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Updated: Wednesday, February 9, 2022

cwebp (1)


cwebp - compress an image file to a WebP file


cwebp [options] input_file -o output_file.webp


CWEBP(1)                    General Commands Manual                   CWEBP(1)

       cwebp - compress an image file to a WebP file

       cwebp [options] input_file -o output_file.webp

       This manual page documents the cwebp command.

       cwebp  compresses  an image using the WebP format.  Input format can be
       either PNG, JPEG, TIFF, WebP or raw Y'CbCr samples.

       The basic options are:

       -o string
              Specify the name of the output WebP file. If omitted, cwebp will
              perform  compression  but  only report statistics.  Using "-" as
              output name will direct output to 'stdout'.

       -- string
              Explicitly specify the input file. This option is useful if  the
              input  file  starts  with  a  '-' for instance. This option must
              appear last.  Any other options afterward will be ignored.

       -h, -help
              A short usage summary.

       -H, -longhelp
              A summary of all the possible options.

              Print the version number (as major.minor.revision) and exit.

              Encode the image without any loss. For images with fully  trans-
              parent area, the invisible pixel values (R/G/B or Y/U/V) will be
              preserved only if the -exact option is used.

       -near_lossless int
              Specify the level of  near-lossless  image  preprocessing.  This
              option  adjusts  pixel  values  to help compressibility, but has
              minimal impact on the visual quality. It triggers lossless  com-
              pression mode automatically. The range is 0 (maximum preprocess-
              ing) to 100 (no preprocessing, the default). The  typical  value
              is  around  60.  Note  that lossy with -q 100 can at times yield
              better results.

       -q float
              Specify the compression factor for RGB channels  between  0  and
              100. The default is 75.
              In  case of lossy compression (default), a small factor produces
              a smaller file with lower quality. Best quality is  achieved  by
              using a value of 100.
              In  case  of  lossless  compression  (specified by the -lossless
              option), a small factor enables faster  compression  speed,  but
              produces  a  larger  file.   Maximum  compression is achieved by
              using a value of 100.

       -z int Switch on lossless compression mode  with  the  specified  level
              between  0  and  9,  with level 0 being the fastest, 9 being the
              slowest. Fast mode produces larger file size than slower ones. A
              good  default  is  -z 6.  This option is actually a shortcut for
              some predefined settings for quality and method. If  options  -q
              or  -m are subsequently used, they will invalidate the effect of
              this option.

       -alpha_q int
              Specify the compression factor for alpha compression  between  0
              and  100.   Lossless  compression  of  alpha is achieved using a
              value of 100, while the lower values result in a lossy  compres-
              sion. The default is 100.

       -preset string
              Specify  a  set  of  pre-defined parameters to suit a particular
              type of source material. Possible values are:   default,  photo,
              picture, drawing, icon, text. Since -preset overwrites the other
              parameters' values (except  the  -q  one),  this  option  should
              preferably appear first in the order of the arguments.

       -m int Specify  the  compression method to use. This parameter controls
              the trade off between encoding speed  and  the  compressed  file
              size  and  quality.   Possible values range from 0 to 6. Default
              value is 4.  When higher values are used, the encoder will spend
              more  time  inspecting  additional  encoding  possibilities  and
              decide on the quality gain.  Lower value can  result  in  faster
              processing  time  at  the  expense of larger file size and lower
              compression quality.

       -resize width height
              Resize the source to a rectangle with size width x  height.   If
              either  (but  not  both) of the width or height parameters is 0,
              the value will be calculated preserving the aspect-ratio.

       -crop x_position y_position width height
              Crop the source to a rectangle with top-left corner  at  coordi-
              nates  (x_position,  y_position)  and size width x height.  This
              cropping area must be fully contained within the source  rectan-

       -mt    Use multi-threading for encoding, if possible.

              Reduce  memory  usage of lossy encoding by saving four times the
              compressed size (typically). This will make the encoding  slower
              and  the  output slightly different in size and distortion. This
              flag is only effective for methods 3  and  up,  and  is  off  by
              default.  Note  that  leaving  this flag off will have some side
              effects on the bitstream: it forces certain  bitstream  features
              like  number  of  partitions  (forced  to  1).  Note that a more
              detailed report of bitstream size is printed by cwebp when using
              this option.

       These  options  are  only  effective  when  doing  lossy  encoding (the
       default, with or without alpha).

       -size int
              Specify a target size (in bytes) to try and reach for  the  com-
              pressed output.  The compressor will make several passes of par-
              tial encoding in order to get as close as possible to this  tar-
              get. If both -size and -psnr are used, -size value will prevail.

       -psnr float
              Specify  a  target  PSNR  (in  dB) to try and reach for the com-
              pressed output.  The compressor will make several passes of par-
              tial  encoding in order to get as close as possible to this tar-
              get. If both -size and -psnr are used, -size value will prevail.

       -pass int
              Set a maximum number of passes to use during the dichotomy  used
              by  options  -size  or -psnr. Maximum value is 10, default is 1.
              If options -size or -psnr were used, but -pass wasn't specified,
              a default value of '6' passes will be used.

       -af    Turns  auto-filter on. This algorithm will spend additional time
              optimizing the filtering strength to reach a well-balanced qual-

              Change  the  internal  parameter  mapping  to  better  match the
              expected size of JPEG compression. This flag will generally pro-
              duce  an output file of similar size to its JPEG equivalent (for
              the same -q setting), but with less visual distortion.

       Advanced options:

       -f int Specify the strength of the deblocking  filter,  between  0  (no
              filtering)  and  100 (maximum filtering). A value of 0 will turn
              off any filtering.  Higher value will increase the  strength  of
              the  filtering  process  applied after decoding the picture. The
              higher the value the smoother the picture will  appear.  Typical
              values are usually in the range of 20 to 50.

       -sharpness int
              Specify  the  sharpness  of the filtering (if used).  Range is 0
              (sharpest) to 7 (least sharp). Default is 0.

              Use strong filtering (if filtering is being used thanks  to  the
              -f option). Strong filtering is on by default.

              Disable  strong  filtering (if filtering is being used thanks to
              the -f option) and use simple filtering instead.

              Use more accurate and sharper  RGB->YUV  conversion  if  needed.
              Note  that  this  process  is  slower  than  the  default 'fast'
              RGB->YUV conversion.

       -sns int
              Specify the amplitude of  the  spatial  noise  shaping.  Spatial
              noise  shaping (or sns for short) refers to a general collection
              of built-in algorithms used to decide which area of the  picture
              should use relatively less bits, and where else to better trans-
              fer these bits. The possible range goes  from  0  (algorithm  is
              off) to 100 (the maximal effect). The default value is 50.

       -segments int
              Change  the  number of partitions to use during the segmentation
              of the sns algorithm. Segments  should  be  in  range  1  to  4.
              Default value is 4.  This option has no effect for methods 3 and
              up, unless -low_memory is used.

       -partition_limit int
              Degrade quality by limiting the number of bits used by some mac-
              roblocks.  Range is 0 (no degradation, the default) to 100 (full
              degradation).  Useful values are usually around 30-70 for moder-
              ately  large  images.   In the VP8 format, the so-called control
              partition has a limit of 512k and is used to store the following
              information: whether the macroblock is skipped, which segment it
              belongs to, whether it is coded as  intra  4x4  or  intra  16x16
              mode,  and  finally  the prediction modes to use for each of the
              sub-blocks.  For a very large image, 512k only  leaves  room  to
              few  bits  per 16x16 macroblock.  The absolute minimum is 4 bits
              per macroblock. Skip, segment, and mode information can  use  up
              almost  all  these 4 bits (although the case is unlikely), which
              is problematic for very large images. The partition_limit factor
              controls  how  frequently  the  most bit-costly mode (intra 4x4)
              will be used. This is useful in case the 512k limit  is  reached
              and  the  following  message is displayed: Error code: 6 (PARTI-
              TION0_OVERFLOW: Partition #0 is too big to fit 512k).  If  using
              -partition_limit  is not enough to meet the 512k constraint, one
              should use less segments in order to save more header  bits  per
              macroblock.  See the -segments option.

       These options control the level of output:

       -v     Print extra information (encoding time in particular).

              Compute and report average PSNR (Peak-Signal-To-Noise ratio).

              Compute  and  report average SSIM (structural similarity metric,
              see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SSIM for additional details).

              Compute and report local similarity metric (sum of lowest  error
              amongst the collocated pixel neighbors).

              Report encoding progress in percent.

       -quiet Do not print anything.

       -short Only  print  brief  information  (output file size and PSNR) for
              testing purposes.

       -map int
              Output additional ASCII-map of  encoding  information.  Possible
              map  values range from 1 to 6. This is only meant to help debug-

       More advanced options are:

       -s width height
              Specify that the input file actually consists of raw Y'CbCr sam-
              ples  following the ITU-R BT.601 recommendation, in 4:2:0 linear
              format.  The luma plane has size width x height.

       -pre int
              Specify some preprocessing steps. Using  a  value  of  '2'  will
              trigger   quality-dependent   pseudo-random   dithering   during
              RGBA->YUVA conversion (lossy compression only).

       -alpha_filter string
              Specify the predictive filtering method for the alpha plane. One
              of  'none', 'fast' or 'best', in increasing complexity and slow-
              ness order. Default is 'fast'. Internally,  alpha  filtering  is
              performed  using  four  possible  predictions (none, horizontal,
              vertical, gradient). The 'best' mode will try each mode in  turn
              and  pick  the one which gives the smaller size. The 'fast' mode
              will just try to form an a  priori  guess  without  testing  all

       -alpha_method int
              Specify  the algorithm used for alpha compression: 0 or 1. Algo-
              rithm 0 denotes no compression, 1 uses WebP lossless format  for
              compression. The default is 1.

       -exact Preserve  RGB values in transparent area. The default is off, to
              help compressibility.

       -blend_alpha int
              This option blends the  alpha  channel  (if  present)  with  the
              source  using  the  background color specified in hexadecimal as
              0xrrggbb. The alpha channel is afterward  reset  to  the  opaque
              value 255.

              Using this option will discard the alpha channel.

       -hint string
              Specify  the  hint  about input image type. Possible values are:
              photo, picture or graph.

       -metadata string
              A comma separated list of metadata to copy from the input to the
              output  if  present.   Valid  values: all, none, exif, icc, xmp.
              The default is none.

              Note: each input format may not support all combinations.

       -noasm Disable all assembly optimizations.

       Please    report     all     bugs     to     the     issue     tracker:
       Patches  welcome!  See  this  page  to get started: http://www.webmpro-

       cwebp -q 50 -lossless picture.png -o picture_lossless.webp
       cwebp -q 70 picture_with_alpha.png -o picture_with_alpha.webp
       cwebp -sns 70 -f 50 -size 60000 picture.png -o picture.webp
       cwebp -o picture.webp -- ---picture.png

       cwebp is a part of libwebp and was written by the WebP team.
       The  latest  source  tree  is  available  at   https://chromium.google-

       This   manual   page  was  written  by  Pascal  Massimino  <pascal.mas-
       simino@gmail.com>, for the Debian project (and may be used by others).

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | image/library/libwebp |
       |Stability      | Pass-through volatile |

       dwebp(1), gif2webp(1)
       Please refer to http://developers.google.com/speed/webp/ for additional

       Source  code  for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source      was      downloaded     from      http://downloads.webmpro-

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.webmproject.org/.

                               January 11, 2019                       CWEBP(1)