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Updated: Thursday, March 14, 2019
 
 

gpgsm (1)

Name

gpgsm - CMS encryption and signing tool

Synopsis

gpgsm [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

Description

GPGSM(1)                       GNU Privacy Guard                      GPGSM(1)



NAME
       gpgsm - CMS encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       gpgsm [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]



DESCRIPTION
       gpgsm  is a tool similar to gpg to provide digital encryption and sign-
       ing services on X.509 certificates and the CMS protocol.  It is  mainly
       used  as  a  backend for S/MIME mail processing.  gpgsm includes a full
       featured certificate management and complies with all rules defined for
       the German Sphinx project.





COMMANDS
       Commands  are  not  distinguished from options except for the fact that
       only one command is allowed.





   Commands not specific to the function



       --version
              Print the program version and licensing information.  Note  that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.


       --help, -h
              Print  a  usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
              options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.


       --warranty
              Print warranty information.  Note  that  you  cannot  abbreviate
              this command.


       --dump-options
              Print  a  list of all available options and commands.  Note that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.




   Commands to select the type of operation



       --encrypt
              Perform an encryption.  The keys the data is encrypted too  must
              be set using the option --recipient.


       --decrypt
              Perform  a decryption; the type of input is automatically deter-
              mined.  It may either be in binary form or  PEM  encoded;  auto-
              matic determination of base-64 encoding is not done.


       --sign Create a digital signature.  The key used is either the fist one
              found in the keybox or those set with the --local-user option.


       --verify
              Check a signature file for validity.  Depending on the arguments
              a detached signature may also be checked.


       --server
              Run in server mode and wait for commands on the stdin.


       --call-dirmngr command [args]
              Behave  as a Dirmngr client issuing the request command with the
              optional list of args.  The output of  the  Dirmngr  is  printed
              stdout.   Please  note that file names given as arguments should
              have an absolute file name (i.e. commencing with / because  they
              are  passed verbatim to the Dirmngr and the working directory of
              the Dirmngr might not be the same as the  one  of  this  client.
              Currently it is not possible to pass data via stdin to the Dirm-
              ngr.  command should not contain spaces.

              This is command is required for certain maintaining tasks of the
              dirmngr where a dirmngr must be able to call back to gpgsm.  See
              the Dirmngr manual for details.


       --call-protect-tool arguments
              Certain maintenance operations are done by an  external  program
              call gpg-protect-tool; this is usually not installed in a direc-
              tory listed in the PATH variable.  This command provides a  sim-
              ple  wrapper to access this tool.  arguments are passed verbatim
              to this command; use '--help' to get a list of supported  opera-
              tions.






   How to manage the certificates and keys



       --gen-key
              -This  command  allows  the  creation  of  a certificate signing
              request.  It -is commonly used along with the --output option to
              save  the  -created CSR into a file.  If used with the --batch a
              parameter -file is used to create the CSR.


       --list-keys

       -k     List all available certificates stored in the  local  key  data-
              base.   Note  that  the  displayed data might be reformatted for
              better human readability and illegal characters are replaced  by
              safe substitutes.


       --list-secret-keys

       -K     List  all  available  certificates  for  which a corresponding a
              secret key is available.


       --list-external-keys pattern
              List certificates matching pattern  using  an  external  server.
              This utilizes the dirmngr service.


       --list-chain
              Same  as  --list-keys  but  also  prints  all keys making up the
              chain.



       --dump-cert

       --dump-keys
              List all available certificates stored in the local key database
              using a format useful mainly for debugging.


       --dump-chain
              Same  as  --dump-keys  but  also  prints  all keys making up the
              chain.


       --dump-secret-keys
              List all available certificates  for  which  a  corresponding  a
              secret  key is available using a format useful mainly for debug-
              ging.


       --dump-external-keys pattern
              List certificates matching pattern  using  an  external  server.
              This  utilizes  the  dirmngr  service.   It uses a format useful
              mainly for debugging.


       --keydb-clear-some-cert-flags
              This is a debugging aid to reset certain flags in the key  data-
              base  which  are used to cache certain certificate stati.  It is
              especially useful if a bad CRL or a weird running OCSP responder
              did accidentally revoke certificate.  There is no security issue
              with this command because gpgsm always make sure that the valid-
              ity of a certificate is checked right before it is used.


       --delete-keys pattern
              Delete the keys matching pattern.  Note that there is no command
              to delete the secret part of the key directly.  In case you need
              to  do this, you should run the command gpgsm --dump-secret-keys
              KEYID before you delete the key, copy the string  of  hex-digits
              in  the ``keygrip'' line and delete the file consisting of these
              hex-digits and the  suffix  .key  from  the  `private-keys-v1.d'
              directory below our GnuPG home directory (usually `~/.gnupg').


       --export [pattern]
              Export  all certificates stored in the Keybox or those specified
              by the optional pattern. Those pattern consist of a list of user
              ids (see: [how-to-specify-a-user-id]).  When used along with the
              --armor option a few informational lines  are  prepended  before
              each  block.   There  is one limitation: As there is no commonly
              agreed upon way to pack more than one certificate into an  ASN.1
              structure,  the  binary  export (i.e. without using armor) works
              only for the export of one certificate.  Thus it is required  to
              specify   a   pattern  which  yields  exactly  one  certificate.
              Ephemeral certificate are only exported if all pattern are given
              as fingerprints or keygrips.


       --export-secret-key-p12 key-id
              Export  the private key and the certificate identified by key-id
              in a PKCS#12 format. When used with the  --armor  option  a  few
              informational lines are prepended to the output.  Note, that the
              PKCS#12 format is not very secure and this command is only  pro-
              vided  if  there  is  no  other way to exchange the private key.
              (see: [option --p12-charset])



       --import [files]
              Import the certificates from the PEM or binary encoded files  as
              well  as  from  signed-only  messages.  This command may also be
              used to import a secret key from a PKCS#12 file.


       --learn-card
              Read information about the private keys from the  smartcard  and
              import  the  certificates from there.  This command utilizes the
              gpg-agent and in turn the scdaemon.


       --passwd user_id
              Change the passphrase of the private key belonging to  the  cer-
              tificate   specified   as  user_id.   Note,  that  changing  the
              passphrase/PIN of a smartcard is not yet supported.





OPTIONS
       GPGSM features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to
       change the default configuration.





   How to change the configuration


       These  options  are  used  to  change the configuration and are usually
       found in the option file.




       --options file
              Reads configuration from file instead of from the  default  per-
              user  configuration  file.   The  default  configuration file is
              named  `gpgsm.conf'  and  expected  in  the  `.gnupg'  directory
              directly below the home directory of the user.


       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is not
              used, the home directory defaults to  `~/.gnupg'.   It  is  only
              recognized  when  given  on the command line.  It also overrides
              any home  directory  stated  through  the  environment  variable
              `GNUPGHOME'  or  (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry
              HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.




       -v

       --verbose
              Outputs additional information while running.  You can  increase
              the  verbosity by giving several verbose commands to gpgsm, such
              as '-vv'.


       --policy-file filename
              Change the default name of the policy file to filename.


       --agent-program file
              Specify an agent program to be used for secret  key  operations.
              The  default  value  is the `/usr/local/bin/gpg-agent'.  This is
              only  used  as  a  fallback  when   the   environment   variable
              GPG_AGENT_INFO  is  not  set  or  a running agent cannot be con-
              nected.


       --dirmngr-program file
              Specify a dirmngr program  to  be  used  for  CRL  checks.   The
              default  value  is  `/usr/sbin/dirmngr'.  This is only used as a
              fallback when the environment variable DIRMNGR_INFO is  not  set
              or a running dirmngr cannot be connected.


       --prefer-system-dirmngr
              If a system wide dirmngr is running in daemon mode, first try to
              connect to this one.  Fallback to a pipe based  server  if  this
              does not work.  Under Windows this option is ignored because the
              system dirmngr is always used.


       --disable-dirmngr
              Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.


       --no-secmem-warning
              Do not print a warning when the so called "secure memory" cannot
              be used.


       --log-file file
              When running in server mode, append all logging output to file.





   Certificate related options




       --enable-policy-checks

       --disable-policy-checks
              By default policy checks are enabled.  These options may be used
              to change it.


       --enable-crl-checks

       --disable-crl-checks
              By default the CRL checks are enabled and the DirMngr is used to
              check for revoked certificates.  The disable option is most use-
              ful with an off-line network connection to suppress this check.


       --enable-trusted-cert-crl-check

       --disable-trusted-cert-crl-check
              By default the CRL for trusted  root  certificates  are  checked
              like for any other certificates.  This allows a CA to revoke its
              own certificates voluntary without the need of putting all  ever
              issued  certificates into a CRL.  The disable option may be used
              to switch this extra check off.  Due to the caching done by  the
              Dirmngr,  there  will  not  be  any noticeable performance gain.
              Note, that this also disables possible OCSP checks  for  trusted
              root  certificates.  A more specific way of disabling this check
              is by adding the ``relax'' keyword to the root CA  line  of  the
              `trustlist.txt'



       --force-crl-refresh
              Tell the dirmngr to reload the CRL for each request.  For better
              performance, the dirmngr will actually  optimize  this  by  sup-
              pressing the loading for short time intervals (e.g. 30 minutes).
              This option is useful to make sure that a fresh CRL is available
              for certificates hold in the keybox.  The suggested way of doing
              this is by using it along with the option --with-validation  for
              a key listing command.  This option should not be used in a con-
              figuration file.


       --enable-ocsp

       --disable-ocsp
              By default OCSP checks are disabled.  The enable option  may  be
              used  to enable OCSP checks via Dirmngr.  If CRL checks are also
              enabled, CRLs will be used as a fallback if for some  reason  an
              OCSP  request  will  not  succeed.  Note, that you have to allow
              OCSP requests in Dirmngr's configuration  too  (option  --allow-
              ocsp)  and  configure Dirmngr properly.  If you do not do so you
              will get the error code 'Not supported'.


       --auto-issuer-key-retrieve
              If a required certificate is missing while validating the  chain
              of  certificates,  try to load that certificate from an external
              location.  This usually means that Dirmngr is employed to search
              for  the  certificate.   Note that this option makes a "web bug"
              like behavior possible.  LDAP server  operators  can  see  which
              keys  you request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand
              new key (which you naturally will not have on  your  local  key-
              box),  the  operator  can tell both your IP address and the time
              when you verified the signature.



       --validation-model name
              This option changes the default validation model.  The only pos-
              sible  values  are "shell" (which is the default), "chain" which
              forces the use of the chain model and "steed" for a new  simpli-
              fied  model.   The  chain model is also used if an option in the
              `trustlist.txt' or an attribute of the certificate requests  it.
              However  the standard model (shell) is in that case always tried
              first.


       --ignore-cert-extension oid
              Add oid to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The  oid
              is  expected  to be in dotted decimal form, like 2.5.29.3.  This
              option may be used more than once.  Critical flagged certificate
              extensions  matching  one of the OIDs in the list are treated as
              if they are actually handled and thus the certificate  will  not
              be  rejected  due  to  an  unknown critical extension.  Use this
              option with care because extensions are usually flagged as crit-
              ical for a reason.




   Input and Output



       --armor

       -a     Create PEM encoded output.  Default is binary output.


       --base64
              Create  Base-64  encoded  output;  i.e.  PEM  without the header
              lines.


       --assume-armor
              Assume the input data is PEM encoded.  Default is to  autodetect
              the encoding but this is may fail.


       --assume-base64
              Assume the input data is plain base-64 encoded.


       --assume-binary
              Assume the input data is binary encoded.



       --p12-charset name
              gpgsm  uses  the  UTF-8  encoding  when encoding passphrases for
              PKCS#12 files.  This option may be used to force the  passphrase
              to be encoded in the specified encoding name.  This is useful if
              the application used to import the key uses a different encoding
              and  thus  will not be able to import a file generated by gpgsm.
              Commonly used values for name are Latin1 and CP850.   Note  that
              gpgsm  itself  automagically  imports any file with a passphrase
              encoded to the most commonly used encodings.



       --default-key user_id
              Use user_id as the standard key for signing.  This key  is  used
              if  no  other key has been defined as a signing key.  Note, that
              the first --local-users option also sets this key if it has  not
              yet been set; however --default-key always overrides this.



       --local-user user_id

       -u user_id
              Set  the  user(s)  to  be  used for signing.  The default is the
              first secret key found in the database.



       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt to the user id name.  There are several ways a  user  id
              may be given (see: [how-to-specify-a-user-id]).



       --output file

       -o file
              Write output to file.  The default is to write it to stdout.



       --with-key-data
              Displays extra information with the --list-keys commands.  Espe-
              cially a line tagged grp is printed which tells you the  keygrip
              of  a  key.  This string is for example used as the file name of
              the secret key.


       --with-validation
              When doing a key listing, do a full validation  check  for  each
              key  and  print  the  result.   This is usually a slow operation
              because it requires a CRL lookup and other operations.

              When used along with --import, a validation of  the  certificate
              to  import  is  done  and only imported if it succeeds the test.
              Note that this does not affect an already available  certificate
              in  the  DB.  This option is therefore useful to simply verify a
              certificate.



       --with-md5-fingerprint
              For standard key listings, also print the MD5 fingerprint of the
              certificate.


       --with-keygrip
              Include  the  keygrip  in  standard key listings.  Note that the
              keygrip is always listed in --with-colons mode.





   How to change how the CMS is created.



       --include-certs n
              Using n of -2 includes all certificate except for the root cert,
              -1  includes all certs, 0 does not include any certs, 1 includes
              only the signers cert and all other positive values  include  up
              to n certificates starting with the signer cert.  The default is
              -2.


       --cipher-algo oid
              Use the cipher algorithm with the ASN.1  object  identifier  oid
              for  encryption.   For  convenience  the  strings  3DES, AES and
              AES256 may be used instead of their OIDs.  The  default  is  AES
              (2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.2).


       --digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the message digest algorithm.  Usually this algo-
              rithm is deduced from the respective signing certificate.   This
              option  forces  the  use  of the given algorithm and may lead to
              severe interoperability problems.






   Doing things one usually do not want to do.





       --extra-digest-algo name
              Sometimes signatures are broken in that they announce a  differ-
              ent  digest algorithm than actually used.  gpgsm uses a one-pass
              data processing model and thus needs to rely  on  the  announced
              digest  algorithms  to  properly hash the data.  As a workaround
              this option may be used to tell gpg to also hash the data  using
              the  algorithm name; this slows processing down a little bit but
              allows to verify such broken signatures.   If  gpgsm  prints  an
              error  like  ``digest algo 8 has not been enabled'' you may want
              to try this option, with 'SHA256' for name.



       --faked-system-time epoch
              This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system  time
              back  or  forth  to epoch which is the number of seconds elapsed
              since the year 1970.  Alternatively epoch may be given as a full
              ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").


       --with-ephemeral-keys
              Include  ephemeral  flagged  keys in the output of key listings.
              Note that they are included anyway if the key specification  for
              a listing is given as fingerprint or keygrip.


       --debug-level level
              Select  the debug level for investigating problems. level may be
              a numeric value or by a keyword:


              none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be  used
                     instead of the keyword.

              basic  Some  basic  debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              guru   All of the debug messages you can get.  A  value  greater
                     than  8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation
                     of hash tracing files is only enabled if the  keyword  is
                     used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to the actual debugging flags is not
       specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They  are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.


       --debug flags
              This  option  is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may
              change at any time without notice; using --debug-levels  is  the
              preferred  method  to select the debug verbosity.  FLAGS are bit
              encoded and may  be  given  in  usual  C-Syntax.  The  currently
              defined bits are:


              0 (1)  X.509 or OpenPGP protocol related data

              1 (2)  values of big number integers

              2 (4)  low level crypto operations

              5 (32) memory allocation

              6 (64) caching

              7 (128)
                     show memory statistics.

              9 (512)
                     write hashed data to files named dbgmd-000*

              10 (1024)
                     trace Assuan protocol

       Note,  that  all  flags  set  using  this  option may get overridden by
       --debug-level.


       --debug-all
              Same as --debug=0xffffffff


       --debug-allow-core-dump
              Usually gpgsm tries to avoid dumping core by well  written  code
              and by disabling core dumps for security reasons.  However, bugs
              are pretty durable beasts and to squash  them  it  is  sometimes
              useful  to  have  a  core  dump.  This option enables core dumps
              unless the Bad Thing happened before the option parsing.


       --debug-no-chain-validation
              This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as such.
              It lets gpgsm bypass all certificate chain validation checks.


       --debug-ignore-expiration
              This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as such.
              It lets gpgsm ignore all notAfter dates, this  is  used  by  the
              regression tests.


       --fixed-passphrase string
              Supply  the  passphrase  string  to  the gpg-protect-tool.  This
              option is only useful for the  regression  tests  included  with
              this  package  and may be revised or removed at any time without
              notice.


       --no-common-certs-import
              Suppress the import of common certificates on keybox creation.


              All the long options may also be given in the configuration file
              after stripping off the two leading dashes.



HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID
       There  are  different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them
       are only valid for gpg others are only good for  gpgsm.   Here  is  the
       entire list of ways to specify a key:



       By key Id.
              This  format  is  deduced  from the length of the string and its
              content or 0x prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
              low  64  bits  of  its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use of key Ids is
              just a shortcut, for all automated  processing  the  fingerprint
              should be used.

              When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
              using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
              form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
              long key ID using the option --with-colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4




       By fingerprint.
              This  format  is  deduced  from the length of the string and its
              content or the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20  byte  version
              fingerprint  is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of the
              certificate).

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to  force
              using  the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The best way to specify a key Id is by  using  the  fingerprint.
              This  avoids  any  ambiguities in case that there are duplicated
              key IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434


       (gpgsm also accepts colons between  each  pair  of  hexadecimal  digits
       because  this  is the de-facto standard on how to present X.509 finger-
       prints.)


       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make  sense
              for X.509 certificates.

         =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>


       By exact match on an email address.
              This  is  indicated  by enclosing the email address in the usual
              way with left and right angles.

         <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>



       By word match.
              All words must match exactly (not case sensitive) but can appear
              in  any  order in the user ID or a subjects name.  Words are any
              sequences of letters, digits, the underscore and all  characters
              with bit 7 set.

         +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf


       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This  is  indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the
              RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use the
              string  printed  by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one as been
              reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
              to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR


       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a
              slash and then directly followed by the rfc2253  encoded  DN  of
              the  issuer.   This  should  return the Root cert of the issuer.
              See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR



       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a hash mark, followed  by  the  hexadecimal
              representation  of  the  serial number, then followed by a slash
              and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR


       By keygrip
              This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex  digits
              of  a  keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using the command
              --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480



       By substring match.
              This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly
              indicate  this  by  putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not
              case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine



       Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was used
       in  old  GnuPG  versions to indicate the so called local-id.  It is not
       anymore used and there should be  no  conflict  when  used  with  X.509
       stuff.

       Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not possi-
       ble to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't have to
       do this because our key database stores this encoding as meta data.






EXAMPLES
         $ gpgsm -er goo@bar.net <plaintext >ciphertext




FILES
       There  are  a  few  configuration  files  to control certain aspects of
       gpgsm's operation. Unless noted, they are expected in the current  home
       directory (see: [option --homedir]).



       gpgsm.conf
              This  is  the  standard  configuration  file  read  by  gpgsm on
              startup.  It may contain any valid long option; the leading  two
              dashes may not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.
              This default name may be  changed  on  the  command  line  (see:
              [gpgsm-option --options]).  You should backup this file.



       policies.txt
              This  is  a  list of allowed CA policies.  This file should list
              the object identifiers of the  policies  line  by  line.   Empty
              lines and lines starting with a hash mark are ignored.  Policies
              missing in this file and not marked as critical in the  certifi-
              cate  will  print  only  a  warning;  certificates with policies
              marked as critical and not listed in this  file  will  fail  the
              signature verification.  You should backup this file.

              For example, to allow only the policy 2.289.9.9, the file should
              look like this:

                # Allowed policies
                2.289.9.9


       qualified.txt
              This is the list of root certificates used  for  qualified  cer-
              tificates.  They are defined as certificates capable of creating
              legally binding signatures in the same way as handwritten signa-
              tures  are.  Comments start with a hash mark and empty lines are
              ignored.  Lines do have a length limit but this is not a serious
              limitation  as the format of the entries is fixed and checked by
              gpgsm: A non-comment line starts with optional whitespace,  fol-
              lowed  by exactly 40 hex character, white space and a lowercased
              2 letter country code.  Additional  data  delimited  with  by  a
              white  space is current ignored but might late be used for other
              purposes.

              Note that even if a certificate is listed  in  this  file,  this
              does  not  mean  that the certificate is trusted; in general the
              certificates listed in this file  need  to  be  listed  also  in
              `trustlist.txt'.

              This  is  a global file an installed in the data directory (e.g.
              `/usr/share/gnupg/qualified.txt').  GnuPG  installs  a  suitable
              file  with root certificates as used in Germany.  As new Root-CA
              certificates may be issued over time, these entries may need  to
              be  updated; new distributions of this software should come with
              an updated list but it is still the responsibility of the Admin-
              istrator to check that this list is correct.

              Everytime  gpgsm  uses a certificate for signing or verification
              this file will be consulted to  check  whether  the  certificate
              under  question  has ultimately been issued by one of these CAs.
              If this is the case the user will be informed that the  verified
              signature  represents  a  legally binding (``qualified'') signa-
              ture.  When creating a signature using  such  a  certificate  an
              extra  prompt will be issued to let the user confirm that such a
              legally binding signature shall really be created.

              Because this software has not yet been  approved  for  use  with
              such certificates, appropriate notices will be shown to indicate
              this fact.


       help.txt
              This is plain text file with a few help entries used with pinen-
              try  as  well  as  a large list of help items for gpg and gpgsm.
              The standard file has English help texts; to  install  localized
              versions  use  filenames like `help.LL.txt' with LL denoting the
              locale.  GnuPG comes with a set of predefined help files in  the
              data  directory (e.g. `/usr/share/gnupg/help.de.txt') and allows
              overriding of any help item by help files stored in  the  system
              configuration  directory (e.g. `/etc/gnupg/help.de.txt').  For a
              reference of the help file's syntax, please  see  the  installed
              `help.txt' file.



       com-certs.pem
              This  file  is a collection of common certificates used to popu-
              lated a  newly  created  `pubring.kbx'.   An  administrator  may
              replace this file with a custom one.  The format is a concatena-
              tion of PEM encoded X.509 certificates.   This  global  file  is
              installed  in  the  data  directory (e.g. `/usr/share/gnupg/com-
              certs.pem').


       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files
       into  the  directory  `/etc/skel/.gnupg/'  so  that newly created users
       start up with a working configuration.   For  existing  users  a  small
       helper script is provided to create these files (see: [addgnupghome]).

       For  internal  purposes  gpgsm creates and maintains a few other files;
       they all live in in the current home directory  (see:  [option  --home-
       dir]).  Only gpgsm may modify these files.



       pubring.kbx
              This  a  database  file storing the certificates as well as meta
              information.  For debugging purposes the  tool  kbxutil  may  be
              used  to  show  the internal structure of this file.  You should
              backup this file.


       random_seed
              This content of this file is used to maintain the internal state
              of  the  random  number  generator across invocations.  The same
              file is used by other programs of this software too.


       S.gpg-agent
              If   this   file   exists   and   the    environment    variable
              `GPG_AGENT_INFO'  is not set, gpgsm will first try to connect to
              this socket for accessing gpg-agent before starting a  new  gpg-
              agent  instance.  Under Windows this socket (which in reality be
              a plain file describing a regular TCP  listening  port)  is  the
              standard way of connecting the gpg-agent.






ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Availability   | crypto/gnupg     |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
       +---------------+------------------+
SEE ALSO
       gpg2(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG and the info program are properly installed at your site,  the
       command

         info gnupg

       should  give  you access to the complete manual including a menu struc-
       ture and an index.



NOTES
       This    software    was    built    from    source     available     at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.    The  original  community
       source                was                downloaded                from
       https://www.gnupg.org/ftp/gcrypt/gnupg/gnupg-2.0.30.tar.bz2

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://www.gnupg.org/.



GnuPG 2.0.30                      2018-08-09                          GPGSM(1)