empty, the words and prompt are dis-
              played again.  If EOF is read, the command completes.  Any other
              value  read  causes  name  to  be set to null.  The line read is
              saved in the variable REPLY.  The list is  executed  after  each
              selection until a break command is executed.  The exit status of
              select is the exit status of the last command executed in  list,
              or zero if no commands were executed.

       case word in [ [(] pattern [ | pattern ] ... ) list ;; ] ... esac
              A case command first expands word, and tries to match it against
              each pattern in turn, using the matching rules  described  under
              Pattern Matching below.  The word is expanded using tilde expan-
              sion, parameter and variable  expansion,  arithmetic  expansion,
              command  substitution,  process  substitution and quote removal.
              Each pattern examined is expanded using tilde expansion, parame-
              ter  and  variable expansion, arithmetic expansion, command sub-
              stitution, and process substitution.  If the  nocasematch  shell
              option  is enabled, the match is performed without regard to the
              case of alphabetic characters.  When a match is found, the  cor-
              responding  list  is  executed.   If the ;; operator is used, no
              subsequent matches are attempted after the first pattern  match.
              Using  ;&  in  place of ;; causes execution to continue with the
              list associated with the next set of  patterns.   Using  ;;&  in
              place  of  ;;  causes the shell to test the next pattern list in
              the statement, if any, and execute any associated list on a suc-
              cessful match, continuing the case statement execution as if the
              pattern list had not matched.  The exit status  is  zero  if  no
              pattern  matches.   Otherwise, it is the exit status of the last
              command executed in list.

       if list; then list; [ elif list; then list; ] ... [ else list; ] fi
              The if list is executed.  If its exit status is zero,  the  then
              list  is  executed.   Otherwise,  each  elif list is executed in
              turn, and if its exit status is  zero,  the  corresponding  then
              list is executed and the command completes.  Otherwise, the else
              list is executed, if present.  The exit status is the exit  sta-
              tus of the last command executed, or zero if no condition tested
              true.

       while list-1; do list-2; done
       until list-1; do list-2; done
              The while command continuously executes the list list-2 as  long
              as the last command in the list list-1 returns an exit status of
              zero.  The until command is  identical  to  the  while  command,
              except  that  the test is negated: list-2 is executed as long as
              the last command in list-1 returns a non-zero exit status.   The
              exit  status  of the while and until commands is the exit status
              of the last command executed in list-2, or zero if none was exe-
              cuted.

   Coprocesses
       A coprocess is a shell command preceded by the coproc reserved word.  A
       coprocess is executed asynchronously in a subshell, as if  the  command
       had  been  terminated  with the & control operator, with a two-way pipe
       established between the executing shell and the coprocess.

       The format for a coprocess is:

              coproc [NAME] command [redirections]

       This creates a coprocess named NAME.  If  NAME  is  not  supplied,  the
       default name is COPROC.  NAME must not be supplied if command is a sim-
       ple command (see above); otherwise, it is interpreted as the first word
       of  the simple command.  When the coprocess is executed, the shell cre-
       ates an array variable (see Arrays below) named NAME in the context  of
       the executing shell.  The standard output of command is connected via a
       pipe to a file  descriptor  in  the  executing  shell,  and  that  file
       descriptor  is  assigned  to NAME[0].  The standard input of command is
       connected via a pipe to a file descriptor in the executing  shell,  and
       that  file descriptor is assigned to NAME[1].  This pipe is established
       before any redirections  specified  by  the  command  (see  REDIRECTION
       below).   The  file  descriptors  can be utilized as arguments to shell
       commands and redirections using standard word expansions.   Other  than
       those  created  to  execute command and process substitutions, the file
       descriptors are not available in subshells.   The  process  ID  of  the
       shell spawned to execute the coprocess is available as the value of the
       variable NAME_PID.  The wait builtin command may be used  to  wait  for
       the coprocess to terminate.

       Since  the  coprocess is created as an asynchronous command, the coproc
       command always returns success.  The return status of  a  coprocess  is
       the exit status of command.

   Shell Function Definitions
       A  shell function is an object that is called like a simple command and
       executes a compound command with a new set  of  positional  parameters.
       Shell functions are declared as follows:

       fname () compound-command [redirection]
       function fname [()] compound-command [redirection]
              This defines a function named fname.  The reserved word function
              is optional.  If the function reserved  word  is  supplied,  the
              parentheses  are optional.  The body of the function is the com-
              pound command compound-command (see  Compound  Commands  above).
              That  command is usually a list of commands between { and }, but
              may be any command listed under Compound  Commands  above,  with
              one  exception:  If  the function reserved word is used, but the
              parentheses are not supplied, the  braces  are  required.   com-
              pound-command  is  executed  whenever  fname is specified as the
              name of a simple command.  When in posix mode, fname must  be  a
              valid  shell  name  and  may not be the name of one of the POSIX
              special builtins.  In default mode, a function name can  be  any
              unquoted  shell  word that does not contain $.  Any redirections
              (see REDIRECTION below) specified when a function is defined are
              performed  when  the function is executed.  The exit status of a
              function definition is zero unless a syntax error  occurs  or  a
              readonly  function with the same name already exists.  When exe-
              cuted, the exit status of a function is the exit status  of  the
              last command executed in the body.  (See FUNCTIONS below.)

COMMENTS
       In a non-interactive shell, or an interactive shell in which the inter-
       active_comments option to the  shopt  builtin  is  enabled  (see  SHELL
       BUILTIN  COMMANDS  below), a word beginning with # causes that word and
       all remaining characters on that line to be  ignored.   An  interactive
       shell  without  the  interactive_comments option enabled does not allow
       comments.  The interactive_comments option is on by default in interac-
       tive shells.

QUOTING
       Quoting  is used to remove the special meaning of certain characters or
       words to the shell.  Quoting can be used to disable  special  treatment
       for special characters, to prevent reserved words from being recognized
       as such, and to prevent parameter expansion.

       Each of the metacharacters listed above under DEFINITIONS  has  special
       meaning to the shell and must be quoted if it is to represent itself.

       When  the command history expansion facilities are being used (see HIS-
       TORY EXPANSION below), the history expansion character, usually !, must
       be quoted to prevent history expansion.

       There  are  three  quoting  mechanisms:  the  escape  character, single
       quotes, and double quotes.

       A non-quoted backslash (\) is the escape character.  It  preserves  the
       literal value of the next character that follows, with the exception of
       <newline>.  If a \<newline> pair appears,  and  the  backslash  is  not
       itself  quoted,  the \<newline> is treated as a line continuation (that
       is, it is removed from the input stream and effectively ignored).

       Enclosing characters in single quotes preserves the  literal  value  of
       each character within the quotes.  A single quote may not occur between
       single quotes, even when preceded by a backslash.

       Enclosing characters in double quotes preserves the  literal  value  of
       all  characters  within the quotes, with the exception of $, `, \, and,
       when history expansion is enabled, !.  When the shell is in posix mode,
       the  !  has  no special meaning within double quotes, even when history
       expansion is enabled.  The characters $  and  `  retain  their  special
       meaning  within double quotes.  The backslash retains its special mean-
       ing only when followed by one of the following characters: $, `, ",  \,
       or  <newline>.   A  double  quote may be quoted within double quotes by
       preceding it with a backslash.  If enabled, history expansion  will  be
       performed  unless  an  !  appearing in double quotes is escaped using a
       backslash.  The backslash preceding the !  is not removed.

       The special parameters * and @ have  special  meaning  when  in  double
       quotes (see PARAMETERS below).

       Words of the form $'string' are treated specially.  The word expands to
       string, with backslash-escaped characters replaced as specified by  the
       ANSI  C  standard.  Backslash escape sequences, if present, are decoded
       as follows:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \e
              \E     an escape character
              \f     form feed
              \n     new line
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \'     single quote
              \"     double quote
              \?     question mark
              \nnn   the eight-bit character whose value is  the  octal  value
                     nnn (one to three octal digits)
              \xHH   the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)
              \uHHHH the Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is  the
                     hexadecimal value HHHH (one to four hex digits)
              \UHHHHHHHH
                     the  Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is the
                     hexadecimal value HHHHHHHH (one to eight hex digits)
              \cx    a control-x character

       The expanded result is single-quoted, as if the  dollar  sign  had  not
       been present.

       A double-quoted string preceded by a dollar sign ($"string") will cause
       the string to be translated according to the current locale.  The  get-
       text  infrastructure  performs  the message catalog lookup and transla-
       tion, using the LC_MESSAGES and TEXTDOMAIN  shell  variables.   If  the
       current  locale  is  C or POSIX, or if there are no translations avail-
       able, the dollar sign is ignored.  If  the  string  is  translated  and
       replaced, the replacement is double-quoted.

PARAMETERS
       A  parameter is an entity that stores values.  It can be a name, a num-
       ber, or one of the special characters listed below under Special Param-
       eters.   A variable is a parameter denoted by a name.  A variable has a
       value and zero or more attributes.  Attributes are assigned  using  the
       declare builtin command (see declare below in SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS).

       A parameter is set if it has been assigned a value.  The null string is
       a valid value.  Once a variable is set, it may be unset only  by  using
       the unset builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).

       A variable may be assigned to by a statement of the form

              name=[value]

       If  value  is not given, the variable is assigned the null string.  All
       values undergo tilde expansion, parameter and variable expansion,  com-
       mand  substitution, arithmetic expansion, and quote removal (see EXPAN-
       SION below).  If the variable has its integer attribute set, then value
       is evaluated as an arithmetic expression even if the $((...)) expansion
       is not used (see Arithmetic Expansion below).  Word  splitting  is  not
       performed,  with the exception of "$@" as explained below under Special
       Parameters.  Pathname expansion is not  performed.   Assignment  state-
       ments  may  also  appear  as  arguments to the alias, declare, typeset,
       export, readonly, and local builtin  commands  (declaration  commands).
       When in posix mode, these builtins may appear in a command after one or
       more instances of the  command  builtin  and  retain  these  assignment
       statement properties.

       In  the context where an assignment statement is assigning a value to a
       shell variable or array index, the += operator can be used to append to
       or  add  to  the variable's previous value.  This includes arguments to
       builtin commands such as  declare  that  accept  assignment  statements
       (declaration commands).  When += is applied to a variable for which the
       integer attribute has been set, value is  evaluated  as  an  arithmetic
       expression  and  added  to  the variable's current value, which is also
       evaluated.  When += is applied to  an  array  variable  using  compound
       assignment (see Arrays below), the variable's value is not unset (as it
       is when using =), and new values are appended to the array beginning at
       one  greater  than  the  array's  maximum index (for indexed arrays) or
       added as additional key-value pairs  in  an  associative  array.   When
       applied  to a string-valued variable, value is expanded and appended to
       the variable's value.

       A variable can be assigned the nameref attribute using the -n option to
       the  declare or local builtin commands (see the descriptions of declare
       and local below) to create a nameref, or a reference to  another  vari-
       able.   This  allows  variables to be manipulated indirectly.  Whenever
       the nameref variable is referenced, assigned  to,  unset,  or  has  its
       attributes modified (other than using or changing the nameref attribute
       itself), the operation is actually performed on the variable  specified
       by  the  nameref  variable's  value.  A nameref is commonly used within
       shell functions to refer to a variable whose name is passed as an argu-
       ment  to the function.  For instance, if a variable name is passed to a
       shell function as its first argument, running
              declare -n ref=$1
       inside the function creates a nameref variable ref whose value  is  the
       variable name passed as the first argument.  References and assignments
       to ref, and changes to  its  attributes,  are  treated  as  references,
       assignments, and attribute modifications to the variable whose name was
       passed as $1.  If the control variable in a for loop  has  the  nameref
       attribute,  the  list  of words can be a list of shell variables, and a
       name reference will be established for each word in the list, in  turn,
       when the loop is executed.  Array variables cannot be given the nameref
       attribute.  However, nameref variables can  reference  array  variables
       and  subscripted  array  variables.  Namerefs can be unset using the -n
       option to the unset builtin.  Otherwise, if unset is executed with  the
       name  of  a nameref variable as an argument, the variable referenced by
       the nameref variable will be unset.

   Positional Parameters
       A positional parameter is a parameter denoted by one  or  more  digits,
       other than the single digit 0.  Positional parameters are assigned from
       the shell's arguments when it is invoked, and may be  reassigned  using
       the  set builtin command.  Positional parameters may not be assigned to
       with assignment statements.  The positional parameters are  temporarily
       replaced when a shell function is executed (see FUNCTIONS below).

       When  a  positional parameter consisting of more than a single digit is
       expanded, it must be enclosed in braces (see EXPANSION below).

   Special Parameters
       The shell treats several parameters specially.   These  parameters  may
       only be referenced; assignment to them is not allowed.
       *      Expands  to  the positional parameters, starting from one.  When
              the expansion is  not  within  double  quotes,  each  positional
              parameter  expands  to a separate word.  In contexts where it is
              performed, those words are subject to further word splitting and
              pathname  expansion.   When  the  expansion occurs within double
              quotes, it expands to a single  word  with  the  value  of  each
              parameter  separated  by  the first character of the IFS special
              variable.  That is, "$*" is equivalent to "$1c$2c...",  where  c
              is the first character of the value of the IFS variable.  If IFS
              is unset, the parameters are separated by  spaces.   If  IFS  is
              null, the parameters are joined without intervening separators.
       @      Expands  to  the  positional  parameters, starting from one.  In
              contexts where word splitting is performed,  this  expands  each
              positional  parameter  to  a separate word; if not within double
              quotes, these words are subject to word splitting.  In  contexts
              where  word splitting is not performed, this expands to a single
              word with each positional parameter separated by a space.   When
              the  expansion  occurs  within  double  quotes,  each  parameter
              expands to a separate word.  That is, "$@" is equivalent to "$1"
              "$2"  ...   If the double-quoted expansion occurs within a word,
              the expansion of the first parameter is joined with  the  begin-
              ning  part  of  the original word, and the expansion of the last
              parameter is joined with the last part  of  the  original  word.
              When  there  are no positional parameters, "$@" and $@ expand to
              nothing (i.e., they are removed).
       #      Expands to the number of positional parameters in decimal.
       ?      Expands to the exit status of the most recently  executed  fore-
              ground pipeline.
       -      Expands  to  the  current option flags as specified upon invoca-
              tion, by the set builtin command, or  those  set  by  the  shell
              itself (such as the -i option).
       $      Expands  to  the  process ID of the shell.  In a () subshell, it
              expands to the process ID of the current  shell,  not  the  sub-
              shell.
       !      Expands  to  the process ID of the job most recently placed into
              the background, whether executed as an asynchronous  command  or
              using the bg builtin (see JOB CONTROL below).
       0      Expands  to  the name of the shell or shell script.  This is set
              at shell initialization.  If bash is invoked with a file of com-
              mands,  $0  is set to the name of that file.  If bash is started
              with the -c option, then $0 is set to the first  argument  after
              the  string to be executed, if one is present.  Otherwise, it is
              set to the filename used to invoke bash, as  given  by  argument
              zero.

   Shell Variables
       The following variables are set by the shell:

       _      At  shell  startup, set to the pathname used to invoke the shell
              or shell script being executed as passed in the  environment  or
              argument  list.   Subsequently,  expands to the last argument to
              the previous simple command executed in  the  foreground,  after
              expansion.   Also  set  to the full pathname used to invoke each
              command executed and placed in the environment exported to  that
              command.   When  checking mail, this parameter holds the name of
              the mail file currently being checked.
       BASH   Expands to the full filename used to  invoke  this  instance  of
              bash.
       BASHOPTS
              A  colon-separated  list of enabled shell options.  Each word in
              the list is a valid argument for the  -s  option  to  the  shopt
              builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).  The options
              appearing in BASHOPTS are those reported as  on  by  shopt.   If
              this  variable  is  in the environment when bash starts up, each
              shell option in the list will  be  enabled  before  reading  any
              startup files.  This variable is read-only.
       BASHPID
              Expands  to  the  process  ID of the current bash process.  This
              differs from $$ under certain circumstances, such  as  subshells
              that  do  not require bash to be re-initialized.  Assignments to
              BASHPID have no effect.  If BASHPID is unset, it loses its  spe-
              cial properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       BASH_ALIASES
              An  associative  array  variable whose members correspond to the
              internal list of aliases as maintained  by  the  alias  builtin.
              Elements  added to this array appear in the alias list; however,
              unsetting array elements currently does not cause aliases to  be
              removed from the alias list.  If BASH_ALIASES is unset, it loses
              its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       BASH_ARGC
              An array variable whose values are the number of  parameters  in
              each frame of the current bash execution call stack.  The number
              of parameters to  the  current  subroutine  (shell  function  or
              script  executed  with  . or source) is at the top of the stack.
              When a subroutine is executed, the number of  parameters  passed
              is pushed onto BASH_ARGC.  The shell sets BASH_ARGC only when in
              extended debugging mode (see the  description  of  the  extdebug
              option  to the shopt builtin below).  Setting extdebug after the
              shell has started to execute a script, or referencing this vari-
              able  when  extdebug is not set, may result in inconsistent val-
              ues.
       BASH_ARGV
              An array variable containing all of the parameters in  the  cur-
              rent bash execution call stack.  The final parameter of the last
              subroutine call is at the top of the stack; the first  parameter
              of the initial call is at the bottom.  When a subroutine is exe-
              cuted, the parameters supplied are pushed onto  BASH_ARGV.   The
              shell  sets  BASH_ARGV only when in extended debugging mode (see
              the description of the extdebug  option  to  the  shopt  builtin
              below).  Setting extdebug after the shell has started to execute
              a script, or referencing this variable when extdebug is not set,
              may result in inconsistent values.
       BASH_ARGV0
              When  referenced, this variable expands to the name of the shell
              or shell script (identical to $0; see the description of special
              parameter  0  above).  Assignment to BASH_ARGV0 causes the value
              assigned to also be assigned to $0.  If BASH_ARGV0 is unset,  it
              loses its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       BASH_CMDS
              An  associative  array  variable whose members correspond to the
              internal hash table  of  commands  as  maintained  by  the  hash
              builtin.  Elements added to this array appear in the hash table;
              however, unsetting array elements currently does not cause  com-
              mand  names  to be removed from the hash table.  If BASH_CMDS is
              unset, it loses its special properties, even  if  it  is  subse-
              quently reset.
       BASH_COMMAND
              The  command  currently  being executed or about to be executed,
              unless the shell is executing a command as the result of a trap,
              in  which  case  it  is the command executing at the time of the
              trap.  If BASH_COMMAND is unset, it loses  its  special  proper-
              ties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       BASH_EXECUTION_STRING
              The command argument to the -c invocation option.
       BASH_LINENO
              An  array  variable whose members are the line numbers in source
              files where each corresponding member of FUNCNAME  was  invoked.
              ${BASH_LINENO[$i]}  is  the  line  number  in  the  source  file
              (${BASH_SOURCE[$i+1]})  where  ${FUNCNAME[$i]}  was  called  (or
              ${BASH_LINENO[$i-1]}  if  referenced  within another shell func-
              tion).  Use LINENO to obtain the current line number.
       BASH_LOADABLES_PATH
              A colon-separated list of directories in which the  shell  looks
              for  dynamically  loadable builtins specified by the enable com-
              mand.
       BASH_REMATCH
              An array variable whose members are assigned by  the  =~  binary
              operator  to the [[ conditional command.  The element with index
              0 is the portion of  the  string  matching  the  entire  regular
              expression.   The  element  with  index  n is the portion of the
              string matching the nth parenthesized subexpression.
       BASH_SOURCE
              An array variable whose members are the source  filenames  where
              the  corresponding  shell  function  names in the FUNCNAME array
              variable are defined.  The  shell  function  ${FUNCNAME[$i]}  is
              defined   in   the   file  ${BASH_SOURCE[$i]}  and  called  from
              ${BASH_SOURCE[$i+1]}.
       BASH_SUBSHELL
              Incremented by one within each subshell or subshell  environment
              when  the  shell begins executing in that environment.  The ini-
              tial value is 0.  If BASH_SUBSHELL is unset, it loses  its  spe-
              cial properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       BASH_VERSINFO
              A readonly array variable whose members hold version information
              for this instance of bash.  The values  assigned  to  the  array
              members are as follows:
              BASH_VERSINFO[0]        The major version number (the release).
              BASH_VERSINFO[1]        The minor version number (the version).
              BASH_VERSINFO[2]        The patch level.
              BASH_VERSINFO[3]        The build version.
              BASH_VERSINFO[4]        The release status (e.g., beta1).
              BASH_VERSINFO[5]        The value of MACHTYPE.
       BASH_VERSION
              Expands  to  a string describing the version of this instance of
              bash.
       COMP_CWORD
              An index into ${COMP_WORDS} of the word containing  the  current
              cursor position.  This variable is available only in shell func-
              tions invoked by the  programmable  completion  facilities  (see
              Programmable Completion below).
       COMP_KEY
              The key (or final key of a key sequence) used to invoke the cur-
              rent completion function.
       COMP_LINE
              The current command line.  This variable is  available  only  in
              shell  functions  and  external commands invoked by the program-
              mable completion facilities (see Programmable Completion below).
       COMP_POINT
              The index of the current cursor position relative to the  begin-
              ning  of the current command.  If the current cursor position is
              at the end of the current command, the value of this variable is
              equal  to  ${#COMP_LINE}.   This  variable  is available only in
              shell functions and external commands invoked  by  the  program-
              mable completion facilities (see Programmable Completion below).
       COMP_TYPE
              Set  to an integer value corresponding to the type of completion
              attempted that caused a completion function to be  called:  TAB,
              for  normal completion, ?, for listing completions after succes-
              sive tabs, !, for listing alternatives on partial  word  comple-
              tion,  @,  to list completions if the word is not unmodified, or
              %, for menu completion.  This  variable  is  available  only  in
              shell  functions  and  external commands invoked by the program-
              mable completion facilities (see Programmable Completion below).
       COMP_WORDBREAKS
              The set of characters that the readline library treats  as  word
              separators  when performing word completion.  If COMP_WORDBREAKS
              is unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is  subse-
              quently reset.
       COMP_WORDS
              An  array variable (see Arrays below) consisting of the individ-
              ual words in the current command line.  The line is  split  into
              words  as  readline  would  split  it,  using COMP_WORDBREAKS as
              described above.  This variable is available only in shell func-
              tions  invoked  by  the  programmable completion facilities (see
              Programmable Completion below).
       COPROC An array variable (see Arrays below) created to  hold  the  file
              descriptors  for  output  from and input to an unnamed coprocess
              (see Coprocesses above).
       DIRSTACK
              An array variable (see Arrays below) containing the current con-
              tents  of  the directory stack.  Directories appear in the stack
              in the order they are displayed by the dirs builtin.   Assigning
              to members of this array variable may be used to modify directo-
              ries already in the stack, but the pushd and popd builtins  must
              be used to add and remove directories.  Assignment to this vari-
              able will not change the  current  directory.   If  DIRSTACK  is
              unset,  it  loses  its  special properties, even if it is subse-
              quently reset.
       EPOCHREALTIME
              Each time this parameter is referenced, it expands to the number
              of  seconds  since  the  Unix  Epoch (see time(3)) as a floating
              point  value  with  micro-second  granularity.   Assignments  to
              EPOCHREALTIME  are ignored.  If EPOCHREALTIME is unset, it loses
              its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       EPOCHSECONDS
              Each time this parameter is referenced, it expands to the number
              of  seconds  since the Unix Epoch (see time(3)).  Assignments to
              EPOCHSECONDS are ignored.  If EPOCHSECONDS is  unset,  it  loses
              its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       EUID   Expands  to  the effective user ID of the current user, initial-
              ized at shell startup.  This variable is readonly.
       FUNCNAME
              An array variable containing the names of  all  shell  functions
              currently in the execution call stack.  The element with index 0
              is the name of any currently-executing shell function.  The bot-
              tom-most  element  (the  one  with the highest index) is "main".
              This variable exists only when a shell  function  is  executing.
              Assignments  to  FUNCNAME have no effect.  If FUNCNAME is unset,
              it loses its special properties,  even  if  it  is  subsequently
              reset.

              This  variable  can  be  used  with BASH_LINENO and BASH_SOURCE.
              Each  element  of  FUNCNAME  has   corresponding   elements   in
              BASH_LINENO  and  BASH_SOURCE  to  describe the call stack.  For
              instance,   ${FUNCNAME[$i]}   was   called   from    the    file
              ${BASH_SOURCE[$i+1]}  at  line  number  ${BASH_LINENO[$i]}.  The
              caller builtin displays the current call stack using this infor-
              mation.
       GROUPS An  array  variable  containing  the list of groups of which the
              current user is a member.  Assignments to GROUPS have no effect.
              If  GROUPS is unset, it loses its special properties, even if it
              is subsequently reset.
       HISTCMD
              The history number, or index in the history list, of the current
              command.   Assignments  to  HISTCMD  are ignored.  If HISTCMD is
              unset, it loses its special properties, even  if  it  is  subse-
              quently reset.
       HOSTNAME
              Automatically set to the name of the current host.
       HOSTTYPE
              Automatically  set  to a string that uniquely describes the type
              of machine on which bash is executing.  The default  is  system-
              dependent.
       LINENO Each  time this parameter is referenced, the shell substitutes a
              decimal number representing the current sequential  line  number
              (starting  with  1)  within a script or function.  When not in a
              script or function, the value substituted is not  guaranteed  to
              be meaningful.  If LINENO is unset, it loses its special proper-
              ties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       MACHTYPE
              Automatically set to a string that fully  describes  the  system
              type  on  which  bash is executing, in the standard GNU cpu-com-
              pany-system format.  The default is system-dependent.
       MAPFILE
              An array variable (see Arrays below) created to  hold  the  text
              read by the mapfile builtin when no variable name is supplied.
       OLDPWD The previous working directory as set by the cd command.
       OPTARG The  value  of the last option argument processed by the getopts
              builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).
       OPTIND The index of the next argument to be processed  by  the  getopts
              builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).
       OSTYPE Automatically  set to a string that describes the operating sys-
              tem on which bash is executing.  The  default  is  system-depen-
              dent.
       PIPESTATUS
              An  array  variable (see Arrays below) containing a list of exit
              status values from the processes in  the  most-recently-executed
              foreground pipeline (which may contain only a single command).
       PPID   The  process  ID  of the shell's parent.  This variable is read-
              only.
       PWD    The current working directory as set by the cd command.
       RANDOM Each time this parameter is referenced, it expands to  a  random
              integer  between  0 and 32767.  Assigning a value to RANDOM ini-
              tializes (seeds) the sequence of random numbers.  If  RANDOM  is
              unset,  it  loses  its  special properties, even if it is subse-
              quently reset.
       READLINE_LINE
              The contents of the readline line buffer, for use with "bind -x"
              (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).
       READLINE_MARK
              The position of the mark (saved insertion point) in the readline
              line buffer, for use with "bind -x" (see SHELL BUILTIN  COMMANDS
              below).  The characters between the insertion point and the mark
              are often called the region.
       READLINE_POINT
              The position of the insertion point in the readline line buffer,
              for use with "bind -x" (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).
       REPLY  Set  to  the line of input read by the read builtin command when
              no arguments are supplied.
       SECONDS
              Each time this parameter is referenced, the  number  of  seconds
              since  shell  invocation is returned.  If a value is assigned to
              SECONDS, the value returned upon subsequent  references  is  the
              number  of seconds since the assignment plus the value assigned.
              The number of seconds at shell invocation and the  current  time
              is  always  determined by querying the system clock.  If SECONDS
              is unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is  subse-
              quently reset.
       SHELLOPTS
              A  colon-separated  list of enabled shell options.  Each word in
              the list is a valid argument  for  the  -o  option  to  the  set
              builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).  The options
              appearing in SHELLOPTS are those reported as on by set  -o.   If
              this  variable  is  in the environment when bash starts up, each
              shell option in the list will  be  enabled  before  reading  any
              startup files.  This variable is read-only.
       SHLVL  Incremented by one each time an instance of bash is started.
       SRANDOM
              This variable expands to a 32-bit pseudo-random number each time
              it is referenced. The random number generator is not  linear  on
              systems   that  support  /dev/urandom  or  arc4random,  so  each
              returned number has no relationship to the numbers preceding it.
              The  random number generator cannot be seeded, so assignments to
              this variable have no effect.  If SRANDOM is unset, it loses its
              special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       UID    Expands to the user ID of the current user, initialized at shell
              startup.  This variable is readonly.

       The following variables are used by the shell.   In  some  cases,  bash
       assigns a default value to a variable; these cases are noted below.

       BASH_COMPAT
              The  value  is used to set the shell's compatibility level.  See
              SHELL COMPATIBILITY MODE below for a description of the  various
              compatibility levels and their effects.  The value may be a dec-
              imal number (e.g., 4.2) or an integer (e.g.,  42)  corresponding
              to  the desired compatibility level.  If BASH_COMPAT is unset or
              set to the empty string, the compatibility level is set  to  the
              default  for  the  current  version.  If BASH_COMPAT is set to a
              value that is not one of the  valid  compatibility  levels,  the
              shell  prints  an error message and sets the compatibility level
              to the default for the current version.  The valid values corre-
              spond  to the compatibility levels described below under BSHELL-
              COMPATIBILITYMODE.  For example, 4.2 and  42  are  valid  values
              that correspond to the compat42 shopt option and set the compat-
              ibility level to 42.  The current version is also a valid value.
       BASH_ENV
              If this parameter is set when bash is executing a shell  script,
              its  value  is  interpreted as a filename containing commands to
              initialize the shell, as in ~/.bashrc.  The value of BASH_ENV is
              subjected  to  parameter  expansion,  command  substitution, and
              arithmetic expansion before being  interpreted  as  a  filename.
              PATH is not used to search for the resultant filename.
       BASH_XTRACEFD
              If  set  to an integer corresponding to a valid file descriptor,
              bash will write the  trace  output  generated  when  set  -x  is
              enabled  to that file descriptor.  The file descriptor is closed
              when BASH_XTRACEFD is unset or assigned a new value.   Unsetting
              BASH_XTRACEFD  or assigning it the empty string causes the trace
              output to be sent to the  standard  error.   Note  that  setting
              BASH_XTRACEFD to 2 (the standard error file descriptor) and then
              unsetting it will result in the standard error being closed.
       CDPATH The search path for the cd command.  This is  a  colon-separated
              list  of  directories  in  which the shell looks for destination
              directories specified by the cd  command.   A  sample  value  is
              ".:~:/usr".
       CHILD_MAX
              Set  the  number  of exited child status values for the shell to
              remember.  Bash will not allow this value to be decreased  below
              a  POSIX-mandated  minimum,  and  there is a maximum value (cur-
              rently 8192) that this may not exceed.   The  minimum  value  is
              system-dependent.
       COLUMNS
              Used  by  the  select compound command to determine the terminal
              width when printing selection lists.  Automatically set  if  the
              checkwinsize  option  is enabled or in an interactive shell upon
              receipt of a SIGWINCH.
       COMPREPLY
              An array variable from which bash reads the possible completions
              generated  by  a shell function invoked by the programmable com-
              pletion facility  (see  Programmable  Completion  below).   Each
              array element contains one possible completion.
       EMACS  If  bash  finds  this variable in the environment when the shell
              starts with value "t", it assumes that the shell is  running  in
              an Emacs shell buffer and disables line editing.
       ENV    Expanded  and  executed  similarly  to  BASH_ENV (see INVOCATION
              above) when an interactive shell is invoked in posix mode.
       EXECIGNORE
              A colon-separated list of shell patterns (see Pattern  Matching)
              defining  the  list of filenames to be ignored by command search
              using PATH.  Files whose full pathnames match one of these  pat-
              terns  are  not  considered executable files for the purposes of
              completion and command execution via PATH lookup.  This does not
              affect the behavior of the [, test, and [[ commands.  Full path-
              names in the command hash table are not subject  to  EXECIGNORE.
              Use  this  variable to ignore shared library files that have the
              executable bit set, but are not executable files.   The  pattern
              matching honors the setting of the extglob shell option.
       FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin command.
       FIGNORE
              A  colon-separated  list  of  suffixes to ignore when performing
              filename completion (see READLINE below).  A filename whose suf-
              fix  matches  one of the entries in FIGNORE is excluded from the
              list of matched filenames.  A sample value is ".o:~".
       FUNCNEST
              If set to a numeric value greater  than  0,  defines  a  maximum
              function  nesting  level.  Function invocations that exceed this
              nesting level will cause the current command to abort.
       GLOBIGNORE
              A colon-separated list of patterns  defining  the  set  of  file
              names  to  be  ignored  by  pathname  expansion.  If a file name
              matched by a pathname expansion pattern also matches one of  the
              patterns in GLOBIGNORE, it is removed from the list of matches.
       HISTCONTROL
              A  colon-separated  list  of values controlling how commands are
              saved on the history list.   If  the  list  of  values  includes
              ignorespace,  lines  which  begin with a space character are not
              saved in the history list.  A value of ignoredups  causes  lines
              matching the previous history entry to not be saved.  A value of
              ignoreboth is shorthand for ignorespace and ignoredups.  A value
              of erasedups causes all previous lines matching the current line
              to be removed from the history list before that line  is  saved.
              Any  value  not in the above list is ignored.  If HISTCONTROL is
              unset, or does not include a valid value, all lines read by  the
              shell parser are saved on the history list, subject to the value
              of HISTIGNORE.  The second and subsequent lines of a  multi-line
              compound  command  are  not tested, and are added to the history
              regardless of the value of HISTCONTROL.
       HISTFILE
              The name of the file in which command history is saved (see HIS-
              TORY  below).   The default value is ~/.bash_history.  If unset,
              the command history is not saved when a shell exits.
       HISTFILESIZE
              The maximum number of lines contained in the history file.  When
              this  variable  is  assigned  a value, the history file is trun-
              cated, if necessary, to contain no  more  than  that  number  of
              lines  by removing the oldest entries.  The history file is also
              truncated to this size after writing it when a shell exits.   If
              the  value  is  0,  the  history file is truncated to zero size.
              Non-numeric values and numeric values  less  than  zero  inhibit
              truncation.   The  shell  sets the default value to the value of
              HISTSIZE after reading any startup files.
       HISTIGNORE
              A colon-separated list of patterns used to decide which  command
              lines  should  be  saved  on  the history list.  Each pattern is
              anchored at the beginning of the line and must  match  the  com-
              plete  line  (no  implicit  `*'  is  appended).  Each pattern is
              tested against the line after the checks specified  by  HISTCON-
              TROL  are  applied.   In  addition  to  the normal shell pattern
              matching characters, `&' matches the previous history line.  `&'
              may  be  escaped  using  a  backslash;  the backslash is removed
              before attempting a match.  The second and subsequent lines of a
              multi-line compound command are not tested, and are added to the
              history regardless of the  value  of  HISTIGNORE.   The  pattern
              matching honors the setting of the extglob shell option.
       HISTSIZE
              The  number  of commands to remember in the command history (see
              HISTORY below).  If the value is 0, commands are  not  saved  in
              the history list.  Numeric values less than zero result in every
              command being saved on the history list  (there  is  no  limit).
              The  shell  sets  the  default  value  to  500 after reading any
              startup files.
       HISTTIMEFORMAT
              If this variable is set and not null, its value  is  used  as  a
              format string for strftime(3) to print the time stamp associated
              with each history entry displayed by the  history  builtin.   If
              this  variable  is  set,  time stamps are written to the history
              file so they may be preserved across shell sessions.  This  uses
              the  history  comment  character  to distinguish timestamps from
              other history lines.
       HOME   The home directory of the current user; the default argument for
              the cd builtin command.  The value of this variable is also used
              when performing tilde expansion.
       HOSTFILE
              Contains the name of a file in the  same  format  as  /etc/hosts
              that should be read when the shell needs to complete a hostname.
              The list of possible hostname completions may be  changed  while
              the  shell  is  running;  the  next  time hostname completion is
              attempted after the value is changed, bash adds the contents  of
              the  new file to the existing list.  If HOSTFILE is set, but has
              no value, or does not name a readable  file,  bash  attempts  to
              read  /etc/hosts to obtain the list of possible hostname comple-
              tions.  When HOSTFILE is unset, the hostname list is cleared.
       IFS    The Internal Field Separator that is  used  for  word  splitting
              after  expansion  and  to  split  lines into words with the read
              builtin  command.   The  default  value  is  ``<space><tab><new-
              line>''.
       IGNOREEOF
              Controls the action of an interactive shell on receipt of an EOF
              character as the sole input.  If set, the value is the number of
              consecutive  EOF  characters  which  must  be typed as the first
              characters on an input line before bash exits.  If the  variable
              exists  but  does not have a numeric value, or has no value, the
              default value is 10.  If it does not exist,  EOF  signifies  the
              end of input to the shell.
       INPUTRC
              The  filename  for  the  readline  startup  file, overriding the
              default of ~/.inputrc (see READLINE below).
       INSIDE_EMACS
              If this variable appears  in  the  environment  when  the  shell
              starts,  bash  assumes  that it is running inside an Emacs shell
              buffer and may disable line editing, depending on the  value  of
              TERM.
       LANG   Used  to  determine  the  locale  category  for any category not
              specifically selected with a variable starting with LC_.
       LC_ALL This variable overrides the value of  LANG  and  any  other  LC_
              variable specifying a locale category.
       LC_COLLATE
              This  variable  determines the collation order used when sorting
              the results of pathname expansion, and determines  the  behavior
              of   range   expressions,  equivalence  classes,  and  collating
              sequences within pathname expansion and pattern matching.
       LC_CTYPE
              This variable determines the interpretation  of  characters  and
              the  behavior of character classes within pathname expansion and
              pattern matching.
       LC_MESSAGES
              This variable determines the locale used  to  translate  double-
              quoted strings preceded by a $.
       LC_NUMERIC
              This  variable  determines  the  locale category used for number
              formatting.
       LC_TIME
              This variable determines the locale category used for  data  and
              time formatting.
       LINES  Used  by  the  select  compound  command to determine the column
              length for printing selection lists.  Automatically set  if  the
              checkwinsize  option  is enabled or in an interactive shell upon
              receipt of a SIGWINCH.
       MAIL   If this parameter is set to a file or  directory  name  and  the
              MAILPATH  variable  is  not  set,  bash  informs the user of the
              arrival of mail in the specified file or  Maildir-format  direc-
              tory.
       MAILCHECK
              Specifies  how  often  (in  seconds)  bash checks for mail.  The
              default is 60 seconds.  When it is time to check for  mail,  the
              shell  does  so  before  displaying the primary prompt.  If this
              variable is unset, or set to  a  value  that  is  not  a  number
              greater than or equal to zero, the shell disables mail checking.
       MAILPATH
              A colon-separated list of filenames to be checked for mail.  The
              message to be printed when mail arrives in a particular file may
              be  specified by separating the filename from the message with a
              `?'.  When used in the text of the message, $_  expands  to  the
              name of the current mailfile.  Example:
              MAILPATH='/var/mail/bfox?"You  have  mail":~/shell-mail?"$_  has
              mail!"'
              Bash can be configured to supply a default value for this  vari-
              able  (there  is  no  value by default), but the location of the
              user  mail  files  that  it  uses  is  system  dependent  (e.g.,
              /var/mail/$USER).
       OPTERR If set to the value 1, bash displays error messages generated by
              the getopts builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS  below).
              OPTERR  is  initialized to 1 each time the shell is invoked or a
              shell script is executed.
       PATH   The search path for commands.  It is a colon-separated  list  of
              directories  in  which the shell looks for commands (see COMMAND
              EXECUTION below).  A zero-length (null) directory  name  in  the
              value of PATH indicates the current directory.  A null directory
              name may appear as two adjacent colons,  or  as  an  initial  or
              trailing  colon.   The  default path is system-dependent, and is
              set by the administrator who installs bash.  A common value is
              ``/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/sbin''.
       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              If this variable is in the environment  when  bash  starts,  the
              shell  enters posix mode before reading the startup files, as if
              the --posix invocation option had been supplied.  If it  is  set
              while  the  shell is running, bash enables posix mode, as if the
              command set -o posix had been executed.  When the  shell  enters
              posix mode, it sets this variable if it was not already set.
       PROMPT_COMMAND
              If  this variable is set, and is an array, the value of each set
              element is executed as a command prior to issuing  each  primary
              prompt.   If this is set but not an array variable, its value is
              used as a command to execute instead.
       PROMPT_DIRTRIM
              If set to a number greater than zero, the value is used  as  the
              number of trailing directory components to retain when expanding
              the \w and \W  prompt  string  escapes  (see  PROMPTING  below).
              Characters removed are replaced with an ellipsis.
       PS0    The  value  of  this parameter is expanded (see PROMPTING below)
              and displayed by interactive shells after reading a command  and
              before the command is executed.
       PS1    The  value  of  this parameter is expanded (see PROMPTING below)
              and used as the primary prompt string.   The  default  value  is
              ``\s-\v\$ ''.
       PS2    The  value of this parameter is expanded as with PS1 and used as
              the secondary prompt string.  The default is ``> ''.
       PS3    The value of this parameter is used as the prompt for the select
              command (see SHELL GRAMMAR above).
       PS4    The  value  of  this  parameter  is expanded as with PS1 and the
              value is printed before each command  bash  displays  during  an
              execution  trace.   The first character of the expanded value of
              PS4 is replicated multiple times, as necessary, to indicate mul-
              tiple levels of indirection.  The default is ``+ ''.
       SHELL  This  variable expands to the full pathname to the shell.  If it
              is not set when the shell starts, bash assigns to  it  the  full
              pathname of the current user's login shell.
       TIMEFORMAT
              The  value of this parameter is used as a format string specify-
              ing how the timing information for pipelines prefixed  with  the
              time  reserved word should be displayed.  The % character intro-
              duces an escape sequence that is expanded to  a  time  value  or
              other  information.  The escape sequences and their meanings are
              as follows; the braces denote optional portions.
              %%        A literal %.
              %[p][l]R  The elapsed time in seconds.
              %[p][l]U  The number of CPU seconds spent in user mode.
              %[p][l]S  The number of CPU seconds spent in system mode.
              %P        The CPU percentage, computed as (%U + %S) / %R.

              The optional p is a digit specifying the precision,  the  number
              of fractional digits after a decimal point.  A value of 0 causes
              no decimal point or fraction to be output.  At most three places
              after  the  decimal  point may be specified; values of p greater
              than 3 are changed to 3.  If p is not specified, the value 3  is
              used.

              The  optional l specifies a longer format, including minutes, of
              the form MMmSS.FFs.  The value of p determines  whether  or  not
              the fraction is included.

              If  this  variable  is not set, bash acts as if it had the value
              $'\nreal\t%3lR\nuser\t%3lU\nsys\t%3lS'.  If the value  is  null,
              no timing information is displayed.  A trailing newline is added
              when the format string is displayed.
       TMOUT  If set to a value greater than zero, TMOUT  is  treated  as  the
              default timeout for the read builtin.  The select command termi-
              nates if input does not arrive after TMOUT seconds when input is
              coming  from  a terminal.  In an interactive shell, the value is
              interpreted as the number of seconds to wait for a line of input
              after issuing the primary prompt.  Bash terminates after waiting
              for that number of seconds if a complete line of input does  not
              arrive.
       TMPDIR If  set, bash uses its value as the name of a directory in which
              bash creates temporary files for the shell's use.
       auto_resume
              This variable controls how the shell interacts with the user and
              job  control.   If this variable is set, single word simple com-
              mands without redirections are treated as candidates for resump-
              tion of an existing stopped job.  There is no ambiguity allowed;
              if there is more than one job beginning with the  string  typed,
              the  job  most  recently  accessed  is  selected.  The name of a
              stopped job, in this context, is the command line used to  start
              it.   If  set to the value exact, the string supplied must match
              the name of a stopped job exactly;  if  set  to  substring,  the
              string  supplied  needs  to  match  a substring of the name of a
              stopped job.  The substring value provides functionality  analo-
              gous  to the %?  job identifier (see JOB CONTROL below).  If set
              to any other value, the supplied string must be a  prefix  of  a
              stopped job's name; this provides functionality analogous to the
              %string job identifier.
       histchars
              The two or three characters which control history expansion  and
              tokenization (see HISTORY EXPANSION below).  The first character
              is the history expansion character, the character which  signals
              the  start  of  a  history  expansion, normally `!'.  The second
              character is the quick substitution character, which is used  as
              shorthand  for  re-running the previous command entered, substi-
              tuting one string for another in the command.   The  default  is
              `^'.   The optional third character is the character which indi-
              cates that the remainder of the line is a comment when found  as
              the  first  character of a word, normally `#'.  The history com-
              ment character causes history substitution to be skipped for the
              remaining  words on the line.  It does not necessarily cause the
              shell parser to treat the rest of the line as a comment.

   Arrays
       Bash provides one-dimensional indexed and associative array  variables.
       Any  variable may be used as an indexed array; the declare builtin will
       explicitly declare an array.  There is no maximum limit on the size  of
       an  array, nor any requirement that members be indexed or assigned con-
       tiguously.  Indexed arrays are  referenced  using  integers  (including
       arithmetic expressions) and are zero-based; associative arrays are ref-
       erenced using arbitrary strings.  Unless otherwise noted, indexed array
       indices must be non-negative integers.

       An  indexed  array is created automatically if any variable is assigned
       to using the syntax name[subscript]=value.  The subscript is treated as
       an arithmetic expression that must evaluate to a number.  To explicitly
       declare an indexed array, use declare -a name (see SHELL  BUILTIN  COM-
       MANDS  below).   declare  -a name[subscript] is also accepted; the sub-
       script is ignored.

       Associative arrays are created using declare -A name.

       Attributes may be specified for an array variable using the declare and
       readonly builtins.  Each attribute applies to all members of an array.

       Arrays   are  assigned  to  using  compound  assignments  of  the  form
       name=(value1 ... valuen), where each value may be  of  the  form  [sub-
       script]=string.   Indexed array assignments do not require anything but
       string.  Each value in the list is expanded using all the shell  expan-
       sions  described  below  under  EXPANSION.   When  assigning to indexed
       arrays, if the optional brackets and subscript are supplied, that index
       is assigned to; otherwise the index of the element assigned is the last
       index assigned to by the statement plus one.  Indexing starts at zero.

       When assigning to an associative array, the words in a compound assign-
       ment  may  be  either assignment statements, for which the subscript is
       required, or a list of words that  is  interpreted  as  a  sequence  of
       alternating  keys  and  values:  name=(  key1  value1 key2 value2 ...).
       These are treated identically  to  name=(  [key1]=value1  [key2]=value2
       ...).   The  first  word in the list determines how the remaining words
       are interpreted; all assignments in a list must be of  the  same  type.
       When  using  key/value  pairs,  the keys may not be missing or empty; a
       final missing value is treated like the empty string.

       This syntax is also accepted by the declare builtin.  Individual  array
       elements  may  be  assigned  to  using the name[subscript]=value syntax
       introduced above.  When assigning to an indexed array, if name is  sub-
       scripted  by  a negative number, that number is interpreted as relative
       to one greater than the maximum index  of  name,  so  negative  indices
       count back from the end of the array, and an index of -1 references the
       last element.

       Any element of an array may  be  referenced  using  ${name[subscript]}.
       The braces are required to avoid conflicts with pathname expansion.  If
       subscript is @ or *, the word expands to all members  of  name.   These
       subscripts  differ only when the word appears within double quotes.  If
       the word is double-quoted, ${name[*]} expands to a single word with the
       value  of each array member separated by the first character of the IFS
       special variable, and ${name[@]} expands each element of name to a sep-
       arate  word.   When  there  are no array members, ${name[@]} expands to
       nothing.  If the double-quoted expansion  occurs  within  a  word,  the
       expansion  of  the first parameter is joined with the beginning part of
       the original word, and the expansion of the last  parameter  is  joined
       with  the  last  part  of  the original word.  This is analogous to the
       expansion of the special parameters * and  @  (see  Special  Parameters
       above).   ${#name[subscript]}  expands  to  the  length  of ${name[sub-
       script]}.  If subscript is * or @, the expansion is the number of  ele-
       ments  in  the array.  If the subscript used to reference an element of
       an indexed array evaluates to a number less than  zero,  it  is  inter-
       preted  as relative to one greater than the maximum index of the array,
       so negative indices count back from the end of the array, and an  index
       of -1 references the last element.

       Referencing an array variable without a subscript is equivalent to ref-
       erencing the array with a subscript of 0.  Any reference to a  variable
       using a valid subscript is legal, and bash will create an array if nec-
       essary.

       An array variable is considered set if a subscript has been assigned  a
       value.  The null string is a valid value.

       It  is possible to obtain the keys (indices) of an array as well as the
       values.  ${!name[@]} and ${!name[*]} expand to the indices assigned  in
       array variable name.  The treatment when in double quotes is similar to
       the expansion of the special parameters @ and * within double quotes.

       The unset builtin is used to  destroy  arrays.   unset  name[subscript]
       destroys  the  array  element  at index subscript, for both indexed and
       associative arrays.  Negative subscripts to indexed arrays  are  inter-
       preted  as  described  above.   Unsetting  the last element of an array
       variable does not unset the variable.  unset name,  where  name  is  an
       array, or unset name[subscript], where subscript is * or @, removes the
       entire array.

       When using a variable name with a subscript as an argument  to  a  com-
       mand,  such  as  with  unset,  without  using the word expansion syntax
       described above, the argument is subject  to  pathname  expansion.   If
       pathname expansion is not desired, the argument should be quoted.

       The  declare,  local,  and readonly builtins each accept a -a option to
       specify an indexed array and a -A  option  to  specify  an  associative
       array.   If  both  options are supplied, -A takes precedence.  The read
       builtin accepts a -a option to assign a list of  words  read  from  the
       standard input to an array.  The set and declare builtins display array
       values in a way that allows them to be reused as assignments.

EXPANSION
       Expansion is performed on the command line after it has been split into
       words.   There are seven kinds of expansion performed: brace expansion,
       tilde expansion, parameter and variable  expansion,  command  substitu-
       tion, arithmetic expansion, word splitting, and pathname expansion.

       The order of expansions is: brace expansion; tilde expansion, parameter
       and variable expansion, arithmetic expansion, and command  substitution
       (done  in a left-to-right fashion); word splitting; and pathname expan-
       sion.

       On systems that can support it, there is an additional expansion avail-
       able:  process  substitution.   This  is  performed at the same time as
       tilde, parameter, variable, and arithmetic expansion and  command  sub-
       stitution.

       After  these  expansions are performed, quote characters present in the
       original word are removed  unless  they  have  been  quoted  themselves
       (quote removal).

       Only  brace  expansion,  word  splitting,  and  pathname  expansion can
       increase the number of words of the expansion; other expansions  expand
       a  single  word  to a single word.  The only exceptions to this are the
       expansions of "$@"  and  "${name[@]}",  and,  in  most  cases,  $*  and
       ${name[*]} as explained above (see PARAMETERS).

   Brace Expansion
       Brace expansion is a mechanism by which arbitrary strings may be gener-
       ated.  This mechanism is similar to pathname expansion, but  the  file-
       names generated need not exist.  Patterns to be brace expanded take the
       form of an optional preamble, followed by either a series of comma-sep-
       arated  strings or a sequence expression between a pair of braces, fol-
       lowed by an optional postscript.  The  preamble  is  prefixed  to  each
       string contained within the braces, and the postscript is then appended
       to each resulting string, expanding left to right.

       Brace expansions may be nested.  The results of  each  expanded  string
       are  not  sorted;  left  to  right  order  is  preserved.  For example,
       a{d,c,b}e expands into `ade ace abe'.

       A sequence expression takes the form {x..y[..incr]}, where x and y  are
       either  integers or single characters, and incr, an optional increment,
       is an integer.  When integers are supplied, the expression  expands  to
       each  number between x and y, inclusive.  Supplied integers may be pre-
       fixed with 0 to force each term to have the same width.  When either  x
       or  y  begins  with  a  zero, the shell attempts to force all generated
       terms to contain the same number of digits, zero-padding  where  neces-
       sary.   When  characters  are  supplied, the expression expands to each
       character lexicographically between  x  and  y,  inclusive,  using  the
       default  C  locale.   Note  that both x and y must be of the same type.
       When the increment is supplied, it is used as  the  difference  between
       each term.  The default increment is 1 or -1 as appropriate.

       Brace expansion is performed before any other expansions, and any char-
       acters special to other expansions are preserved in the result.  It  is
       strictly  textual.  Bash does not apply any syntactic interpretation to
       the context of the expansion or the text between the braces.

       A correctly-formed brace expansion must contain  unquoted  opening  and
       closing  braces,  and  at  least one unquoted comma or a valid sequence
       expression.  Any incorrectly formed brace expansion is left  unchanged.
       A { or , may be quoted with a backslash to prevent its being considered
       part of a brace expression.  To avoid conflicts with  parameter  expan-
       sion, the string ${ is not considered eligible for brace expansion, and
       inhibits brace expansion until the closing }.

       This construct is typically used as shorthand when the common prefix of
       the strings to be generated is longer than in the above example:

              mkdir /usr/local/src/bash/{old,new,dist,bugs}
       or
              chown root /usr/{ucb/{ex,edit},lib/{ex?.?*,how_ex}}

       Brace  expansion  introduces  a  slight incompatibility with historical
       versions of sh.  sh does not treat opening or closing braces  specially
       when  they  appear as part of a word, and preserves them in the output.
       Bash removes braces from words as a  consequence  of  brace  expansion.
       For  example,  a word entered to sh as file{1,2} appears identically in
       the output.  The same word is output as file1 file2 after expansion  by
       bash.   If strict compatibility with sh is desired, start bash with the
       +B option or disable brace expansion with the +B option to the set com-
       mand (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).

   Tilde Expansion
       If  a  word  begins  with an unquoted tilde character (`~'), all of the
       characters preceding the first unquoted slash (or  all  characters,  if
       there  is no unquoted slash) are considered a tilde-prefix.  If none of
       the characters in the tilde-prefix are quoted, the  characters  in  the
       tilde-prefix  following the tilde are treated as a possible login name.
       If this login name is the null string, the tilde is replaced  with  the
       value  of  the shell parameter HOME.  If HOME is unset, the home direc-
       tory of the user executing the shell is  substituted  instead.   Other-
       wise,  the  tilde-prefix is replaced with the home directory associated
       with the specified login name.

       If the tilde-prefix is a `~+', the value  of  the  shell  variable  PWD
       replaces the tilde-prefix.  If the tilde-prefix is a `~-', the value of
       the shell variable OLDPWD, if it is set, is substituted.  If the  char-
       acters  following  the tilde in the tilde-prefix consist of a number N,
       optionally prefixed by a `+' or a `-',  the  tilde-prefix  is  replaced
       with the corresponding element from the directory stack, as it would be
       displayed by the dirs builtin invoked with the tilde-prefix as an argu-
       ment.   If  the characters following the tilde in the tilde-prefix con-
       sist of a number without a leading `+' or `-', `+' is assumed.

       If the login name is invalid, or the tilde expansion fails, the word is
       unchanged.

       Each variable assignment is checked for unquoted tilde-prefixes immedi-
       ately following a : or the first =.  In these cases, tilde expansion is
       also  performed.   Consequently,  one  may use filenames with tildes in
       assignments to PATH, MAILPATH, and CDPATH, and the  shell  assigns  the
       expanded value.

       Bash  also  performs tilde expansion on words satisfying the conditions
       of variable assignments (as described above under PARAMETERS) when they
       appear  as arguments to simple commands.  Bash does not do this, except
       for the declaration commands listed above, when in posix mode.

   Parameter Expansion
       The `$' character introduces parameter expansion, command substitution,
       or  arithmetic  expansion.  The parameter name or symbol to be expanded
       may be enclosed in braces, which are optional but serve to protect  the
       variable  to be expanded from characters immediately following it which
       could be interpreted as part of the name.

       When braces are used, the matching ending brace is the  first  `}'  not
       escaped  by  a  backslash  or within a quoted string, and not within an
       embedded  arithmetic  expansion,  command  substitution,  or  parameter
       expansion.

       ${parameter}
              The  value of parameter is substituted.  The braces are required
              when parameter is a positional  parameter  with  more  than  one
              digit, or when parameter is followed by a character which is not
              to be interpreted as part of its name.  The parameter is a shell
              parameter  as  described above PARAMETERS) or an array reference
              (Arrays).

       If the first character of parameter is an exclamation  point  (!),  and
       parameter is not a nameref, it introduces a level of indirection.  Bash
       uses the value formed by expanding the rest of  parameter  as  the  new
       parameter;  this is then expanded and that value is used in the rest of
       the expansion, rather than the expansion  of  the  original  parameter.
       This  is  known  as  indirect expansion.  The value is subject to tilde
       expansion, parameter expansion, command  substitution,  and  arithmetic
       expansion.   If parameter is a nameref, this expands to the name of the
       parameter referenced by parameter instead of  performing  the  complete
       indirect  expansion.   The  exceptions  to  this  are the expansions of
       ${!prefix*} and ${!name[@]} described  below.   The  exclamation  point
       must  immediately  follow the left brace in order to introduce indirec-
       tion.

       In each of the cases below, word is subject to tilde expansion, parame-
       ter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion.

       When  not  performing  substring  expansion, using the forms documented
       below (e.g., :-), bash tests for a parameter that  is  unset  or  null.
       Omitting  the  colon  results  in  a  test only for a parameter that is
       unset.

       ${parameter:-word}
              Use Default Values.  If parameter is unset or null,  the  expan-
              sion  of word is substituted.  Otherwise, the value of parameter
              is substituted.
       ${parameter:=word}
              Assign Default Values.  If  parameter  is  unset  or  null,  the
              expansion of word is assigned to parameter.  The value of param-
              eter is then substituted.   Positional  parameters  and  special
              parameters may not be assigned to in this way.
       ${parameter:?word}
              Display  Error if Null or Unset.  If parameter is null or unset,
              the expansion of word (or a message to that effect  if  word  is
              not  present) is written to the standard error and the shell, if
              it is not interactive, exits.  Otherwise, the value of parameter
              is substituted.
       ${parameter:+word}
              Use  Alternate Value.  If parameter is null or unset, nothing is
              substituted, otherwise the expansion of word is substituted.
       ${parameter:offset}
       ${parameter:offset:length}
              Substring Expansion.  Expands to up to length characters of  the
              value  of  parameter starting at the character specified by off-
              set.  If parameter is @, an indexed array subscripted by @ or *,
              or  an  associative  array name, the results differ as described
              below.  If length is omitted, expands to the  substring  of  the
              value of parameter starting at the character specified by offset
              and extending to the end of the value.  length  and  offset  are
              arithmetic expressions (see ARITHMETIC EVALUATION below).

              If  offset  evaluates  to  a number less than zero, the value is
              used as an offset in characters from the end  of  the  value  of
              parameter.   If  length evaluates to a number less than zero, it
              is interpreted as an offset in characters from the  end  of  the
              value  of  parameter rather than a number of characters, and the
              expansion is the characters  between  offset  and  that  result.
              Note  that a negative offset must be separated from the colon by
              at least one space to avoid being confused with  the  :-  expan-
              sion.

              If  parameter  is  @, the result is length positional parameters
              beginning at offset.  A negative offset is taken relative to one
              greater  than the greatest positional parameter, so an offset of
              -1 evaluates to the last positional parameter.  It is an  expan-
              sion error if length evaluates to a number less than zero.

              If parameter is an indexed array name subscripted by @ or *, the
              result is  the  length  members  of  the  array  beginning  with
              ${parameter[offset]}.   A  negative  offset is taken relative to
              one greater than the maximum index of the specified  array.   It
              is  an expansion error if length evaluates to a number less than
              zero.

              Substring expansion applied to  an  associative  array  produces
              undefined results.

              Substring  indexing  is zero-based unless the positional parame-
              ters are used, in  which  case  the  indexing  starts  at  1  by
              default.   If  offset  is  0,  and the positional parameters are
              used, $0 is prefixed to the list.

       ${!prefix*}
       ${!prefix@}
              Names matching prefix.  Expands to the names of variables  whose
              names begin with prefix, separated by the first character of the
              IFS special variable.  When @ is used and the expansion  appears
              within  double  quotes, each variable name expands to a separate
              word.

       ${!name[@]}
       ${!name[*]}
              List of array keys.  If name is an array  variable,  expands  to
              the  list  of array indices (keys) assigned in name.  If name is
              not an array, expands to 0 if name is set  and  null  otherwise.
              When  @  is used and the expansion appears within double quotes,
              each key expands to a separate word.

       ${#parameter}
              Parameter length.  The length in  characters  of  the  value  of
              parameter  is  substituted.   If  parameter is * or @, the value
              substituted is the number of positional parameters.  If  parame-
              ter  is  an  array name subscripted by * or @, the value substi-
              tuted is the number of elements in the array.  If  parameter  is
              an  indexed  array  name  subscripted by a negative number, that
              number is interpreted as relative to one greater than the  maxi-
              mum  index of parameter, so negative indices count back from the
              end of the array, and an index of -1 references  the  last  ele-
              ment.

       ${parameter#word}
       ${parameter##word}
              Remove matching prefix pattern.  The word is expanded to produce
              a pattern just as in pathname expansion, and matched against the
              expanded value of parameter using the rules described under Pat-
              tern Matching below.  If the pattern matches  the  beginning  of
              the  value of parameter, then the result of the expansion is the
              expanded value of parameter with the shortest  matching  pattern
              (the  ``#''  case)  or  the longest matching pattern (the ``##''
              case) deleted.  If parameter is @  or  *,  the  pattern  removal
              operation  is  applied to each positional parameter in turn, and
              the expansion is the resultant list.  If parameter is  an  array
              variable  subscripted with @ or *, the pattern removal operation
              is applied to each member of the array in turn, and  the  expan-
              sion is the resultant list.

       ${parameter%word}
       ${parameter%%word}
              Remove matching suffix pattern.  The word is expanded to produce
              a pattern just as in pathname expansion, and matched against the
              expanded value of parameter using the rules described under Pat-
              tern Matching below.  If the pattern matches a trailing  portion
              of  the  expanded  value  of  parameter,  then the result of the
              expansion is the expanded value of parameter with  the  shortest
              matching  pattern  (the ``%'' case) or the longest matching pat-
              tern (the ``%%'' case) deleted.  If parameter is  @  or  *,  the
              pattern  removal operation is applied to each positional parame-
              ter in turn, and the expansion is the resultant list.  If param-
              eter  is  an array variable subscripted with @ or *, the pattern
              removal operation is applied to each  member  of  the  array  in
              turn, and the expansion is the resultant list.

       ${parameter/pattern/string}
              Pattern substitution.  The pattern is expanded to produce a pat-
              tern just as in pathname expansion, Parameter  is  expanded  and
              the  longest match of pattern against its value is replaced with
              string.  The match is performed using the rules described  under
              Pattern  Matching  below.  If pattern begins with /, all matches
              of pattern are replaced with string.  Normally  only  the  first
              match  is  replaced.  If pattern begins with #, it must match at
              the beginning of the expanded value of  parameter.   If  pattern
              begins with %, it must match at the end of the expanded value of
              parameter.  If string is null, matches of  pattern  are  deleted
              and  the / following pattern may be omitted.  If the nocasematch
              shell option is enabled, the match is performed  without  regard
              to  the  case of alphabetic characters.  If parameter is @ or *,
              the substitution operation is applied to each positional parame-
              ter in turn, and the expansion is the resultant list.  If param-
              eter is an array variable subscripted with @ or *, the substitu-
              tion  operation  is applied to each member of the array in turn,
              and the expansion is the resultant list.

       ${parameter^pattern}
       ${parameter^^pattern}
       ${parameter,pattern}
       ${parameter,,pattern}
              Case modification.  This expansion modifies the case  of  alpha-
              betic  characters in parameter.  The pattern is expanded to pro-
              duce a pattern just as in pathname expansion.  Each character in
              the  expanded value of parameter is tested against pattern, and,
              if it matches the pattern, its case is converted.   The  pattern
              should  not  attempt  to  match  more than one character.  The ^
              operator converts lowercase letters matching pattern  to  upper-
              case; the , operator converts matching uppercase letters to low-
              ercase.  The ^^ and ,, expansions convert each matched character
              in  the expanded value; the ^ and , expansions match and convert
              only the first character in the expanded value.  If  pattern  is
              omitted,  it is treated like a ?, which matches every character.
              If parameter is @ or  *,  the  case  modification  operation  is
              applied  to each positional parameter in turn, and the expansion
              is the resultant list.  If parameter is an array  variable  sub-
              scripted with @ or *, the case modification operation is applied
              to each member of the array in turn, and the  expansion  is  the
              resultant list.

       ${parameter@operator}
              Parameter transformation.  The expansion is either a transforma-
              tion of the value of parameter or  information  about  parameter
              itself,  depending on the value of operator.  Each operator is a
              single letter:

              U      The expansion is a string that is the value of  parameter
                     with  lowercase alphabetic characters converted to upper-
                     case.
              u      The expansion is a string that is the value of  parameter
                     with the first character converted to uppercase, if it is
                     alphabetic.
              L      The expansion is a string that is the value of  parameter
                     with  uppercase alphabetic characters converted to lower-
                     case.
              Q      The expansion is a string that is the value of  parameter
                     quoted in a format that can be reused as input.
              E      The  expansion is a string that is the value of parameter
                     with backslash escape  sequences  expanded  as  with  the
                     $'...' quoting mechanism.
              P      The expansion is a string that is the result of expanding
                     the value of parameter as if it were a prompt string (see
                     PROMPTING below).
              A      The  expansion  is  a string in the form of an assignment
                     statement or declare command  that,  if  evaluated,  will
                     recreate parameter with its attributes and value.
              K      Produces a possibly-quoted version of the value of param-
                     eter, except that it prints the  values  of  indexed  and
                     associative  arrays  as  a  sequence  of quoted key-value
                     pairs (see Arrays above).
              a      The expansion is a string consisting of flag values  rep-
                     resenting parameter's attributes.

              If  parameter  is @ or *, the operation is applied to each posi-
              tional parameter in turn, and the  expansion  is  the  resultant
              list.   If  parameter is an array variable subscripted with @ or
              *, the operation is applied to each member of the array in turn,
              and the expansion is the resultant list.

              The  result  of  the  expansion is subject to word splitting and
              pathname expansion as described below.

   Command Substitution
       Command substitution allows the output of a command to replace the com-
       mand name.  There are two forms:

              $(command)
       or
              `command`

       Bash performs the expansion by executing command in a subshell environ-
       ment and replacing the command substitution with the standard output of
       the command, with any trailing newlines deleted.  Embedded newlines are
       not deleted, but they may be removed during word splitting.   The  com-
       mand  substitution  $(cat  file)  can be replaced by the equivalent but
       faster $(< file).

       When the old-style backquote form of substitution  is  used,  backslash
       retains  its  literal  meaning except when followed by $, `, or \.  The
       first backquote not preceded by a backslash terminates the command sub-
       stitution.   When using the $(command) form, all characters between the
       parentheses make up the command; none are treated specially.

       Command substitutions may be nested.  To nest when using the backquoted
       form, escape the inner backquotes with backslashes.

       If  the  substitution  appears within double quotes, word splitting and
       pathname expansion are not performed on the results.

   Arithmetic Expansion
       Arithmetic expansion allows the evaluation of an arithmetic  expression
       and  the  substitution of the result.  The format for arithmetic expan-
       sion is:

              $((expression))

       The expression is treated as if it were within  double  quotes,  but  a
       double  quote  inside  the  parentheses  is not treated specially.  All
       tokens in the expression undergo parameter and variable expansion, com-
       mand  substitution,  and  quote  removal.  The result is treated as the
       arithmetic expression to be evaluated.  Arithmetic  expansions  may  be
       nested.

       The  evaluation  is performed according to the rules listed below under
       ARITHMETIC EVALUATION.  If expression is invalid, bash prints a message
       indicating failure and no substitution occurs.

   Process Substitution
       Process  substitution allows a process's input or output to be referred
       to using a filename.  It takes the form of  <(list)  or  >(list).   The
       process  list is run asynchronously, and its input or output appears as
       a filename.  This filename is passed as an argument to the current com-
       mand  as  the  result  of  the expansion.  If the >(list) form is used,
       writing to the file will provide input for list.  If the  <(list)  form
       is  used,  the  file passed as an argument should be read to obtain the
       output of list.  Process substitution is supported on systems that sup-
       port named pipes (FIFOs) or the /dev/fd method of naming open files.

       When  available,  process substitution is performed simultaneously with
       parameter and variable expansion, command substitution, and  arithmetic
       expansion.

   Word Splitting
       The  shell  scans the results of parameter expansion, command substitu-
       tion, and arithmetic expansion that did not occur within double  quotes
       for word splitting.

       The  shell  treats each character of IFS as a delimiter, and splits the
       results of the other expansions into words using  these  characters  as
       field   terminators.   If  IFS  is  unset,  or  its  value  is  exactly
       <space><tab><newline>, the default, then sequences of  <space>,  <tab>,
       and  <newline>  at the beginning and end of the results of the previous
       expansions are ignored, and any sequence of IFS characters not  at  the
       beginning  or  end  serves  to delimit words.  If IFS has a value other
       than the default, then sequences of the  whitespace  characters  space,
       tab,  and  newline are ignored at the beginning and end of the word, as
       long as the whitespace character is in the value of IFS (an IFS  white-
       space  character).   Any  character  in IFS that is not IFS whitespace,
       along with any adjacent IFS whitespace characters, delimits a field.  A
       sequence  of  IFS whitespace characters is also treated as a delimiter.
       If the value of IFS is null, no word splitting occurs.

       Explicit null arguments ("" or '') are retained and passed to  commands
       as empty strings.  Unquoted implicit null arguments, resulting from the
       expansion of parameters that have no values, are removed.  If a parame-
       ter  with  no  value  is expanded within double quotes, a null argument
       results and is retained and passed to a command  as  an  empty  string.
       When  a  quoted null argument appears as part of a word whose expansion
       is non-null, the null argument is removed.   That  is,  the  word  -d''
       becomes -d after word splitting and null argument removal.

       Note that if no expansion occurs, no splitting is performed.

   Pathname Expansion
       After  word  splitting,  unless  the -f option has been set, bash scans
       each word for the characters *, ?, and [.  If one of  these  characters
       appears, and is not quoted, then the word is regarded as a pattern, and
       replaced with an alphabetically sorted list of filenames  matching  the
       pattern  (see  Pattern  Matching  below).  If no matching filenames are
       found, and the shell option nullglob is not enabled, the word  is  left
       unchanged.   If  the  nullglob option is set, and no matches are found,
       the word is removed.  If the failglob  shell  option  is  set,  and  no
       matches  are  found, an error message is printed and the command is not
       executed.  If the shell option nocaseglob is enabled, the match is per-
       formed  without  regard  to  the case of alphabetic characters.  When a
       pattern is used for pathname expansion, the  character  ``.''   at  the
       start  of  a  name  or  immediately  following  a slash must be matched
       explicitly, unless the shell option  dotglob  is  set.   The  filenames
       ``.''   and  ``..''  must always be matched explicitly, even if dotglob
       is set.  In other cases, the ``.''  character is not treated specially.
       When  matching  a  pathname, the slash character must always be matched
       explicitly by a slash in the pattern, but in other matching contexts it
       can  be matched by a special pattern character as described below under
       Pattern Matching.  See the  description  of  shopt  below  under  SHELL
       BUILTIN  COMMANDS  for a description of the nocaseglob, nullglob, fail-
       glob, and dotglob shell options.

       The GLOBIGNORE shell variable may be used to restrict the set  of  file
       names  matching  a  pattern.   If GLOBIGNORE is set, each matching file
       name that also matches one of the patterns  in  GLOBIGNORE  is  removed
       from  the list of matches.  If the nocaseglob option is set, the match-
       ing against the patterns in GLOBIGNORE is performed without  regard  to
       case.  The filenames ``.''  and ``..''  are always ignored when GLOBIG-
       NORE is set and not null.  However, setting GLOBIGNORE  to  a  non-null
       value has the effect of enabling the dotglob shell option, so all other
       filenames beginning with a ``.''  will match.  To get the old  behavior
       of  ignoring  filenames beginning with a ``.'', make ``.*''  one of the
       patterns in GLOBIGNORE.  The dotglob option is disabled when GLOBIGNORE
       is unset.  The pattern matching honors the setting of the extglob shell
       option.

       Pattern Matching

       Any character that appears in a pattern, other than the special pattern
       characters  described below, matches itself.  The NUL character may not
       occur in a pattern.  A backslash escapes the following  character;  the
       escaping  backslash  is  discarded  when matching.  The special pattern
       characters must be quoted if they are to be matched literally.

       The special pattern characters have the following meanings:

              *      Matches any string, including the null string.  When  the
                     globstar  shell  option  is  enabled,  and * is used in a
                     pathname expansion context, two adjacent  *s  used  as  a
                     single  pattern  will  match  all  files and zero or more
                     directories and subdirectories.  If followed by a /,  two
                     adjacent  *s  will match only directories and subdirecto-
                     ries.
              ?      Matches any single character.
              [...]  Matches any one of the enclosed characters.   A  pair  of
                     characters  separated by a hyphen denotes a range expres-
                     sion; any character that falls between those two  charac-
                     ters,  inclusive,  using  the  current locale's collating
                     sequence and character set, is  matched.   If  the  first
                     character following the [ is a !  or a ^ then any charac-
                     ter not enclosed is matched.  The sorting order of  char-
                     acters  in range expressions is determined by the current
                     locale and the values of the LC_COLLATE or  LC_ALL  shell
                     variables, if set.  To obtain the traditional interpreta-
                     tion of range expressions, where [a-d] is  equivalent  to
                     [abcd],  set  value of the LC_ALL shell variable to C, or
                     enable the globasciiranges shell  option.   A  -  may  be
                     matched by including it as the first or last character in
                     the set.  A ] may be matched by including it as the first
                     character in the set.

                     Within  [ and ], character classes can be specified using
                     the syntax [:class:], where class is one of the following
                     classes defined in the POSIX standard:
                     alnum  alpha  ascii  blank  cntrl digit graph lower print
                     punct space upper word xdigit
                     A character class matches any character belonging to that
                     class.  The word character class matches letters, digits,
                     and the character _.

                     Within [ and ], an equivalence  class  can  be  specified
                     using the syntax [=c=], which matches all characters with
                     the same collation weight  (as  defined  by  the  current
                     locale) as the character c.

                     Within [ and ], the syntax [.symbol.] matches the collat-
                     ing symbol symbol.

       If the extglob shell option is enabled using the shopt builtin, several
       extended  pattern  matching operators are recognized.  In the following
       description, a pattern-list is a list of one or more patterns separated
       by a |.  Composite patterns may be formed using one or more of the fol-
       lowing sub-patterns:

              ?(pattern-list)
                     Matches zero or one occurrence of the given patterns
              *(pattern-list)
                     Matches zero or more occurrences of the given patterns
              +(pattern-list)
                     Matches one or more occurrences of the given patterns
              @(pattern-list)
                     Matches one of the given patterns
              !(pattern-list)
                     Matches anything except one of the given patterns

       Complicated extended pattern matching against  long  strings  is  slow,
       especially  when the patterns contain alternations and the strings con-
       tain multiple matches.  Using separate matches against shorter strings,
       or  using  arrays  of  strings  instead of a single long string, may be
       faster.

   Quote Removal
       After the preceding expansions, all unquoted occurrences of the charac-
       ters  \,  ', and " that did not result from one of the above expansions
       are removed.

REDIRECTION
       Before a command is executed, its input and output  may  be  redirected
       using  a special notation interpreted by the shell.  Redirection allows
       commands' file handles to be duplicated, opened, closed, made to  refer
       to different files, and can change the files the command reads from and
       writes to.  Redirection may also be used to modify file handles in  the
       current  shell execution environment.  The following redirection opera-
       tors may precede or appear anywhere within a simple command or may fol-
       low  a  command.   Redirections are processed in the order they appear,
       from left to right.

       Each redirection that may be preceded by a file descriptor  number  may
       instead be preceded by a word of the form {varname}.  In this case, for
       each redirection operator except >&- and <&-, the shell will allocate a
       file  descriptor  greater than or equal to 10 and assign it to varname.
       If >&- or <&- is preceded by {varname}, the value  of  varname  defines
       the  file descriptor to close.  If {varname} is supplied, the redirect-
       ion persists beyond the scope of the command, allowing the  shell  pro-
       grammer to manage the file descriptor himself.

       In  the  following descriptions, if the file descriptor number is omit-
       ted, and the first character of the redirection operator is <, the  re-
       direction  refers  to  the  standard input (file descriptor 0).  If the
       first character of the  redirection  operator  is  >,  the  redirection
       refers to the standard output (file descriptor 1).

       The  word  following the redirection operator in the following descrip-
       tions, unless otherwise noted, is subjected to brace  expansion,  tilde
       expansion,  parameter  and  variable  expansion,  command substitution,
       arithmetic expansion,  quote  removal,  pathname  expansion,  and  word
       splitting.  If it expands to more than one word, bash reports an error.

       Note  that  the order of redirections is significant.  For example, the
       command

              ls > dirlist 2>&1

       directs both standard output and standard error to  the  file  dirlist,
       while the command

              ls 2>&1 > dirlist

       directs  only the standard output to file dirlist, because the standard
       error was duplicated from the standard output before the standard  out-
       put was redirected to dirlist.

       Bash handles several filenames specially when they are used in redirec-
       tions, as described in the following table.  If the operating system on
       which bash is running provides these special files, bash will use them;
       otherwise it will emulate them internally with the  behavior  described
       below.

              /dev/fd/fd
                     If  fd  is  a valid integer, file descriptor fd is dupli-
                     cated.
              /dev/stdin
                     File descriptor 0 is duplicated.
              /dev/stdout
                     File descriptor 1 is duplicated.
              /dev/stderr
                     File descriptor 2 is duplicated.
              /dev/tcp/host/port
                     If host is a valid hostname or Internet address, and port
                     is  an integer port number or service name, bash attempts
                     to open the corresponding TCP socket.
              /dev/udp/host/port
                     If host is a valid hostname or Internet address, and port
                     is  an integer port number or service name, bash attempts
                     to open the corresponding UDP socket.

       A failure to open or create a file causes the redirection to fail.

       Redirections using file descriptors greater than 9 should be used  with
       care,  as they may conflict with file descriptors the shell uses inter-
       nally.

   Redirecting Input
       Redirection of input causes the file whose name results from the expan-
       sion  of  word  to  be  opened for reading on file descriptor n, or the
       standard input (file descriptor 0) if n is not specified.

       The general format for redirecting input is:

              [n]<word

   Redirecting Output
       Redirection of output causes the  file  whose  name  results  from  the
       expansion of word to be opened for writing on file descriptor n, or the
       standard output (file descriptor 1) if n is not specified.  If the file
       does  not exist it is created; if it does exist it is truncated to zero
       size.

       The general format for redirecting output is:

              [n]>word

       If the redirection operator is >, and the noclobber option to  the  set
       builtin  has  been enabled, the redirection will fail if the file whose
       name results from the expansion of word exists and is a  regular  file.
       If the redirection operator is >|, or the redirection operator is > and
       the noclobber option to the set builtin command is not enabled, the re-
       direction is attempted even if the file named by word exists.

   Appending Redirected Output
       Redirection  of  output  in  this  fashion  causes  the file whose name
       results from the expansion of word to be opened for appending  on  file
       descriptor  n,  or  the standard output (file descriptor 1) if n is not
       specified.  If the file does not exist it is created.

       The general format for appending output is:

              [n]>>word

   Redirecting Standard Output and Standard Error
       This construct allows both the standard output (file descriptor 1)  and
       the  standard  error output (file descriptor 2) to be redirected to the
       file whose name is the expansion of word.

       There are two formats for  redirecting  standard  output  and  standard
       error:

              &>word
       and
              >&word

       Of the two forms, the first is preferred.  This is semantically equiva-
       lent to

              >word 2>&1

       When using the second form, word may not expand to a number or  -.   If
       it  does,  other  redirection  operators  apply  (see  Duplicating File
       Descriptors below) for compatibility reasons.

   Appending Standard Output and Standard Error
       This construct allows both the standard output (file descriptor 1)  and
       the  standard  error  output  (file descriptor 2) to be appended to the
       file whose name is the expansion of word.

       The format for appending standard output and standard error is:

              &>>word

       This is semantically equivalent to

              >>word 2>&1

       (see Duplicating File Descriptors below).

   Here Documents
       This type of redirection instructs the shell to  read  input  from  the
       current source until a line containing only delimiter (with no trailing
       blanks) is seen.  All of the lines read up to that point are then  used
       as  the  standard  input (or file descriptor n if n is specified) for a
       command.

       The format of here-documents is:

              [n]<<[-]word
                      here-document
              delimiter

       No parameter and variable expansion, command  substitution,  arithmetic
       expansion,  or pathname expansion is performed on word.  If any part of
       word is quoted, the delimiter is the result of quote removal  on  word,
       and  the  lines  in  the  here-document  are  not expanded.  If word is
       unquoted, all lines of the here-document  are  subjected  to  parameter
       expansion,  command substitution, and arithmetic expansion, the charac-
       ter sequence \<newline> is ignored, and \ must be  used  to  quote  the
       characters \, $, and `.

       If the redirection operator is <<-, then all leading tab characters are
       stripped from input lines and  the  line  containing  delimiter.   This
       allows  here-documents within shell scripts to be indented in a natural
       fashion.

   Here Strings
       A variant of here documents, the format is:

              [n]<<<word

       The word undergoes tilde expansion, parameter and  variable  expansion,
       command  substitution,  arithmetic expansion, and quote removal.  Path-
       name expansion and word splitting are not  performed.   The  result  is
       supplied as a single string, with a newline appended, to the command on
       its standard input (or file descriptor n if n is specified).

   Duplicating File Descriptors
       The redirection operator

              [n]<&word

       is used to duplicate input file descriptors.  If word expands to one or
       more  digits,  the file descriptor denoted by n is made to be a copy of
       that file descriptor.  If the digits in word  do  not  specify  a  file
       descriptor  open for input, a redirection error occurs.  If word evalu-
       ates to -, file descriptor n is closed.  If n  is  not  specified,  the
       standard input (file descriptor 0) is used.

       The operator

              [n]>&word

       is  used  similarly  to duplicate output file descriptors.  If n is not
       specified, the standard output (file descriptor 1)  is  used.   If  the
       digits  in word do not specify a file descriptor open for output, a re-
       direction error occurs.  If word evaluates to -, file descriptor  n  is
       closed.   As  a special case, if n is omitted, and word does not expand
       to one or more digits or -, the standard output and standard error  are
       redirected as described previously.

   Moving File Descriptors
       The redirection operator

              [n]<&digit-

       moves  the  file descriptor digit to file descriptor n, or the standard
       input (file descriptor 0) if n is not specified.  digit is closed after
       being duplicated to n.

       Similarly, the redirection operator

              [n]>&digit-

       moves  the  file descriptor digit to file descriptor n, or the standard
       output (file descriptor 1) if n is not specified.

   Opening File Descriptors for Reading and Writing
       The redirection operator

              [n]<>word

       causes the file whose name is the expansion of word to  be  opened  for
       both  reading and writing on file descriptor n, or on file descriptor 0
       if n is not specified.  If the file does not exist, it is created.

ALIASES
       Aliases allow a string to be substituted for a word when it is used  as
       the  first  word  of  a  simple command.  The shell maintains a list of
       aliases that may be set and unset with the alias  and  unalias  builtin
       commands  (see  SHELL  BUILTIN COMMANDS below).  The first word of each
       simple command, if unquoted, is checked to see if it has an alias.   If
       so,  that word is replaced by the text of the alias.  The characters /,
       $, `, and = and any of the shell metacharacters or  quoting  characters
       listed above may not appear in an alias name.  The replacement text may
       contain any valid shell input,  including  shell  metacharacters.   The
       first  word  of  the replacement text is tested for aliases, but a word
       that is identical to an alias being expanded is not expanded  a  second
       time.   This  means  that  one may alias ls to ls -F, for instance, and
       bash does not try to recursively expand the replacement text.   If  the
       last  character  of  the  alias value is a blank, then the next command
       word following the alias is also checked for alias expansion.

       Aliases are created and listed with the alias command, and removed with
       the unalias command.

       There  is no mechanism for using arguments in the replacement text.  If
       arguments are needed, a shell function should be  used  (see  FUNCTIONS
       below).

       Aliases  are not expanded when the shell is not interactive, unless the
       expand_aliases shell option is set using shopt (see the description  of
       shopt under SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).

       The  rules  concerning  the  definition and use of aliases are somewhat
       confusing.  Bash always reads at least one complete line of input,  and
       all  lines that make up a compound command, before executing any of the
       commands on that line or the compound command.   Aliases  are  expanded
       when  a  command is read, not when it is executed.  Therefore, an alias
       definition appearing on the same line as another command does not  take
       effect  until  the  next line of input is read.  The commands following
       the alias definition on that line are not affected by  the  new  alias.
       This  behavior  is  also an issue when functions are executed.  Aliases
       are expanded when a function definition is read, not when the  function
       is  executed,  because a function definition is itself a command.  As a
       consequence, aliases defined in a  function  are  not  available  until
       after  that function is executed.  To be safe, always put alias defini-
       tions on a separate line, and do not use alias in compound commands.

       For almost every purpose, aliases are superseded by shell functions.

FUNCTIONS
       A shell function, defined  as  described  above  under  SHELL  GRAMMAR,
       stores  a  series  of commands for later execution.  When the name of a
       shell function is used as a simple command name, the list  of  commands
       associated with that function name is executed.  Functions are executed
       in the context of the current shell;  no  new  process  is  created  to
       interpret  them  (contrast  this with the execution of a shell script).
       When a function is executed, the arguments to the function  become  the
       positional parameters during its execution.  The special parameter # is
       updated to reflect the change.  Special parameter 0 is unchanged.   The
       first  element of the FUNCNAME variable is set to the name of the func-
       tion while the function is executing.

       All other aspects of the  shell  execution  environment  are  identical
       between  a function and its caller with these exceptions: the DEBUG and
       RETURN traps (see the description  of  the  trap  builtin  under  SHELL
       BUILTIN  COMMANDS below) are not inherited unless the function has been
       given the trace attribute (see the description of the  declare  builtin
       below)  or  the -o functrace shell option has been enabled with the set
       builtin (in which case all  functions  inherit  the  DEBUG  and  RETURN
       traps),  and the ERR trap is not inherited unless the -o errtrace shell
       option has been enabled.

       Variables local to the function may be declared with the local  builtin
       command.  Ordinarily, variables and their values are shared between the
       function and its caller.  If a variable is declared  local,  the  vari-
       able's  visible  scope  is restricted to that function and its children
       (including the functions it calls).  Local variables "shadow" variables
       with  the same name declared at previous scopes.  For instance, a local
       variable declared in a function hides a global  variable  of  the  same
       name:  references  and assignments refer to the local variable, leaving
       the global variable unmodified.  When the function returns, the  global
       variable is once again visible.

       The  shell  uses  dynamic  scoping  to  control a variable's visibility
       within functions.  With dynamic scoping, visible  variables  and  their
       values  are a result of the sequence of function calls that caused exe-
       cution to reach the current function.  The value of a variable  that  a
       function  sees  depends on its value within its caller, if any, whether
       that caller is the "global" scope or another shell function.   This  is
       also  the  value  that  a local variable declaration "shadows", and the
       value that is restored when the function returns.

       For example, if a variable var is declared as local in function  func1,
       and  func1  calls  another  function func2, references to var made from
       within func2 will resolve to the local variable var from func1, shadow-
       ing any global variable named var.

       The unset builtin also acts using the same dynamic scope: if a variable
       is local to the current scope, unset will unset it; otherwise the unset
       will  refer  to  the  variable  found in any calling scope as described
       above.  If a variable at the current local  scope  is  unset,  it  will
       remain  so  until  it  is  reset  in  that  scope or until the function
       returns.  Once the function returns, any instance of the variable at  a
       previous scope will become visible.  If the unset acts on a variable at
       a previous scope, any instance of a variable with that  name  that  had
       been shadowed will become visible.

       The  FUNCNEST  variable,  if  set  to  a  numeric value greater than 0,
       defines a maximum function nesting level.   Function  invocations  that
       exceed the limit cause the entire command to abort.

       If  the  builtin command return is executed in a function, the function
       completes and execution resumes with the next command after  the  func-
       tion  call.   Any  command  associated with the RETURN trap is executed
       before execution resumes.  When a function completes, the values of the
       positional  parameters  and the special parameter # are restored to the
       values they had prior to the function's execution.

       Function names and definitions may be listed with the -f option to  the
       declare or typeset builtin commands.  The -F option to declare or type-
       set will list the function names only (and optionally the  source  file
       and  line  number, if the extdebug shell option is enabled).  Functions
       may be exported so that subshells automatically have them defined  with
       the  -f  option  to  the  export builtin.  A function definition may be
       deleted using the -f option to the unset builtin.

       Functions may be recursive.  The FUNCNEST variable may be used to limit
       the  depth  of the function call stack and restrict the number of func-
       tion invocations.  By default, no limit is imposed  on  the  number  of
       recursive calls.

ARITHMETIC EVALUATION
       The  shell allows arithmetic expressions to be evaluated, under certain
       circumstances (see the let and declare builtin commands,  the  ((  com-
       pound command, and Arithmetic Expansion).  Evaluation is done in fixed-
       width integers with no check for overflow,  though  division  by  0  is
       trapped  and  flagged as an error.  The operators and their precedence,
       associativity, and values are the same as in the C language.  The  fol-
       lowing  list  of  operators  is grouped into levels of equal-precedence
       operators.  The levels are listed in order of decreasing precedence.

       id++ id--
              variable post-increment and post-decrement
       - +    unary minus and plus
       ++id --id
              variable pre-increment and pre-decrement
       ! ~    logical and bitwise negation
       **     exponentiation
       * / %  multiplication, division, remainder
       + -    addition, subtraction
       << >>  left and right bitwise shifts
       <= >= < >
              comparison
       == !=  equality and inequality
       &      bitwise AND
       ^      bitwise exclusive OR
       |      bitwise OR
       &&     logical AND
       ||     logical OR
       expr?expr:expr
              conditional operator
       = *= /= %= += -= <<= >>= &= ^= |=
              assignment
       expr1 , expr2
              comma

       Shell variables are allowed as operands; parameter  expansion  is  per-
       formed before the expression is evaluated.  Within an expression, shell
       variables may also be referenced by name without  using  the  parameter
       expansion  syntax.  A shell variable that is null or unset evaluates to
       0 when referenced by name without using the parameter expansion syntax.
       The  value  of a variable is evaluated as an arithmetic expression when
       it is referenced, or when a variable which has been given  the  integer
       attribute using declare -i is assigned a value.  A null value evaluates
       to 0.  A shell variable need not have its integer attribute  turned  on
       to be used in an expression.

       Integer constants follow the C language definition, without suffixes or
       character constants.  Constants with a leading  0  are  interpreted  as
       octal  numbers.   A  leading  0x or 0X denotes hexadecimal.  Otherwise,
       numbers take the form [base#]n, where the optional base  is  a  decimal
       number  between  2  and 64 representing the arithmetic base, and n is a
       number in that base.  If base# is omitted, then base 10 is used.   When
       specifying n, if a non-digit is required, the digits greater than 9 are
       represented by the lowercase letters, the uppercase letters, @, and  _,
       in  that  order.   If  base  is less than or equal to 36, lowercase and
       uppercase letters may be  used  interchangeably  to  represent  numbers
       between 10 and 35.

       Operators  are  evaluated  in  order of precedence.  Sub-expressions in
       parentheses are evaluated first and may override the  precedence  rules
       above.

CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS
       Conditional  expressions  are  used  by the [[ compound command and the
       test and [ builtin commands to test file attributes and perform  string
       and  arithmetic  comparisons.   The test and [ commands determine their
       behavior based on the number of  arguments;  see  the  descriptions  of
       those commands for any other command-specific actions.

       Expressions  are  formed  from the following unary or binary primaries.
       Bash handles several filenames specially when they are used in  expres-
       sions.  If the operating system on which bash is running provides these
       special files, bash will use  them;  otherwise  it  will  emulate  them
       internally  with this behavior: If any file argument to one of the pri-
       maries is of the form /dev/fd/n, then file descriptor n is checked.  If
       the  file  argument  to  one  of  the  primaries  is one of /dev/stdin,
       /dev/stdout, or /dev/stderr, file descriptor 0, 1, or 2,  respectively,
       is checked.

       Unless otherwise specified, primaries that operate on files follow sym-
       bolic links and operate on the target of the link, rather than the link
       itself.

       When  used  with [[, the < and > operators sort lexicographically using
       the current locale.  The test command sorts using ASCII ordering.

       -a file
              True if file exists.
       -b file
              True if file exists and is a block special file.
       -c file
              True if file exists and is a character special file.
       -d file
              True if file exists and is a directory.
       -e file
              True if file exists.
       -f file
              True if file exists and is a regular file.
       -g file
              True if file exists and is set-group-id.
       -h file
              True if file exists and is a symbolic link.
       -k file
              True if file exists and its ``sticky'' bit is set.
       -p file
              True if file exists and is a named pipe (FIFO).
       -r file
              True if file exists and is readable.
       -s file
              True if file exists and has a size greater than zero.
       -t fd  True if file descriptor fd is open and refers to a terminal.
       -u file
              True if file exists and its set-user-id bit is set.
       -w file
              True if file exists and is writable.
       -x file
              True if file exists and is executable.
       -G file
              True if file exists and is owned by the effective group id.
       -L file
              True if file exists and is a symbolic link.
       -N file
              True if file exists and has been  modified  since  it  was  last
              read.
       -O file
              True if file exists and is owned by the effective user id.
       -S file
              True if file exists and is a socket.
       file1 -ef file2
              True  if file1 and file2 refer to the same device and inode num-
              bers.
       file1 -nt file2
              True if file1 is newer (according  to  modification  date)  than
              file2, or if file1 exists and file2 does not.
       file1 -ot file2
              True  if file1 is older than file2, or if file2 exists and file1
              does not.
       -o optname
              True if the shell option optname is enabled.  See  the  list  of
              options  under  the  description  of  the  -o  option to the set
              builtin below.
       -v varname
              True if the shell variable varname is set (has been  assigned  a
              value).
       -R varname
              True  if  the shell variable varname is set and is a name refer-
              ence.
       -z string
              True if the length of string is zero.
       string
       -n string
              True if the length of string is non-zero.

       string1 == string2
       string1 = string2
              True if the strings are equal.  = should be used with  the  test
              command  for  POSIX conformance.  When used with the [[ command,
              this performs pattern matching as described above (Compound Com-
              mands).

       string1 != string2
              True if the strings are not equal.

       string1 < string2
              True if string1 sorts before string2 lexicographically.

       string1 > string2
              True if string1 sorts after string2 lexicographically.

       arg1 OP arg2
              OP  is one of -eq, -ne, -lt, -le, -gt, or -ge.  These arithmetic
              binary operators return true if arg1 is equal to, not equal  to,
              less  than, less than or equal to, greater than, or greater than
              or equal to arg2, respectively.  Arg1 and arg2 may  be  positive
              or  negative  integers.  When used with the [[ command, Arg1 and
              Arg2 are evaluated as  arithmetic  expressions  (see  ARITHMETIC
              EVALUATION above).

SIMPLE COMMAND EXPANSION
       When  a  simple  command  is executed, the shell performs the following
       expansions, assignments, and redirections, from left to right,  in  the
       following order.

       1.     The  words  that  the  parser has marked as variable assignments
              (those preceding the command name) and  redirections  are  saved
              for later processing.

       2.     The  words that are not variable assignments or redirections are
              expanded.  If any words remain after expansion, the  first  word
              is  taken  to be the name of the command and the remaining words
              are the arguments.

       3.     Redirections are performed as described above under REDIRECTION.

       4.     The text after the = in each variable assignment undergoes tilde
              expansion, parameter expansion, command substitution, arithmetic
              expansion, and quote removal before being assigned to the  vari-
              able.

       If no command name results, the variable assignments affect the current
       shell environment.  Otherwise, the variables are added to the  environ-
       ment  of the executed command and do not affect the current shell envi-
       ronment.  If any of the assignments attempts to assign  a  value  to  a
       readonly  variable,  an error occurs, and the command exits with a non-
       zero status.

       If no command name results, redirections  are  performed,  but  do  not
       affect  the  current shell environment.  A redirection error causes the
       command to exit with a non-zero status.

       If there is a command name left after expansion, execution proceeds  as
       described  below.   Otherwise, the command exits.  If one of the expan-
       sions contained a command substitution, the exit status of the  command
       is  the  exit  status  of  the last command substitution performed.  If
       there were no command substitutions, the command exits with a status of
       zero.

COMMAND EXECUTION
       After  a  command  has been split into words, if it results in a simple
       command and an optional list of arguments, the  following  actions  are
       taken.

       If  the  command name contains no slashes, the shell attempts to locate
       it.  If there exists a shell function by that name,  that  function  is
       invoked  as described above in FUNCTIONS.  If the name does not match a
       function, the shell searches for it in the list of shell builtins.   If
       a match is found, that builtin is invoked.

       If  the name is neither a shell function nor a builtin, and contains no
       slashes, bash searches each element of the PATH for  a  directory  con-
       taining  an  executable  file  by that name.  Bash uses a hash table to
       remember the full pathnames of executable files (see hash  under  SHELL
       BUILTIN  COMMANDS  below).  A full search of the directories in PATH is
       performed only if the command is not found in the hash table.   If  the
       search is unsuccessful, the shell searches for a defined shell function
       named command_not_found_handle.  If that function exists, it is invoked
       in  a  separate execution environment with the original command and the
       original command's arguments as its arguments, and the function's  exit
       status  becomes  the exit status of that subshell.  If that function is
       not defined, the shell prints an error message and returns an exit sta-
       tus of 127.

       If  the  search  is  successful, or if the command name contains one or
       more slashes, the shell executes the named program in a separate execu-
       tion environment.  Argument 0 is set to the name given, and the remain-
       ing arguments to the command are set to the arguments given, if any.

       If this execution fails because the file is not in  executable  format,
       and  the file is not a directory, it is assumed to be a shell script, a
       file containing shell commands.  A subshell is spawned to  execute  it.
       This  subshell  reinitializes itself, so that the effect is as if a new
       shell had been invoked to handle the script, with  the  exception  that
       the  locations  of  commands  remembered  by the parent (see hash below
       under SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) are retained by the child.

       If the program is a file beginning with #!, the remainder of the  first
       line  specifies an interpreter for the program.  The shell executes the
       specified interpreter on operating systems that do not handle this exe-
       cutable format themselves.  The arguments to the interpreter consist of
       a single optional argument following the interpreter name on the  first
       line  of  the program, followed by the name of the program, followed by
       the command arguments, if any.

COMMAND EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT
       The shell has an execution environment, which consists of  the  follow-
       ing:

       o      open  files inherited by the shell at invocation, as modified by
              redirections supplied to the exec builtin

       o      the current working directory as set by cd, pushd, or  popd,  or
              inherited by the shell at invocation

       o      the  file  creation  mode mask as set by umask or inherited from
              the shell's parent

       o      current traps set by trap

       o      shell parameters that are set by variable assignment or with set
              or inherited from the shell's parent in the environment

       o      shell  functions  defined during execution or inherited from the
              shell's parent in the environment

       o      options enabled at invocation (either by default  or  with  com-
              mand-line arguments) or by set

       o      options enabled by shopt

       o      shell aliases defined with alias

       o      various  process  IDs,  including  those of background jobs, the
              value of $$, and the value of PPID

       When a simple command other than a builtin or shell function is  to  be
       executed,  it  is invoked in a separate execution environment that con-
       sists of the following.  Unless otherwise noted, the values are  inher-
       ited from the shell.


       o      the  shell's  open  files,  plus any modifications and additions
              specified by redirections to the command

       o      the current working directory

       o      the file creation mode mask

       o      shell variables and functions  marked  for  export,  along  with
              variables exported for the command, passed in the environment

       o      traps caught by the shell are reset to the values inherited from
              the shell's parent, and traps ignored by the shell are ignored

       A command invoked  in  this  separate  environment  cannot  affect  the
       shell's execution environment.

       Command  substitution, commands grouped with parentheses, and asynchro-
       nous commands are invoked in a subshell environment that is a duplicate
       of  the  shell  environment,  except that traps caught by the shell are
       reset to the values that the shell inherited from its parent at invoca-
       tion.  Builtin commands that are invoked as part of a pipeline are also
       executed in a subshell environment.  Changes made to the subshell envi-
       ronment cannot affect the shell's execution environment.

       Subshells spawned to execute command substitutions inherit the value of
       the -e option from the parent shell.  When  not  in  posix  mode,  bash
       clears the -e option in such subshells.

       If  a  command  is  followed  by a & and job control is not active, the
       default standard input for the command is  the  empty  file  /dev/null.
       Otherwise,  the  invoked  command  inherits the file descriptors of the
       calling shell as modified by redirections.

ENVIRONMENT
       When a program is invoked it is given an array of  strings  called  the
       environment.   This  is  a  list  of  name-value  pairs,  of  the  form
       name=value.

       The shell provides several ways  to  manipulate  the  environment.   On
       invocation, the shell scans its own environment and creates a parameter
       for each name found, automatically marking it for export to child  pro-
       cesses.   Executed  commands  inherit  the environment.  The export and
       declare -x commands allow parameters and functions to be added  to  and
       deleted from the environment.  If the value of a parameter in the envi-
       ronment is modified, the new value becomes  part  of  the  environment,
       replacing  the  old.  The environment inherited by any executed command
       consists of the shell's initial environment, whose values may be  modi-
       fied  in  the  shell, less any pairs removed by the unset command, plus
       any additions via the export and declare -x commands.

       The environment for any simple command or  function  may  be  augmented
       temporarily  by  prefixing  it with parameter assignments, as described
       above in PARAMETERS.  These assignment statements affect only the envi-
       ronment seen by that command.

       If  the  -k option is set (see the set builtin command below), then all
       parameter assignments are placed in the environment for a command,  not
       just those that precede the command name.

       When  bash  invokes  an  external command, the variable _ is set to the
       full filename of the command and passed to that command in its environ-
       ment.

EXIT STATUS
       The  exit  status  of  an executed command is the value returned by the
       waitpid system call or equivalent function.  Exit statuses fall between
       0  and  255, though, as explained below, the shell may use values above
       125 specially.  Exit statuses from shell builtins and compound commands
       are also limited to this range.  Under certain circumstances, the shell
       will use special values to indicate specific failure modes.

       For the shell's purposes, a command which exits with a zero exit status
       has  succeeded.   An exit status of zero indicates success.  A non-zero
       exit status indicates failure.  When a command terminates  on  a  fatal
       signal N, bash uses the value of 128+N as the exit status.

       If  a  command  is  not  found, the child process created to execute it
       returns a status of 127.  If a command is found but is not  executable,
       the return status is 126.

       If a command fails because of an error during expansion or redirection,
       the exit status is greater than zero.

       Shell builtin commands return a status of 0 (true) if  successful,  and
       non-zero  (false)  if an error occurs while they execute.  All builtins
       return an exit status of  2  to  indicate  incorrect  usage,  generally
       invalid options or missing arguments.

       Bash  itself  returns  the  exit  status  of the last command executed,
       unless a syntax error occurs, in which case it exits  with  a  non-zero
       value.  See also the exit builtin command below.

SIGNALS
       When  bash  is  interactive,  in  the  absence of any traps, it ignores
       SIGTERM (so that kill 0 does not kill an interactive shell), and SIGINT
       is  caught and handled (so that the wait builtin is interruptible).  In
       all cases, bash ignores SIGQUIT.  If job control  is  in  effect,  bash
       ignores SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, and SIGTSTP.

       Non-builtin commands run by bash have signal handlers set to the values
       inherited by the shell from its parent.  When job  control  is  not  in
       effect,  asynchronous commands ignore SIGINT and SIGQUIT in addition to
       these inherited handlers.  Commands run as a result of command  substi-
       tution ignore the keyboard-generated job control signals SIGTTIN, SIGT-
       TOU, and SIGTSTP.

       The shell exits by default upon receipt of a SIGHUP.   Before  exiting,
       an  interactive  shell  resends  the  SIGHUP  to  all  jobs, running or
       stopped.  Stopped jobs are sent SIGCONT to ensure that they receive the
       SIGHUP.   To  prevent the shell from sending the signal to a particular
       job, it should be removed from the jobs table with the  disown  builtin
       (see  SHELL  BUILTIN  COMMANDS  below)  or marked to not receive SIGHUP
       using disown -h.

       If the huponexit shell option has been set with  shopt,  bash  sends  a
       SIGHUP to all jobs when an interactive login shell exits.

       If  bash is waiting for a command to complete and receives a signal for
       which a trap has been set, the trap will not be executed until the com-
       mand  completes.   When bash is waiting for an asynchronous command via
       the wait builtin, the reception of a signal for which a trap  has  been
       set will cause the wait builtin to return immediately with an exit sta-
       tus greater than 128, immediately after which the trap is executed.

JOB CONTROL
       Job control refers to the ability to  selectively  stop  (suspend)  the
       execution of processes and continue (resume) their execution at a later
       point.  A user typically  employs  this  facility  via  an  interactive
       interface  supplied  jointly  by the operating system kernel's terminal
       driver and bash.

       The shell associates a job with each pipeline.  It  keeps  a  table  of
       currently  executing  jobs,  which may be listed with the jobs command.
       When bash starts a job asynchronously (in the background), it prints  a
       line that looks like:

              [1] 25647

       indicating that this job is job number 1 and that the process ID of the
       last process in the pipeline associated with this job is 25647.  All of
       the  processes  in a single pipeline are members of the same job.  Bash
       uses the job abstraction as the basis for job control.

       To facilitate the implementation of the user interface to job  control,
       the operating system maintains the notion of a current terminal process
       group ID.  Members of this process group (processes whose process group
       ID is equal to the current terminal process group ID) receive keyboard-
       generated signals such as SIGINT.  These processes are said  to  be  in
       the  foreground.  Background processes are those whose process group ID
       differs from the terminal's; such processes are immune to keyboard-gen-
       erated signals.  Only foreground processes are allowed to read from or,
       if the user so specifies with  stty  tostop,  write  to  the  terminal.
       Background  processes  which  attempt  to read from (write to when stty
       tostop is in effect) the terminal are sent a SIGTTIN  (SIGTTOU)  signal
       by  the  kernel's  terminal  driver, which, unless caught, suspends the
       process.

       If the operating system on which bash is running supports job  control,
       bash contains facilities to use it.  Typing the suspend character (typ-
       ically ^Z, Control-Z) while a process is running causes that process to
       be  stopped  and  returns  control to bash.  Typing the delayed suspend
       character (typically ^Y, Control-Y) causes the process  to  be  stopped
       when  it  attempts  to  read input from the terminal, and control to be
       returned to bash.  The user may then manipulate the state of this  job,
       using  the  bg command to continue it in the background, the fg command
       to continue it in the foreground, or the kill command to kill it.  A ^Z
       takes effect immediately, and has the additional side effect of causing
       pending output and typeahead to be discarded.

       There are a number of ways to refer to a job in the shell.  The charac-
       ter  %  introduces  a job specification (jobspec).  Job number n may be
       referred to as %n.  A job may also be referred to using a prefix of the
       name used to start it, or using a substring that appears in its command
       line.  For example, %ce refers to a  stopped  job  whose  command  name
       begins with ce.  If a prefix matches more than one job, bash reports an
       error.  Using %?ce, on the other hand, refers to any job containing the
       string  ce in its command line.  If the substring matches more than one
       job, bash reports an error.  The symbols %% and %+ refer to the shell's
       notion  of  the current job, which is the last job stopped while it was
       in the foreground or started in the background.  The previous  job  may
       be  referenced  using %-.  If there is only a single job, %+ and %- can
       both be used to refer to that job.  In output pertaining to jobs (e.g.,
       the output of the jobs command), the current job is always flagged with
       a +, and the previous job with a -.  A single % (with  no  accompanying
       job specification) also refers to the current job.

       Simply  naming a job can be used to bring it into the foreground: %1 is
       a synonym for ``fg %1'', bringing job 1 from the  background  into  the
       foreground.   Similarly,  ``%1  &''  resumes  job  1 in the background,
       equivalent to ``bg %1''.

       The shell learns immediately whenever a job changes  state.   Normally,
       bash waits until it is about to print a prompt before reporting changes
       in a job's status so as to not interrupt any other output.  If  the  -b
       option to the set builtin command is enabled, bash reports such changes
       immediately.  Any trap on SIGCHLD  is  executed  for  each  child  that
       exits.

       If  an  attempt to exit bash is made while jobs are stopped (or, if the
       checkjobs shell option has been enabled using the shopt  builtin,  run-
       ning), the shell prints a warning message, and, if the checkjobs option
       is enabled, lists the jobs and their statuses.  The  jobs  command  may
       then  be  used to inspect their status.  If a second attempt to exit is
       made without an intervening command, the shell does not  print  another
       warning, and any stopped jobs are terminated.

       When  the shell is waiting for a job or process using the wait builtin,
       and job control is enabled, wait  will  return  when  the  job  changes
       state.  The -f option causes wait to wait until the job or process ter-
       minates before returning.

PROMPTING
       When executing interactively, bash displays the primary prompt PS1 when
       it  is  ready  to  read a command, and the secondary prompt PS2 when it
       needs more input to complete a command.  Bash  displays  PS0  after  it
       reads  a  command  but  before  executing  it.   Bash  displays  PS4 as
       described above before tracing each  command  when  the  -x  option  is
       enabled.   Bash allows these prompt strings to be customized by insert-
       ing a number of backslash-escaped special characters that  are  decoded
       as follows:
              \a     an ASCII bell character (07)
              \d     the  date  in "Weekday Month Date" format (e.g., "Tue May
                     26")
              \D{format}
                     the format is passed to strftime(3)  and  the  result  is
                     inserted  into the prompt string; an empty format results
                     in a locale-specific time representation.  The braces are
                     required
              \e     an ASCII escape character (033)
              \h     the hostname up to the first `.'
              \H     the hostname
              \j     the number of jobs currently managed by the shell
              \l     the basename of the shell's terminal device name
              \n     newline
              \r     carriage return
              \s     the  name  of  the shell, the basename of $0 (the portion
                     following the final slash)
              \t     the current time in 24-hour HH:MM:SS format
              \T     the current time in 12-hour HH:MM:SS format
              \@     the current time in 12-hour am/pm format
              \A     the current time in 24-hour HH:MM format
              \u     the username of the current user
              \v     the version of bash (e.g., 2.00)
              \V     the release of bash, version + patch level (e.g., 2.00.0)
              \w     the current working  directory,  with  $HOME  abbreviated
                     with  a tilde (uses the value of the PROMPT_DIRTRIM vari-
                     able)
              \W     the basename of the current working directory, with $HOME
                     abbreviated with a tilde
              \!     the history number of this command
              \#     the command number of this command
              \$     if the effective UID is 0, a #, otherwise a $
              \nnn   the character corresponding to the octal number nnn
              \\     a backslash
              \[     begin  a sequence of non-printing characters, which could
                     be used to embed a terminal  control  sequence  into  the
                     prompt
              \]     end a sequence of non-printing characters

       The  command  number  and the history number are usually different: the
       history number of a command is its position in the history list,  which
       may  include  commands  restored  from  the  history  file (see HISTORY
       below), while the command number is the position  in  the  sequence  of
       commands  executed  during the current shell session.  After the string
       is decoded, it is expanded via parameter expansion,  command  substitu-
       tion,  arithmetic expansion, and quote removal, subject to the value of
       the promptvars shell option (see the description of the  shopt  command
       under  SHELL  BUILTIN  COMMANDS  below).   This  can have unwanted side
       effects if escaped portions of the string appear within command substi-
       tution or contain characters special to word expansion.

READLINE
       This  is  the library that handles reading input when using an interac-
       tive shell, unless the --noediting option is given at shell invocation.
       Line editing is also used when using the -e option to the read builtin.
       By default, the line editing commands are similar to those of Emacs.  A
       vi-style line editing interface is also available.  Line editing can be
       enabled at any time using the -o emacs or -o  vi  options  to  the  set
       builtin  (see  SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).  To turn off line editing
       after the shell is running, use the +o emacs or +o vi  options  to  the
       set builtin.

   Readline Notation
       In this section, the Emacs-style notation is used to denote keystrokes.
       Control keys are denoted by C-key, e.g., C-n  means  Control-N.   Simi-
       larly,  meta  keys are denoted by M-key, so M-x means Meta-X.  (On key-
       boards without a meta key, M-x means ESC x, i.e., press the Escape  key
       then the x key.  This makes ESC the meta prefix.  The combination M-C-x
       means ESC-Control-x, or press the Escape key then hold the Control  key
       while pressing the x key.)

       Readline commands may be given numeric arguments, which normally act as
       a repeat count.  Sometimes, however, it is the  sign  of  the  argument
       that  is  significant.   Passing  a negative argument to a command that
       acts in the forward direction (e.g., kill-line) causes that command  to
       act  in  a  backward direction.  Commands whose behavior with arguments
       deviates from this are noted below.

       When a command is described as killing text, the text deleted is  saved
       for possible future retrieval (yanking).  The killed text is saved in a
       kill ring.  Consecutive kills cause the text to be accumulated into one
       unit, which can be yanked all at once.  Commands which do not kill text
       separate the chunks of text on the kill ring.

   Readline Initialization
       Readline is customized by putting commands in  an  initialization  file
       (the  inputrc  file).  The name of this file is taken from the value of
       the INPUTRC variable.  If  that  variable  is  unset,  the  default  is
       ~/.inputrc.   If that file  does not exist or cannot be read, the ulti-
       mate default is /etc/inputrc.  When a program which uses  the  readline
       library  starts  up, the initialization file is read, and the key bind-
       ings and variables are set.  There are  only  a  few  basic  constructs
       allowed  in the readline initialization file.  Blank lines are ignored.
       Lines beginning with a # are comments.  Lines beginning with a $  indi-
       cate conditional constructs.  Other lines denote key bindings and vari-
       able settings.

       The default key-bindings may be changed with an  inputrc  file.   Other
       programs that use this library may add their own commands and bindings.

       For example, placing

              M-Control-u: universal-argument
       or
              C-Meta-u: universal-argument
       into  the inputrc would make M-C-u execute the readline command univer-
       sal-argument.

       The following symbolic character names  are  recognized:  RUBOUT,  DEL,
       ESC, LFD, NEWLINE, RET, RETURN, SPC, SPACE, and TAB.

       In  addition  to  command  names, readline allows keys to be bound to a
       string that is inserted when the key is pressed (a macro).

   Readline Key Bindings
       The syntax for controlling key bindings in the inputrc file is  simple.
       All  that is required is the name of the command or the text of a macro
       and a key sequence to which it should be bound.  The name may be speci-
       fied in one of two ways: as a symbolic key name, possibly with Meta- or
       Control- prefixes, or as a key sequence.

       When using the form keyname:function-name or macro, keyname is the name
       of a key spelled out in English.  For example:

              Control-u: universal-argument
              Meta-Rubout: backward-kill-word
              Control-o: "> output"

       In  the above example, C-u is bound to the function universal-argument,
       M-DEL is bound to the function backward-kill-word, and C-o is bound  to
       run  the macro expressed on the right hand side (that is, to insert the
       text ``> output'' into the line).

       In the second form, "keyseq":function-name  or  macro,  keyseq  differs
       from  keyname above in that strings denoting an entire key sequence may
       be specified by placing the sequence within double  quotes.   Some  GNU
       Emacs  style  key escapes can be used, as in the following example, but
       the symbolic character names are not recognized.

              "\C-u": universal-argument
              "\C-x\C-r": re-read-init-file
              "\e[11~": "Function Key 1"

       In this example, C-u is again bound to the function universal-argument.
       C-x  C-r is bound to the function re-read-init-file, and ESC [ 1 1 ~ is
       bound to insert the text ``Function Key 1''.

       The full set of GNU Emacs style escape sequences is
              \C-    control prefix
              \M-    meta prefix
              \e     an escape character
              \\     backslash
              \"     literal "
              \'     literal '

       In addition to the GNU Emacs style escape sequences, a  second  set  of
       backslash escapes is available:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \d     delete
              \f     form feed
              \n     newline
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \nnn   the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the octal value
                     nnn (one to three digits)
              \xHH   the eight-bit character whose value  is  the  hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)

       When entering the text of a macro, single or double quotes must be used
       to indicate a macro definition.  Unquoted text is assumed to be a func-
       tion  name.   In  the macro body, the backslash escapes described above
       are expanded.  Backslash will quote any other character  in  the  macro
       text, including " and '.

       Bash  allows the current readline key bindings to be displayed or modi-
       fied with the bind builtin command.  The editing mode may  be  switched
       during  interactive  use by using the -o option to the set builtin com-
       mand (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).

   Readline Variables
       Readline has variables that can be used to further customize its behav-
       ior.  A variable may be set in the inputrc file with a statement of the
       form

              set variable-name value
       or using the bind builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).

       Except where noted, readline variables can take the values  On  or  Off
       (without  regard  to  case).   Unrecognized variable names are ignored.
       When a variable value is read, empty or null values, "on"  (case-insen-
       sitive), and "1" are equivalent to On.  All other values are equivalent
       to Off.  The variables and their default values are:

       bell-style (audible)
              Controls what happens when readline wants to ring  the  terminal
              bell.  If set to none, readline never rings the bell.  If set to
              visible, readline uses a visible bell if one is  available.   If
              set to audible, readline attempts to ring the terminal's bell.
       bind-tty-special-chars (On)
              If  set  to On, readline attempts to bind the control characters
              treated specially by the kernel's terminal driver to their read-
              line equivalents.
       blink-matching-paren (Off)
              If set to On, readline attempts to briefly move the cursor to an
              opening parenthesis when a closing parenthesis is inserted.
       colored-completion-prefix (Off)
              If set to On, when listing completions,  readline  displays  the
              common prefix of the set of possible completions using a differ-
              ent color.  The color definitions are taken from  the  value  of
              the LS_COLORS environment variable.
       colored-stats (Off)
              If  set to On, readline displays possible completions using dif-
              ferent colors to indicate their file type.   The  color  defini-
              tions  are  taken  from  the  value of the LS_COLORS environment
              variable.
       comment-begin (``#'')
              The string that is inserted  when  the  readline  insert-comment
              command is executed.  This command is bound to M-# in emacs mode
              and to # in vi command mode.
       completion-display-width (-1)
              The number of screen columns used to  display  possible  matches
              when  performing completion.  The value is ignored if it is less
              than 0 or greater than the terminal screen width.  A value of  0
              will  cause  matches  to be displayed one per line.  The default
              value is -1.
       completion-ignore-case (Off)
              If set to On, readline performs filename matching and completion
              in a case-insensitive fashion.
       completion-map-case (Off)
              If  set  to  On, and completion-ignore-case is enabled, readline
              treats hyphens (-) and underscores (_) as equivalent  when  per-
              forming case-insensitive filename matching and completion.
       completion-prefix-display-length (0)
              The  length in characters of the common prefix of a list of pos-
              sible completions that is displayed without modification.   When
              set  to  a  value greater than zero, common prefixes longer than
              this value are replaced with an ellipsis when displaying  possi-
              ble completions.
       completion-query-items (100)
              This  determines when the user is queried about viewing the num-
              ber of possible completions generated  by  the  possible-comple-
              tions  command.  It may be set to any integer value greater than
              or equal to zero.  If the  number  of  possible  completions  is
              greater  than  or  equal to the value of this variable, readline
              will ask whether or not the user wishes to view them;  otherwise
              they are simply listed on the terminal.
       convert-meta (On)
              If  set  to On, readline will convert characters with the eighth
              bit set to an ASCII key sequence by stripping the eighth bit and
              prefixing  an  escape  character (in effect, using escape as the
              meta prefix).  The default is On, but readline will  set  it  to
              Off if the locale contains eight-bit characters.
       disable-completion (Off)
              If set to On, readline will inhibit word completion.  Completion
              characters will be inserted into the line as if  they  had  been
              mapped to self-insert.
       echo-control-characters (On)
              When  set to On, on operating systems that indicate they support
              it, readline echoes a character corresponding to a signal gener-
              ated from the keyboard.
       editing-mode (emacs)
              Controls whether readline begins with a set of key bindings sim-
              ilar to Emacs or vi.  editing-mode can be set to either emacs or
              vi.
       emacs-mode-string (@)
              If  the  show-mode-in-prompt variable is enabled, this string is
              displayed immediately before the last line of the primary prompt
              when emacs editing mode is active.  The value is expanded like a
              key binding, so the standard set of meta- and  control  prefixes
              and  backslash escape sequences is available.  Use the \1 and \2
              escapes to begin and end sequences of  non-printing  characters,
              which  can be used to embed a terminal control sequence into the
              mode string.
       enable-bracketed-paste (On)
              When set to On, readline will configure the terminal  in  a  way
              that will enable it to insert each paste into the editing buffer
              as a single string of characters, instead of treating each char-
              acter  as  if it had been read from the keyboard.  This can pre-
              vent pasted characters from being interpreted  as  editing  com-
              mands.
       enable-keypad (Off)
              When set to On, readline will try to enable the application key-
              pad when it is called.  Some systems need  this  to  enable  the
              arrow keys.
       enable-meta-key (On)
              When  set  to  On, readline will try to enable any meta modifier
              key the terminal claims to support when it is called.   On  many
              terminals, the meta key is used to send eight-bit characters.
       expand-tilde (Off)
              If  set  to  On,  tilde  expansion  is  performed  when readline
              attempts word completion.
       history-preserve-point (Off)
              If set to On, the history code attempts to place  point  at  the
              same  location on each history line retrieved with previous-his-
              tory or next-history.
       history-size (unset)
              Set the maximum number of history entries saved in  the  history
              list.   If set to zero, any existing history entries are deleted
              and no new entries are saved.  If set to a value less than zero,
              the  number  of history entries is not limited.  By default, the
              number of history entries is set to the value  of  the  HISTSIZE
              shell  variable.  If an attempt is made to set history-size to a
              non-numeric value, the maximum number of history entries will be
              set to 500.
       horizontal-scroll-mode (Off)
              When  set  to  On, makes readline use a single line for display,
              scrolling the input horizontally on a single screen line when it
              becomes  longer  than the screen width rather than wrapping to a
              new line.  This setting is automatically enabled  for  terminals
              of height 1.
       input-meta (Off)
              If  set to On, readline will enable eight-bit input (that is, it
              will not strip the eighth bit from  the  characters  it  reads),
              regardless of what the terminal claims it can support.  The name
              meta-flag is a synonym for this variable.  The default  is  Off,
              but  readline will set it to On if the locale contains eight-bit
              characters.
       isearch-terminators (``C-[C-J'')
              The string of characters that should  terminate  an  incremental
              search  without  subsequently  executing the character as a com-
              mand.  If this variable has not been given a value, the  charac-
              ters ESC and C-J will terminate an incremental search.
       keymap (emacs)
              Set  the current readline keymap.  The set of valid keymap names
              is emacs, emacs-standard, emacs-meta,  emacs-ctlx,  vi,  vi-com-
              mand,  and  vi-insert.  vi is equivalent to vi-command; emacs is
              equivalent to emacs-standard.  The default value is  emacs;  the
              value of editing-mode also affects the default keymap.
       keyseq-timeout (500)
              Specifies  the  duration readline will wait for a character when
              reading an ambiguous key sequence (one that can form a  complete
              key sequence using the input read so far, or can take additional
              input to complete a  longer  key  sequence).   If  no  input  is
              received  within  the timeout, readline will use the shorter but
              complete key sequence.  The value is specified in  milliseconds,
              so  a value of 1000 means that readline will wait one second for
              additional input.  If this variable is set to a value less  than
              or  equal to zero, or to a non-numeric value, readline will wait
              until another key is pressed to decide  which  key  sequence  to
              complete.
       mark-directories (On)
              If set to On, completed directory names have a slash appended.
       mark-modified-lines (Off)
              If  set  to  On,  history lines that have been modified are dis-
              played with a preceding asterisk (*).
       mark-symlinked-directories (Off)
              If set to On, completed names which are symbolic links to direc-
              tories   have   a  slash  appended  (subject  to  the  value  of
              mark-directories).
       match-hidden-files (On)
              This variable, when set to On, causes readline  to  match  files
              whose  names  begin  with  a  `.' (hidden files) when performing
              filename completion.  If set to Off, the  leading  `.'  must  be
              supplied by the user in the filename to be completed.
       menu-complete-display-prefix (Off)
              If  set to On, menu completion displays the common prefix of the
              list of possible completions (which may be empty) before cycling
              through the list.
       output-meta (Off)
              If  set  to On, readline will display characters with the eighth
              bit set directly rather than as a meta-prefixed escape sequence.
              The default is Off, but readline will set it to On if the locale
              contains eight-bit characters.
       page-completions (On)
              If set to On, readline uses an internal more-like pager to  dis-
              play a screenful of possible completions at a time.
       print-completions-horizontally (Off)
              If  set  to  On,  readline will display completions with matches
              sorted horizontally in alphabetical order, rather than down  the
              screen.
       revert-all-at-newline (Off)
              If  set  to  On, readline will undo all changes to history lines
              before returning when accept-line is executed.  By default, his-
              tory  lines  may  be  modified  and retain individual undo lists
              across calls to readline.
       show-all-if-ambiguous (Off)
              This alters the default behavior of  the  completion  functions.
              If set to On, words which have more than one possible completion
              cause the matches to be listed immediately  instead  of  ringing
              the bell.
       show-all-if-unmodified (Off)
              This  alters the default behavior of the completion functions in
              a fashion similar to show-all-if-ambiguous.  If set to On, words
              which  have more than one possible completion without any possi-
              ble partial completion (the possible completions don't  share  a
              common  prefix)  cause  the  matches  to  be  listed immediately
              instead of ringing the bell.
       show-mode-in-prompt (Off)
              If set to On, add a string to the beginning of the prompt  indi-
              cating  the  editing  mode:  emacs, vi command, or vi insertion.
              The mode strings are user-settable (e.g., emacs-mode-string).
       skip-completed-text (Off)
              If set to On, this alters the default completion  behavior  when
              inserting  a  single match into the line.  It's only active when
              performing completion in the middle  of  a  word.   If  enabled,
              readline  does  not  insert  characters from the completion that
              match characters after point in the  word  being  completed,  so
              portions of the word following the cursor are not duplicated.
       vi-cmd-mode-string ((cmd))
              If  the  show-mode-in-prompt variable is enabled, this string is
              displayed immediately before the last line of the primary prompt
              when  vi  editing mode is active and in command mode.  The value
              is expanded like a key binding, so the standard set of meta- and
              control  prefixes  and  backslash escape sequences is available.
              Use the \1 and \2 escapes to begin and  end  sequences  of  non-
              printing  characters, which can be used to embed a terminal con-
              trol sequence into the mode string.
       vi-ins-mode-string ((ins))
              If the show-mode-in-prompt variable is enabled, this  string  is
              displayed immediately before the last line of the primary prompt
              when vi editing mode is active and in insertion mode.  The value
              is expanded like a key binding, so the standard set of meta- and
              control prefixes and backslash escape  sequences  is  available.
              Use  the  \1  and  \2 escapes to begin and end sequences of non-
              printing characters, which can be used to embed a terminal  con-
              trol sequence into the mode string.
       visible-stats (Off)
              If  set to On, a character denoting a file's type as reported by
              stat(2) is appended to the filename when listing  possible  com-
              pletions.

   Readline Conditional Constructs
       Readline  implements  a  facility  similar in spirit to the conditional
       compilation features of the C preprocessor which  allows  key  bindings
       and  variable  settings  to be performed as the result of tests.  There
       are four parser directives used.

       $if    The $if construct allows bindings to be made based on the  edit-
              ing  mode,  the  terminal  being  used, or the application using
              readline.  The text of the test, after any comparison operator,
               extends to the end of the  line;  unless  otherwise  noted,  no
              characters are required to isolate it.

              mode   The  mode=  form  of  the  $if  directive is used to test
                     whether readline is in emacs or vi  mode.   This  may  be
                     used  in  conjunction  with  the  set keymap command, for
                     instance, to  set  bindings  in  the  emacs-standard  and
                     emacs-ctlx  keymaps  only  if readline is starting out in
                     emacs mode.

              term   The term= form may be used to  include  terminal-specific
                     key bindings, perhaps to bind the key sequences output by
                     the terminal's function keys.  The word on the right side
                     of the = is tested against both the full name of the ter-
                     minal and the portion of the  terminal  name  before  the
                     first  -.  This allows sun to match both sun and sun-cmd,
                     for instance.

              version
                     The version test  may  be  used  to  perform  comparisons
                     against  specific readline versions.  The version expands
                     to the current readline version.  The set  of  comparison
                     operators  includes  =,  (and  ==), !=, <=, >=, <, and >.
                     The version number supplied on  the  right  side  of  the
                     operator  consists of a major version number, an optional
                     decimal point, and an optional minor version (e.g., 7.1).
                     If  the  minor version is omitted, it is assumed to be 0.
                     The operator may be separated from the string version and
                     from the version number argument by whitespace.

              application
                     The application construct is used to include application-
                     specific  settings.   Each  program  using  the  readline
                     library  sets the application name, and an initialization
                     file can test for a particular value.  This could be used
                     to  bind key sequences to functions useful for a specific
                     program.  For instance, the following command adds a  key
                     sequence  that  quotes  the  current  or previous word in
                     bash:

                     $if Bash
                     # Quote the current or previous word
                     "\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
                     $endif

              variable
                     The variable construct provides simple equality tests for
                     readline  variables and values.  The permitted comparison
                     operators are =, ==, and !=.  The variable name  must  be
                     separated from the comparison operator by whitespace; the
                     operator may be separated from the  value  on  the  right
                     hand  side  by whitespace.  Both string and boolean vari-
                     ables may be tested. Boolean  variables  must  be  tested
                     against the values on and off.

       $endif This command, as seen in the previous example, terminates an $if
              command.

       $else  Commands in this branch of the $if directive are executed if the
              test fails.

       $include
              This  directive takes a single filename as an argument and reads
              commands and bindings from that file.  For example, the  follow-
              ing directive would read /etc/bash/inputrc:

              $include  /etc/bash/inputrc

   Searching
       Readline  provides  commands  for searching through the command history
       (see HISTORY below) for lines containing a specified string.  There are
       two search modes: incremental and non-incremental.

       Incremental  searches  begin  before  the  user has finished typing the
       search string.  As each character of the search string is typed,  read-
       line displays the next entry from the history matching the string typed
       so far.  An incremental search requires  only  as  many  characters  as
       needed  to  find  the desired history entry.  The characters present in
       the value of the isearch-terminators variable are used to terminate  an
       incremental search.  If that variable has not been assigned a value the
       Escape and Control-J characters will terminate an  incremental  search.
       Control-G  will  abort  an  incremental search and restore the original
       line.  When the search is terminated, the history entry containing  the
       search string becomes the current line.

       To  find  other matching entries in the history list, type Control-S or
       Control-R as appropriate.  This will search backward or forward in  the
       history  for  the  next  entry matching the search string typed so far.
       Any other key sequence bound to a readline command will  terminate  the
       search  and  execute that command.  For instance, a newline will termi-
       nate the search and accept the line, thereby executing the command from
       the history list.

       Readline remembers the last incremental search string.  If two Control-
       Rs are typed without any intervening characters defining a  new  search
       string, any remembered search string is used.

       Non-incremental  searches read the entire search string before starting
       to search for matching history lines.  The search string may  be  typed
       by the user or be part of the contents of the current line.

   Readline Command Names
       The  following  is  a list of the names of the commands and the default
       key sequences to which they are bound.  Command names without an accom-
       panying key sequence are unbound by default.  In the following descrip-
       tions, point refers to the current cursor position, and mark refers  to
       a  cursor position saved by the set-mark command.  The text between the
       point and mark is referred to as the region.

   Commands for Moving
       beginning-of-line (C-a)
              Move to the start of the current line.
       end-of-line (C-e)
              Move to the end of the line.
       forward-char (C-f)
              Move forward a character.
       backward-char (C-b)
              Move back a character.
       forward-word (M-f)
              Move forward to the end of the next word.  Words are composed of
              alphanumeric characters (letters and digits).
       backward-word (M-b)
              Move  back  to the start of the current or previous word.  Words
              are composed of alphanumeric characters (letters and digits).
       shell-forward-word
              Move forward to the end of the next word.  Words  are  delimited
              by non-quoted shell metacharacters.
       shell-backward-word
              Move  back  to the start of the current or previous word.  Words
              are delimited by non-quoted shell metacharacters.
       previous-screen-line
              Attempt to move point to the same physical screen column on  the
              previous  physical  screen  line. This will not have the desired
              effect if the current Readline line does not take up  more  than
              one  physical line or if point is not greater than the length of
              the prompt plus the screen width.
       next-screen-line
              Attempt to move point to the same physical screen column on  the
              next physical screen line. This will not have the desired effect
              if the current Readline line does not  take  up  more  than  one
              physical  line  or if the length of the current Readline line is
              not greater than the length of the prompt plus the screen width.
       clear-display (M-C-l)
              Clear the screen and, if  possible,  the  terminal's  scrollback
              buffer,  then  redraw the current line, leaving the current line
              at the top of the screen.
       clear-screen (C-l)
              Clear the screen, then redraw the current line, leaving the cur-
              rent  line  at the top of the screen.  With an argument, refresh
              the current line without clearing the screen.
       redraw-current-line
              Refresh the current line.

   Commands for Manipulating the History
       accept-line (Newline, Return)
              Accept the line regardless of where the cursor is.  If this line
              is  non-empty, add it to the history list according to the state
              of the HISTCONTROL variable.  If the line is a modified  history
              line, then restore the history line to its original state.
       previous-history (C-p)
              Fetch the previous command from the history list, moving back in
              the list.
       next-history (C-n)
              Fetch the next command from the history list, moving forward  in
              the list.
       beginning-of-history (M-<)
              Move to the first line in the history.
       end-of-history (M->)
              Move  to  the end of the input history, i.e., the line currently
              being entered.
       reverse-search-history (C-r)
              Search backward starting at the current  line  and  moving  `up'
              through  the  history  as  necessary.   This  is  an incremental
              search.
       forward-search-history (C-s)
              Search forward starting at the current line  and  moving  `down'
              through  the  history  as  necessary.   This  is  an incremental
              search.
       non-incremental-reverse-search-history (M-p)
              Search backward through the history starting at the current line
              using  a  non-incremental  search  for  a string supplied by the
              user.
       non-incremental-forward-search-history (M-n)
              Search forward  through  the  history  using  a  non-incremental
              search for a string supplied by the user.
       history-search-forward
              Search  forward through the history for the string of characters
              between the start of the current line and the point.  This is  a
              non-incremental search.
       history-search-backward
              Search backward through the history for the string of characters
              between the start of the current line and the point.  This is  a
              non-incremental search.
       history-substring-search-backward
              Search backward through the history for the string of characters
              between the start of the current line  and  the  current  cursor
              position (the point).  The search string may match anywhere in a
              history line.  This is a non-incremental search.
       history-substring-search-forward
              Search forward through the history for the string of  characters
              between the start of the current line and the point.  The search
              string may match anywhere in a history line.   This  is  a  non-
              incremental search.
       yank-nth-arg (M-C-y)
              Insert  the  first argument to the previous command (usually the
              second word on the previous line) at point.  With an argument n,
              insert  the nth word from the previous command (the words in the
              previous command  begin  with  word  0).   A  negative  argument
              inserts the nth word from the end of the previous command.  Once
              the argument n is computed, the argument is extracted as if  the
              "!n" history expansion had been specified.
       yank-last-arg (M-., M-_)
              Insert  the last argument to the previous command (the last word
              of the previous history entry).  With a numeric argument, behave
              exactly  like  yank-nth-arg.   Successive calls to yank-last-arg
              move back through the history list, inserting the last word  (or
              the  word  specified  by the argument to the first call) of each
              line in turn.  Any numeric argument supplied to these successive
              calls  determines  the direction to move through the history.  A
              negative argument switches the  direction  through  the  history
              (back or forward).  The history expansion facilities are used to
              extract the last word, as if the "!$" history expansion had been
              specified.
       shell-expand-line (M-C-e)
              Expand the line as the shell does.  This performs alias and his-
              tory expansion as well as all of the shell word expansions.  See
              HISTORY EXPANSION below for a description of history expansion.
       history-expand-line (M-^)
              Perform  history  expansion  on  the  current line.  See HISTORY
              EXPANSION below for a description of history expansion.
       magic-space
              Perform history expansion on  the  current  line  and  insert  a
              space.  See HISTORY EXPANSION below for a description of history
              expansion.
       alias-expand-line
              Perform alias expansion on the current line.  See ALIASES  above
              for a description of alias expansion.
       history-and-alias-expand-line
              Perform history and alias expansion on the current line.
       insert-last-argument (M-., M-_)
              A synonym for yank-last-arg.
       operate-and-get-next (C-o)
              Accept  the  current  line for execution and fetch the next line
              relative to the current line from the history  for  editing.   A
              numeric  argument,  if  supplied, specifies the history entry to
              use instead of the current line.
       edit-and-execute-command (C-x C-e)
              Invoke an editor on the current command line,  and  execute  the
              result  as  shell  commands.   Bash  attempts to invoke $VISUAL,
              $EDITOR, and emacs as the editor, in that order.

   Commands for Changing Text
       end-of-file (usually C-d)
              The character indicating end-of-file as  set,  for  example,  by
              ``stty''.   If  this character is read when there are no charac-
              ters on the line, and point is at the  beginning  of  the  line,
              Readline interprets it as the end of input and returns EOF.
       delete-char (C-d)
              Delete the character at point.  If this function is bound to the
              same character as the tty EOF character, as C-d commonly is, see
              above for the effects.
       backward-delete-char (Rubout)
              Delete  the  character  behind the cursor.  When given a numeric
              argument, save the deleted text on the kill ring.
       forward-backward-delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor, unless the cursor  is  at
              the end of the line, in which case the character behind the cur-
              sor is deleted.
       quoted-insert (C-q, C-v)
              Add the next character typed to the line verbatim.  This is  how
              to insert characters like C-q, for example.
       tab-insert (C-v TAB)
              Insert a tab character.
       self-insert (a, b, A, 1, !, ...)
              Insert the character typed.
       transpose-chars (C-t)
              Drag  the  character  before point forward over the character at
              point, moving point forward as well.  If point is at the end  of
              the  line, then this transposes the two characters before point.
              Negative arguments have no effect.
       transpose-words (M-t)
              Drag the word before point past the  word  after  point,  moving
              point  over  that  word  as well.  If point is at the end of the
              line, this transposes the last two words on the line.
       upcase-word (M-u)
              Uppercase the current (or  following)  word.   With  a  negative
              argument, uppercase the previous word, but do not move point.
       downcase-word (M-l)
              Lowercase  the  current  (or  following)  word.  With a negative
              argument, lowercase the previous word, but do not move point.
       capitalize-word (M-c)
              Capitalize the current (or following)  word.   With  a  negative
              argument, capitalize the previous word, but do not move point.
       overwrite-mode
              Toggle  overwrite mode.  With an explicit positive numeric argu-
              ment, switches to overwrite mode.  With an explicit non-positive
              numeric argument, switches to insert mode.  This command affects
              only emacs mode; vi mode does overwrite differently.  Each  call
              to readline() starts in insert mode.  In overwrite mode, charac-
              ters bound to self-insert replace the text at point rather  than
              pushing  the  text  to  the  right.   Characters  bound to back-
              ward-delete-char replace  the  character  before  point  with  a
              space.  By default, this command is unbound.

   Killing and Yanking
       kill-line (C-k)
              Kill the text from point to the end of the line.
       backward-kill-line (C-x Rubout)
              Kill backward to the beginning of the line.
       unix-line-discard (C-u)
              Kill  backward  from  point  to  the beginning of the line.  The
              killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
       kill-whole-line
              Kill all characters on the current line, no matter  where  point
              is.
       kill-word (M-d)
              Kill  from  point  to the end of the current word, or if between
              words, to the end of the next word.   Word  boundaries  are  the
              same as those used by forward-word.
       backward-kill-word (M-Rubout)
              Kill  the  word  behind  point.  Word boundaries are the same as
              those used by backward-word.
       shell-kill-word
              Kill from point to the end of the current word,  or  if  between
              words,  to  the  end  of the next word.  Word boundaries are the
              same as those used by shell-forward-word.
       shell-backward-kill-word
              Kill the word behind point.  Word boundaries  are  the  same  as
              those used by shell-backward-word.
       unix-word-rubout (C-w)
              Kill  the  word behind point, using white space as a word bound-
              ary.  The killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
       unix-filename-rubout
              Kill the word behind point, using  white  space  and  the  slash
              character  as  the word boundaries.  The killed text is saved on
              the kill-ring.
       delete-horizontal-space (M-\)
              Delete all spaces and tabs around point.
       kill-region
              Kill the text in the current region.
       copy-region-as-kill
              Copy the text in the region to the kill buffer.
       copy-backward-word
              Copy the word before point to the kill buffer.  The word  bound-
              aries are the same as backward-word.
       copy-forward-word
              Copy  the  word  following  point  to the kill buffer.  The word
              boundaries are the same as forward-word.
       yank (C-y)
              Yank the top of the kill ring into the buffer at point.
       yank-pop (M-y)
              Rotate the kill ring, and yank the new top.  Only works  follow-
              ing yank or yank-pop.

   Numeric Arguments
       digit-argument (M-0, M-1, ..., M--)
              Add  this digit to the argument already accumulating, or start a
              new argument.  M-- starts a negative argument.
       universal-argument
              This is another way to specify an argument.  If this command  is
              followed  by one or more digits, optionally with a leading minus
              sign, those digits define the argument.  If the command is  fol-
              lowed  by  digits,  executing  universal-argument again ends the
              numeric argument, but is otherwise ignored.  As a special  case,
              if  this  command is immediately followed by a character that is
              neither a digit nor minus sign, the argument count for the  next
              command  is multiplied by four.  The argument count is initially
              one, so executing this function the first time makes  the  argu-
              ment count four, a second time makes the argument count sixteen,
              and so on.

   Completing
       complete (TAB)
              Attempt to perform completion on the text  before  point.   Bash
              attempts completion treating the text as a variable (if the text
              begins with $), username (if the text begins with  ~),  hostname
              (if  the  text begins with @), or command (including aliases and
              functions) in turn.  If none of these produces a match, filename
              completion is attempted.
       possible-completions (M-?)
              List the possible completions of the text before point.
       insert-completions (M-*)
              Insert  all completions of the text before point that would have
              been generated by possible-completions.
       menu-complete
              Similar to complete, but replaces the word to be completed  with
              a  single match from the list of possible completions.  Repeated
              execution of menu-complete steps through the  list  of  possible
              completions,  inserting  each  match in turn.  At the end of the
              list of completions, the bell is rung (subject to the setting of
              bell-style) and the original text is restored.  An argument of n
              moves n positions forward in the list  of  matches;  a  negative
              argument  may  be  used to move backward through the list.  This
              command is intended to be  bound  to  TAB,  but  is  unbound  by
              default.
       menu-complete-backward
              Identical  to menu-complete, but moves backward through the list
              of possible completions, as if menu-complete had  been  given  a
              negative argument.  This command is unbound by default.
       delete-char-or-list
              Deletes  the  character under the cursor if not at the beginning
              or end of the line (like delete-char).  If at  the  end  of  the
              line, behaves identically to possible-completions.  This command
              is unbound by default.
       complete-filename (M-/)
              Attempt filename completion on the text before point.
       possible-filename-completions (C-x /)
              List the possible completions of the text before point, treating
              it as a filename.
       complete-username (M-~)
              Attempt  completion  on  the text before point, treating it as a
              username.
       possible-username-completions (C-x ~)
              List the possible completions of the text before point, treating
              it as a username.
       complete-variable (M-$)
              Attempt  completion  on  the text before point, treating it as a
              shell variable.
       possible-variable-completions (C-x $)
              List the possible completions of the text before point, treating
              it as a shell variable.
       complete-hostname (M-@)
              Attempt  completion  on  the text before point, treating it as a
              hostname.
       possible-hostname-completions (C-x @)
              List the possible completions of the text before point, treating
              it as a hostname.
       complete-command (M-!)
              Attempt  completion  on  the text before point, treating it as a
              command name.  Command completion attempts  to  match  the  text
              against   aliases,   reserved   words,  shell  functions,  shell
              builtins, and finally executable filenames, in that order.
       possible-command-completions (C-x !)
              List the possible completions of the text before point, treating
              it as a command name.
       dynamic-complete-history (M-TAB)
              Attempt  completion on the text before point, comparing the text
              against lines from the  history  list  for  possible  completion
              matches.
       dabbrev-expand
              Attempt  menu completion on the text before point, comparing the
              text against lines from the history list for possible completion
              matches.
       complete-into-braces (M-{)
              Perform filename completion and insert the list of possible com-
              pletions enclosed within braces so the list is available to  the
              shell (see Brace Expansion above).

   Keyboard Macros
       start-kbd-macro (C-x ()
              Begin  saving  the  characters  typed  into the current keyboard
              macro.
       end-kbd-macro (C-x ))
              Stop saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro
              and store the definition.
       call-last-kbd-macro (C-x e)
              Re-execute  the last keyboard macro defined, by making the char-
              acters in the macro appear as if typed at the keyboard.
       print-last-kbd-macro ()
              Print the last keyboard macro defined in a format  suitable  for
              the inputrc file.

   Miscellaneous
       re-read-init-file (C-x C-r)
              Read  in  the  contents of the inputrc file, and incorporate any
              bindings or variable assignments found there.
       abort (C-g)
              Abort the current editing command and ring the  terminal's  bell
              (subject to the setting of bell-style).
       do-lowercase-version (M-A, M-B, M-x, ...)
              If  the  metafied character x is uppercase, run the command that
              is bound to the corresponding metafied lowercase character.  The
              behavior is undefined if x is already lowercase.
       prefix-meta (ESC)
              Metafy the next character typed.  ESC f is equivalent to Meta-f.
       undo (C-_, C-x C-u)
              Incremental undo, separately remembered for each line.
       revert-line (M-r)
              Undo  all changes made to this line.  This is like executing the
              undo command enough times to return  the  line  to  its  initial
              state.
       tilde-expand (M-&)
              Perform tilde expansion on the current word.
       set-mark (C-@, M-<space>)
              Set  the  mark to the point.  If a numeric argument is supplied,
              the mark is set to that position.
       exchange-point-and-mark (C-x C-x)
              Swap the point with the mark.  The current  cursor  position  is
              set  to the saved position, and the old cursor position is saved
              as the mark.
       character-search (C-])
              A character is read and point is moved to the next occurrence of
              that  character.   A negative count searches for previous occur-
              rences.
       character-search-backward (M-C-])
              A character is read and point is moved to  the  previous  occur-
              rence  of  that character.  A negative count searches for subse-
              quent occurrences.
       skip-csi-sequence
              Read enough characters to consume a multi-key sequence  such  as
              those  defined for keys like Home and End.  Such sequences begin
              with a Control Sequence Indicator (CSI), usually ESC-[.  If this
              sequence  is  bound  to "\[", keys producing such sequences will
              have no effect unless explicitly bound to  a  readline  command,
              instead  of  inserting stray characters into the editing buffer.
              This is unbound by default, but usually bound to ESC-[.
       insert-comment (M-#)
              Without a numeric argument,  the  value  of  the  readline  com-
              ment-begin  variable is inserted at the beginning of the current
              line.  If a numeric argument is supplied, this command acts as a
              toggle:  if  the  characters at the beginning of the line do not
              match the value of comment-begin, the value is inserted,  other-
              wise the characters in comment-begin are deleted from the begin-
              ning of the line.  In either case, the line is accepted as if  a
              newline  had  been  typed.   The  default value of comment-begin
              causes this command to make the current line  a  shell  comment.
              If  a  numeric  argument  causes  the  comment  character  to be
              removed, the line will be executed by the shell.
       glob-complete-word (M-g)
              The word before point is  treated  as  a  pattern  for  pathname
              expansion,  with  an asterisk implicitly appended.  This pattern
              is used to generate a list of matching  filenames  for  possible
              completions.
       glob-expand-word (C-x *)
              The  word  before  point  is  treated  as a pattern for pathname
              expansion, and the  list  of  matching  filenames  is  inserted,
              replacing  the  word.   If  a  numeric  argument is supplied, an
              asterisk is appended before pathname expansion.
       glob-list-expansions (C-x g)
              The list  of  expansions  that  would  have  been  generated  by
              glob-expand-word  is  displayed,  and the line is redrawn.  If a
              numeric argument is supplied, an  asterisk  is  appended  before
              pathname expansion.
       dump-functions
              Print  all  of the functions and their key bindings to the read-
              line output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the out-
              put  is  formatted  in such a way that it can be made part of an
              inputrc file.
       dump-variables
              Print all of the settable readline variables and their values to
              the  readline output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied,
              the output is formatted in such a way that it can be  made  part
              of an inputrc file.
       dump-macros
              Print  all of the readline key sequences bound to macros and the
              strings they output.  If a numeric  argument  is  supplied,  the
              output is formatted in such a way that it can be made part of an
              inputrc file.
       display-shell-version (C-x C-v)
              Display version information about the current instance of bash.

   Programmable Completion
       When word completion is attempted for an  argument  to  a  command  for
       which  a  completion  specification (a compspec) has been defined using
       the complete builtin (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below),  the  program-
       mable completion facilities are invoked.

       First,  the  command  name  is  identified.  If the command word is the
       empty string (completion attempted at the beginning of an empty  line),
       any  compspec  defined  with  the  -E option to complete is used.  If a
       compspec has been defined for that command, the  compspec  is  used  to
       generate the list of possible completions for the word.  If the command
       word is a full pathname, a compspec for the full pathname  is  searched
       for  first.   If no compspec is found for the full pathname, an attempt
       is made to find a compspec for the portion following the  final  slash.
       If  those  searches  do  not result in a compspec, any compspec defined
       with the -D option to complete is used as the default.  If there is  no
       default  compspec, bash attempts alias expansion on the command word as
       a final resort, and attempts to find a compspec for  the  command  word
       from any successful expansion.

       Once  a  compspec  has  been  found, it is used to generate the list of
       matching words.  If a compspec is not found, the default  bash  comple-
       tion as described above under Completing is performed.

       First,  the  actions  specified by the compspec are used.  Only matches
       which are prefixed by the word being completed are returned.  When  the
       -f  or -d option is used for filename or directory name completion, the
       shell variable FIGNORE is used to filter the matches.

       Any completions specified by a pathname expansion  pattern  to  the  -G
       option are generated next.  The words generated by the pattern need not
       match the word being completed.  The GLOBIGNORE shell variable  is  not
       used to filter the matches, but the FIGNORE variable is used.

       Next,  the string specified as the argument to the -W option is consid-
       ered.  The string is first split using the characters in the  IFS  spe-
       cial  variable  as delimiters.  Shell quoting is honored.  Each word is
       then expanded using brace expansion,  tilde  expansion,  parameter  and
       variable  expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion, as
       described above under EXPANSION.  The results are split using the rules
       described above under Word Splitting.  The results of the expansion are
       prefix-matched against the word being completed, and the matching words
       become the possible completions.

       After  these matches have been generated, any shell function or command
       specified with the -F and -C options is invoked.  When the  command  or
       function is invoked, the COMP_LINE, COMP_POINT, COMP_KEY, and COMP_TYPE
       variables are assigned values as described above under Shell Variables.
       If  a  shell  function  is being invoked, the COMP_WORDS and COMP_CWORD
       variables are also set.  When the function or command is  invoked,  the
       first  argument  ($1)  is  the  name of the command whose arguments are
       being completed, the second argument ($2) is the word being  completed,
       and  the  third argument ($3) is the word preceding the word being com-
       pleted on the current command line.  No filtering of the generated com-
       pletions against the word being completed is performed; the function or
       command has complete freedom in generating the matches.

       Any function specified with -F is invoked first.  The function may  use
       any  of  the  shell facilities, including the compgen builtin described
       below, to generate the matches.  It must put the  possible  completions
       in the COMPREPLY array variable, one per array element.

       Next,  any  command specified with the -C option is invoked in an envi-
       ronment equivalent to command substitution.  It should print a list  of
       completions,  one  per  line, to the standard output.  Backslash may be
       used to escape a newline, if necessary.

       After all of the possible completions are generated, any filter  speci-
       fied  with  the -X option is applied to the list.  The filter is a pat-
       tern as used for pathname expansion; a & in  the  pattern  is  replaced
       with  the text of the word being completed.  A literal & may be escaped
       with a backslash; the backslash is removed before attempting  a  match.
       Any  completion that matches the pattern will be removed from the list.
       A leading ! negates the pattern; in this case any completion not match-
       ing  the  pattern  will be removed.  If the nocasematch shell option is
       enabled, the match is performed without regard to the  case  of  alpha-
       betic characters.

       Finally, any prefix and suffix specified with the -P and -S options are
       added to each member of the completion list, and the result is returned
       to the readline completion code as the list of possible completions.

       If  the previously-applied actions do not generate any matches, and the
       -o dirnames option was supplied  to  complete  when  the  compspec  was
       defined, directory name completion is attempted.

       If  the  -o  plusdirs option was supplied to complete when the compspec
       was defined, directory name completion is attempted and any matches are
       added to the results of the other actions.

       By  default,  if a compspec is found, whatever it generates is returned
       to the completion code as the full set of  possible  completions.   The
       default bash completions are not attempted, and the readline default of
       filename completion is disabled.  If the -o bashdefault option was sup-
       plied  to complete when the compspec was defined, the bash default com-
       pletions are attempted if the compspec generates no matches.  If the -o
       default  option was supplied to complete when the compspec was defined,
       readline's default completion will be performed if the  compspec  (and,
       if attempted, the default bash completions) generate no matches.

       When  a  compspec  indicates that directory name completion is desired,
       the programmable completion functions force readline to append a  slash
       to  completed names which are symbolic links to directories, subject to
       the value of the mark-directories readline variable, regardless of  the
       setting of the mark-symlinked-directories readline variable.

       There  is  some support for dynamically modifying completions.  This is
       most useful when used in combination with a default  completion  speci-
       fied  with  complete -D.  It's possible for shell functions executed as
       completion handlers to indicate that completion should  be  retried  by
       returning  an exit status of 124.  If a shell function returns 124, and
       changes the compspec associated with the command on which completion is
       being  attempted  (supplied  as the first argument when the function is
       executed), programmable completion restarts from the beginning, with an
       attempt  to find a new compspec for that command.  This allows a set of
       completions to be built dynamically as completion is attempted,  rather
       than being loaded all at once.

       For  instance, assuming that there is a library of compspecs, each kept
       in a file corresponding to the  name  of  the  command,  the  following
       default completion function would load completions dynamically:

       _completion_loader()
       {
            . "/etc/bash_completion.d/$1.sh" >/dev/null 2>&1 && return 124
       }
       complete -D -F _completion_loader -o bashdefault -o default


HISTORY
       When  the  -o  history  option to the set builtin is enabled, the shell
       provides access to the command history, the list of commands previously
       typed.   The  value  of  the HISTSIZE variable is used as the number of
       commands to save in a history list.  The text of the last HISTSIZE com-
       mands  (default  500)  is  saved.  The shell stores each command in the
       history list prior to parameter and variable expansion  (see  EXPANSION
       above)  but after history expansion is performed, subject to the values
       of the shell variables HISTIGNORE and HISTCONTROL.

       On startup, the history is initialized from the file named by the vari-
       able  HISTFILE  (default ~/.bash_history).  The file named by the value
       of HISTFILE is truncated, if necessary, to contain  no  more  than  the
       number  of  lines specified by the value of HISTFILESIZE.  If HISTFILE-
       SIZE is unset, or set to null, a non-numeric value, or a numeric  value
       less  than  zero,  the history file is not truncated.  When the history
       file is read, lines beginning with the history comment  character  fol-
       lowed immediately by a digit are interpreted as timestamps for the fol-
       lowing history line.  These timestamps are optionally displayed depend-
       ing  on  the  value  of the HISTTIMEFORMAT variable.  When a shell with
       history enabled exits, the last $HISTSIZE lines  are  copied  from  the
       history  list  to $HISTFILE.  If the histappend shell option is enabled
       (see the description of shopt under SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below),  the
       lines  are  appended to the history file, otherwise the history file is
       overwritten.   If  HISTFILE  is  unset,  or  if  the  history  file  is
       unwritable,  the  history is not saved.  If the HISTTIMEFORMAT variable
       is set, time stamps are written to the history file,  marked  with  the
       history  comment  character, so they may be preserved across shell ses-
       sions.  This uses the history comment character  to  distinguish  time-
       stamps from other history lines.  After saving the history, the history
       file is truncated to contain no more than HISTFILESIZE lines.  If HIST-
       FILESIZE  is  unset,  or set to null, a non-numeric value, or a numeric
       value less than zero, the history file is not truncated.

       The builtin command fc (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below) may  be  used
       to list or edit and re-execute a portion of the history list.  The his-
       tory builtin may be used to display or  modify  the  history  list  and
       manipulate  the  history file.  When using command-line editing, search
       commands are available in each editing mode that provide access to  the
       history list.

       The  shell  allows control over which commands are saved on the history
       list.  The HISTCONTROL and HISTIGNORE variables may be set to cause the
       shell to save only a subset of the commands entered.  The cmdhist shell
       option, if enabled, causes the shell to attempt to save each line of  a
       multi-line  command  in the same history entry, adding semicolons where
       necessary to preserve syntactic correctness.  The lithist shell  option
       causes  the shell to save the command with embedded newlines instead of
       semicolons.  See the description of the shopt builtin below under SHELL
       BUILTIN  COMMANDS  for  information  on  setting  and  unsetting  shell
       options.

HISTORY EXPANSION
       The shell supports a history expansion feature that is similar  to  the
       history  expansion in csh.  This section describes what syntax features
       are available.  This feature is  enabled  by  default  for  interactive
       shells, and can be disabled using the +H option to the set builtin com-
       mand (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).  Non-interactive shells do not
       perform history expansion by default.

       History expansions introduce words from the history list into the input
       stream, making it easy to repeat commands, insert the  arguments  to  a
       previous command into the current input line, or fix errors in previous
       commands quickly.

       History expansion is performed immediately after  a  complete  line  is
       read,  before  the shell breaks it into words, and is performed on each
       line  individually  without  taking  quoting  on  previous  lines  into
       account.  It takes place in two parts.  The first is to determine which
       line from the history list to use during substitution.  The  second  is
       to  select  portions  of  that line for inclusion into the current one.
       The line selected from the history is the event, and  the  portions  of
       that  line that are acted upon are words.  Various modifiers are avail-
       able to manipulate the selected words.  The line is broken  into  words
       in  the same fashion as when reading input, so that several metacharac-
       ter-separated words surrounded by quotes are considered one word.  His-
       tory  expansions are introduced by the appearance of the history expan-
       sion character, which is ! by default.  Only backslash (\)  and  single
       quotes  can  quote  the  history  expansion  character, but the history
       expansion character is also treated as quoted if  it  immediately  pre-
       cedes the closing double quote in a double-quoted string.

       Several  characters inhibit history expansion if found immediately fol-
       lowing the history expansion character, even if it is unquoted:  space,
       tab,  newline,  carriage return, and =.  If the extglob shell option is
       enabled, ( will also inhibit expansion.

       Several shell options settable with the shopt builtin may  be  used  to
       tailor  the  behavior  of  history  expansion.  If the histverify shell
       option is enabled (see the description of the shopt builtin below), and
       readline  is  being  used,  history  substitutions  are not immediately
       passed to the shell parser.  Instead, the  expanded  line  is  reloaded
       into the readline editing buffer for further modification.  If readline
       is being used, and the histreedit shell option  is  enabled,  a  failed
       history  substitution will be reloaded into the readline editing buffer
       for correction.  The -p option to the history builtin  command  may  be
       used  to  see what a history expansion will do before using it.  The -s
       option to the history builtin may be used to add commands to the end of
       the  history  list  without  actually  executing them, so that they are
       available for subsequent recall.

       The shell allows control of the various characters used by the  history
       expansion mechanism (see the description of histchars above under Shell
       Variables).  The shell uses the history comment character to mark  his-
       tory timestamps when writing the history file.

   Event Designators
       An  event designator is a reference to a command line entry in the his-
       tory list.  Unless the reference is absolute, events  are  relative  to
       the current position in the history list.

       !      Start  a  history substitution, except when followed by a blank,
              newline, carriage return, = or ( (when the extglob shell  option
              is enabled using the shopt builtin).
       !n     Refer to command line n.
       !-n    Refer to the current command minus n.
       !!     Refer to the previous command.  This is a synonym for `!-1'.
       !string
              Refer  to the most recent command preceding the current position
              in the history list starting with string.
       !?string[?]
              Refer to the most recent command preceding the current  position
              in  the  history  list containing string.  The trailing ? may be
              omitted if string is followed  immediately  by  a  newline.   If
              string  is  missing,  the  string from the most recent search is
              used; it is an error if there is no previous search string.
       ^string1^string2^
              Quick substitution.   Repeat  the  previous  command,  replacing
              string1  with  string2.  Equivalent to ``!!:s^string1^string2^''
              (see Modifiers below).
       !#     The entire command line typed so far.

   Word Designators
       Word designators are used to select desired words from the event.  A  :
       separates  the event specification from the word designator.  It may be
       omitted if the word designator begins with a ^, $, *, -, or  %.   Words
       are  numbered from the beginning of the line, with the first word being
       denoted by 0 (zero).  Words are inserted into the  current  line  sepa-
       rated by single spaces.

       0 (zero)
              The zeroth word.  For the shell, this is the command word.
       n      The nth word.
       ^      The first argument.  That is, word 1.
       $      The  last  word.   This  is  usually the last argument, but will
              expand to the zeroth word if there is only one word in the line.
       %      The first word matched by the most recent `?string?' search,  if
              the  search  string  begins  with  a character that is part of a
              word.
       x-y    A range of words; `-y' abbreviates `0-y'.
       *      All of the words but the zeroth.  This is a synonym  for  `1-$'.
              It  is  not  an  error to use * if there is just one word in the
              event; the empty string is returned in that case.
       x*     Abbreviates x-$.
       x-     Abbreviates x-$ like x*, but omits the last word.  If x is miss-
              ing, it defaults to 0.

       If  a  word  designator is supplied without an event specification, the
       previous command is used as the event.

   Modifiers
       After the optional word designator, there may appear a sequence of  one
       or more of the following modifiers, each preceded by a `:'.  These mod-
       ify, or edit, the word or words selected from the history event.

       h      Remove a trailing filename component, leaving only the head.
       t      Remove all leading filename components, leaving the tail.
       r      Remove a trailing suffix of the form .xxx, leaving the basename.
       e      Remove all but the trailing suffix.
       p      Print the new command but do not execute it.
       q      Quote the substituted words, escaping further substitutions.
       x      Quote the substituted words as with q, but break into  words  at
              blanks  and newlines.  The q and x modifiers are mutually exclu-
              sive; the last one supplied is used.
       s/old/new/
              Substitute new for the first occurrence  of  old  in  the  event
              line.  Any character may be used as the delimiter in place of /.
              The final delimiter is optional if it is the last  character  of
              the event line.  The delimiter may be quoted in old and new with
              a single backslash.  If & appears in new, it is replaced by old.
              A  single backslash will quote the &.  If old is null, it is set
              to the last old substituted, or, if no previous history  substi-
              tutions  took  place,  the last string in a !?string[?]  search.
              If new is null, each matching old is deleted.
       &      Repeat the previous substitution.
       g      Cause changes to be applied over the entire event line.  This is
              used  in  conjunction  with `:s' (e.g., `:gs/old/new/') or `:&'.
              If used with `:s', any delimiter can be used in place of /,  and
              the  final  delimiter is optional if it is the last character of
              the event line.  An a may be used as a synonym for g.
       G      Apply the following `s' or `&' modifier once to each word in the
              event line.

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       Unless otherwise noted, each builtin command documented in this section
       as accepting options preceded by - accepts -- to signify the end of the
       options.  The :, true, false, and test/[ builtins do not accept options
       and do not treat -- specially.  The exit, logout, return,  break,  con-
       tinue,  let,  and shift builtins accept and process arguments beginning
       with - without requiring --.  Other builtins that accept arguments  but
       are  not  specified  as accepting options interpret arguments beginning
       with - as invalid options and require -- to  prevent  this  interpreta-
       tion.
       : [arguments]
              No  effect;  the command does nothing beyond expanding arguments
              and performing any specified redirections.  The return status is
              zero.

        .  filename [arguments]
       source filename [arguments]
              Read  and  execute  commands  from filename in the current shell
              environment and return the exit status of the last command  exe-
              cuted  from  filename.   If  filename  does not contain a slash,
              filenames in PATH are used  to  find  the  directory  containing
              filename.  The file searched for in PATH need not be executable.
              When bash is  not  in  posix  mode,  the  current  directory  is
              searched  if no file is found in PATH.  If the sourcepath option
              to the shopt builtin command is turned  off,  the  PATH  is  not
              searched.   If any arguments are supplied, they become the posi-
              tional parameters when  filename  is  executed.   Otherwise  the
              positional  parameters  are  unchanged.   If  the  -T  option is
              enabled, source inherits any trap on DEBUG; if it  is  not,  any
              DEBUG  trap  string  is  saved  and  restored around the call to
              source, and source unsets the DEBUG trap while it executes.   If
              -T  is not set, and the sourced file changes the DEBUG trap, the
              new value is retained when source completes.  The return  status
              is the status of the last command exited within the script (0 if
              no commands are executed), and false if filename is not found or
              cannot be read.

       alias [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Alias with no arguments or with the -p option prints the list of
              aliases in the form alias name=value on standard  output.   When
              arguments  are supplied, an alias is defined for each name whose
              value is given.  A trailing space in value causes the next  word
              to be checked for alias substitution when the alias is expanded.
              For each name in the argument list for which no  value  is  sup-
              plied,  the  name  and  value  of  the  alias is printed.  Alias
              returns true unless a name is given for which no alias has  been
              defined.

       bg [jobspec ...]
              Resume  each  suspended  job jobspec in the background, as if it
              had been started with &.  If jobspec is not present, the shell's
              notion  of the current job is used.  bg jobspec returns 0 unless
              run when job control is disabled or, when run with  job  control
              enabled,  any  specified  jobspec  was  not found or was started
              without job control.

       bind [-m keymap] [-lpsvPSVX]
       bind [-m keymap] [-q function] [-u function] [-r keyseq]
       bind [-m keymap] -f filename
       bind [-m keymap] -x keyseq:shell-command
       bind [-m keymap] keyseq:function-name
       bind [-m keymap] keyseq:readline-command
              Display current readline key and function bindings, bind  a  key
              sequence  to  a  readline  function  or macro, or set a readline
              variable.  Each non-option argument is a  command  as  it  would
              appear  in  .inputrc, but each binding or command must be passed
              as a separate argument; e.g.,  '"\C-x\C-r":  re-read-init-file'.
              Options, if supplied, have the following meanings:
              -m keymap
                     Use keymap as the keymap to be affected by the subsequent
                     bindings.  Acceptable keymap names are emacs, emacs-stan-
                     dard,  emacs-meta,  emacs-ctlx,  vi, vi-move, vi-command,
                     and vi-insert.  vi is equivalent to  vi-command  (vi-move
                     is  also  a  synonym); emacs is equivalent to emacs-stan-
                     dard.
              -l     List the names of all readline functions.
              -p     Display readline function names and bindings  in  such  a
                     way that they can be re-read.
              -P     List current readline function names and bindings.
              -s     Display  readline  key  sequences bound to macros and the
                     strings they output in such a way that they  can  be  re-
                     read.
              -S     Display  readline  key  sequences bound to macros and the
                     strings they output.
              -v     Display readline variable names and values in such a  way
                     that they can be re-read.
              -V     List current readline variable names and values.
              -f filename
                     Read key bindings from filename.
              -q function
                     Query about which keys invoke the named function.
              -u function
                     Unbind all keys bound to the named function.
              -r keyseq
                     Remove any current binding for keyseq.
              -x keyseq:shell-command
                     Cause  shell-command  to  be  executed whenever keyseq is
                     entered.  When shell-command is executed, the shell  sets
                     the  READLINE_LINE  variable to the contents of the read-
                     line line buffer and the READLINE_POINT and READLINE_MARK
                     variables  to the current location of the insertion point
                     and the saved insertion point (the  mark),  respectively.
                     If the executed command changes the value of any of READ-
                     LINE_LINE, READLINE_POINT, or  READLINE_MARK,  those  new
                     values will be reflected in the editing state.
              -X     List  all  key  sequences bound to shell commands and the
                     associated commands in a format that  can  be  reused  as
                     input.

              The  return value is 0 unless an unrecognized option is given or
              an error occurred.

       break [n]
              Exit from within a for, while, until, or select loop.  If  n  is
              specified,  break  n  levels.   n must be >= 1.  If n is greater
              than the number of enclosing  loops,  all  enclosing  loops  are
              exited.   The  return value is 0 unless n is not greater than or
              equal to 1.

       builtin shell-builtin [arguments]
              Execute the specified shell builtin, passing it  arguments,  and
              return its exit status.  This is useful when defining a function
              whose name is the same as a shell builtin, retaining  the  func-
              tionality of the builtin within the function.  The cd builtin is
              commonly redefined this way.  The  return  status  is  false  if
              shell-builtin is not a shell builtin command.

       caller [expr]
              Returns the context of any active subroutine call (a shell func-
              tion or a script executed with the . or source builtins).  With-
              out expr, caller displays the line number and source filename of
              the current subroutine call.  If a non-negative integer is  sup-
              plied as expr, caller displays the line number, subroutine name,
              and source file corresponding to that position  in  the  current
              execution  call  stack.  This extra information may be used, for
              example, to print a stack trace.  The current frame is frame  0.
              The  return  value is 0 unless the shell is not executing a sub-
              routine call or expr does not correspond to a valid position  in
              the call stack.

       cd [-L|[-P [-e]] [-@]] [dir]
              Change  the  current  directory to dir.  if dir is not supplied,
              the value of the HOME shell variable is the default.  Any  addi-
              tional arguments following dir are ignored.  The variable CDPATH
              defines the search path for the directory containing  dir:  each
              directory  name  in  CDPATH  is  searched  for dir.  Alternative
              directory names in CDPATH are separated by a colon (:).  A  null
              directory  name  in CDPATH is the same as the current directory,
              i.e., ``.''.  If dir begins with a slash (/), then CDPATH is not
              used.   The  -P  option  causes cd to use the physical directory
              structure by resolving symbolic links while traversing  dir  and
              before processing instances of .. in dir (see also the -P option
              to the set builtin command); the -L option forces symbolic links
              to  be followed by resolving the link after processing instances
              of .. in dir.  If .. appears in dir, it is processed by removing
              the  immediately previous pathname component from dir, back to a
              slash or the beginning of dir.  If the  -e  option  is  supplied
              with  -P,  and  the current working directory cannot be success-
              fully determined after a successful directory  change,  cd  will
              return  an unsuccessful status.  On systems that support it, the
              -@ option presents the extended  attributes  associated  with  a
              file  as  a directory.  An argument of - is converted to $OLDPWD
              before the directory change is attempted.  If a non-empty direc-
              tory  name  from  CDPATH is used, or if - is the first argument,
              and the directory change is successful, the absolute pathname of
              the  new  working  directory  is written to the standard output.
              The return value is  true  if  the  directory  was  successfully
              changed; false otherwise.

       command [-pVv] command [arg ...]
              Run  command  with  args  suppressing  the normal shell function
              lookup.  Only builtin commands or commands found in the PATH are
              executed.   If the -p option is given, the search for command is
              performed using a default value for PATH that is  guaranteed  to
              find  all  of  the  standard  utilities.  If either the -V or -v
              option is supplied, a description of command is printed.  The -v
              option  causes  a single word indicating the command or filename
              used to invoke command to be displayed; the -V option produces a
              more  verbose  description.  If the -V or -v option is supplied,
              the exit status is 0 if command was found, and  1  if  not.   If
              neither option is supplied and an error occurred or command can-
              not be found, the exit status is 127.  Otherwise, the exit  sta-
              tus of the command builtin is the exit status of command.

       compgen [option] [word]
              Generate  possible  completion matches for word according to the
              options, which may  be  any  option  accepted  by  the  complete
              builtin  with  the exception of -p and -r, and write the matches
              to the standard output.  When using the -F or  -C  options,  the
              various  shell  variables  set  by  the  programmable completion
              facilities, while available, will not have useful values.

              The matches will be generated in the same way as if the program-
              mable completion code had generated them directly from a comple-
              tion specification with the same flags.  If word  is  specified,
              only those completions matching word will be displayed.

              The  return  value is true unless an invalid option is supplied,
              or no matches were generated.

       complete [-abcdefgjksuv] [-o comp-option] [-DEI] [-A action] [-G  glob-
       pat] [-W wordlist]
              [-F  function]  [-C command] [-X filterpat] [-P prefix] [-S suf-
              fix] name [name ...]
       complete -pr [-DEI] [name ...]
              Specify how arguments to each name should be completed.  If  the
              -p  option  is supplied, or if no options are supplied, existing
              completion specifications are printed in a way that allows  them
              to be reused as input.  The -r option removes a completion spec-
              ification for each name, or, if no names are supplied, all  com-
              pletion specifications.  The -D option indicates that other sup-
              plied options and actions should apply to the  ``default''  com-
              mand  completion; that is, completion attempted on a command for
              which no completion has previously been defined.  The -E  option
              indicates  that  other supplied options and actions should apply
              to ``empty'' command completion; that is,  completion  attempted
              on  a  blank  line.  The -I option indicates that other supplied
              options and actions should apply to completion  on  the  initial
              non-assignment  word  on  the line, or after a command delimiter
              such as ; or |, which is usually command  name  completion.   If
              multiple  options  are  supplied, the -D option takes precedence
              over -E, and both take precedence over -I.  If any of -D, -E, or
              -I  are  supplied,  any  other name arguments are ignored; these
              completions only apply to the case specified by the option.

              The process of applying  these  completion  specifications  when
              word  completion  is attempted is described above under Program-
              mable Completion.

              Other options, if specified, have the following  meanings.   The
              arguments  to the -G, -W, and -X options (and, if necessary, the
              -P and -S options) should be quoted to protect them from  expan-
              sion before the complete builtin is invoked.
              -o comp-option
                      The  comp-option  controls  several aspects of the comp-
                      spec's behavior beyond the simple generation of  comple-
                      tions.  comp-option may be one of:
                      bashdefault
                              Perform the rest of the default bash completions
                              if the compspec generates no matches.
                      default Use readline's default  filename  completion  if
                              the compspec generates no matches.
                      dirnames
                              Perform  directory  name completion if the comp-
                              spec generates no matches.
                      filenames
                              Tell readline that the compspec generates  file-
                              names,  so  it can perform any filename-specific
                              processing (like adding  a  slash  to  directory
                              names,  quoting special characters, or suppress-
                              ing trailing spaces).  Intended to be used  with
                              shell functions.
                      noquote Tell  readline  not to quote the completed words
                              if they are filenames (quoting filenames is  the
                              default).
                      nosort  Tell  readline  not to sort the list of possible
                              completions alphabetically.
                      nospace Tell  readline  not  to  append  a  space   (the
                              default)  to  words  completed at the end of the
                              line.
                      plusdirs
                              After any matches defined by  the  compspec  are
                              generated,    directory   name   completion   is
                              attempted and  any  matches  are  added  to  the
                              results of the other actions.
              -A action
                      The  action  may  be  one of the following to generate a
                      list of possible completions:
                      alias   Alias names.  May also be specified as -a.
                      arrayvar
                              Array variable names.
                      binding Readline key binding names.
                      builtin Names of shell builtin commands.   May  also  be
                              specified as -b.
                      command Command names.  May also be specified as -c.
                      directory
                              Directory names.  May also be specified as -d.
                      disabled
                              Names of disabled shell builtins.
                      enabled Names of enabled shell builtins.
                      export  Names  of exported shell variables.  May also be
                              specified as -e.
                      file    File names.  May also be specified as -f.
                      function
                              Names of shell functions.
                      group   Group names.  May also be specified as -g.
                      helptopic
                              Help topics as accepted by the help builtin.
                      hostname
                              Hostnames, as taken from the file  specified  by
                              the HOSTFILE shell variable.
                      job     Job  names,  if job control is active.  May also
                              be specified as -j.
                      keyword Shell reserved words.  May also be specified  as
                              -k.
                      running Names of running jobs, if job control is active.
                      service Service names.  May also be specified as -s.
                      setopt  Valid  arguments  for  the  -o option to the set
                              builtin.
                      shopt   Shell option names  as  accepted  by  the  shopt
                              builtin.
                      signal  Signal names.
                      stopped Names of stopped jobs, if job control is active.
                      user    User names.  May also be specified as -u.
                      variable
                              Names of all shell variables.  May also be spec-
                              ified as -v.
              -C command
                      command is executed in a subshell environment,  and  its
                      output is used as the possible completions.
              -F function
                      The  shell  function function is executed in the current
                      shell environment.  When the function is  executed,  the
                      first  argument  ($1)  is  the name of the command whose
                      arguments are being completed, the second argument  ($2)
                      is the word being completed, and the third argument ($3)
                      is the word preceding the word being  completed  on  the
                      current  command  line.   When it finishes, the possible
                      completions are retrieved from the value of the  COMPRE-
                      PLY array variable.
              -G globpat
                      The  pathname  expansion  pattern globpat is expanded to
                      generate the possible completions.
              -P prefix
                      prefix is added at the beginning of each  possible  com-
                      pletion after all other options have been applied.
              -S suffix
                      suffix is appended to each possible completion after all
                      other options have been applied.
              -W wordlist
                      The wordlist is split using the characters  in  the  IFS
                      special  variable as delimiters, and each resultant word
                      is expanded.  Shell quoting is honored within  wordlist,
                      in order to provide a mechanism for the words to contain
                      shell metacharacters or characters in the value of  IFS.
                      The  possible  completions are the members of the resul-
                      tant list which match the word being completed.
              -X filterpat
                      filterpat is a pattern as used for  pathname  expansion.
                      It is applied to the list of possible completions gener-
                      ated by the preceding options and  arguments,  and  each
                      completion  matching filterpat is removed from the list.
                      A leading ! in filterpat negates the  pattern;  in  this
                      case, any completion not matching filterpat is removed.

              The  return  value is true unless an invalid option is supplied,
              an option other than -p or -r is supplied without a  name  argu-
              ment,  an  attempt  is made to remove a completion specification
              for a name for which no specification exists, or an error occurs
              adding a completion specification.

       compopt [-o option] [-DEI] [+o option] [name]
              Modify  completion  options  for  each  name  according  to  the
              options, or for the currently-executing completion if  no  names
              are  supplied.   If no options are given, display the completion
              options for each name or the current completion.   The  possible
              values  of  option  are  those  valid  for  the complete builtin
              described above.  The -D option indicates  that  other  supplied
              options should apply to the ``default'' command completion; that
              is, completion attempted on a command for  which  no  completion
              has previously been defined.  The -E option indicates that other
              supplied options should apply to ``empty''  command  completion;
              that  is,  completion  attempted on a blank line.  The -I option
              indicates that other supplied options should apply to completion
              on  the initial non-assignment word on the line, or after a com-
              mand delimiter such as ; or |, which  is  usually  command  name
              completion.

              The  return  value is true unless an invalid option is supplied,
              an attempt is made to modify the options for a name for which no
              completion specification exists, or an output error occurs.

       continue [n]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, or
              select loop.  If n is specified, resume  at  the  nth  enclosing
              loop.   n  must  be  >=  1.   If n is greater than the number of
              enclosing loops, the  last  enclosing  loop  (the  ``top-level''
              loop) is resumed.  The return value is 0 unless n is not greater
              than or equal to 1.

       declare [-aAfFgiIlnrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
       typeset [-aAfFgiIlnrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Declare variables and/or give them attributes.  If no names  are
              given  then display the values of variables.  The -p option will
              display the attributes and values of each name.  When -p is used
              with  name  arguments, additional options, other than -f and -F,
              are ignored.  When -p is supplied  without  name  arguments,  it
              will  display  the attributes and values of all variables having
              the attributes specified by the additional options.  If no other
              options   are   supplied  with  -p,  declare  will  display  the
              attributes and values of all shell  variables.   The  -f  option
              will  restrict  the  display  to shell functions.  The -F option
              inhibits the display of function definitions; only the  function
              name  and  attributes are printed.  If the extdebug shell option
              is enabled using shopt, the source file  name  and  line  number
              where each name is defined are displayed as well.  The -F option
              implies -f.  The -g option forces variables  to  be  created  or
              modified at the global scope, even when declare is executed in a
              shell function.  It is ignored  in  all  other  cases.   The  -I
              option  causes local variables to inherit the attributes (except
              the nameref attribute) and value of any existing  variable  with
              the  same  name at a surrounding scope.  If there is no existing
              variable, the local variable is initially unset.  The  following
              options  can  be  used  to restrict output to variables with the
              specified attribute or to give variables attributes:
              -a     Each name  is  an  indexed  array  variable  (see  Arrays
                     above).
              -A     Each  name  is  an associative array variable (see Arrays
                     above).
              -f     Use function names only.
              -i     The variable is treated as an integer; arithmetic evalua-
                     tion  (see ARITHMETIC EVALUATION above) is performed when
                     the variable is assigned a value.
              -l     When the variable is assigned  a  value,  all  upper-case
                     characters  are  converted to lower-case.  The upper-case
                     attribute is disabled.
              -n     Give each name the nameref attribute, making  it  a  name
                     reference  to  another  variable.  That other variable is
                     defined by the value of name.   All  references,  assign-
                     ments,  and attribute modifications to name, except those
                     using or changing the -n attribute itself, are  performed
                     on  the variable referenced by name's value.  The nameref
                     attribute cannot be applied to array variables.
              -r     Make names readonly.  These names cannot then be assigned
                     values by subsequent assignment statements or unset.
              -t     Give  each  name  the  trace attribute.  Traced functions
                     inherit the DEBUG  and  RETURN  traps  from  the  calling
                     shell.   The  trace  attribute has no special meaning for
                     variables.
              -u     When the variable is assigned  a  value,  all  lower-case
                     characters  are  converted to upper-case.  The lower-case
                     attribute is disabled.
              -x     Mark names for export  to  subsequent  commands  via  the
                     environment.

              Using  `+'  instead of `-' turns off the attribute instead, with
              the exceptions that +a and +A may not be used to  destroy  array
              variables  and  +r will not remove the readonly attribute.  When
              used in a function, declare and typeset make each name local, as
              with  the local command, unless the -g option is supplied.  If a
              variable name is followed by =value, the value of  the  variable
              is  set  to value.  When using -a or -A and the compound assign-
              ment syntax to create array variables, additional attributes  do
              not  take effect until subsequent assignments.  The return value
              is 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, an attempt is made
              to define a function using ``-f foo=bar'', an attempt is made to
              assign a value to a readonly variable, an  attempt  is  made  to
              assign  a  value to an array variable without using the compound
              assignment syntax (see Arrays above), one of the names is not  a
              valid  shell variable name, an attempt is made to turn off read-
              only status for a readonly variable, an attempt is made to  turn
              off array status for an array variable, or an attempt is made to
              display a non-existent function with -f.

       dirs [-clpv] [+n] [-n]
              Without options,  displays  the  list  of  currently  remembered
              directories.   The  default  display  is  on  a single line with
              directory names separated by spaces.  Directories are  added  to
              the  list  with  the  pushd  command;  the  popd command removes
              entries from the list.  The  current  directory  is  always  the
              first directory in the stack.
              -c     Clears  the  directory  stack  by  deleting  all  of  the
                     entries.
              -l     Produces a listing  using  full  pathnames;  the  default
                     listing format uses a tilde to denote the home directory.
              -p     Print the directory stack with one entry per line.
              -v     Print  the  directory stack with one entry per line, pre-
                     fixing each entry with its index in the stack.
              +n     Displays the nth entry counting from the left of the list
                     shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting with
                     zero.
              -n     Displays the nth entry counting from  the  right  of  the
                     list shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting
                     with zero.

              The return value is 0 unless an invalid option is supplied or  n
              indexes beyond the end of the directory stack.

       disown [-ar] [-h] [jobspec ... | pid ... ]
              Without  options,  remove  each jobspec from the table of active
              jobs.  If jobspec is not present, and neither the -a nor the  -r
              option  is  supplied, the current job is used.  If the -h option
              is given, each jobspec is not removed from  the  table,  but  is
              marked  so  that  SIGHUP  is  not  sent  to the job if the shell
              receives a SIGHUP.  If no jobspec is  supplied,  the  -a  option
              means  to  remove or mark all jobs; the -r option without a job-
              spec argument restricts operation to running jobs.   The  return
              value is 0 unless a jobspec does not specify a valid job.

       echo [-neE] [arg ...]
              Output  the  args,  separated  by spaces, followed by a newline.
              The return status is 0 unless a write error occurs.   If  -n  is
              specified, the trailing newline is suppressed.  If the -e option
              is given,  interpretation  of  the  following  backslash-escaped
              characters  is  enabled.  The -E option disables the interpreta-
              tion of these escape characters, even on systems where they  are
              interpreted  by  default.  The xpg_echo shell option may be used
              to dynamically determine  whether  or  not  echo  expands  these
              escape  characters  by  default.   echo does not interpret -- to
              mean the end of options.  echo interprets the  following  escape
              sequences:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress further output
              \e
              \E     an escape character
              \f     form feed
              \n     new line
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0nnn  the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the octal value
                     nnn (zero to three octal digits)
              \xHH   the eight-bit character whose value  is  the  hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)
              \uHHHH the  Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is the
                     hexadecimal value HHHH (one to four hex digits)
              \UHHHHHHHH
                     the Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is  the
                     hexadecimal value HHHHHHHH (one to eight hex digits)

       enable [-a] [-dnps] [-f filename] [name ...]
              Enable  and disable builtin shell commands.  Disabling a builtin
              allows a disk command which has the same name as a shell builtin
              to  be  executed without specifying a full pathname, even though
              the shell normally searches for builtins before  disk  commands.
              If  -n  is  used,  each  name  is disabled; otherwise, names are
              enabled.  For example, to use the test binary found via the PATH
              instead  of  the  shell builtin version, run ``enable -n test''.
              The -f option means to load the new builtin  command  name  from
              shared object filename, on systems that support dynamic loading.
              The -d option will delete a builtin previously loaded  with  -f.
              If no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,
              a list of shell builtins is printed.  With no other option argu-
              ments,  the  list consists of all enabled shell builtins.  If -n
              is supplied, only disabled builtins are printed.  If -a is  sup-
              plied,  the  list printed includes all builtins, with an indica-
              tion of whether or not each is enabled.  If -s is supplied,  the
              output  is restricted to the POSIX special builtins.  The return
              value is 0 unless a name is not a shell builtin or there  is  an
              error loading a new builtin from a shared object.

       eval [arg ...]
              The  args  are read and concatenated together into a single com-
              mand.  This command is then read and executed by the shell,  and
              its  exit status is returned as the value of eval.  If there are
              no args, or only null arguments, eval returns 0.

       exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [arguments]]
              If command is specified, it replaces the shell.  No new  process
              is  created.  The arguments become the arguments to command.  If
              the -l option is supplied, the shell places a dash at the begin-
              ning  of  the  zeroth  argument passed to command.  This is what
              login(1) does.  The -c option causes command to be executed with
              an  empty environment.  If -a is supplied, the shell passes name
              as the zeroth argument to the executed command.  If command can-
              not  be executed for some reason, a non-interactive shell exits,
              unless the execfail shell option is enabled.  In that  case,  it
              returns  failure.   An  interactive shell returns failure if the
              file cannot be executed.  A subshell  exits  unconditionally  if
              exec  fails.  If command is not specified, any redirections take
              effect in the current shell, and the return  status  is  0.   If
              there is a redirection error, the return status is 1.

       exit [n]
              Cause  the  shell  to exit with a status of n.  If n is omitted,
              the exit status is that of the last command executed.  A trap on
              EXIT is executed before the shell terminates.

       export [-fn] [name[=word]] ...
       export -p
              The  supplied names are marked for automatic export to the envi-
              ronment of subsequently executed commands.  If the -f option  is
              given,  the names refer to functions.  If no names are given, or
              if the -p option is supplied, a list of names  of  all  exported
              variables  is printed.  The -n option causes the export property
              to be removed from each name.  If a variable name is followed by
              =word, the value of the variable is set to word.  export returns
              an exit status of 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, one
              of  the  names is not a valid shell variable name, or -f is sup-
              plied with a name that is not a function.

       fc [-e ename] [-lnr] [first] [last]
       fc -s [pat=rep] [cmd]
              The first form selects a range of commands from  first  to  last
              from  the  history  list  and  displays or edits and re-executes
              them.  First and last may be specified as a  string  (to  locate
              the  last command beginning with that string) or as a number (an
              index into the history list, where a negative number is used  as
              an  offset  from  the  current command number).  When listing, a
              first or last of 0 is equivalent to -1 and -0 is  equivalent  to
              the  current  command  (usually  the fc command); otherwise 0 is
              equivalent to -1 and -0 is invalid.  If last is  not  specified,
              it  is  set  to the current command for listing (so that ``fc -l
              -10'' prints the last 10 commands) and to first  otherwise.   If
              first  is  not  specified, it is set to the previous command for
              editing and -16 for listing.

              The -n option suppresses the command numbers when listing.   The
              -r  option reverses the order of the commands.  If the -l option
              is given, the commands are listed on  standard  output.   Other-
              wise,  the editor given by ename is invoked on a file containing
              those commands.  If ename is not given, the value of the  FCEDIT
              variable  is used, and the value of EDITOR if FCEDIT is not set.
              If neither variable is set, vi is used.  When  editing  is  com-
              plete, the edited commands are echoed and executed.

              In  the  second form, command is re-executed after each instance
              of pat is replaced by rep.  Command is interpreted the  same  as
              first  above.  A useful alias to use with this is ``r="fc -s"'',
              so that typing ``r cc'' runs the  last  command  beginning  with
              ``cc'' and typing ``r'' re-executes the last command.

              If  the  first  form  is  used,  the return value is 0 unless an
              invalid option is encountered or first or last  specify  history
              lines  out  of  range.  If the -e option is supplied, the return
              value is the value of the last command executed or failure if an
              error occurs with the temporary file of commands.  If the second
              form is used, the return status is that of the  command  re-exe-
              cuted,  unless  cmd  does  not  specify a valid history line, in
              which case fc returns failure.

       fg [jobspec]
              Resume jobspec in the foreground, and make it the  current  job.
              If jobspec is not present, the shell's notion of the current job
              is used.  The return value is that of the  command  placed  into
              the  foreground,  or failure if run when job control is disabled
              or, when run with job control enabled, if jobspec does not spec-
              ify  a  valid  job  or  jobspec specifies a job that was started
              without job control.

       getopts optstring name [arg ...]
              getopts is used by shell procedures to parse positional  parame-
              ters.   optstring  contains  the  option characters to be recog-
              nized; if a character is followed by  a  colon,  the  option  is
              expected  to have an argument, which should be separated from it
              by white space.  The colon and question mark characters may  not
              be  used as option characters.  Each time it is invoked, getopts
              places the next option in the shell variable name,  initializing
              name if it does not exist, and the index of the next argument to
              be processed into the variable OPTIND.  OPTIND is initialized to
              1  each  time  the  shell or a shell script is invoked.  When an
              option requires an argument, getopts places that  argument  into
              the  variable OPTARG.  The shell does not reset OPTIND automati-
              cally; it must be  manually  reset  between  multiple  calls  to
              getopts within the same shell invocation if a new set of parame-
              ters is to be used.

              When the end of options is encountered,  getopts  exits  with  a
              return  value  greater than zero.  OPTIND is set to the index of
              the first non-option argument, and name is set to ?.

              getopts normally parses the positional parameters, but  if  more
              arguments  are  supplied  as  arg  values,  getopts parses those
              instead.

              getopts can report errors in two ways.  If the  first  character
              of  optstring  is  a  colon, silent error reporting is used.  In
              normal operation, diagnostic messages are printed  when  invalid
              options  or  missing  option  arguments are encountered.  If the
              variable OPTERR is set to 0, no  error  messages  will  be  dis-
              played, even if the first character of optstring is not a colon.

              If an invalid option is seen, getopts places ? into name and, if
              not silent, prints an  error  message  and  unsets  OPTARG.   If
              getopts  is  silent,  the  option  character  found is placed in
              OPTARG and no diagnostic message is printed.

              If a required argument is not found, and getopts is not  silent,
              a  question  mark  (?) is placed in name, OPTARG is unset, and a
              diagnostic message is printed.  If getopts  is  silent,  then  a
              colon  (:)  is  placed  in  name and OPTARG is set to the option
              character found.

              getopts returns true if an option, specified or unspecified,  is
              found.  It returns false if the end of options is encountered or
              an error occurs.

       hash [-lr] [-p filename] [-dt] [name]
              Each time hash is invoked, the full pathname of the command name
              is  determined  by searching the directories in $PATH and remem-
              bered.  Any previously-remembered pathname is discarded.  If the
              -p option is supplied, no path search is performed, and filename
              is used as the full filename of  the  command.   The  -r  option
              causes  the  shell  to  forget all remembered locations.  The -d
              option causes the shell to forget  the  remembered  location  of
              each  name.   If the -t option is supplied, the full pathname to
              which each name corresponds is printed.  If multiple name  argu-
              ments  are  supplied  with  -t,  the  name is printed before the
              hashed full pathname.  The -l option causes output  to  be  dis-
              played in a format that may be reused as input.  If no arguments
              are given, or if only -l is supplied, information  about  remem-
              bered  commands  is printed.  The return status is true unless a
              name is not found or an invalid option is supplied.

       help [-dms] [pattern]
              Display helpful information about builtin commands.  If  pattern
              is  specified, help gives detailed help on all commands matching
              pattern; otherwise help for all the builtins and  shell  control
              structures is printed.
              -d     Display a short description of each pattern
              -m     Display the description of each pattern in a manpage-like
                     format
              -s     Display only a short usage synopsis for each pattern

              The return status is 0 unless no command matches pattern.

       history [n]
       history -c
       history -d offset
       history -d start-end
       history -anrw [filename]
       history -p arg [arg ...]
       history -s arg [arg ...]
              With no options, display the command history list with line num-
              bers.  Lines listed with a * have been modified.  An argument of
              n lists only the last n lines.  If the shell variable  HISTTIME-
              FORMAT  is  set  and not null, it is used as a format string for
              strftime(3) to display the time stamp associated with each  dis-
              played  history  entry.  No intervening blank is printed between
              the formatted time stamp and the history line.  If  filename  is
              supplied,  it  is  used as the name of the history file; if not,
              the value of HISTFILE is used.  Options, if supplied,  have  the
              following meanings:
              -c     Clear the history list by deleting all the entries.
              -d offset
                     Delete  the  history entry at position offset.  If offset
                     is negative, it is interpreted as relative to one greater
                     than the last history position, so negative indices count
                     back from the end of the history,  and  an  index  of  -1
                     refers to the current history -d command.
              -d start-end
                     Delete  the  history  entries between positions start and
                     end, inclusive.  Positive and negative values  for  start
                     and end are interpreted as described above.
              -a     Append  the  ``new''  history  lines to the history file.
                     These are history lines entered since  the  beginning  of
                     the current bash session, but not already appended to the
                     history file.
              -n     Read the history lines not already read from the  history
                     file  into  the  current  history  list.  These are lines
                     appended to the history file since the beginning  of  the
                     current bash session.
              -r     Read  the contents of the history file and append them to
                     the current history list.
              -w     Write the current history list to the history file, over-
                     writing the history file's contents.
              -p     Perform  history  substitution  on the following args and
                     display the result on  the  standard  output.   Does  not
                     store  the results in the history list.  Each arg must be
                     quoted to disable normal history expansion.
              -s     Store the args in the history list  as  a  single  entry.
                     The  last  command  in the history list is removed before
                     the args are added.

              If the HISTTIMEFORMAT variable is set, the time  stamp  informa-
              tion  associated  with each history entry is written to the his-
              tory file, marked with the history comment character.  When  the
              history  file  is read, lines beginning with the history comment
              character followed immediately by a  digit  are  interpreted  as
              timestamps for the following history entry.  The return value is
              0 unless an invalid option is encountered, an error occurs while
              reading  or  writing the history file, an invalid offset is sup-
              plied as an argument to -d, or the history expansion supplied as
              an argument to -p fails.

       jobs [-lnprs] [ jobspec ... ]
       jobs -x command [ args ... ]
              The first form lists the active jobs.  The options have the fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -l     List process IDs in addition to the normal information.
              -n     Display information only about  jobs  that  have  changed
                     status since the user was last notified of their status.
              -p     List  only  the  process  ID  of  the job's process group
                     leader.
              -r     Display only running jobs.
              -s     Display only stopped jobs.

              If jobspec is given, output is restricted to  information  about
              that  job.   The  return status is 0 unless an invalid option is
              encountered or an invalid jobspec is supplied.

              If the -x option is supplied, jobs replaces any jobspec found in
              command  or  args  with  the corresponding process group ID, and
              executes command passing it args, returning its exit status.

       kill [-s sigspec | -n signum | -sigspec] [pid | jobspec] ...
       kill -l|-L [sigspec | exit_status]
              Send the signal named by sigspec  or  signum  to  the  processes
              named  by  pid or jobspec.  sigspec is either a case-insensitive
              signal name such as SIGKILL (with or without the SIG prefix)  or
              a  signal  number; signum is a signal number.  If sigspec is not
              present, then SIGTERM is assumed.  An argument of -l  lists  the
              signal  names.   If any arguments are supplied when -l is given,
              the names of the signals  corresponding  to  the  arguments  are
              listed, and the return status is 0.  The exit_status argument to
              -l is a number specifying either a signal  number  or  the  exit
              status  of  a  process terminated by a signal.  The -L option is
              equivalent to -l.  kill returns true if at least one signal  was
              successfully  sent,  or  false  if an error occurs or an invalid
              option is encountered.

       let arg [arg ...]
              Each arg is an arithmetic expression to be evaluated (see ARITH-
              METIC  EVALUATION  above).   If the last arg evaluates to 0, let
              returns 1; 0 is returned otherwise.

       local [option] [name[=value] ... | - ]
              For each argument, a local variable named name is  created,  and
              assigned  value.   The option can be any of the options accepted
              by declare.  When local is used within a function, it causes the
              variable  name  to have a visible scope restricted to that func-
              tion and its children.  If name is -, the set of  shell  options
              is  made  local to the function in which local is invoked: shell
              options changed using the set builtin inside  the  function  are
              restored  to  their  original  values when the function returns.
              The restore is effected as if a series of set commands were exe-
              cuted  to restore the values that were in place before the func-
              tion.  With no operands, local writes a list of local  variables
              to  the  standard  output.  It is an error to use local when not
              within a function.  The return status is 0 unless local is  used
              outside  a  function,  an invalid name is supplied, or name is a
              readonly variable.

       logout Exit a login shell.

       mapfile [-d delim] [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u  fd]  [-C
       callback] [-c quantum] [array]
       readarray [-d delim] [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u fd] [-C
       callback] [-c quantum] [array]
              Read lines from the standard input into the indexed array  vari-
              able  array, or from file descriptor fd if the -u option is sup-
              plied.  The variable MAPFILE is the default array.  Options,  if
              supplied, have the following meanings:
              -d     The  first  character  of delim is used to terminate each
                     input line, rather than newline.  If delim is  the  empty
                     string, mapfile will terminate a line when it reads a NUL
                     character.
              -n     Copy at most count lines.  If count is 0, all  lines  are
                     copied.
              -O     Begin  assigning  to  array at index origin.  The default
                     index is 0.
              -s     Discard the first count lines read.
              -t     Remove a trailing delim (default newline) from each  line
                     read.
              -u     Read  lines  from file descriptor fd instead of the stan-
                     dard input.
              -C     Evaluate callback each time quantum lines are read.   The
                     -c option specifies quantum.
              -c     Specify  the  number  of  lines read between each call to
                     callback.

              If -C is specified without -c,  the  default  quantum  is  5000.
              When callback is evaluated, it is supplied the index of the next
              array element to be assigned and the line to be assigned to that
              element  as  additional  arguments.  callback is evaluated after
              the line is read but before the array element is assigned.

              If not supplied with an  explicit  origin,  mapfile  will  clear
              array before assigning to it.

              mapfile  returns successfully unless an invalid option or option
              argument is supplied, array is invalid or  unassignable,  or  if
              array is not an indexed array.

       popd [-n] [+n] [-n]
              Removes  entries  from  the directory stack.  With no arguments,
              removes the top directory from the stack, and performs a  cd  to
              the new top directory.  Arguments, if supplied, have the follow-
              ing meanings:
              -n     Suppresses the normal change of directory  when  removing
                     directories  from  the  stack,  so that only the stack is
                     manipulated.
              +n     Removes the nth entry counting from the left of the  list
                     shown  by  dirs, starting with zero.  For example: ``popd
                     +0'' removes the first directory, ``popd +1'' the second.
              -n     Removes the nth entry counting from the right of the list
                     shown  by  dirs, starting with zero.  For example: ``popd
                     -0'' removes the last directory, ``popd -1'' the next  to
                     last.

              If  the popd command is successful, a dirs is performed as well,
              and the return status is 0.  popd returns false  if  an  invalid
              option is encountered, the directory stack is empty, a non-exis-
              tent directory stack entry is specified, or the directory change
              fails.

       printf [-v var] format [arguments]
              Write  the  formatted arguments to the standard output under the
              control of the format.  The -v option causes the  output  to  be
              assigned  to  the  variable var rather than being printed to the
              standard output.

              The format is a character string which contains three  types  of
              objects:  plain  characters, which are simply copied to standard
              output, character escape  sequences,  which  are  converted  and
              copied  to  the standard output, and format specifications, each
              of which causes printing of the next  successive  argument.   In
              addition to the standard printf(1) format specifications, printf
              interprets the following extensions:
              %b     causes printf to expand backslash escape sequences in the
                     corresponding argument in the same way as echo -e.
              %q     causes  printf  to output the corresponding argument in a
                     format that can be reused as shell input.
              %(datefmt)T
                     causes printf to output the  date-time  string  resulting
                     from  using  datefmt  as a format string for strftime(3).
                     The corresponding argument is an integer representing the
                     number  of seconds since the epoch.  Two special argument
                     values may be used: -1 represents the current  time,  and
                     -2  represents  the  time  the  shell was invoked.  If no
                     argument is specified, conversion behaves as  if  -1  had
                     been  given.   This  is  an exception to the usual printf
                     behavior.

              The %b, %q, and %T directives all use the field width and preci-
              sion arguments from the format specification and write that many
              bytes from (or use that wide a field for) the expanded argument,
              which usually contains more characters than the original.

              Arguments  to non-string format specifiers are treated as C con-
              stants, except that a leading plus or minus sign is allowed, and
              if  the leading character is a single or double quote, the value
              is the ASCII value of the following character.

              The format is reused as necessary to consume all  of  the  argu-
              ments.  If the format requires more arguments than are supplied,
              the extra format specifications behave as if  a  zero  value  or
              null  string,  as  appropriate,  had  been supplied.  The return
              value is zero on success, non-zero on failure.

       pushd [-n] [+n] [-n]
       pushd [-n] [dir]
              Adds a directory to the top of the directory stack,  or  rotates
              the  stack,  making the new top of the stack the current working
              directory.  With no  arguments,  pushd  exchanges  the  top  two
              directories  and returns 0, unless the directory stack is empty.
              Arguments, if supplied, have the following meanings:
              -n     Suppresses the normal change of directory  when  rotating
                     or  adding  directories  to  the  stack, so that only the
                     stack is manipulated.
              +n     Rotates the stack so that  the  nth  directory  (counting
                     from  the  left  of the list shown by dirs, starting with
                     zero) is at the top.
              -n     Rotates the stack so that  the  nth  directory  (counting
                     from  the  right of the list shown by dirs, starting with
                     zero) is at the top.
              dir    Adds dir to the directory stack at the top, making it the
                     new  current working directory as if it had been supplied
                     as the argument to the cd builtin.

              If the pushd command is successful, a dirs is performed as well.
              If  the first form is used, pushd returns 0 unless the cd to dir
              fails.  With the second form, pushd returns 0 unless the  direc-
              tory  stack  is empty, a non-existent directory stack element is
              specified, or the directory change to the specified new  current
              directory fails.

       pwd [-LP]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              The pathname printed contains no symbolic links if the -P option
              is supplied or the -o physical option to the set builtin command
              is enabled.  If the -L option is used, the pathname printed  may
              contain  symbolic links.  The return status is 0 unless an error
              occurs while reading the name of the  current  directory  or  an
              invalid option is supplied.

       read [-ers] [-a aname] [-d delim] [-i text] [-n nchars] [-N nchars] [-p
       prompt] [-t timeout] [-u fd] [name ...]
              One line is read from the  standard  input,  or  from  the  file
              descriptor  fd  supplied  as an argument to the -u option, split
              into words as described above  under  Word  Splitting,  and  the
              first word is assigned to the first name, the second word to the
              second name, and so on.  If there are more words than names, the
              remaining words and their intervening delimiters are assigned to
              the last name.  If there are fewer words  read  from  the  input
              stream  than  names, the remaining names are assigned empty val-
              ues.  The characters in IFS are used  to  split  the  line  into
              words  using  the  same  rules  the  shell  uses  for  expansion
              (described above under Word Splitting).  The backslash character
              (\) may be used to remove any special meaning for the next char-
              acter read and for line  continuation.   Options,  if  supplied,
              have the following meanings:
              -a aname
                     The words are assigned to sequential indices of the array
                     variable aname, starting at 0.  aname is unset before any
                     new  values  are  assigned.   Other  name  arguments  are
                     ignored.
              -d delim
                     The first character of delim is  used  to  terminate  the
                     input  line,  rather than newline.  If delim is the empty
                     string, read will terminate a line when it  reads  a  NUL
                     character.
              -e     If the standard input is coming from a terminal, readline
                     (see READLINE above) is used to obtain the  line.   Read-
                     line  uses  the  current (or default, if line editing was
                     not previously active) editing settings, but  uses  Read-
                     line's default filename completion.
              -i text
                     If  readline  is  being  used  to  read the line, text is
                     placed into the editing buffer before editing begins.
              -n nchars
                     read returns after reading nchars characters rather  than
                     waiting for a complete line of input, but honors a delim-
                     iter if fewer than nchars characters are read before  the
                     delimiter.
              -N nchars
                     read  returns  after  reading  exactly  nchars characters
                     rather than waiting for a complete line of input,  unless
                     EOF  is encountered or read times out.  Delimiter charac-
                     ters encountered in the input are not  treated  specially
                     and  do  not cause read to return until nchars characters
                     are read.  The result is not split on the  characters  in
                     IFS;  the intent is that the variable is assigned exactly
                     the characters read (with the exception of backslash; see
                     the -r option below).
              -p prompt
                     Display prompt on standard error, without a trailing new-
                     line, before attempting to read any input.  The prompt is
                     displayed only if input is coming from a terminal.
              -r     Backslash does not act as an escape character.  The back-
                     slash is considered to be part of the line.  In  particu-
                     lar,  a  backslash-newline pair may not then be used as a
                     line continuation.
              -s     Silent mode.  If input is coming from a terminal, charac-
                     ters are not echoed.
              -t timeout
                     Cause  read  to time out and return failure if a complete
                     line of input (or a specified number  of  characters)  is
                     not  read within timeout seconds.  timeout may be a deci-
                     mal number with a fractional portion following the  deci-
                     mal  point.   This  option  is  only effective if read is
                     reading input from a terminal,  pipe,  or  other  special
                     file;  it  has no effect when reading from regular files.
                     If read times out, read saves any partial input read into
                     the  specified  variable  name.   If  timeout  is 0, read
                     returns immediately, without trying  to  read  any  data.
                     The  exit status is 0 if input is available on the speci-
                     fied file descriptor, non-zero otherwise.  The exit  sta-
                     tus is greater than 128 if the timeout is exceeded.
              -u fd  Read input from file descriptor fd.

              If  no  names  are  supplied,  the line read, without the ending
              delimiter but otherwise unmodified, is assigned to the  variable
              REPLY.   The  exit status is zero, unless end-of-file is encoun-
              tered, read times out (in which case the status is greater  than
              128),  a variable assignment error (such as assigning to a read-
              only variable) occurs, or an invalid file descriptor is supplied
              as the argument to -u.

       readonly [-aAf] [-p] [name[=word] ...]
              The  given  names are marked readonly; the values of these names
              may not be changed by subsequent assignment.  If the  -f  option
              is  supplied,  the  functions  corresponding to the names are so
              marked.  The  -a  option  restricts  the  variables  to  indexed
              arrays;  the  -A  option  restricts the variables to associative
              arrays.  If both options are supplied, -A takes precedence.   If
              no  name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied, a
              list of all readonly names is printed.  The other options may be
              used  to  restrict the output to a subset of the set of readonly
              names.  The -p option causes output to be displayed in a  format
              that  may be reused as input.  If a variable name is followed by
              =word, the value of the variable is set  to  word.   The  return
              status  is 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, one of the
              names is not a valid shell variable name, or -f is supplied with
              a name that is not a function.

       return [n]
              Causes  a function to stop executing and return the value speci-
              fied by n to its caller.  If n is omitted, the return status  is
              that  of  the  last  command  executed in the function body.  If
              return is executed by a trap handler, the last command  used  to
              determine  the  status  is  the last command executed before the
              trap handler.  If return is executed during a  DEBUG  trap,  the
              last  command  used  to determine the status is the last command
              executed by the trap handler  before  return  was  invoked.   If
              return  is  used  outside  a function, but during execution of a
              script by the .  (source) command, it causes the shell  to  stop
              executing  that script and return either n or the exit status of
              the last command executed within the script as the  exit  status
              of  the script.  If n is supplied, the return value is its least
              significant 8 bits.  The return status is non-zero if return  is
              supplied  a  non-numeric argument, or is used outside a function
              and not during execution of a script by . or source.   Any  com-
              mand  associated  with the RETURN trap is executed before execu-
              tion resumes after the function or script.

       set [--abefhkmnptuvxBCEHPT] [-o option-name] [arg ...]
       set [+abefhkmnptuvxBCEHPT] [+o option-name] [arg ...]
              Without options, the name and value of each shell  variable  are
              displayed in a format that can be reused as input for setting or
              resetting the currently-set variables.  Read-only variables can-
              not  be  reset.  In posix mode, only shell variables are listed.
              The output is sorted according  to  the  current  locale.   When
              options  are specified, they set or unset shell attributes.  Any
              arguments remaining after option processing are treated as  val-
              ues for the positional parameters and are assigned, in order, to
              $1, $2, ...  $n.  Options,  if  specified,  have  the  following
              meanings:
              -a      Each variable or function that is created or modified is
                      given the export attribute and marked for export to  the
                      environment of subsequent commands.
              -b      Report  the status of terminated background jobs immedi-
                      ately, rather than before the next primary prompt.  This
                      is effective only when job control is enabled.
              -e      Exit  immediately  if a pipeline (which may consist of a
                      single simple command), a list, or  a  compound  command
                      (see SHELL GRAMMAR above), exits with a non-zero status.
                      The shell does not exit if the  command  that  fails  is
                      part  of  the command list immediately following a while
                      or until keyword, part of the test following the  if  or
                      elif  reserved  words, part of any command executed in a
                      && or || list except the command following the final  &&
                      or ||, any command in a pipeline but the last, or if the
                      command's return value is being inverted with !.   If  a
                      compound  command  other  than a subshell returns a non-
                      zero status because a command failed while -e was  being
                      ignored,  the  shell  does  not exit.  A trap on ERR, if
                      set, is executed before the shell  exits.   This  option
                      applies to the shell environment and each subshell envi-
                      ronment separately (see  COMMAND  EXECUTION  ENVIRONMENT
                      above), and may cause subshells to exit before executing
                      all the commands in the subshell.

                      If a compound command or shell function  executes  in  a
                      context  where -e is being ignored, none of the commands
                      executed within the compound command  or  function  body
                      will  be  affected  by the -e setting, even if -e is set
                      and a command returns a failure status.  If  a  compound
                      command  or  shell function sets -e while executing in a
                      context where -e is ignored, that setting will not  have
                      any  effect  until  the  compound command or the command
                      containing the function call completes.
              -f      Disable pathname expansion.
              -h      Remember the location of commands as they are looked  up
                      for execution.  This is enabled by default.
              -k      All  arguments  in the form of assignment statements are
                      placed in the environment for a command, not just  those
                      that precede the command name.
              -m      Monitor  mode.   Job control is enabled.  This option is
                      on by default for interactive  shells  on  systems  that
                      support  it  (see JOB CONTROL above).  All processes run
                      in a separate process group.  When a background job com-
                      pletes, the shell prints a line containing its exit sta-
                      tus.
              -n      Read commands but do not execute them.  This may be used
                      to  check  a  shell  script  for syntax errors.  This is
                      ignored by interactive shells.
              -o option-name
                      The option-name can be one of the following:
                      allexport
                              Same as -a.
                      braceexpand
                              Same as -B.
                      emacs   Use an emacs-style command line  editing  inter-
                              face.  This is enabled by default when the shell
                              is interactive, unless the shell is started with
                              the  --noediting  option.  This also affects the
                              editing interface used for read -e.
                      errexit Same as -e.
                      errtrace
                              Same as -E.
                      functrace
                              Same as -T.
                      hashall Same as -h.
                      histexpand
                              Same as -H.
                      history Enable command history, as described above under
                              HISTORY.  This option is on by default in inter-
                              active shells.
                      ignoreeof
                              The  effect  is  as   if   the   shell   command
                              ``IGNOREEOF=10''  had  been  executed (see Shell
                              Variables above).
                      keyword Same as -k.
                      monitor Same as -m.
                      noclobber
                              Same as -C.
                      noexec  Same as -n.
                      noglob  Same as -f.
                      nolog   Currently ignored.
                      notify  Same as -b.
                      nounset Same as -u.
                      onecmd  Same as -t.
                      physical
                              Same as -P.
                      pipefail
                              If set, the return value of a  pipeline  is  the
                              value  of  the  last (rightmost) command to exit
                              with a non-zero status, or zero if all  commands
                              in  the pipeline exit successfully.  This option
                              is disabled by default.
                      posix   Change the behavior of bash  where  the  default
                              operation  differs  from  the  POSIX standard to
                              match the standard (posix mode).  See  SEE  ALSO
                              below for a reference to a document that details
                              how posix mode affects bash's behavior.
                      privileged
                              Same as -p.
                      verbose Same as -v.
                      vi      Use a vi-style command line  editing  interface.
                              This also affects the editing interface used for
                              read -e.
                      xtrace  Same as -x.
                      If -o is supplied with no option-name, the values of the
                      current  options are printed.  If +o is supplied with no
                      option-name, a series of set commands  to  recreate  the
                      current  option  settings  is  displayed on the standard
                      output.
              -p      Turn on privileged mode.  In this  mode,  the  $ENV  and
                      $BASH_ENV  files  are not processed, shell functions are
                      not inherited from the environment, and  the  SHELLOPTS,
                      BASHOPTS,  CDPATH,  and  GLOBIGNORE  variables,  if they
                      appear in the environment, are ignored.  If the shell is
                      started  with the effective user (group) id not equal to
                      the real user (group) id, and the -p option is not  sup-
                      plied, these actions are taken and the effective user id
                      is set to the real user id.  If the -p  option  is  sup-
                      plied  at  startup,  the effective user id is not reset.
                      Turning this option off causes the  effective  user  and
                      group ids to be set to the real user and group ids.
              -t      Exit after reading and executing one command.
              -u      Treat unset variables and parameters other than the spe-
                      cial parameters "@" and "*" as an error when  performing
                      parameter  expansion.   If  expansion is attempted on an
                      unset variable or parameter, the shell prints  an  error
                      message,  and, if not interactive, exits with a non-zero
                      status.
              -v      Print shell input lines as they are read.
              -x      After expanding each simple command, for  command,  case
                      command, select command, or arithmetic for command, dis-
                      play the expanded value of PS4, followed by the  command
                      and its expanded arguments or associated word list.
              -B      The  shell performs brace expansion (see Brace Expansion
                      above).  This is on by default.
              -C      If set, bash does not overwrite an  existing  file  with
                      the  >,  >&,  and <> redirection operators.  This may be
                      overridden when creating output files by using the redi-
                      rection operator >| instead of >.
              -E      If set, any trap on ERR is inherited by shell functions,
                      command substitutions, and commands executed in  a  sub-
                      shell  environment.  The ERR trap is normally not inher-
                      ited in such cases.
              -H      Enable !  style history substitution.  This option is on
                      by default when the shell is interactive.
              -P      If  set,  the shell does not resolve symbolic links when
                      executing commands such as cd that  change  the  current
                      working  directory.   It  uses  the  physical  directory
                      structure instead.  By default, bash follows the logical
                      chain  of  directories  when  performing  commands which
                      change the current directory.
              -T      If set, any traps on DEBUG and RETURN are  inherited  by
                      shell  functions,  command  substitutions,  and commands
                      executed in  a  subshell  environment.   The  DEBUG  and
                      RETURN traps are normally not inherited in such cases.
              --      If  no arguments follow this option, then the positional
                      parameters are unset.  Otherwise, the positional parame-
                      ters  are  set  to  the args, even if some of them begin
                      with a -.
              -       Signal the end of options, cause all remaining  args  to
                      be assigned to the positional parameters.  The -x and -v
                      options are turned off.  If there are no args, the posi-
                      tional parameters remain unchanged.

              The  options are off by default unless otherwise noted.  Using +
              rather than - causes  these  options  to  be  turned  off.   The
              options  can  also be specified as arguments to an invocation of
              the shell.  The current set of options may be found in $-.   The
              return status is always true unless an invalid option is encoun-
              tered.

       shift [n]
              The positional parameters from n+1 ... are renamed  to  $1  ....
              Parameters  represented  by  the  numbers  $# down to $#-n+1 are
              unset.  n must be a non-negative number less than  or  equal  to
              $#.   If  n is 0, no parameters are changed.  If n is not given,
              it is assumed to be 1.  If n is greater than $#, the  positional
              parameters  are  not changed.  The return status is greater than
              zero if n is greater than $# or less than zero; otherwise 0.

       shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname ...]
              Toggle the values of settings controlling optional shell  behav-
              ior.   The settings can be either those listed below, or, if the
              -o option is used, those available with the -o option to the set
              builtin command.  With no options, or with the -p option, a list
              of all settable options is  displayed,  with  an  indication  of
              whether or not each is set; if optnames are supplied, the output
              is restricted to those options.  The -p option causes output  to
              be  displayed  in  a  form  that  may be reused as input.  Other
              options have the following meanings:
              -s     Enable (set) each optname.
              -u     Disable (unset) each optname.
              -q     Suppresses normal output (quiet mode); the return  status
                     indicates whether the optname is set or unset.  If multi-
                     ple optname arguments are given with -q, the return  sta-
                     tus  is zero if all optnames are enabled; non-zero other-
                     wise.
              -o     Restricts the values of optname to be those  defined  for
                     the -o option to the set builtin.

              If  either  -s  or  -u  is used with no optname arguments, shopt
              shows only those options which are set or  unset,  respectively.
              Unless  otherwise  noted, the shopt options are disabled (unset)
              by default.

              The return status when listing options is zero if  all  optnames
              are  enabled,  non-zero  otherwise.   When  setting or unsetting
              options, the return status is zero unless an optname  is  not  a
              valid shell option.

              The list of shopt options is:

              assoc_expand_once
                      If  set,  the  shell  suppresses  multiple evaluation of
                      associative array subscripts during  arithmetic  expres-
                      sion  evaluation, while executing builtins that can per-
                      form variable assignments, and while executing  builtins
                      that perform array dereferencing.
              autocd  If  set,  a command name that is the name of a directory
                      is executed as if it were the argument to  the  cd  com-
                      mand.  This option is only used by interactive shells.
              cdable_vars
                      If  set,  an  argument to the cd builtin command that is
                      not a directory is assumed to be the name of a  variable
                      whose value is the directory to change to.
              cdspell If set, minor errors in the spelling of a directory com-
                      ponent in a cd command will be  corrected.   The  errors
                      checked for are transposed characters, a missing charac-
                      ter, and one character too many.   If  a  correction  is
                      found,  the  corrected filename is printed, and the com-
                      mand proceeds.  This option is only used by  interactive
                      shells.
              checkhash
                      If set, bash checks that a command found in the hash ta-
                      ble exists before trying to execute  it.   If  a  hashed
                      command  no  longer exists, a normal path search is per-
                      formed.
              checkjobs
                      If set, bash lists the status of any stopped and running
                      jobs  before  exiting an interactive shell.  If any jobs
                      are running, this causes the exit to be deferred until a
                      second  exit is attempted without an intervening command
                      (see JOB CONTROL above).   The  shell  always  postpones
                      exiting if any jobs are stopped.
              checkwinsize
                      If  set, bash checks the window size after each external
                      (non-builtin) command and,  if  necessary,  updates  the
                      values  of LINES and COLUMNS.  This option is enabled by
                      default.
              cmdhist If set, bash attempts to save all lines of  a  multiple-
                      line  command  in  the  same history entry.  This allows
                      easy re-editing of multi-line commands.  This option  is
                      enabled  by  default,  but only has an effect if command
                      history is enabled, as described above under HISTORY.
              compat31
              compat32
              compat40
              compat41
              compat42
              compat43
              compat44
                      These control aspects of the shell's compatibility  mode
                      (see SHELL COMPATIBILITY MODE below).

              complete_fullquote
                      If  set,  bash  quotes all shell metacharacters in file-
                      names and directory names  when  performing  completion.
                      If not set, bash removes metacharacters such as the dol-
                      lar sign from the set of characters that will be  quoted
                      in  completed filenames when these metacharacters appear
                      in shell variable references in words to  be  completed.
                      This  means  that  dollar  signs  in variable names that
                      expand to directories will not be quoted;  however,  any
                      dollar  signs appearing in filenames will not be quoted,
                      either.  This is active only when bash  is  using  back-
                      slashes  to quote completed filenames.  This variable is
                      set by default, which is the default  bash  behavior  in
                      versions through 4.2.

              direxpand
                      If  set,  bash replaces directory names with the results
                      of word expansion when performing  filename  completion.
                      This  changes  the contents of the readline editing buf-
                      fer.  If not set, bash attempts  to  preserve  what  the
                      user typed.

              dirspell
                      If  set,  bash attempts spelling correction on directory
                      names during word completion if the directory name  ini-
                      tially supplied does not exist.

              dotglob If  set, bash includes filenames beginning with a `.' in
                      the results of pathname expansion.  The filenames  ``.''
                      and  ``..''   must always be matched explicitly, even if
                      dotglob is set.

              execfail
                      If set, a non-interactive shell will not exit if it can-
                      not  execute  the  file  specified as an argument to the
                      exec builtin command.  An  interactive  shell  does  not
                      exit if exec fails.

              expand_aliases
                      If  set,  aliases  are expanded as described above under
                      ALIASES.  This option is enabled by default for interac-
                      tive shells.

              extdebug
                      If  set at shell invocation, or in a shell startup file,
                      arrange to execute the debugger profile before the shell
                      starts,  identical  to  the  --debugger  option.  If set
                      after invocation, behavior intended for use by debuggers
                      is enabled:

                      1.     The -F option to the declare builtin displays the
                             source file name and line number corresponding to
                             each function name supplied as an argument.

                      2.     If  the  command  run by the DEBUG trap returns a
                             non-zero value, the next command is  skipped  and
                             not executed.

                      3.     If  the  command  run by the DEBUG trap returns a
                             value of 2, and the shell is executing in a  sub-
                             routine  (a shell function or a shell script exe-
                             cuted by the . or  source  builtins),  the  shell
                             simulates a call to return.

                      4.     BASH_ARGC  and BASH_ARGV are updated as described
                             in their descriptions above.

                      5.     Function tracing is  enabled:  command  substitu-
                             tion, shell functions, and subshells invoked with
                             ( command ) inherit the DEBUG and RETURN traps.

                      6.     Error tracing is enabled:  command  substitution,
                             shell  functions,  and  subshells  invoked with (
                             command ) inherit the ERR trap.

              extglob If set, the extended pattern matching features described
                      above under Pathname Expansion are enabled.

              extquote
                      If  set,  $'string'  and  $"string" quoting is performed
                      within  ${parameter}  expansions  enclosed   in   double
                      quotes.  This option is enabled by default.

              failglob
                      If  set,  patterns  which fail to match filenames during
                      pathname expansion result in an expansion error.

              force_fignore
                      If set, the suffixes  specified  by  the  FIGNORE  shell
                      variable  cause words to be ignored when performing word
                      completion even if the ignored words are the only possi-
                      ble  completions.   See  SHELL  VARIABLES  above  for  a
                      description of  FIGNORE.   This  option  is  enabled  by
                      default.

              globasciiranges
                      If  set,  range  expressions  used  in  pattern matching
                      bracket expressions (see Pattern Matching above)  behave
                      as  if  in the traditional C locale when performing com-
                      parisons.   That  is,  the  current  locale's  collating
                      sequence  is  not taken into account, so b will not col-
                      late between A and  B,  and  upper-case  and  lower-case
                      ASCII characters will collate together.

              globstar
                      If set, the pattern ** used in a pathname expansion con-
                      text will match all files and zero or  more  directories
                      and  subdirectories.  If the pattern is followed by a /,
                      only directories and subdirectories match.

              gnu_errfmt
                      If set, shell error messages are written in the standard
                      GNU error message format.

              histappend
                      If  set,  the history list is appended to the file named
                      by the value of the HISTFILE  variable  when  the  shell
                      exits, rather than overwriting the file.

              histreedit
                      If  set, and readline is being used, a user is given the
                      opportunity to re-edit a failed history substitution.

              histverify
                      If set, and readline is being used, the results of  his-
                      tory  substitution  are  not  immediately  passed to the
                      shell parser.  Instead, the  resulting  line  is  loaded
                      into the readline editing buffer, allowing further modi-
                      fication.

              hostcomplete
                      If set, and readline is being used, bash will attempt to
                      perform  hostname  completion when a word containing a @
                      is  being  completed  (see  Completing  under   READLINE
                      above).  This is enabled by default.

              huponexit
                      If set, bash will send SIGHUP to all jobs when an inter-
                      active login shell exits.

              inherit_errexit
                      If set, command substitution inherits the value  of  the
                      errexit  option, instead of unsetting it in the subshell
                      environment.  This option is enabled when posix mode  is
                      enabled.

              interactive_comments
                      If set, allow a word beginning with # to cause that word
                      and all remaining characters on that line to be  ignored
                      in  an  interactive  shell  (see  COMMENTS above).  This
                      option is enabled by default.

              lastpipe
                      If set, and job control is not active,  the  shell  runs
                      the last command of a pipeline not executed in the back-
                      ground in the current shell environment.

              lithist If set, and the cmdhist option  is  enabled,  multi-line
                      commands are saved to the history with embedded newlines
                      rather than using semicolon separators where possible.

              localvar_inherit
                      If set, local variables inherit the value and attributes
                      of a variable of the same name that exists at a previous
                      scope before any new value  is  assigned.   The  nameref
                      attribute is not inherited.

              localvar_unset
                      If  set,  calling  unset  on local variables in previous
                      function scopes marks them so  subsequent  lookups  find
                      them  unset until that function returns. This is identi-
                      cal to the behavior of unsetting local variables at  the
                      current function scope.

              login_shell
                      The  shell  sets this option if it is started as a login
                      shell (see INVOCATION above).   The  value  may  not  be
                      changed.

              mailwarn
                      If  set,  and  a file that bash is checking for mail has
                      been accessed since the last time it  was  checked,  the
                      message  ``The  mail in mailfile has been read'' is dis-
                      played.

              no_empty_cmd_completion
                      If set, and  readline  is  being  used,  bash  will  not
                      attempt to search the PATH for possible completions when
                      completion is attempted on an empty line.

              nocaseglob
                      If set, bash matches  filenames  in  a  case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing pathname expansion (see Pathname
                      Expansion above).

              nocasematch
                      If set, bash  matches  patterns  in  a  case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing matching while executing case or
                      [[ conditional commands, when performing pattern substi-
                      tution  word expansions, or when filtering possible com-
                      pletions as part of programmable completion.

              nullglob
                      If set, bash allows patterns which match no  files  (see
                      Pathname  Expansion  above)  to expand to a null string,
                      rather than themselves.

              progcomp
                      If set, the programmable completion facilities (see Pro-
                      grammable Completion above) are enabled.  This option is
                      enabled by default.

              progcomp_alias
                      If set, and programmable  completion  is  enabled,  bash
                      treats  a command name that doesn't have any completions
                      as a possible alias and attempts alias expansion. If  it
                      has  an  alias,  bash  attempts  programmable completion
                      using the  command  word  resulting  from  the  expanded
                      alias.

              promptvars
                      If set, prompt strings undergo parameter expansion, com-
                      mand  substitution,  arithmetic  expansion,  and   quote
                      removal  after  being expanded as described in PROMPTING
                      above.  This option is enabled by default.

              restricted_shell
                      The  shell  sets  this  option  if  it  is  started   in
                      restricted mode (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).  The value
                      may not be changed.  This is not reset when the  startup
                      files  are  executed, allowing the startup files to dis-
                      cover whether or not a shell is restricted.

              shift_verbose
                      If set, the shift builtin prints an error  message  when
                      the shift count exceeds the number of positional parame-
                      ters.

              sourcepath
                      If set, the source (.) builtin uses the value of PATH to
                      find  the  directory  containing the file supplied as an
                      argument.  This option is enabled by default.

              xpg_echo
                      If  set,  the  echo  builtin  expands   backslash-escape
                      sequences by default.

       suspend [-f]
              Suspend  the execution of this shell until it receives a SIGCONT
              signal.  A login shell cannot be suspended; the -f option can be
              used to override this and force the suspension.  The return sta-
              tus is 0 unless the shell is a login shell and -f  is  not  sup-
              plied, or if job control is not enabled.

       test expr
       [ expr ]
              Return a status of 0 (true) or 1 (false) depending on the evalu-
              ation of the conditional expression expr.  Each operator and op-
              erand  must be a separate argument.  Expressions are composed of
              the primaries described  above  under  CONDITIONAL  EXPRESSIONS.
              test  does not accept any options, nor does it accept and ignore
              an argument of -- as signifying the end of options.

              Expressions may  be  combined  using  the  following  operators,
              listed  in  decreasing  order  of  precedence.   The  evaluation
              depends on the number of arguments; see below.  Operator  prece-
              dence is used when there are five or more arguments.
              ! expr True if expr is false.
              ( expr )
                     Returns  the value of expr.  This may be used to override
                     the normal precedence of operators.
              expr1 -a expr2
                     True if both expr1 and expr2 are true.
              expr1 -o expr2
                     True if either expr1 or expr2 is true.

              test and [ evaluate conditional expressions using a set of rules
              based on the number of arguments.

              0 arguments
                     The expression is false.
              1 argument
                     The expression is true if and only if the argument is not
                     null.
              2 arguments
                     If the first argument is !, the expression is true if and
                     only  if the second argument is null.  If the first argu-
                     ment is one of the  unary  conditional  operators  listed
                     above  under  CONDITIONAL  EXPRESSIONS, the expression is
                     true if the unary test is true.  If the first argument is
                     not a valid unary conditional operator, the expression is
                     false.
              3 arguments
                     The following conditions are applied in the order listed.
                     If  the  second argument is one of the binary conditional
                     operators listed above under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS, the
                     result of the expression is the result of the binary test
                     using the first and third arguments as operands.  The  -a
                     and  -o  operators  are  considered binary operators when
                     there are three arguments.  If the first argument  is  !,
                     the  value is the negation of the two-argument test using
                     the second and third arguments.  If the first argument is
                     exactly ( and the third argument is exactly ), the result
                     is the one-argument test of the second argument.   Other-
                     wise, the expression is false.
              4 arguments
                     If the first argument is !, the result is the negation of
                     the three-argument expression composed of  the  remaining
                     arguments.  Otherwise, the expression is parsed and eval-
                     uated according to  precedence  using  the  rules  listed
                     above.
              5 or more arguments
                     The  expression  is  parsed  and  evaluated  according to
                     precedence using the rules listed above.

              When used with test or [, the < and  >  operators  sort  lexico-
              graphically using ASCII ordering.

       times  Print  the  accumulated  user and system times for the shell and
              for processes run from the shell.  The return status is 0.

       trap [-lp] [[arg] sigspec ...]
              The command arg is to  be  read  and  executed  when  the  shell
              receives  signal(s)  sigspec.   If arg is absent (and there is a
              single sigspec) or -, each specified  signal  is  reset  to  its
              original  disposition  (the  value  it  had upon entrance to the
              shell).  If arg is the null string the signal specified by  each
              sigspec  is ignored by the shell and by the commands it invokes.
              If arg is not present and -p has been supplied,  then  the  trap
              commands  associated  with  each  sigspec  are displayed.  If no
              arguments are supplied or if only -p is given, trap  prints  the
              list  of  commands  associated  with each signal.  The -l option
              causes the shell to print a list of signal names and their  cor-
              responding  numbers.   Each  sigspec  is  either  a  signal name
              defined in <signal.h>, or a signal  number.   Signal  names  are
              case insensitive and the SIG prefix is optional.

              If  a  sigspec  is  EXIT (0) the command arg is executed on exit
              from the shell.  If a sigspec is DEBUG, the command arg is  exe-
              cuted  before  every  simple command, for command, case command,
              select command, every arithmetic for  command,  and  before  the
              first  command  executes  in a shell function (see SHELL GRAMMAR
              above).  Refer to the description of the extdebug option to  the
              shopt builtin for details of its effect on the DEBUG trap.  If a
              sigspec is RETURN, the command arg is executed each time a shell
              function or a script executed with the . or source builtins fin-
              ishes executing.

              If a sigspec is ERR, the command  arg  is  executed  whenever  a
              pipeline (which may consist of a single simple command), a list,
              or a compound command returns a non-zero exit status, subject to
              the  following  conditions.  The ERR trap is not executed if the
              failed command is part of the command list immediately following
              a  while  or until keyword, part of the test in an if statement,
              part of a command executed in a && or || list except the command
              following  the final && or ||, any command in a pipeline but the
              last, or if the command's return value is being  inverted  using
              !.   These  are  the  same conditions obeyed by the errexit (-e)
              option.

              Signals ignored upon entry to the shell  cannot  be  trapped  or
              reset.   Trapped signals that are not being ignored are reset to
              their original values in a subshell or subshell environment when
              one  is  created.   The return status is false if any sigspec is
              invalid; otherwise trap returns true.

       type [-aftpP] name [name ...]
              With no options, indicate how each name would be interpreted  if
              used as a command name.  If the -t option is used, type prints a
              string which is one of alias,  keyword,  function,  builtin,  or
              file  if  name  is  an  alias,  shell  reserved  word, function,
              builtin, or disk file, respectively.  If the name is not  found,
              then  nothing  is  printed,  and  an  exit  status  of  false is
              returned.  If the -p option is used,  type  either  returns  the
              name of the disk file that would be executed if name were speci-
              fied as a command name, or nothing if ``type -t name'' would not
              return  file.  The -P option forces a PATH search for each name,
              even if ``type -t name'' would not return file.  If a command is
              hashed, -p and -P print the hashed value, which is not necessar-
              ily the file that appears first in PATH.  If the  -a  option  is
              used,  type  prints all of the places that contain an executable
              named name.  This includes aliases and functions, if and only if
              the -p option is not also used.  The table of hashed commands is
              not consulted when using -a.  The  -f  option  suppresses  shell
              function lookup, as with the command builtin.  type returns true
              if all of the arguments are found, false if any are not found.

       ulimit [-HS] -a
       ulimit [-HS] [-bcdefiklmnpqrstuvxPRT [limit]]
              Provides control over the resources available to the  shell  and
              to  processes started by it, on systems that allow such control.
              The -H and -S options specify that the hard or soft limit is set
              for  the  given resource.  A hard limit cannot be increased by a
              non-root user once it is set; a soft limit may be  increased  up
              to  the value of the hard limit.  If neither -H nor -S is speci-
              fied, both the soft and hard limits are set.  The value of limit
              can be a number in the unit specified for the resource or one of
              the special values hard, soft, or unlimited, which stand for the
              current  hard  limit,  the  current  soft  limit,  and no limit,
              respectively.  If limit is omitted, the  current  value  of  the
              soft  limit  of the resource is printed, unless the -H option is
              given.  When more than one resource is specified, the limit name
              and  unit,  if appropriate, are printed before the value.  Other
              options are interpreted as follows:
              -a     All current limits are reported; no limits are set
              -b     The maximum socket buffer size
              -c     The maximum size of core files created
              -d     The maximum size of a process's data segment
              -e     The maximum scheduling priority ("nice")
              -f     The maximum size of files written by the  shell  and  its
                     children
              -i     The maximum number of pending signals
              -k     The maximum number of kqueues that may be allocated
              -l     The maximum size that may be locked into memory
              -m     The  maximum resident set size (many systems do not honor
                     this limit)
              -n     The maximum number of open file descriptors (most systems
                     do not allow this value to be set)
              -p     The pipe size in 512-byte blocks (this may not be set)
              -q     The maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues
              -r     The maximum real-time scheduling priority
              -s     The maximum stack size
              -t     The maximum amount of cpu time in seconds
              -u     The  maximum  number  of  processes available to a single
                     user
              -v     The maximum amount of virtual  memory  available  to  the
                     shell and, on some systems, to its children
              -x     The maximum number of file locks
              -P     The maximum number of pseudoterminals
              -R     The  maximum  time  a  real-time  process  can run before
                     blocking, in microseconds
              -T     The maximum number of threads

              If limit is given, and the -a option is not used, limit  is  the
              new  value  of  the  specified resource.  If no option is given,
              then -f is assumed.  Values are in 1024-byte increments,  except
              for  -t,  which is in seconds; -R, which is in microseconds; -p,
              which is in units of 512-byte blocks; -P, -T, -b,  -k,  -n,  and
              -u,  which  are unscaled values; and, when in posix mode, -c and
              -f, which are in 512-byte increments.  The return  status  is  0
              unless  an  invalid  option or argument is supplied, or an error
              occurs while setting a new limit.

       umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
              The user file-creation mask is set to mode.  If mode begins with
              a  digit,  it is interpreted as an octal number; otherwise it is
              interpreted as a symbolic mode mask similar to that accepted  by
              chmod(1).   If mode is omitted, the current value of the mask is
              printed.  The -S option causes the mask to be  printed  in  sym-
              bolic  form;  the  default output is an octal number.  If the -p
              option is supplied, and mode is omitted, the output is in a form
              that may be reused as input.  The return status is 0 if the mode
              was successfully changed or if no mode  argument  was  supplied,
              and false otherwise.

       unalias [-a] [name ...]
              Remove  each  name  from  the list of defined aliases.  If -a is
              supplied, all alias definitions are removed.  The  return  value
              is true unless a supplied name is not a defined alias.

       unset [-fv] [-n] [name ...]
              For  each  name,  remove the corresponding variable or function.
              If the -v option is given, each name refers to a shell variable,
              and  that  variable  is removed.  Read-only variables may not be
              unset.  If -f is specified, each name refers to  a  shell  func-
              tion,  and the function definition is removed.  If the -n option
              is supplied, and name is a variable with the nameref  attribute,
              name  will  be unset rather than the variable it references.  -n
              has no effect if the -f option is supplied.  If no  options  are
              supplied,  each  name refers to a variable; if there is no vari-
              able by that name, a function with that name, if any, is  unset.
              Each  unset variable or function is removed from the environment
              passed  to  subsequent  commands.   If  any   of   BASH_ALIASES,
              BASH_ARGV0,  BASH_CMDS,  BASH_COMMAND,  BASH_SUBSHELL,  BASHPID,
              COMP_WORDBREAKS, DIRSTACK,  EPOCHREALTIME,  EPOCHSECONDS,  FUNC-
              NAME,  GROUPS,  HISTCMD, LINENO, RANDOM, SECONDS, or SRANDOM are
              unset, they lose their special properties, even if they are sub-
              sequently reset.  The exit status is true unless a name is read-
              only.

       wait [-fn] [-p varname] [id ...]
              Wait for each specified child process and return its termination
              status.   Each id may be a process ID or a job specification; if
              a job spec is given, all processes in that  job's  pipeline  are
              waited  for.   If  id  is  not given, wait waits for all running
              background jobs and the last-executed process  substitution,  if
              its process id is the same as $!, and the return status is zero.
              If the -n option is supplied, wait waits for a single  job  from
              the list of ids or, if no ids are supplied, any job, to complete
              and returns its exit status.  If none of the supplied  arguments
              is a child of the shell, or if no arguments are supplied and the
              shell has no unwaited-for children, the exit status is 127.   If
              the  -p option is supplied, the process or job identifier of the
              job for which the exit status is returned  is  assigned  to  the
              variable  varname  named  by  the option argument.  The variable
              will be unset initially, before any assignment.  This is  useful
              only  when  the -n option is supplied.  Supplying the -f option,
              when job control is enabled, forces wait to wait for id to  ter-
              minate before returning its status, instead of returning when it
              changes status.  If id specifies a non-existent process or  job,
              the  return  status is 127.  Otherwise, the return status is the
              exit status of the last process or job waited for.

SHELL COMPATIBILITY MODE
       Bash-4.0 introduced the concept of a `shell compatibility level', spec-
       ified as a set of options to the shopt builtin compat31, compat32, com-
       pat40, compat41, and so on).  There is only one  current  compatibility
       level -- each option is mutually exclusive.  The compatibility level is
       intended to allow users to select behavior from previous versions  that
       is  incompatible  with newer versions while they migrate scripts to use
       current features and behavior. It's intended to be  a  temporary  solu-
       tion.

       This  section does not mention behavior that is standard for a particu-
       lar version (e.g., setting compat32 means that quoting the rhs  of  the
       regexp  matching operator quotes special regexp characters in the word,
       which is default behavior in bash-3.2 and above).

       If a user enables, say, compat32, it may affect the behavior  of  other
       compatibility  levels  up  to  and  including the current compatibility
       level.  The idea is that each  compatibility  level  controls  behavior
       that  changed  in that version of bash, but that behavior may have been
       present in earlier versions.  For instance, the change to  use  locale-
       based  comparisons  with  the  [[ command came in bash-4.1, and earlier
       versions used ASCII-based comparisons, so enabling compat32 will enable
       ASCII-based  comparisons  as  well.  That granularity may not be suffi-
       cient for all uses, and as a result users should  employ  compatibility
       levels  carefully.   Read the documentation for a particular feature to
       find out the current behavior.

       Bash-4.3 introduced a  new  shell  variable:  BASH_COMPAT.   The  value
       assigned  to  this  variable  (a decimal version number like 4.2, or an
       integer corresponding to the compatNN option, like 42)  determines  the
       compatibility level.

       Starting  with bash-4.4, Bash has begun deprecating older compatibility
       levels.  Eventually, the options will be removed in favor of  BASH_COM-
       PAT.

       Bash-5.0  is  the  final  version for which there will be an individual
       shopt option for the previous version. Users should use BASH_COMPAT  on
       bash-5.0 and later versions.

       The  following  table describes the behavior changes controlled by each
       compatibility level setting.  The compatNN tag is used as shorthand for
       setting the compatibility level to NN using one of the following mecha-
       nisms.  For versions prior to bash-5.0, the compatibility level may  be
       set  using  the  corresponding compatNN shopt option.  For bash-4.3 and
       later versions, the  BASH_COMPAT  variable  is  preferred,  and  it  is
       required for bash-5.1 and later versions.

       compat31
              o      quoting the rhs of the [[ command's regexp matching oper-
                     ator (=~) has no special effect

       compat32
              o      interrupting a command list such as "a ; b  ;  c"  causes
                     the  execution  of  the  next  command  in  the  list (in
                     bash-4.0 and later versions, the  shell  acts  as  if  it
                     received  the interrupt, so interrupting one command in a
                     list aborts the execution of the entire list)

       compat40
              o      the < and > operators to the [[ command do  not  consider
                     the current locale when comparing strings; they use ASCII
                     ordering.  Bash versions prior to bash-4.1 use ASCII col-
                     lation  and strcmp(3); bash-4.1 and later use the current
                     locale's collation sequence and strcoll(3).

       compat41
              o      in posix mode, time may be followed by options and  still
                     be recognized as a reserved word (this is POSIX interpre-
                     tation 267)
              o      in posix mode, the parser requires that an even number of
                     single  quotes  occur  in  the  word portion of a double-
                     quoted parameter expansion and treats them specially,  so
                     that  characters  within the single quotes are considered
                     quoted (this is POSIX interpretation 221)

       compat42
              o      the replacement string in double-quoted pattern substitu-
                     tion  does  not undergo quote removal, as it does in ver-
                     sions after bash-4.2
              o      in posix mode, single quotes are considered special  when
                     expanding  the  word portion of a double-quoted parameter
                     expansion and can be used to quote  a  closing  brace  or
                     other  special character (this is part of POSIX interpre-
                     tation 221); in later versions,  single  quotes  are  not
                     special within double-quoted word expansions

       compat43
              o      the  shell does not print a warning message if an attempt
                     is made to use a quoted compound assignment as  an  argu-
                     ment  to declare (declare -a foo='(1 2)'). Later versions
                     warn that this usage is deprecated
              o      word expansion errors  are  considered  non-fatal  errors
                     that  cause  the  current  command to fail, even in posix
                     mode (the default behavior is to make them  fatal  errors
                     that cause the shell to exit)
              o      when   executing   a   shell  function,  the  loop  state
                     (while/until/etc.)  is not reset, so break or continue in
                     that function will break or continue loops in the calling
                     context. Bash-4.4 and later reset the loop state to  pre-
                     vent this

       compat44
              o      the  shell  sets  up  the  values  used  by BASH_ARGV and
                     BASH_ARGC so they can expand to  the  shell's  positional
                     parameters even if extended debugging mode is not enabled
              o      a  subshell  inherits  loops  from its parent context, so
                     break or  continue  will  cause  the  subshell  to  exit.
                     Bash-5.0  and  later  reset the loop state to prevent the
                     exit
              o      variable assignments preceding builtins like  export  and
                     readonly that set attributes continue to affect variables
                     with the same name in the calling environment even if the
                     shell is not in posix mode

       compat50
              o      Bash-5.1  changed  the way $RANDOM is generated to intro-
                     duce slightly more randomness. If the shell compatibility
                     level  is  set  to  50 or lower, it reverts to the method
                     from bash-5.0 and previous versions, so seeding the  ran-
                     dom  number generator by assigning a value to RANDOM will
                     produce the same sequence as in bash-5.0
              o      If the command hash table is empty, bash  versions  prior
                     to  bash-5.1  printed  an  informational  message to that
                     effect, even when producing output that can be reused  as
                     input.  Bash-5.1  suppresses  that  message  when  the -l
                     option is supplied.

RESTRICTED SHELL
       If bash is started with the name rbash, or the -r option is supplied at
       invocation,  the  shell becomes restricted.  A restricted shell is used
       to set up an environment more controlled than the standard  shell.   It
       behaves  identically  to bash with the exception that the following are
       disallowed or not performed:

       o      changing directories with cd

       o      setting or unsetting the values of SHELL, PATH,  HISTFILE,  ENV,
              or BASH_ENV

       o      specifying command names containing /

       o      specifying  a  filename  containing  a / as an argument to the .
              builtin command

       o      specifying a filename containing a slash as an argument  to  the
              history builtin command

       o      specifying  a  filename containing a slash as an argument to the
              -p option to the hash builtin command

       o      importing function definitions from  the  shell  environment  at
              startup

       o      parsing  the  value  of  SHELLOPTS from the shell environment at
              startup

       o      redirecting output using the >, >|, <>, >&, &>, and >> redirect-
              ion operators

       o      using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another
              command

       o      adding or deleting builtin commands with the -f and  -d  options
              to the enable builtin command

       o      using  the  enable  builtin  command  to  enable  disabled shell
              builtins

       o      specifying the -p option to the command builtin command

       o      turning off restricted mode with set +r or set +o restricted.

       These restrictions are enforced after any startup files are read.

       When a command that is found to be a shell script is executed (see COM-
       MAND  EXECUTION  above),  rbash turns off any restrictions in the shell
       spawned to execute the script.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Availability   | shell/bash       |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Stability      | Volatile         |
       +---------------+------------------+

SEE ALSO
       Bash Reference Manual, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       The Gnu Readline Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       The Gnu History Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) Part 2:  Shell  and  Utili-
       ties, IEEE --
              http://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/
       http://tiswww.case.edu/~chet/bash/POSIX -- a description of posix mode
       sh(1), ksh(1), csh(1)
       emacs(1), vi(1)
       readline(3)

FILES
       /bin/bash
              The bash executable
       /etc/profile
              The systemwide initialization file, executed for login shells
       ~/.bash_profile
              The personal initialization file, executed for login shells
       ~/.bashrc
              The individual per-interactive-shell startup file
       ~/.bash_logout
              The  individual  login shell cleanup file, executed when a login
              shell exits
       ~/.inputrc
              Individual readline initialization file

AUTHORS
       Brian Fox, Free Software Foundation
       bfox@gnu.org

       Chet Ramey, Case Western Reserve University
       chet.ramey@case.edu

BUG REPORTS
       If you find a bug in bash, you should report it.  But first, you should
       make  sure  that  it really is a bug, and that it appears in the latest
       version  of  bash.   The  latest  version  is  always  available   from
       ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/bash/.

       Once  you  have  determined that a bug actually exists, use the bashbug
       command to submit a bug report.  If you have a fix, you are  encouraged
       to  mail that as well!  Suggestions and `philosophical' bug reports may
       be mailed  to  bug-bash@gnu.org  or  posted  to  the  Usenet  newsgroup
       gnu.bash.bug.

       ALL bug reports should include:

       The version number of bash
       The hardware and operating system
       The compiler used to compile
       A description of the bug behaviour
       A short script or `recipe' which exercises the bug

       bashbug  inserts  the first three items automatically into the template
       it provides for filing a bug report.

       Comments and bug reports concerning this manual page should be directed
       to chet.ramey@case.edu.

BUGS
       It's too big and too slow.

       There are some subtle differences between bash and traditional versions
       of sh, mostly because of the POSIX specification.

       Aliases are confusing in some uses.

       Shell builtin commands and functions are not stoppable/restartable.

       Compound commands and command sequences of the form `a ; b ; c' are not
       handled  gracefully  when  process  suspension  is  attempted.   When a
       process is stopped, the shell immediately executes the next command  in
       the  sequence.   It  suffices to place the sequence of commands between
       parentheses to force it into a subshell, which  may  be  stopped  as  a
       unit.

       Array variables may not (yet) be exported.

       There may be only one active coprocess at a time.



NOTES
       Source  code  for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-
       code-downloads.html.

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source                was                downloaded                from
       https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/bash-5.1.tar.gz.

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.gnu.org/software/bash.



GNU Bash 5.1                    2020 October 29                        BASH(1)