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man pages section 1: User Commands

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Updated: Wednesday, July 27, 2022

cdda2wav (1)


cdda2wav - cation


cdda2wav [ options ][ dev=device ] [file(s) or directories]


CDDA2WAV(1)                 General Commands Manual                CDDA2WAV(1)

       cdda2wav - dumps CD audio data into sound files with extra data verifi-

       cdda2wav [ options ][ dev=device ] [file(s) or directories]

       cdda2wav can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM drives which are  capable
       of reading audio data digitally via SCSI (CDDA).

       As  cdda2wav  implements  strategies  to work around typical defects on
       audio CDs it reads many disks that cannot be read  by  other  software.
       As  cdda2wav can use libparanoia (see -paranoia option below) to verify
       the data that has been read from the medium, it delivers superior qual-
       ity even if the medium is dusty, scratched or if other problems occur.

       As  cdda2wav  may  be  directed  to  write the audio data to stdout, it
       writes  all  its  informational  output  to  stderr  by  default.   See
       out-fd=descriptor option below.

   Default settings
       Cdda2wav defaults to read the first audio track from the medium and the
       default  verbose  level  is  set  to  -vtoc,summary,sectors,titles  and
       cdda2wav  by  default  writes *.inf files.  To extract all audio tracks
       with quality verification, it is recommended to call:

       cdda2wav -vall cddb=0 speed=4 -paranoia paraopts=proof -B

       For hints on  how  to  specify  better  parameters  manually,  see  the
       paraopts= description below.

   Device naming
       Most  users do not need to care about device naming.  If no dev= option
       was specified, cdda2wav implements auto target  support  and  automagi-
       cally  finds  the drive when exactly one CD-ROM type drive is available
       in the system.  When more than one CD-ROM type drive exists, a list  of
       possible device name parameters may be retrieved with cdda2wav -scanbus
       or from the target example from the output of cdda2wav  dev=help,  then
       the dev= parameter may be set based on the device listing.

       The device parameter to the dev= option explained below refers to scsi-
       bus/target/lun   of   the   CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder.     If    a    file
       /etc/default/cdrecord exists, the parameter to the dev= option may also
       be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).

   Informative options

       -help  display version information for cdda2wav on standard output.

              display version and Copyright information.

   Audio options
       -a divider

       -divider divider
              sets rate to 44100Hz / divider.  Possible values are listed with
              the -R option.

              The default divider value is 1.



              copies each track into a separate file.

              The default is not to extract all tracks.

       -b bits

       -bits-per-sample bits
              sets bits per sample per channel: 8, 12 or 16.

              The default is 16 bits per sample.

       -c channels

       -channels channels

              1      for mono recording

              2      for stereo recording

              s      for stereo recording with both channels swapped

              The default is stereo recording.

       -C endianess

       -cdrom-endianess endianess
              sets   endianess  of  the  input  samples  to  'little',  'big',
              'machine' or 'guess' to override defaults.  The value  'machine'
              or  'host' is evaluated as the actual byte order of the host CPU
              in the current OS.

              The default is to detect cdrom endianess automatically.

              Create a CDRWIN compatible CUE file.  A CUE file that completely
              follows  the CDRWIN documentation can only be used to create 1:1
              copies if there is a single file with audio data for  the  whole
              disk.   The  *.inf file format implements more audio CD features
              than the CDRWIN CUE format and it allows to create 1:1 copies if
              there is one audio data file per track.  Use the CUE file format
              for meta data only if you really need this format.

              To allow cdda2wav to create CUE files, you must also specify  -t
              all  to  switch cdda2wav into a mode that creates a single audio
              data file for the whole CD.


              undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the input samples.

              The default is to keep the audio data in the same  state  as  on
              the  medium  and  to  mark  the  pre-emphasis state in the *.inf

       -L cddb mode

       -cddb cddb mode
              does a cddbp album- and track title lookup based on the cddb id.
              The  parameter  cddb  mode defines how multiple entries shall be

           |Parameter | Description                                               |
           |       -1 | disable cddb queries. This is the default.                |
           |        0 | interactive mode. The user selects the entry to use.      |
           |        1 | first fit mode. The first entry is taken unconditionally. |
              sets the server to be contacted for title lookups.

              sets the port number to be used for title lookups.

       -d duration

       -duration duration
              sets recording time in seconds or frames (sectors).  Frames  are
              indicated by a 'f' suffix (e.g. 75f for 75 sectors).  0 sets the
              time for whole track.

              The default is to extract the whole track.

       -E endianess

       -output-endianess endianess
              sets endianess of the  output  samples  to  'little',  'big'  or
              'machine'  to override the default which is 'network byte order'
              (big endian).  The value 'machine' or 'host' is evaluated as the
              actual byte order of the host CPU in the current OS.


              finds extreme amplitudes in samples.


              finds if input samples are in mono.


       -gui   reformats the output for parsing by gui frontends.


              does not write info file, cddb file or cdtext file.

       -i index

       -index index
              selects the start index.


              does  not  write  to a file, it just gives information about the


       -md5   enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for all  audio  bytes  from
              the  beginning of a track. The audio header is skipped when cal-
              culating the MD-5 checksum to allow comparison of MD-5 sums  for
              files with different header types.


       -mono  sets to mono recording.

              Ignore  hidden  tracks  on  the CD.  By default, cdda2wav checks
              whether there might be a hidden  track  before  track  1.   This
              check  may  take  a  few  seconds  and thus can be disabled with


              does not write to a file, it just reads (e.g. for debugging pur-
              poses).  If this option is used together with the -e option, the
              CD is read and the audio content is played  back  to  the  sound
              device without creating output files with audio data.

              By  default,  cdda2wav replaces empty CD-Text fields from tracks
              with the related CD-Text field (when defined) for the whole  CD.
              If  the  option  -no-textdefaults  is  used, cdda2wav leaves the
              track related CD-Text fields empty in such a case.

              If cdda2wav encounters useful CD-Text information on the CD,  it
              writes  a  .cdtext file.  The option -no-textfile allows to sup-
              press the creation of the .cdtext file.

       -o offset

       -offset offset
              starts offset sectors behind start track (one sector equivalents
              1/75 seconds).

       -O audiotype

       -output-format audiotype
              can be wav (for wav files) or aiff (for apple/sgi aiff files) or
              aifc (for apple/sgi aifc files) or au or sun (for  sun  .au  PCM
              files)  or  cdr  or  raw (for headerless files to be used for cd

              The default output format is now wav for all platforms as it has
              become  the  most  common  format.  Note that former versions of
              cdda2wav made an exception and by default created au type  files
              on Solaris.

       -p percentage

       -playback-realtime percentage
              changes pitch of audio data copied to sound device.

       -P sectors

       -set-overlap sectors
              sets the initial number of overlap sectors for jitter correction
              in non-paranoia mode. Note that  overlapped  reads  are  handled
              differently in paranoia mode.

              The default overlap in non-paranoia mode is 1.

              use  the  paranoia library as a filter on top of cdda2wav's rou-
              tines for reading.  In paranoia mode, the latency time  for  the
              -interactive  mode and with a read ahead buffer size of 150..300
              sectors, is increased to typically 5..10 seconds. This is due to
              the  paranoia  code reading everything at least twice and having
              to empty the cache RAM of the CD-ROM drive.

              The size of the read ahead area must be larger than the size  of
              the  RAM of the drive in order to allow libparanoia to empty the
              cache RAM in the drive.  As the size of the read ahead  area  in
              former  times was a constant compiled into the libparanoia code,
              the extract quality with using libparanoia was no longer  suffi-
              cient  with drives built after year 2000. See readahead= parame-
              ter to the paraopts= option below.

              If the paranoia mode is used,  cdda2wav  displays  some  quality
              statistics for each extracted track.  The following items appear
              in the list:

          |  Value | Description                                                  |
          |  rderr | Number of hard read errors                                   |
          |   skip | Number of sectors skipped due to exhausted retries           |
          |   atom | Number of intra sector jitters (frame jitters) detected      |
          |   edge | Number of jitters between sectors detected                   |
          |   drop | Number of dropped bytes fixed                                |
          |    dup | Number of duplicate bytes fixed                              |
          |  drift | Number of drifts detected                                    |
          |     c2 | Number of sectors with C2 errors                             |
          |  reads | Number of readahead blocks read and percentage to track size |
          |overlap | Number of dynamic overlap size raises                        |
              The quality indicators in detail:

              rderr  The number of failed low level read requests.  Each  read
                     appears   for   sectors-per-request  sectors.   The  sec-
                     tors-per-request size is typically  less  than  the  read
                     ahead size.

              skip   The  number of sectors that have been skipped because the
                     read error retry count was exhausted  and  no  successful
                     read was possible.

              atom   The number of jitters that have been detected inside sec-
                     tors.  This should never happen, but whenever a  non-cor-
                     rectable C2 error occurs, the drive could lose streaming.
                     Increasing the read ahead  buffer  size  may  reduce  the
                     results from atom errors.

              edge   The  number  of  jitters  that  have been detected at the
                     edges of sectors.  This could be caused by  sector  posi-
                     tioning  errors.   Increasing  the read ahead buffer size
                     may reduce the results from edge errors.

              drop   The number of dropped samples.  This could be  caused  by
                     sector  positioning  errors.   Increasing  the read ahead
                     buffer size may reduce the results from edge errors.

              dup    Duplicated samples could be caused by sector  positioning
                     errors  like  dripped samples.  Increasing the read ahead
                     buffer size may reduce the results from edge errors.

              drift  This is the amount of drifts detected when  checking  the
                     overlap area.

              c2     The  number  of  sectors with C2 errors seen when reading
                     the last track.  As the paranoia code tends to  read  bad
                     parts  of  the  disk  many  times, this number usually is
                     above the number that would appear when the disk is  just
                     read  once in a linear way.  Use paraopts=disable,c2check
                     to see a number that represents the state of the medium.

              reads  The number of read ahead blocks read for the  last  track
                     by  the  upper  layer and the percentage of the amount of
                     data read compared to the size of the track.   This  per-
                     centage is typically 200% because the paranoia code reads
                     all data at least twice. If there is a lot of overlap and
                     a lof of read problems, this percentage raises.

                     The number the overlap size has been raised. This happens
                     when the overlap size is below the maximum  overlap  size
                     and errors in the overlap area are detected.

              List is a comma separated list of suboptions passed to the para-
              noia library.

       |          Option | Description                                                |
       |            help | lists all paranoia options.                                |
       |         disable | disables paranoia mode. Libparanoia is still being used    |
       |       no-verify | switches verify off, and static overlap on                 |
       |  retries=amount | set the number of maximum retries per sector               |
       |readahead=amount | set the number of sectors to use for the read ahead buffer |
       |  overlap=amount | set the number of sectors used for static overlap          |
       |  minoverlap=amt | set the min. number of sectors for dynamic overlap         |
       |  maxoverlap=amt | set the max. number of sectors for dynamic overlap         |
       |         c2check | check C2 pointers from drive to rate quality               |
       |           proof | set minoverlap=20,retries=200,readahead=600,c2check        |
              The paraopts= parameters in detail:

                     The paranoia corrections are disabled, but  the  data  is
                     still  directed  through the code from libparanoia.  This
                     allows to switch on C2 error detection and to  check  the
                     C2 error statistics for a CD.

                     This  switches off the verification of the data integrity
                     in the overlap area and turns off dynamic overlap control
                     in favor of a static overlap value.

                     Set the maximum number of read retries per sector in case
                     of hard read errors. The default value for this parameter
                     is 20.  This is the same value as used by the old cdpara-
                     noia(1) command.

                     Set the number of sectors to use for the read ahead  buf-
                     fer.   Except  when at the end of the medium, libparanoia
                     never requests less than this amount of data from the low
                     level  I/O  code.   The  size of the read ahead buffer is
                     usually bigger than the maximum size for a single DMA  in
                     the  system.  For  this reason, libparanoia calls several
                     read operations in order to fill the read  ahead  buffer.
                     The  default value used by cdda2wav is 400, which is more
                     than the 150 sectors that cdparanoia(1) uses but still  a
                     compromise for not requiring too much memory.

                     It is recommended to use a read ahead buffer size that is
                     not less than the RAM size in the CD-ROM  drive.  If  the
                     drive has more than 1MB of RAM, use 425 sectors per MB of
                     RAM in the drive.

                     Note that as long as the readahead= value is  too  small,
                     the  extract  quality varies a lot with the value in use.
                     The value used by  cdparanoia(1)  may  cause  an  extract
                     quality below what cdda2wav delivers without libparanoia.

                     Set  the  number of sectors used for static overlap. This
                     switches dynamic overlap off.  It is recommended  not  to
                     use static overlapping. To get a larger overlapping, bet-
                     ter use a higher minoverlap= value.

                     Set the minimum number of sectors  for  dynamic  overlap.
                     The  default  value used by cdda2wav is 0.5, this is more
                     than the default used by cdparanoia(1) which is 0.1.

                     For old drives that do not support accurate streaming, it
                     is not recommended to specify a minoverlap= value greater
                     or equal to the maximal DMA size.

                     For best results on other drives, it  is  recommended  to
                     use a minoverlap= value that is not less than half of the
                     readahead size.

                     The extract quality varies a  lot  with  the  minoverlap=
                     value,  but  increasing  the  value  also  increases  the
                     extract time.

                     Set the maximum number of sectors  for  dynamic  overlap.
                     If  maxoverlap= was not specified and a large minoverlap=
                     value was specified, this results in a quasi static over-
                     lapping.  The default value used by cda2wav is 32.

                     Turn on C2 error checking.  For now, this just results in
                     printing C2 error statistics.

              proof  This option is a macro for better extract parameters than
                     used by default.  The macro proof expands to:


                     If  sectors-per-request1  is  more than 20, 20 is used as
                     minimal overlap value.

                     The parameters used by proof are still not the  best  and
                     there  is  no best parameter set for all cases.  A larger
                     value for the read ahead buffer size may e.g be too large
                     for  the  available  RAM in the system and the best value
                     for the minimal overlap depends on whether the drive sup-
                     ports  exact streaming.  It is recommended to run experi-
                     ments with larger values for the  parameters  minoverlap=
                     and  readahead=  to  get  the best results for a specific


       -quiet quiet operation, no screen output.

       -r rate

       -rate rate
              sets rate in samples per second.   Possible  values  are  listed
              with the -R option.


              shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers.

       -S speed

       -speed speed
              sets  the cdrom device to one of the selectable speeds for read-
              ing.  For maximum extraction quality, it is recommended  to  use
              speed values of 8 or below.

              The default is to extract at maximum speed.


              sets to stereo recording.

       -start-sector sector
              set  an absolute start sector. This option is mutually exclusive
              to -track and -offset.

       -t track[+endtrack]

       -track track[+endtrack]

       -track track+max

       -track all
              selects the start track and optionally the end track.  If -t all
              is  used,  all  audio tracks are selected.  If -t 2+max is used,
              all audio tracks starting with track 2 are selected.

       -v itemlist

       -verbose-level itemlist
              Retrieves and prints verbose information about the CD.  Level is
              a  list  of  comma separated suboptions. Each suboption controls
              the type of information to be reported.

       |   Suboption | Description                                                    |
       |           ! | invert the meaning of the following string                     |
       |         not | invert the meaning of the following string                     |
       |     disable | no information is given, warnings appear however               |
       |         all | all information is given                                       |
       |         toc | show table of contents                                         |
       |     summary | show a summary of the recording parameters                     |
       |     indices | determine and display index offsets                            |
       |     catalog | retrieve and display the media catalog number MCN              |
       |         mcn | retrieve and display the media catalog number MCN              |
       |     trackid | retrieve and display all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |        isrc | retrieve and display all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |     sectors | show the table of contents in start sector notation            |
       |      titles | show the table of contents with track titles (when available)  |
       |audio-tracks | list the audio tracks and their start sectors                  |
              The default verbose-level is toc,summary,sectors,titles .


       -wait  waits for signal, then start recording.


       -max   sets maximum (CD) quality.

   SCSI options

       -D device

       -device device
              uses device  as  the  source  for  CDDA  reading.   For  example
              /dev/cdrom for the cooked_ioctl interface and Bus,ID,Lun for the
              generic_scsi interface. The device has to  correspond  with  the
              interface setting if given (see -I and -interface option below).

              If  no -I or -interface option has been specified, the interface
              setting is derived from the device name syntax.  A  device  name
              that  is  in  the  form  Bus,ID,Lun  or  contains  a colon (':')
              defaults to the generic_scsi interface.

              Using the cooked_ioctl is not recommended as this makes cdda2wav
              mainly  depend  on the audio extraction quality of the operating
              system which is usually extremely bad. For  this  reason,  avoid
              using parameters like dev=/dev/cdrom for the device.

              The  setting of the environment variable CDDA_DEVICE is overrid-
              den by this option.

              If no dev= option is present, or if the dev=  option  only  con-
              tains  a  transport  specifier but no address, cdda2wav tries to
              scan the SCSI address space for CD-ROM drives.  If  exactly  one
              is found, this is used by default.

              For  more  information,  see  the description of the dev= option
              from cdrecord(1).


              Set the debug level for the libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.



       kd=#   Set the kernel debug level for the kernel driver called  by  the
              libscg  SCSI  OS abstraction layer. This option is not supported
              on all platforms.

              Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI buses and  print  the  inquiry
              strings.  This  option  may  be used to find SCSI address of the
              CD/DVD-Recorder on a system.  The numbers printed out as  labels
              are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       ts=#   Set  the  maximum  transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.
              The syntax for the ts= option is the same as for  cdrecord  fs=#
              or sdd bs=#.

              If  no  ts=  option  has  been specified, cdda2wav defaults to a
              transfer size of 3 MB. If libscg  gets  lower  values  from  the
              operating system, the value is reduced to the maximum value that
              is possible with the current operating  system.   Sometimes,  it
              may  help  to further reduce the transfer size or to enhance it,
              but note that it may take a long time to find a better value  by
              experimenting with the ts= option.

              Some  operating  systems  return  wrong  values  for the maximum
              transfer size.  If the transfer totally hangs or  resets  occur,
              it  may  be appropriate to reduce the transfer size to less than
              64 kB or even less than 32 kB.


              enable SCSI command logging to the console. This is mainly  used
              for debugging.


              suppress  SCSI  command  error  reports  to the console. This is
              mainly used for guis.

   OS Interface options
       -A auxdevice

       -auxdevice auxdevice
              uses auxdevice as CDROM drive to allow to send  the  CDROMMULTI-
              SESSION ioctl on Linux although the generic_scsi interface is in

       -I interface

       -interface interface
              specifies the interface to use for accessing the CDROM:

                     for sending SCSI commands directly to the drive.

                     for using the programming interface supplied  by  the  OS

              The latter is not recommended as it gives lower quality and only
              works on a limited number of platforms.

              Go into interactive mode that  reads  commands  from  stdin  and
              writes  the  textual  replies  to stderr, or the file descriptor
              specified by the out-fd option.  This mode has  been  introduced
              mainly to allow cdrecord to be called by gstreamer plugins.

              If  cdda2wav  was  called with the option -interactive, it reads
              the TOC from the medium and then waits for command input  as  if
              it has been issued a stop command. If the next command is a cont
              command, then cdda2wav extracts the  whole  audio  part  of  the
              medium.   If  the  next command is a read command, then cdda2wav
              starts extracting from the position that was  indicated  by  the
              read command parameter.

        |Command | Parameters            | Description                              |
        | cont   |                       | continue processing at current position  |
        | exit   |                       | exit processing                          |
        | help   |                       | print command help and wait for input    |
        | quit   |                       | exit processing                          |
        | read   | sectors sector number | read sectors starting from sector number |
        | read   | tracks track number   | read sectors starting from track number  |
        | stop   |                       | stop processing and wait for new input   |
              Redirect  informational  output  to the file descriptor named by
              descriptor.  The parameter  descriptor  specifies  a  UNIX  file
              descriptor  number.   By  default,  cdda2wav sends informational
              output to stderr.  Redirecting the  informational  output  to  a
              different  file  descriptor  helps  guis and other programs that
              call cdda2wav via pipes.

              In case that the file name for the audio data file is "-", redi-
              rect  audio  output  to the file descriptor named by descriptor.
              The parameter descriptor specifies a UNIX file  descriptor  num-
              ber.   By  default,  cdda2wav  sends audio data to stdout if the
              output is not directed into a file.  Redirecting the audio  out-
              put to a different file descriptor helps guis and other programs
              that call cdda2wav via pipes.

              Do not fork for extended buffering.  If  -no-fork  is  used  and
              cdda2wav  is  used  to play back audio CDs in paranoia mode, the
              playback may be interrupted due to lack of  buffering.   On  the
              other  hand, allowing cdda2wav to fork will increase the latency
              time for the -interactive mode.


       -echo  copies audio data to the operating system's  sound  device  e.g.

              set an alternate sound device to use for -e.

       -n sectors

       -sectors-per-request sectors
              reads sectors per request.

       -l buffers

       -buffers-in-ring buffers
              uses a ring buffer with buffers total.

       Some  defaults  for cdda2wav are compiled in and depend on the Makefile
       others on the environment variable settings.

              is used to set the device name. The device naming is  compatible
              with cdrecord(1).

              is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.

              is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.

       RSH    If  the  RSH environment variable is present, the remote connec-
              tion will not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the  program
              pointed  to  by  RSH.   Use  e.g.   RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create a
              secure shell connection.

              Note that this forces cdda2wav to create a pipe  to  the  rsh(1)
              program  and  disallows  cdda2wav to directly access the network
              socket to the remote server.  This makes it impossible to set up
              performance parameters and slows down the connection compared to
              a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment variable is present,  the  remote  SCSI
              server  will  not  be the program /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi but the
              program pointed to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote  SCSI  server
              program name will be ignored if you log in using an account that
              has been created with a remote  SCSI  server  program  as  login

       cdda2wav  uses  the following exit codes to indicate various degrees of

   |Exitcode | Description                                                        |
   |       0 | no errors encountered, successful operation.                       |
   |       1 | usage or syntax error. cdda2wav got inconsistent arguments.        |
   |       2 | permission (un)set errors. permission changes failed.              |
   |       3 | read errors on the cdrom/burner device encountered.                |
   |       4 | write errors while writing one of the output files encountered.    |
   |       5 | errors with soundcard handling (initialization/write).             |
   |       6 | errors with stat() system call on the read device (cooked ioctl).  |
   |       7 | pipe communication errors encountered (in forked mode).            |
   |       8 | signal handler installation errors encountered.                    |
   |       9 | allocation of shared memory failed (in forked mode).               |
   |      10 | dynamic heap memory allocation failed.                             |
   |      11 | errors on the audio cd medium encountered.                         |
   |      12 | device open error in ioctl handling detected.                      |
   |      13 | race condition in ioctl interface handling detected.               |
   |      14 | error in ioctl() operation encountered.                            |
   |      15 | internal error encountered. Please report back!!!                  |
   |      16 | error in semaphore operation encountered (install / request).      |
   |      17 | could not get the scsi transfer buffer.                            |
   |      18 | could not create pipes for process communication (in forked mode). |
       cdda2wav is able to read parts of an audio CD or multimedia CDROM (con-
       taining  audio parts) directly digitally. These parts can be written to
       a file, a pipe, or to a sound device.

       cdda2wav stands for CDDA to WAV (where CDDA  stands  for  compact  disc
       digital  audio  and  WAV is a sound sample format introduced by MS Win-
       dows).  It allows copying CDDA audio data from the CDROM drive  into  a
       file in WAV or other formats.

       Some  versions  of  cdda2wav may try to get higher real-time scheduling
       priorities to ensure smooth (uninterrupted) operation. These priorities
       are  available  for  super  users and are higher than those of 'normal'
       processes. Thus delays are minimized.

       If you only have one CDROM and it is loaded with an audio CD,  you  may
       simply  invoke  cdda2wav  and  it  will create the sound file audio.wav
       recording the whole track beginning with track 1 in stereo at 16 bit at
       44100  Hz sample rate, if your file system has enough space free.  Oth-
       erwise recording time will be limited. For details see files README and

       If  you have more then one CD-ROM type drive in the system, you need to
       specify the dev= option.

       Most of the options are used to control the format of the WAV file.  In
       the following text most of them are discussed in a more verbose way.

   Select Device
       dev=device  selects  the  CDROM drive device to be used.  The specifier
       given should correspond to the selected interface (see below).  For the
       cooked_ioctl  interface  this is the cdrom device descriptor.  The SCSI
       devices used with the generic SCSI interface however are addressed with
       their  SCSI-Bus,  SCSI-Id,  and  SCSI-Lun  instead  of the generic SCSI
       device descriptor.  One example for a SCSI CDROM drive on  bus  0  with
       SCSI ID 3 and lun 0 is dev=0,3,0.

   Select Auxiliary device
       -A  auxdevice  may  be needed in some rare cases for CD-Extra handling.
       Cdda2wav usually has no problem to get  the  multi-session  information
       for  CD-Extra  using raw SCSI commands.  For Non-SCSI-CDROM drives this
       is the same device as given by dev= (see above). For SCSI-CDROM  drives
       it  is the CDROM drive (SCSI) device (i.e.  /dev/sr0 ) corresponding to
       the SCSI device (i.e.  0,3,0 ). It has to match  the  device  used  for

   Select Interface
       -I interface selects the CDROM drive communication method.  This inter-
       face method is typically automatically selected from the  device  name.
       For SCSI drives generic_scsi is used (cooked_ioctl may not be available
       for all devices).  Valid names are generic_scsi and cooked_ioctl.   The
       first uses the generic SCSI interface, the latter uses the ioctl of the
       CDROM driver. The latter variant works only when the kernel driver sup-
       ports  CDDA  reading. This entry has to match the selected CDROM device
       (see above).

   Enable echo to soundcard
       -e copies audio data to the sound card while recording, so you hear  it
       nearly  simultaneously.  The  soundcard  gets  the  same  data  that is
       recorded. This is time critical, so it works best with the  -q  option.
       To  use  cdda2wav as a pseudo CD player without recording in a file you
       could use

       cdda2wav -q -e -t2 -d0 -N

       to play the whole second track or

       cdda2wav -q -e -B -N

       to play the whole disk.  This feature reduces the recording speed to at
       most onefold speed.

   Change pitch of echoed audio
       -p  percentage  changes  the pitch of all audio echoed to a sound card.
       Only the copy to the soundcard is affected, the recorded audio  samples
       in  a  file  remain  the  same.  Normal pitch, which is the default, is
       given by 100.  Lower percentages correspond to lower pitches, i.e.   -p
       50  transposes  the audio output one octave lower.  See also the script
       pitchplay as an example. This option was contributed by Raul Sobon.

   Select mono or stereo recording
       -m or -c 1 selects mono recording (both stereo channels are mixed),  -s
       or  -c  2  or -c s selects stereo recording. Parameter s will swap both
       sound channels.

   Select maximum quality
       -x will set stereo, 16 bits per sample at 44.1 kHz (full  CD  quality).
       Note that other format options given later can change this setting.

   Select sample quality
       -b  8  specifies  8 bit (1 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 12
       specifies 12 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 16 speci-
       fies  16 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each channel (Ensure that your
       sample player or sound card is capable of playing 12-bit or 16-bit sam-
       ples).  Selecting  12 or 16 bits doubles file size.  12-bit samples are
       aligned to 16-bit samples, so they waste some disk space.

   Select sample rate
       -r samplerate selects a sample rate.  samplerate  can  be  in  a  range
       between 900 and 44100. Option -R lists all available rates.

   Select sample rate divider
       -a  divider  selects  a  sample rate divider.  divider can be from 1 to
       50.5 in steps of 0.5.  Option -R lists all available rates.

       To make the sound smoother at lower sampling rates, cdda2wav sums  over
       n samples (where n is the specific dividend). So for 22050 Hertz output
       we have to sum over 2 samples, for 900 Hertz we have  to  sum  over  49
       samples.   This  cancels higher frequencies. Standard sector size of an
       audio CD (ignoring additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In  order  to
       finish  summing  for  an  output  sample at sector boundaries the rates
       above have to be chosen.  Arbitrary  sampling  rates  in  high  quality
       would  require some interpolation scheme, which needs much more sophis-
       ticated programming.

   List a table of all sampling rates
       -R shows a list of all sample rates and their  dividers.  Dividers  can
       range from 1 to 50.5 in steps of 0.5.

   Select start track and optionally end track
       -t  n+m selects n as the start track and optionally m as the last track
       of a range to be recorded.  These tracks must be from the table of con-
       tents.   This  sets  the  track  where  recording begins. Recording can
       advance through the following tracks as well (limited by  the  optional
       end  track  or otherwise depending on recording time). Whether one file
       or different files are then created  depends  on  the  -B  option  (see

   Select start index
       -i  n  selects the index to start recording with.  Indices other than 1
       will invoke the index scanner, which will take some time  to  find  the
       correct  start  position.  An  offset  may  be  given additionally (see

   Set recording duration
       -d  n sets recording time to n seconds or set recording time for  whole
       track  if  n  is zero. In order to specify the duration in frames (sec-
       tors) also, the argument can have an appended 'f'. Then  the  numerical
       argument  is  to  be  taken  as  frames  (sectors) rather than seconds.
       Please note that if track ranges are being used they define the record-
       ing time as well thus overriding any -d option specified times.

       Recording  time  is  defined as the time the generated sample will play
       (at the defined sample rate). Since it's related to the amount of  gen-
       erated samples, it's not the time of the sampling process itself (which
       can be less or more).  It's neither  strictly  coupled  with  the  time
       information  on  the  audio CD (shown by your hifi CD player).  Differ-
       ences can occur by the usage of the -o option (see below). Notice  that
       recording  time  will  be  shortened,  unless enough disk space exists.
       Recording can be aborted at anytime by  pressing  the  break  character
       (signal SIGQUIT).

   Record all tracks of a complete audio CD in separate files
       -B  copies  each  track into a separate file. A base name can be given.
       File names have an appended track number and an extension corresponding
       to  the  audio format. To record all audio tracks of a CD, use a suffi-
       cient high duration (i.e. -d99999).

   Set start sector offset
       -o sectors increments start sector of the track by  sectors.   By  this
       option  you  are  able  to  skip a certain amount at the beginning of a
       track so you can pick exactly the part you want. Each sector  runs  for
       1/75  seconds, so you have very fine control. If your offset is so high
       that it would not fit into the current  track,  a  warning  message  is
       issued  and the offset is ignored.  Recording time is not reduced.  (To
       skip introductory quiet passages automagically, use the -w  option  see

   Wait for signal option
       -w  Turning  on this option will suppress all silent output at startup,
       reducing possibly file size.  cdda2wav will watch for any signal in the
       output signal and switches on writing to file.

   Find extreme samples
       -F  Turning  on this option will display the most negative and the most
       positive sample value found during recording for  both  channels.  This
       can  be  useful  for  readjusting  the volume. The values shown are not
       reset at track boundaries, they cover the  complete  sampling  process.
       They are taken from the original samples and have the same format (i.e.
       they are independent of the selected output format).

   Find if input samples are in mono
       -G If this option is given, input samples for  both  channels  will  be
       compared.  At the end of the program the result is printed. Differences
       in the channels indicate stereo, otherwise when both channels are equal
       it will indicate mono.

   Undo the pre-emphasis in the input samples
       -T Some older audio CDs are recorded with a modified frequency response
       called pre-emphasis. This is found mostly in classical recordings.  The
       correction can be seen in the flags of the Table Of Contents often. But
       there are recordings, that show this setting only in  the  subchannels.
       If this option is given, the index scanner will be started, which reads
       the q-subchannel of each track. If pre-emphasis is indicated in the  q-
       subchannel of a track, but not in the TOC, pre-emphasis will be assumed
       to be present, and subsequently a reverse filtering is  done  for  this
       track before the samples are written into the audio file.

   Set audio format
       -O   audiotype  can  be  wav  (for wav files) or au or sun (for sun PCM
       files) or cdr or raw (for headerless files to be used for cd  writers).
       All  file samples are coded in linear pulse code modulation (as done in
       the audio compact disc format). This holds for all audio formats.   Wav
       files  are  compatible  to  Wind*ws sound files, they have lsb,msb byte
       order which is the opposite byte order to the one used on the audio cd.
       The  default filename extension is '.wav'.  Sun type files are not like
       the older common logarithmically coded .au files, but instead  as  men-
       tioned  above  linear PCM is used. The byte order is msb,lsb to be com-
       patible. The default filename extension is '.au'.   The  AIFF  and  the
       newer  variant  AIFC  from  the  Apple/SGI world store their samples in
       bigendian format (msb,lsb). In AIFC no compression  is  used.   Finally
       the easiest 'format', the cdr aka raw format. It is done per default in
       msb,lsb byte order to satisfy the order  wanted  by  most  cd  writers.
       Since there is no header information in this format, the sample parame-
       ters can only be identified by playing the samples on  a  soundcard  or
       similar. The default filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.

   Select cdrom drive reading speed
       -S   speed allows to switch the cdrom drive to a certain speed in order
       to reduce read errors. The argument  is  transferred  verbatim  to  the
       drive.  Details depend very much on the cdrom drives.  An argument of 0
       for example is often the default speed of the drive, a value of 1 often
       selects single speed.

   Enable MD5 checksums
       -M   count  enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for 'count' bytes from
       the beginning of a track. This was introduced for quick comparisons  of

   Use Monty's libparanoia for reading of sectors
       -paranoia selects an alternate way of extracting audio sectors. Monty's
       library is used with the following default options:


       for details see Monty's libparanoia documentation.  In  this  case  the
       option -P has no effect.

   Do linear or overlapping reading of sectors
       (This  applies  unless option -paranoia is used.)  -P  sectors sets the
       given number of sectors for initial overlap sampling for jitter correc-
       tion.  Two cases are to be distinguished. For nonzero values, some sec-
       tors are read twice to enable  cdda2wav's  jitter  correction.   If  an
       argument  of  zero  is  given,  no  overlap sampling will be used.  For
       nonzero overlap sectors cdda2wav dynamically adjusts the setting during
       sampling  (like  cdparanoia  does).  If no match can be found, cdda2wav
       retries the read with an increased overlap.  If the amount of jitter is
       lower than the current overlapped samples, cdda2wav reduces the overlap
       setting, resulting in a higher reading speed.  The argument  given  has
       to be lower than the total number of sectors per request (see option -n
       below).  Cdda2wav will check this setting and issues  a  error  message
       otherwise.   The case of zero sectors is nice on low load situations or
       errorfree (perfect) cdrom drives and perfect (unscratched) audio cds.

   Set the transfer size
       -n  sectors will set the transfer size to  the  specified  sectors  per

   Set number of ring buffer elements
       -l  buffers will allocate the specified number of ring buffer elements.

   Set endianess of input samples
       -C   endianess  will override the default settings of the input format.
       Endianess can be set explicitly to "little", "big" or "machine"  or  to
       the automatic endianess detection based on voting with "guess".

   Set endianess of output samples
       -E   endianess  (endianess  can  be  "little", "big" or "machine") will
       override the default settings of the output format.

   Verbose option
       -v  itemlist prints more information. A list allows selection  of  dif-
       ferent information items.

       help      Print a summary of possible members of the diffopts list.

       !         Invert  the  meaning  of  the  following  string. No comma is
                 needed after the exclamation mark.

       not       Invert the meaning of all members in the diffopts  list  i.e.
                 exclude  all  present  options from an initially complete set
                 compare list.  When using csh(1) you might have problems with
                 !   due  to  its  strange  parser.  This is why the not alias

       disable   disables verbosity

       all       all information is given

       toc       displays the table of contents

       summary   displays a summary of recording parameters

       indices   invokes the index scanner and  displays  start  positions  of

       catalog   retrieves and displays a media catalog number

       trackid   retrieves and displays international standard recording codes

       sectors   displays track start positions in absolute sector notation

       To  combine  several  requests  just list the suboptions separated with

   The table of contents
       The display will show the table of contents with number of  tracks  and
       total  time  (displayed  in  mm:ss.hh  format,  mm=minutes, ss=seconds,
       hh=rounded 1/100 seconds).  The following list  displays  track  number
       and  track  time  for  each  entry.  The summary gives a line per track
       describing the type of the track.

                   track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans

       The track column holds the track number.   preemphasis  shows  if  that
       track  has  been  given a non linear frequency response.  NOTE: You can
       undo this effect with the -T option.  copy-permitted indicates if  this
       track  is allowed to copy.  tracktype can be data or audio. On multime-
       dia CDs (except hidden track CDs)  both  of  them  should  be  present.
       channels  is  defined  for  audio tracks only. There can be two or four

   No file output
       -N this debugging option switches off writing to a file.

   No infofile generation
       -H this option switches off creation of an info file and a cddb file.

   Generation of simple output for gui frontends
       -g this option switches on simple line formatting, which is  needed  to
       support gui frontends (like xcd-roast).

   Verbose SCSI logging
       -V  this option switches on logging of SCSI commands. This will produce
       a lot of output (when SCSI devices are being used).  This is needed for
       debugging  purposes.  The  format  is  the  same as being used with the
       cdrecord program, see cdrecord(1) for more information.

   Quiet option
       -q suppresses all screen output except error  messages.   That  reduces
       cpu time resources.

   Just show information option
       -J  does  not  write  a file, it only prints information about the disc
       (depending on the -v option). This is just for information purposes.

CDDBP support
   Lookup album and track titles option
       -L  cddbp mode Cdda2wav tries to retrieve performer, album-, and  track
       titles   from   a  cddbp  server.  The  default  server  right  now  is
       'freedb.freedb.org'.  It is planned  to  have  more  control  over  the
       server  handling later.  The parameter defines how multiple entries are

       0      interactive mode, the user chooses one of the entries.

       1      take the first entry without asking.

   Set server for title lookups
       cddbp-server  servername When using -L or -cddb, the server being  con-
       tacted can be set with this option.

   Set portnumber for title lookups
       cddbp-port   portnumber  When  using -L or -cddb, the server port being
       contacted can be set with this option.

       Don't create samples you cannot read. First check  your  sample  player
       software  and sound card hardware. I experienced problems with very low
       sample rates (stereo <= 1575 Hz, mono <= 3675 Hz) when trying  to  play
       them  with  standard  WAV players for sound blaster (maybe they are not
       legal in WAV format). Most CD-Writers insist  on  audio  samples  in  a
       bigendian  format.   Now  cdda2wav supports the -E  endianess option to
       control the endianess of the written samples.

       If your hardware is fast enough to run cdda2wav uninterrupted and  your
       CD drive is one of the 'perfect' ones, you will gain speed when switch-
       ing all overlap sampling off with the -P  0 option. Further fine tuning
       can  be done with the -n  sectors option. You can specify how much sec-
       tors should be requested in one go.

       Cdda2wav supports pipes.  Use a filename of - to  let  cdda2wav  output
       its samples to standard output.

       Conversion  to  other  sound  formats is possible using the sox program
       package (it should no longer be necessary to use sox -x to  change  the
       byte order of samples; see option -E to change the output byteorder).

       If  you  want to sample more than one track into different files in one
       run, this is currently possible with the -B option. When recording time
       exceeds the track limit a new file will be opened for the next track.

       Cdda2wav can generate a lot of files for various purposes.

   Audio files:
       There  are audio files containing samples with default extensions .wav,
       .au, .aifc, .aiff, and .cdr according to  the  selected  sound  format.
       These files are not generated when option (-N) is given. Multiple files
       may be written when the bulk copy option (-B) is used. Individual  file
       names  can  be given as arguments. If the number of file names given is
       sufficient to cover all included audio tracks, the file names  will  be
       used  verbatim.   Otherwise,  if  there  are less file names than files
       needed to write the included tracks, the part of the file  name  before
       the  extension  is  extended with '_dd' where dd represents the current
       track number.

   Cddb and Cdindex files:
       If cdda2wav detects cd-extra or cd-text  (album/track)  title  informa-
       tion,  then .cddb, .cdindex and .cdtext files are generated unless sup-
       pressed by the option -H.  They contain suitable formatted entries  for
       submission to audio cd track title databases in the Internet. The CDIN-
       DEX and CDDB(tm) systems are currently supported. For more  information
       please visit www.musicbrainz.org and www.freedb.com.

   Inf files:
       The inf files describe the sample files and the part of the audio cd it
       was taken from. They are a means to transfer information to a cd  burn-
       ing  program  like  cdrecord. For example, if the original audio cd had
       pre-emphasis enabled, and cdda2wav -T did remove the pre-emphasis, then
       the  inf  file  has pre-emphasis not set (since the audio file does not
       have it anymore), while the .cddb and the  .cdindex  have  pre-emphasis
       set as the original does.

       IMPORTANT:  it  is prohibited to sell copies of copyrighted material by
       noncopyright holders. This program may not be used to circumvent  copy-
       rights.  The user acknowledges this constraint when using the software.

       The index scanner may give timeouts.

       The  resampling  (rate  conversion code) uses polynomial interpolation,
       which is not optimal.

       Cdda2wav should use threads.

       Thanks go to Project MODE (http://www.mode.net/) and Fraunhofer  Insti-
       tut fuer integrierte Schaltungen (FhG-IIS) (http://www.iis.fhg.de/) for
       financial support.  Plextor Europe and Ricoh Japan provided cdrom  disk
       drives  and  cd  burners  which  helped a lot to develop this software.
       Rammi has helped a lot with the debugging and showed a lot  of  stamina
       when  hearing  100 times the first 16 seconds of the first track of the
       Krupps CD.  Libparanoia contributed by Monty  (Christopher  Montgomery)

       Heiko Eissfeldt heiko@colossus.escape.de (1993-2004)


       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin


       The  interfaces provided by cdda2wav are designed for long term stabil-
       ity.  As cdda2wav depends on  interfaces  provided  by  the  underlying
       operating  system,  the stability of the interfaces offered by cdda2wav
       depends on the interface stability  of  the  OS  interfaces.   Modified
       interfaces in the OS may enforce modified interfaces in cdda2wav.

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | media/cdrtools   |
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |

       Source  code  for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source   was   downloaded  from   https://sourceforge.net/projects/cdr-

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://cdrecord.org/.

                                  Version 3.0                      CDDA2WAV(1)