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Updated: Thursday, March 14, 2019
 
 

rawshark (1)

Name

rawshark - Dump and analyze raw pcap data

Synopsis

rawshark [ -d <encap:linktype>|<proto:protoname> ]
[ -F <field to display> ] [ -h ] [ -l ] [ -m <bytes> ] [ -n ]
[ -N <name resolving flags> ] [ -o <preference setting> ] ...  [ -p ]
[ -r <pipe>|- ] [ -R <read (display) filter> ] [ -s ]
[ -S <field format> ] [ -t a|ad|adoy|d|dd|e|r|u|ud|udoy ] [ -v ]

Description

The Wireshark Network Analyzer                                     RAWSHARK(1)



NAME
       rawshark - Dump and analyze raw pcap data

SYNOPSIS
       rawshark [ -d <encap:linktype>|<proto:protoname> ]
       [ -F <field to display> ] [ -h ] [ -l ] [ -m <bytes> ] [ -n ]
       [ -N <name resolving flags> ] [ -o <preference setting> ] ...  [ -p ]
       [ -r <pipe>|- ] [ -R <read (display) filter> ] [ -s ]
       [ -S <field format> ] [ -t a|ad|adoy|d|dd|e|r|u|ud|udoy ] [ -v ]

DESCRIPTION
       Rawshark reads a stream of packets from a file or pipe, and prints a
       line describing its output, followed by a set of matching fields for
       each packet on stdout.

INPUT
       Unlike TShark, Rawshark makes no assumptions about encapsulation or
       input. The -d and -r flags must be specified in order for it to run.
       One or more -F flags should be specified in order for the output to be
       useful. The other flags listed above follow the same conventions as
       Wireshark and TShark.

       Rawshark expects input records with the following format by default.
       This matches the format of the packet header and packet data in a pcap-
       formatted file on disk.

           struct rawshark_rec_s {
               uint32_t ts_sec;      /* Time stamp (seconds) */
               uint32_t ts_usec;     /* Time stamp (microseconds) */
               uint32_t caplen;      /* Length of the packet buffer */
               uint32_t len;         /* "On the wire" length of the packet */
               uint8_t data[caplen]; /* Packet data */
           };

       If -p is supplied rawshark expects the following format.  This matches
       the struct pcap_pkthdr structure and packet data used in
       libpcap/WinPcap.  This structure's format is platform-dependent; the
       size of the tv_sec field in the struct timeval structure could be 32
       bits or 64 bits.  For rawshark to work, the layout of the structure in
       the input must match the layout of the structure in rawshark.  Note
       that this format will probably be the same as the previous format if
       rawshark is a 32-bit program, but will not necessarily be the same if
       rawshark is a 64-bit program.

           struct rawshark_rec_s {
               struct timeval ts;    /* Time stamp */
               uint32_t caplen;      /* Length of the packet buffer */
               uint32_t len;         /* "On the wire" length of the packet */
               uint8_t data[caplen]; /* Packet data */
           };

       In either case, the endianness (byte ordering) of each integer must
       match the system on which rawshark is running.

OUTPUT
       If one or more fields are specified via the -F flag, Rawshark prints
       the number, field type, and display format for each field on the first
       line as "packet number" 0. For each record, the packet number, matching
       fields, and a "1" or "0" are printed to indicate if the field matched
       any supplied display filter. A "-" is used to signal the end of a field
       description and at the end of each packet line. For example, the flags
       -F ip.src -F dns.qry.type might generate the following output:

           0 FT_IPv4 BASE_NONE - 1 FT_UINT16 BASE_HEX -
           1 1="1" 0="192.168.77.10" 1 -
           2 1="1" 0="192.168.77.250" 1 -
           3 0="192.168.77.10" 1 -
           4 0="74.125.19.104" 1 -

       Note that packets 1 and 2 are DNS queries, and 3 and 4 are not. Adding
       -R "not dns" still prints each line, but there's an indication that
       packets 1 and 2 didn't pass the filter:

           0 FT_IPv4 BASE_NONE - 1 FT_UINT16 BASE_HEX -
           1 1="1" 0="192.168.77.10" 0 -
           2 1="1" 0="192.168.77.250" 0 -
           3 0="192.168.77.10" 1 -
           4 0="74.125.19.104" 1 -

       Also note that the output may be in any order, and that multiple
       matching fields might be displayed.

OPTIONS
       -d  <encapsulation>
           Specify how the packet data should be dissected. The encapsulation
           is of the form type:value, where type is one of:

           encap:name Packet data should be dissected using the
           libpcap/WinPcap data link type (DLT) name, e.g. encap:EN10MB for
           Ethernet.  Names are converted using pcap_datalink_name_to_val().
           A complete list of DLTs can be found at
           <http://www.tcpdump.org/linktypes.html>.

           encap:number Packet data should be dissected using the
           libpcap/WinPcap LINKTYPE_ number, e.g. encap:105 for raw IEEE
           802.11 or encap:101 for raw IP.

           proto:protocol Packet data should be passed to the specified
           Wireshark protocol dissector, e.g. proto:http for HTTP data.

       -F  <field to display>
           Add the matching field to the output. Fields are any valid display
           filter field. More than one -F flag may be specified, and each
           field can match multiple times in a given packet. A single field
           may be specified per -F flag. If you want to apply a display
           filter, use the -R flag.

       -h  Print the version and options and exits.

       -l  Flush the standard output after the information for each packet is
           printed.  (This is not, strictly speaking, line-buffered if -V was
           specified; however, it is the same as line-buffered if -V wasn't
           specified, as only one line is printed for each packet, and, as -l
           is normally used when piping a live capture to a program or script,
           so that output for a packet shows up as soon as the packet is seen
           and dissected, it should work just as well as true line-buffering.
           We do this as a workaround for a deficiency in the Microsoft Visual
           C++ C library.)

           This may be useful when piping the output of TShark to another
           program, as it means that the program to which the output is piped
           will see the dissected data for a packet as soon as TShark sees the
           packet and generates that output, rather than seeing it only when
           the standard output buffer containing that data fills up.

       -m  <memory limit bytes>
           Limit rawshark's memory usage to the specified number of bytes.
           POSIX (non-Windows) only.

       -n  Disable network object name resolution (such as hostname, TCP and
           UDP port names), the -N flag might override this one.

       -N  <name resolving flags>
           Turn on name resolving only for particular types of addresses and
           port numbers, with name resolving for other types of addresses and
           port numbers turned off. This flag overrides -n if both -N and -n
           are present. If both -N and -n flags are not present, all name
           resolutions are turned on.

           The argument is a string that may contain the letters:

           m to enable MAC address resolution

           n to enable network address resolution

           N to enable using external resolvers (e.g., DNS) for network
           address resolution

           t to enable transport-layer port number resolution

           d to enable resolution from captured DNS packets

       -o  <preference>:<value>
           Set a preference value, overriding the default value and any value
           read from a preference file.  The argument to the option is a
           string of the form prefname:value, where prefname is the name of
           the preference (which is the same name that would appear in the
           preference file), and value is the value to which it should be set.

       -p  Assume that packet data is preceded by a pcap_pkthdr struct as
           defined in pcap.h. On some systems the size of the timestamp data
           will be different from the data written to disk. On other systems
           they are identical and this flag has no effect.

       -r  <pipe>|-
           Read packet data from input source. It can be either the name of a
           FIFO (named pipe) or ``-'' to read data from the standard input,
           and must have the record format specified above.

           If you are sending data to rawshark from a parent process on
           Windows you should not close rawshark's standard input handle
           prematurely, otherwise the C runtime might trigger an exception.

       -R  <read (display) filter>
           Cause the specified filter (which uses the syntax of read/display
           filters, rather than that of capture filters) to be applied before
           printing the output.

       -s  Allows standard pcap files to be used as input, by skipping over
           the 24 byte pcap file header.

       -S  Use the specified format string to print each field. The following
           formats are supported:

           %D Field name or description, e.g. "Type" for dns.qry.type

           %N Base 10 numeric value of the field.

           %S String value of the field.

           For something similar to Wireshark's standard display ("Type: A
           (1)") you could use %D: %S (%N).

       -t  a|ad|adoy|d|dd|e|r|u|ud|udoy
           Set the format of the packet timestamp printed in summary lines.
           The format can be one of:

           a absolute: The absolute time, as local time in your time zone, is
           the actual time the packet was captured, with no date displayed

           ad absolute with date: The absolute date, displayed as YYYY-MM-DD,
           and time, as local time in your time zone, is the actual time and
           date the packet was captured

           adoy absolute with date using day of year: The absolute date,
           displayed as YYYY/DOY, and time, as local time in your time zone,
           is the actual time and date the packet was captured

           d delta: The delta time is the time since the previous packet was
           captured

           dd delta_displayed: The delta_displayed time is the time since the
           previous displayed packet was captured

           e epoch: The time in seconds since epoch (Jan 1, 1970 00:00:00)

           r relative: The relative time is the time elapsed between the first
           packet and the current packet

           u UTC: The absolute time, as UTC, is the actual time the packet was
           captured, with no date displayed

           ud UTC with date: The absolute date, displayed as YYYY-MM-DD, and
           time, as UTC, is the actual time and date the packet was captured

           udoy UTC with date using day of year: The absolute date, displayed
           as YYYY/DOY, and time, as UTC, is the actual time and date the
           packet was captured

           The default format is relative.

       -v  Print the version and exit.

READ FILTER SYNTAX
       For a complete table of protocol and protocol fields that are
       filterable in TShark see the wireshark-filter(4) manual page.

FILES
       These files contains various Wireshark configuration values.

       Preferences
           The preferences files contain global (system-wide) and personal
           preference settings. If the system-wide preference file exists, it
           is read first, overriding the default settings. If the personal
           preferences file exists, it is read next, overriding any previous
           values. Note: If the command line option -o is used (possibly more
           than once), it will in turn override values from the preferences
           files.

           The preferences settings are in the form prefname:value, one per
           line, where prefname is the name of the preference and value is the
           value to which it should be set; white space is allowed between :
           and value.  A preference setting can be continued on subsequent
           lines by indenting the continuation lines with white space.  A #
           character starts a comment that runs to the end of the line:

             # Capture in promiscuous mode?
             # TRUE or FALSE (case-insensitive).
             capture.prom_mode: TRUE

           The global preferences file is looked for in the wireshark
           directory under the share subdirectory of the main installation
           directory (for example, /usr/local/share/wireshark/preferences) on
           UNIX-compatible systems, and in the main installation directory
           (for example, C:\Program Files\Wireshark\preferences) on Windows
           systems.

           The personal preferences file is looked for in
           $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/wireshark/preferences (or, if
           $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/wireshark does not exist while $HOME/.wireshark is
           present, $HOME/.wireshark/preferences) on UNIX-compatible systems
           and %APPDATA%\Wireshark\preferences (or, if %APPDATA% isn't
           defined, %USERPROFILE%\Application Data\Wireshark\preferences) on
           Windows systems.

       Disabled (Enabled) Protocols
           The disabled_protos files contain system-wide and personal lists of
           protocols that have been disabled, so that their dissectors are
           never called.  The files contain protocol names, one per line,
           where the protocol name is the same name that would be used in a
           display filter for the protocol:

             http
             tcp     # a comment

           The global disabled_protos file uses the same directory as the
           global preferences file.

           The personal disabled_protos file uses the same directory as the
           personal preferences file.

       Name Resolution (hosts)
           If the personal hosts file exists, it is used to resolve IPv4 and
           IPv6 addresses before any other attempts are made to resolve them.
           The file has the standard hosts file syntax; each line contains one
           IP address and name, separated by whitespace. The same directory as
           for the personal preferences file is used.

           Capture filter name resolution is handled by libpcap on UNIX-
           compatible systems and WinPcap on Windows.  As such the Wireshark
           personal hosts file will not be consulted for capture filter name
           resolution.

       Name Resolution (subnets)
           If an IPv4 address cannot be translated via name resolution (no
           exact match is found) then a partial match is attempted via the
           subnets file.

           Each line of this file consists of an IPv4 address, a subnet mask
           length separated only by a / and a name separated by whitespace.
           While the address must be a full IPv4 address, any values beyond
           the mask length are subsequently ignored.

           An example is:

           # Comments must be prepended by the # sign!  192.168.0.0/24
           ws_test_network

           A partially matched name will be printed as
           "subnet-name.remaining-address".  For example, "192.168.0.1" under
           the subnet above would be printed as "ws_test_network.1"; if the
           mask length above had been 16 rather than 24, the printed address
           would be ``ws_test_network.0.1".

       Name Resolution (ethers)
           The ethers files are consulted to correlate 6-byte hardware
           addresses to names. First the personal ethers file is tried and if
           an address is not found there the global ethers file is tried next.

           Each line contains one hardware address and name, separated by
           whitespace.  The digits of the hardware address are separated by
           colons (:), dashes (-) or periods (.).  The same separator
           character must be used consistently in an address. The following
           three lines are valid lines of an ethers file:

             ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff          Broadcast
             c0-00-ff-ff-ff-ff          TR_broadcast
             00.00.00.00.00.00          Zero_broadcast

           The global ethers file is looked for in the /etc directory on UNIX-
           compatible systems, and in the main installation directory (for
           example, C:\Program Files\Wireshark) on Windows systems.

           The personal ethers file is looked for in the same directory as the
           personal preferences file.

           Capture filter name resolution is handled by libpcap on UNIX-
           compatible systems and WinPcap on Windows.  As such the Wireshark
           personal ethers file will not be consulted for capture filter name
           resolution.

       Name Resolution (manuf)
           The manuf file is used to match the 3-byte vendor portion of a
           6-byte hardware address with the manufacturer's name; it can also
           contain well-known MAC addresses and address ranges specified with
           a netmask.  The format of the file is the same as the ethers files,
           except that entries of the form:

             00:00:0C      Cisco

           can be provided, with the 3-byte OUI and the name for a vendor, and
           entries such as:

             00-00-0C-07-AC/40     All-HSRP-routers

           can be specified, with a MAC address and a mask indicating how many
           bits of the address must match. The above entry, for example, has
           40 significant bits, or 5 bytes, and would match addresses from
           00-00-0C-07-AC-00 through 00-00-0C-07-AC-FF. The mask need not be a
           multiple of 8.

           The manuf file is looked for in the same directory as the global
           preferences file.

       Name Resolution (services)
           The services file is used to translate port numbers into names.

           The file has the standard services file syntax; each line contains
           one (service) name and one transport identifier separated by white
           space.  The transport identifier includes one port number and one
           transport protocol name (typically tcp, udp, or sctp) separated by
           a /.

           An example is:

           mydns       5045/udp     # My own Domain Name Server mydns
           5045/tcp     # My own Domain Name Server

       Name Resolution (ipxnets)
           The ipxnets files are used to correlate 4-byte IPX network numbers
           to names. First the global ipxnets file is tried and if that
           address is not found there the personal one is tried next.

           The format is the same as the ethers file, except that each address
           is four bytes instead of six.  Additionally, the address can be
           represented as a single hexadecimal number, as is more common in
           the IPX world, rather than four hex octets.  For example, these
           four lines are valid lines of an ipxnets file:

             C0.A8.2C.00              HR
             c0-a8-1c-00              CEO
             00:00:BE:EF              IT_Server1
             110f                     FileServer3

           The global ipxnets file is looked for in the /etc directory on
           UNIX-compatible systems, and in the main installation directory
           (for example, C:\Program Files\Wireshark) on Windows systems.

           The personal ipxnets file is looked for in the same directory as
           the personal preferences file.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       WIRESHARK_APPDATA
           On Windows, Wireshark normally stores all application data in
           %APPDATA% or %USERPROFILE%.  You can override the default location
           by exporting this environment variable to specify an alternate
           location.

       WIRESHARK_DEBUG_WMEM_OVERRIDE
           Setting this environment variable forces the wmem framework to use
           the specified allocator backend for *all* allocations, regardless
           of which backend is normally specified by the code. This is mainly
           useful to developers when testing or debugging. See README.wmem in
           the source distribution for details.

       WIRESHARK_RUN_FROM_BUILD_DIRECTORY
           This environment variable causes the plugins and other data files
           to be loaded from the build directory (where the program was
           compiled) rather than from the standard locations.  It has no
           effect when the program in question is running with root (or
           setuid) permissions on *NIX.

       WIRESHARK_DATA_DIR
           This environment variable causes the various data files to be
           loaded from a directory other than the standard locations.  It has
           no effect when the program in question is running with root (or
           setuid) permissions on *NIX.

       ERF_RECORDS_TO_CHECK
           This environment variable controls the number of ERF records
           checked when deciding if a file really is in the ERF format.
           Setting this environment variable a number higher than the default
           (20) would make false positives less likely.

       IPFIX_RECORDS_TO_CHECK
           This environment variable controls the number of IPFIX records
           checked when deciding if a file really is in the IPFIX format.
           Setting this environment variable a number higher than the default
           (20) would make false positives less likely.

       WIRESHARK_ABORT_ON_DISSECTOR_BUG
           If this environment variable is set, Rawshark will call abort(3)
           when a dissector bug is encountered.  abort(3) will cause the
           program to exit abnormally; if you are running Rawshark in a
           debugger, it should halt in the debugger and allow inspection of
           the process, and, if you are not running it in a debugger, it will,
           on some OSes, assuming your environment is configured correctly,
           generate a core dump file.  This can be useful to developers
           attempting to troubleshoot a problem with a protocol dissector.

       WIRESHARK_ABORT_ON_TOO_MANY_ITEMS
           If this environment variable is set, Rawshark will call abort(3) if
           a dissector tries to add too many items to a tree (generally this
           is an indication of the dissector not breaking out of a loop soon
           enough).  abort(3) will cause the program to exit abnormally; if
           you are running Rawshark in a debugger, it should halt in the
           debugger and allow inspection of the process, and, if you are not
           running it in a debugger, it will, on some OSes, assuming your
           environment is configured correctly, generate a core dump file.
           This can be useful to developers attempting to troubleshoot a
           problem with a protocol dissector.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+---------------------------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE |           ATTRIBUTE VALUE             |
       +---------------+---------------------------------------+
       |Availability   | diagnostic/wireshark/wireshark-common |
       +---------------+---------------------------------------+
       |Stability      | Uncommitted                           |
       +---------------+---------------------------------------+
SEE ALSO
       wireshark-filter(4), wireshark(1), tshark(1), editcap(1), pcap(3),
       dumpcap(1), text2pcap(1), pcap-filter(7) or tcpdump(1)

NOTES
       Rawshark is part of the Wireshark distribution. The latest version of
       Wireshark can be found at <https://www.wireshark.org>.

       HTML versions of the Wireshark project man pages are available at:
       <https://www.wireshark.org/docs/man-pages>.

AUTHORS
       Rawshark uses the same packet dissection code that Wireshark does, as
       well as using many other modules from Wireshark; see the list of
       authors in the Wireshark man page for a list of authors of that code.


       This software was built from source available at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.  The original community
       source was downloaded from  http://www.wireshark.org/download/src/all-
       versions/wireshark-2.6.1.tar.xz

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://www.wireshark.org/.



2.6.1                             2018-08-09                       RAWSHARK(1)