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man pages section 1: User Commands

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Updated: Wednesday, February 9, 2022

git-push (1)


git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects


git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
[-u | --set-upstream] [-o <string> | --push-option=<string>]
[--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]] [--force-if-includes]]
[--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]


GIT-PUSH(1)                       Git Manual                       GIT-PUSH(1)

       git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects

       git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
                  [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
                  [-u | --set-upstream] [-o <string> | --push-option=<string>]
                  [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]] [--force-if-includes]]
                  [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]

       Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary
       to complete the given refs.

       You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you
       push into it, by setting up hooks there. See documentation for git-

       When the command line does not specify where to push with the
       <repository> argument, branch.*.remote configuration for the current
       branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the configuration is
       missing, it defaults to origin.

       When the command line does not specify what to push with <refspec>...
       arguments or --all, --mirror, --tags options, the command finds the
       default <refspec> by consulting remote.*.push configuration, and if it
       is not found, honors push.default configuration to decide what to push
       (See git-config(1) for the meaning of push.default).

       When neither the command-line nor the configuration specify what to
       push, the default behavior is used, which corresponds to the simple
       value for push.default: the current branch is pushed to the
       corresponding upstream branch, but as a safety measure, the push is
       aborted if the upstream branch does not have the same name as the local

           The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation.
           This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below)
           or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES below).

           Specify what destination ref to update with what source object. The
           format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by
           the source object <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the
           destination ref <dst>.

           The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push,
           but it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as master~4 or
           HEAD (see gitrevisions(7)).

           The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
           push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
           be named. If git push [<repository>] without any <refspec> argument
           is set to update some ref at the destination with <src> with
           remote.<repository>.push configuration variable, :<dst> part can be
           omitted--such a push will update a ref that <src> normally updates
           without any <refspec> on the command line. Otherwise, missing
           :<dst> means to update the same ref as the <src>.

           If <dst> doesn't start with refs/ (e.g.  refs/heads/master) we will
           try to infer where in refs/* on the destination <repository> it
           belongs based on the type of <src> being pushed and whether <dst>
           is ambiguous.

           o   If <dst> unambiguously refers to a ref on the <repository>
               remote, then push to that ref.

           o   If <src> resolves to a ref starting with refs/heads/ or
               refs/tags/, then prepend that to <dst>.

           o   Other ambiguity resolutions might be added in the future, but
               for now any other cases will error out with an error indicating
               what we tried, and depending on the
               advice.pushUnqualifiedRefname configuration (see git-config(1))
               suggest what refs/ namespace you may have wanted to push to.

           The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst>
           reference on the remote side. Whether this is allowed depends on
           where in refs/* the <dst> reference lives as described in detail
           below, in those sections "update" means any modifications except
           deletes, which as noted after the next few sections are treated

           The refs/heads/* namespace will only accept commit objects, and
           updates only if they can be fast-forwarded.

           The refs/tags/* namespace will accept any kind of object (as
           commits, trees and blobs can be tagged), and any updates to them
           will be rejected.

           It's possible to push any type of object to any namespace outside
           of refs/{tags,heads}/*. In the case of tags and commits, these will
           be treated as if they were the commits inside refs/heads/* for the
           purposes of whether the update is allowed.

           I.e. a fast-forward of commits and tags outside refs/{tags,heads}/*
           is allowed, even in cases where what's being fast-forwarded is not
           a commit, but a tag object which happens to point to a new commit
           which is a fast-forward of the commit the last tag (or commit) it's
           replacing. Replacing a tag with an entirely different tag is also
           allowed, if it points to the same commit, as well as pushing a
           peeled tag, i.e. pushing the commit that existing tag object points
           to, or a new tag object which an existing commit points to.

           Tree and blob objects outside of refs/{tags,heads}/* will be
           treated the same way as if they were inside refs/tags/*, any update
           of them will be rejected.

           All of the rules described above about what's not allowed as an
           update can be overridden by adding an the optional leading + to a
           refspec (or using --force command line option). The only exception
           to this is that no amount of forcing will make the refs/heads/*
           namespace accept a non-commit object. Hooks and configuration can
           also override or amend these rules, see e.g.
           receive.denyNonFastForwards in git-config(1) and pre-receive and
           update in githooks(5).

           Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the
           remote repository. Deletions are always accepted without a leading
           + in the refspec (or --force), except when forbidden by
           configuration or hooks. See receive.denyDeletes in git-config(1)
           and pre-receive and update in githooks(5).

           The special refspec : (or +: to allow non-fast-forward updates)
           directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that
           exists on the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of
           the same name already exists on the remote side.

           tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.

           Push all branches (i.e. refs under refs/heads/); cannot be used
           with other <refspec>.

           Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For
           example a remote branch tmp will be removed if a local branch with
           the same name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs,
           e.g.  git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/* would make
           sure that remote refs/tmp/foo will be removed if refs/heads/foo
           doesn't exist.

           Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under
           refs/ (which includes but is not limited to refs/heads/,
           refs/remotes/, and refs/tags/) be mirrored to the remote
           repository. Newly created local refs will be pushed to the remote
           end, locally updated refs will be force updated on the remote end,
           and deleted refs will be removed from the remote end. This is the
           default if the configuration option remote.<remote>.mirror is set.

       -n, --dry-run
           Do everything except actually send the updates.

           Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each
           ref will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The
           full symbolic names of the refs will be given.

       -d, --delete
           All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is the
           same as prefixing all refs with a colon.

           All refs under refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs
           explicitly listed on the command line.

           Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option, and
           also push annotated tags in refs/tags that are missing from the
           remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are reachable from the
           refs being pushed. This can also be specified with configuration
           variable push.followTags. For more information, see push.followTags
           in git-config(1).

       --[no-]signed, --signed=(true|false|if-asked)
           GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving side, to
           allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be logged. If false or
           --no-signed, no signing will be attempted. If true or --signed, the
           push will fail if the server does not support signed pushes. If set
           to if-asked, sign if and only if the server supports signed pushes.
           The push will also fail if the actual call to gpg --sign fails. See
           git-receive-pack(1) for the details on the receiving end.

           Use an atomic transaction on the remote side if available. Either
           all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated. If the
           server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.

       -o <option>, --push-option=<option>
           Transmit the given string to the server, which passes them to the
           pre-receive as well as the post-receive hook. The given string must
           not contain a NUL or LF character. When multiple
           --push-option=<option> are given, they are all sent to the other
           side in the order listed on the command line. When no
           --push-option=<option> is given from the command line, the values
           of configuration variable push.pushOption are used instead.

       --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>, --exec=<git-receive-pack>
           Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end. Sometimes
           useful when pushing to a remote repository over ssh, and you do not
           have the program in a directory on the default $PATH.

       --[no-]force-with-lease, --force-with-lease=<refname>,
           Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
           ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.

           This option overrides this restriction if the current value of the
           remote ref is the expected value. "git push" fails otherwise.

           Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
           You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
           replace the history you originally published with the rebased
           history. If somebody else built on top of your original history
           while you are rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may
           advance with her commit, and blindly pushing with --force will lose
           her work.

           This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
           updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
           still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
           other people did anything to the ref. It is like taking a "lease"
           on the ref without explicitly locking it, and the remote ref is
           updated only if the "lease" is still valid.

           --force-with-lease alone, without specifying the details, will
           protect all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring
           their current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we
           have for them.

           --force-with-lease=<refname>, without specifying the expected
           value, will protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be
           updated, by requiring its current value to be the same as the
           remote-tracking branch we have for it.

           --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> will protect the named ref
           (alone), if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current
           value to be the same as the specified value <expect> (which is
           allowed to be different from the remote-tracking branch we have for
           the refname, or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking
           branch when this form is used). If <expect> is the empty string,
           then the named ref must not already exist.

           Note that all forms other than
           --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> that specifies the expected
           current value of the ref explicitly are still experimental and
           their semantics may change as we gain experience with this feature.

           "--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous
           --force-with-lease on the command line.

           A general note on safety: supplying this option without an expected
           value, i.e. as --force-with-lease or --force-with-lease=<refname>
           interacts very badly with anything that implicitly runs git fetch
           on the remote to be pushed to in the background, e.g.  git fetch
           origin on your repository in a cronjob.

           The protection it offers over --force is ensuring that subsequent
           changes your work wasn't based on aren't clobbered, but this is
           trivially defeated if some background process is updating refs in
           the background. We don't have anything except the remote tracking
           info to go by as a heuristic for refs you're expected to have seen
           & are willing to clobber.

           If your editor or some other system is running git fetch in the
           background for you a way to mitigate this is to simply set up
           another remote:

               git remote add origin-push $(git config remote.origin.url)
               git fetch origin-push

           Now when the background process runs git fetch origin the
           references on origin-push won't be updated, and thus commands like:

               git push --force-with-lease origin-push

           Will fail unless you manually run git fetch origin-push. This
           method is of course entirely defeated by something that runs git
           fetch --all, in that case you'd need to either disable it or do
           something more tedious like:

               git fetch              # update 'master' from remote
               git tag base master    # mark our base point
               git rebase -i master   # rewrite some commits
               git push --force-with-lease=master:base master:master

           I.e. create a base tag for versions of the upstream code that
           you've seen and are willing to overwrite, then rewrite history, and
           finally force push changes to master if the remote version is still
           at base, regardless of what your local remotes/origin/master has
           been updated to in the background.

           Alternatively, specifying --force-if-includes as an ancillary
           option along with --force-with-lease[=<refname>] (i.e., without
           saying what exact commit the ref on the remote side must be
           pointing at, or which refs on the remote side are being protected)
           at the time of "push" will verify if updates from the
           remote-tracking refs that may have been implicitly updated in the
           background are integrated locally before allowing a forced update.

       -f, --force
           Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
           ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it. Also, when
           --force-with-lease option is used, the command refuses to update a
           remote ref whose current value does not match what is expected.

           This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote
           repository to lose commits; use it with care.

           Note that --force applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
           using it with push.default set to matching or with multiple push
           destinations configured with remote.*.push may overwrite refs other
           than the current branch (including local refs that are strictly
           behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only one
           branch, use a + in front of the refspec to push (e.g git push
           origin +master to force a push to the master branch). See the
           <refspec>...  section above for details.

           Force an update only if the tip of the remote-tracking ref has been
           integrated locally.

           This option enables a check that verifies if the tip of the
           remote-tracking ref is reachable from one of the "reflog" entries
           of the local branch based in it for a rewrite. The check ensures
           that any updates from the remote have been incorporated locally by
           rejecting the forced update if that is not the case.

           If the option is passed without specifying --force-with-lease, or
           specified along with --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>, it is a

           Specifying --no-force-if-includes disables this behavior.

           This option is equivalent to the <repository> argument. If both are
           specified, the command-line argument takes precedence.

       -u, --set-upstream
           For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
           upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1)
           and other commands. For more information, see branch.<name>.merge
           in git-config(1).

           These options are passed to git-send-pack(1). A thin transfer
           significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
           receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs, unless
           an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard error

       -v, --verbose
           Run verbosely.

           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
           when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This
           flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is
           not directed to a terminal.

       --no-recurse-submodules, --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand|only|no
           May be used to make sure all submodule commits used by the
           revisions to be pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch.
           If check is used Git will verify that all submodule commits that
           changed in the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one
           remote of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will
           be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If on-demand is used all
           submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will be
           pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary revisions
           it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If only is
           used all submodules will be recursively pushed while the
           superproject is left unpushed. A value of no or using
           --no-recurse-submodules can be used to override the
           push.recurseSubmodules configuration variable when no submodule
           recursion is required.

           Toggle the pre-push hook (see githooks(5)). The default is
           --verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the push. With
           --no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.

       -4, --ipv4
           Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.

       -6, --ipv6
           Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.

       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the
       address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending
       on the transport protocol, some of this information may be absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and
       ftps can be used for fetching, but this is inefficient and deprecated;
       do not use it).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
       should be used with caution on unsecured networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

       o   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first
       colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For
       example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an absolute path
       or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

       o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
       syntaxes may be used:

       o   /path/to/repo.git/

       o   file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the
       former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       git clone, git fetch and git pull, but not git push, will also accept a
       suitable bundle file. See git-bundle(1).

       When Git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
       attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To
       explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be used:

       o   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
       URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked.
       See gitremote-helpers(7) for details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
       you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
       will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration
       section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
                           insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                           insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
       rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "ssh://example.org/"]
                           pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/

       a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still
       use the original URL.

       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
       <repository> argument:

       o   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
       because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
       configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
       to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
       access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
       default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
       entry in the config file would appear like this:

                   [remote "<name>"]
                           url = <url>
                           pushurl = <pushurl>
                           push = <refspec>
                           fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in
       this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
       the command line. This file should have the following format:

                   URL: one of the above URL format
                   Push: <refspec>
                   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull
       and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
       additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
       should have the following format:


       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs,
       if you don't provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of
       this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.

       git fetch uses:


       git push uses:


       The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
       section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
       locally or via ssh).

       The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
       representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:

            <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)

       If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:

            <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)

       The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
       option is used.

           A single character indicating the status of the ref:

               for a successfully pushed fast-forward;

               for a successful forced update;

               for a successfully deleted ref;

               for a successfully pushed new ref;

               for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and

               for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.

           For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
           values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
           git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases, and <old>...<new> for
           forced non-fast-forward updates).

           For a failed update, more details are given:

               Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it is
               not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.

           remote rejected
               The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook on
               the remote side, or because the remote repository has one of
               the following safety options in effect:
               receive.denyCurrentBranch (for pushes to the checked out
               branch), receive.denyNonFastForwards (for forced
               non-fast-forward updates), receive.denyDeletes or
               receive.denyDeleteCurrent. See git-config(1).

           remote failure
               The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
               perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
               break in the network connection, or other transient error.

           The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its refs/<type>/
           prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of the local ref is

           The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/

           A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
           refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
           failure is described.

       When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used
       to point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
       fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.

       In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the
       original commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new
       commit B builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.

       In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
       suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you
       built a history leading to commit B while the other person built a
       history leading to commit A. The history looks like this:


       Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to
       A back to the original repository from which you two obtained the
       original commit X.

       The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point
       at commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.

       But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that now
       points at A) with commit B. This does not fast-forward. If you did so,
       the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody will
       now start building on top of B.

       The command by default does not allow an update that is not a
       fast-forward to prevent such loss of history.

       If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) or the work
       by the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first
       fetch the history from the repository, create a history that contains
       changes done by both parties, and push the result back.

       You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
       the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
       and B.

                /   /

       Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
       push will be accepted.

       Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
       with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
       create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of

                 B   D
                /   /

       Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will
       be accepted.

       There is another common situation where you may encounter
       non-fast-forward rejection when you try to push, and it is possible
       even when you are pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into.
       After you push commit A yourself (in the first picture in this
       section), replace it with "git commit --amend" to produce commit B, and
       you try to push it out, because forgot that you have pushed A out
       already. In such a case, and only if you are certain that nobody in the
       meantime fetched your earlier commit A (and started building on top of
       it), you can run "git push --force" to overwrite it. In other words,
       "git push --force" is a method reserved for a case where you do mean to
       lose history.

       git push
           Works like git push <remote>, where <remote> is the current
           branch's remote (or origin, if no remote is configured for the
           current branch).

       git push origin
           Without additional configuration, pushes the current branch to the
           configured upstream (remote.origin.merge configuration variable) if
           it has the same name as the current branch, and errors out without
           pushing otherwise.

           The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can
           be configured by setting the push option of the remote, or the
           push.default configuration variable.

           For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to
           origin use git config remote.origin.push HEAD. Any valid <refspec>
           (like the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the
           default for git push origin.

       git push origin :
           Push "matching" branches to origin. See <refspec> in the OPTIONS
           section above for a description of "matching" branches.

       git push origin master
           Find a ref that matches master in the source repository (most
           likely, it would find refs/heads/master), and update the same ref
           (e.g.  refs/heads/master) in origin repository with it. If master
           did not exist remotely, it would be created.

       git push origin HEAD
           A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the

       git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev
           Use the source ref that matches master (e.g.  refs/heads/master) to
           update the ref that matches satellite/master (most probably
           refs/remotes/satellite/master) in the mothership repository; do the
           same for dev and satellite/dev.

           See the section describing <refspec>...  above for a discussion of
           the matching semantics.

           This is to emulate git fetch run on the mothership using git push
           that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate the
           work done on satellite, and is often necessary when you can only
           make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into mothership
           but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite because the
           latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).

           After running this git push on the satellite machine, you would ssh
           into the mothership and run git merge there to complete the
           emulation of git pull that were run on mothership to pull changes
           made on satellite.

       git push origin HEAD:master
           Push the current branch to the remote ref matching master in the
           origin repository. This form is convenient to push the current
           branch without thinking about its local name.

       git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental
           Create the branch experimental in the origin repository by copying
           the current master branch. This form is only needed to create a new
           branch or tag in the remote repository when the local name and the
           remote name are different; otherwise, the ref name on its own will

       git push origin :experimental
           Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin repository (e.g.
           refs/heads/experimental), and delete it.

       git push origin +dev:master
           Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
           allowing non-fast-forward updates.  This can leave unreferenced
           commits dangling in the origin repository.  Consider the following
           situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:

                           o---o---o---A---B  origin/master
                                     X---Y---Z  dev

           The above command would change the origin repository to

                                     A---B  (unnamed branch)
                           o---o---o---X---Y---Z  master

           Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic
           name, and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be
           removed by a git gc command on the origin repository.

       The fetch and push protocols are not designed to prevent one side from
       stealing data from the other repository that was not intended to be
       shared. If you have private data that you need to protect from a
       malicious peer, your best option is to store it in another repository.
       This applies to both clients and servers. In particular, namespaces on
       a server are not effective for read access control; you should only
       grant read access to a namespace to clients that you would trust with
       read access to the entire repository.

       The known attack vectors are as follows:

        1. The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects it has
           that are not explicitly intended to be shared but can be used to
           optimize the transfer if the peer also has them. The attacker
           chooses an object ID X to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn't
           required to send the content of X because the victim already has
           it. Now the victim believes that the attacker has X, and it sends
           the content of X back to the attacker later. (This attack is most
           straightforward for a client to perform on a server, by creating a
           ref to X in the namespace the client has access to and then
           fetching it. The most likely way for a server to perform it on a
           client is to "merge" X into a public branch and hope that the user
           does additional work on this branch and pushes it back to the
           server without noticing the merge.)

        2. As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The victim
           sends an object Y that the attacker already has, and the attacker
           falsely claims to have X and not Y, so the victim sends Y as a
           delta against X. The delta reveals regions of X that are similar to
           Y to the attacker.

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.31.1                        03/26/2021                       GIT-PUSH(1)