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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

text (1t)

Name

text - Create and manipulate 'text' hypertext editing widgets

Synopsis

text pathName ?options?
tk_textCopy pathName
tk_textCut pathName
tk_textPaste pathName

Description

text(1t)                     Tk Built-In Commands                     text(1t)



______________________________________________________________________________

NAME
       text,  tk_textCopy,  tk_textCut,  tk_textPaste  - Create and manipulate
       'text' hypertext editing widgets

SYNOPSIS
       text pathName ?options?
       tk_textCopy pathName
       tk_textCut pathName
       tk_textPaste pathName

STANDARD OPTIONS
       -background           -highlightthickness  -relief
       -borderwidth          -insertbackground    -selectbackground
       -cursor               -insertborderwidth   -selectborderwidth
       -exportselection      -insertofftime       -selectforeground
       -font                 -insertontime        -setgrid
       -foreground           -insertwidth         -takefocus
       -highlightbackground  -padx                -xscrollcommand
       -highlightcolor       -pady                -yscrollcommand

       See the options manual entry for details on the standard options.

WIDGET-SPECIFIC OPTIONS
       Command-Line Name:-autoseparators
       Database Name:  autoSeparators
       Database Class: AutoSeparators

              Specifies a boolean that says whether separators  are  automati-
              cally inserted in the undo stack. Only meaningful when the -undo
              option is true.

       Command-Line Name:-blockcursor
       Database Name:  blockCursor
       Database Class: BlockCursor

              Specifies a boolean that says  whether  the  blinking  insertion
              cursor  should  be drawn as a character-sized rectangular block.
              If false (the default) a thin vertical  line  is  used  for  the
              insertion cursor.

       Command-Line Name:-endline
       Database Name:  endLine
       Database Class: EndLine

              Specifies  an  integer  line  index representing the line of the
              underlying textual data store that should be just after the last
              line  contained  in  the  widget.  This  allows a text widget to
              reflect only a portion of a larger piece of text. Instead of  an
              integer,  the empty string can be provided to this configuration
              option, which will configure the widget to end at the very  last
              line in the textual data store.

       Command-Line Name:-height
       Database Name:  height
       Database Class: Height

              Specifies the desired height for the window, in units of charac-
              ters in the font given by the -font option.  Must  be  at  least
              one.

       Command-Line Name:-inactiveselectbackground
       Database Name:  inactiveSelectBackground
       Database Class: Foreground

              Specifies the colour to use for the selection (the sel tag) when
              the window does not have the input focus. If empty, {}, then  no
              selection is shown when the window does not have the focus.

       Command-Line Name:-insertunfocussed
       Database Name:  insertUnfocussed
       Database Class: InsertUnfocussed

              Specifies  how  to  display the insertion cursor when the widget |
              does not have the focus. Must be none (the default) which  means |
              to  not display the cursor, hollow which means to display a hol- |
              low box, or solid which means to display a solid box. Note  that |
              hollow  and solid will appear very similar when the -blockcursor |
              option is false.

       Command-Line Name:-maxundo
       Database Name:  maxUndo
       Database Class: MaxUndo

              Specifies the maximum number of compound  undo  actions  on  the
              undo  stack.  A zero or a negative value imply an unlimited undo
              stack.

       Command-Line Name:-spacing1
       Database Name:  spacing1
       Database Class: Spacing1

              Requests additional space above each text line  in  the  widget,
              using  any of the standard forms for screen distances. If a line
              wraps, this option only applies to the first line  on  the  dis-
              play.  This  option  may be overridden with -spacing1 options in
              tags.

       Command-Line Name:-spacing2
       Database Name:  spacing2
       Database Class: Spacing2

              For lines that wrap (so that they cover more than  one  line  on
              the  display)  this option specifies additional space to provide
              between the display lines that represent a single line of  text.
              The  value  may  have  any of the standard forms for screen dis-
              tances. This option may be overridden with -spacing2 options  in
              tags.

       Command-Line Name:-spacing3
       Database Name:  spacing3
       Database Class: Spacing3

              Requests  additional  space  below each text line in the widget,
              using any of the standard forms for screen distances. If a  line
              wraps, this option only applies to the last line on the display.
              This option may be overridden with -spacing3 options in tags.

       Command-Line Name:-startline
       Database Name:  startLine
       Database Class: StartLine

              Specifies an integer line index representing the first  line  of
              the  underlying  textual  data store that should be contained in
              the widget. This allows a text widget to reflect only a  portion
              of  a  larger  piece  of  text. Instead of an integer, the empty
              string can be provided to this configuration option, which  will
              configure the widget to start at the very first line in the tex-
              tual data store.

       Command-Line Name:-state
       Database Name:  state
       Database Class: State

              Specifies one of two states for the text: normal or disabled. If
              the  text  is  disabled  then  characters may not be inserted or
              deleted and no insertion cursor will be displayed, even  if  the
              input focus is in the widget.

       Command-Line Name:-tabs
       Database Name:  tabs
       Database Class: Tabs

              Specifies  a set of tab stops for the window. The option's value
              consists of a list of screen distances giving the  positions  of
              the  tab stops, each of which is a distance relative to the left
              edge of the widget (excluding borders, padding, etc). Each posi-
              tion  may optionally be followed in the next list element by one
              of the keywords left, right, center, or numeric, which specifies
              how  to  justify  text  relative  to  the tab stop.  Left is the
              default; it causes the text following the tab  character  to  be
              positioned  with  its left edge at the tab position. Right means
              that the right edge of the text following the tab  character  is
              positioned  at  the tab position, and center means that the text
              is centered at the tab position. Numeric means that the  decimal
              point in the text is positioned at the tab position; if there is
              no decimal point then the least significant digit of the  number
              is  positioned just to the left of the tab position; if there is
              no number in the text then the text is  right-justified  at  the
              tab  position.  For example, "-tabs {2c left 4c 6c center}" cre-
              ates three tab stops at two-centimeter intervals; the first  two
              use left justification and the third uses center justification.

              If  the list of tab stops does not have enough elements to cover
              all of the tabs in a text line, then  Tk  extrapolates  new  tab
              stops  using the spacing and alignment from the last tab stop in
              the list. Tab distances must  be  strictly  positive,  and  must
              always  increase from one tab stop to the next (if not, an error
              is thrown). The value of the -tabs option may be  overridden  by
              -tabs options in tags.

              If  no  -tabs  option  is specified, or if it is specified as an
              empty list, then Tk uses default tabs spaced every eight  (aver-
              age  size) characters.  To achieve a different standard spacing,
              for example every 4 characters, simply configure the widget with
              "-tabs  "[expr  {4  *  [font  measure $font 0]}] left" -tabstyle
              wordprocessor".

       Command-Line Name:-tabstyle
       Database Name:  tabStyle
       Database Class: TabStyle

              Specifies how to interpret the relationship between tab stops on
              a line and tabs in the text of that line. The value must be tab-
              ular (the default) or wordprocessor. Note that tabs  are  inter-
              preted  as they are encountered in the text. If the tab style is
              tabular then the n'th tab character in the line's text  will  be
              associated  with the n'th tab stop defined for that line. If the
              tab character's x coordinate falls to the right of the n'th  tab
              stop,  then  a gap of a single space will be inserted as a fall-
              back. If the tab style is wordprocessor then any  tab  character
              being  laid  out will use (and be defined by) the first tab stop
              to the right of the preceding characters  already  laid  out  on
              that  line.  The value of the -tabstyle option may be overridden
              by -tabstyle options in tags.

       Command-Line Name:-undo
       Database Name:  undo
       Database Class: Undo

              Specifies a boolean that says  whether  the  undo  mechanism  is
              active or not.

       Command-Line Name:-width
       Database Name:  width
       Database Class: Width

              Specifies  the  desired width for the window in units of charac-
              ters in the font given by the -font option. If the font does not
              have a uniform width then the width of the character "0" is used
              in translating from character units to screen units.

       Command-Line Name:-wrap
       Database Name:  wrap
       Database Class: Wrap

              Specifies how to handle lines in the text that are too  long  to
              be  displayed  in  a single line of the text's window. The value
              must be none or char or word. A wrap mode  of  none  means  that
              each  line  of  text  appears as exactly one line on the screen;
              extra characters that do not fit on  the  screen  are  not  dis-
              played.  In  the other modes each line of text will be broken up
              into several screen lines if necessary to keep all  the  charac-
              ters  visible.  In char mode a screen line break may occur after
              any character; in word mode a line break will only  be  made  at
              word boundaries.
______________________________________________________________________________

DESCRIPTION
       The  text command creates a new window (given by the pathName argument)
       and makes it into a text widget. Additional options,  described  above,
       may  be specified on the command line or in the option database to con-
       figure aspects of the text such as its  default  background  color  and
       relief.  The text command returns the path name of the new window.

       A  text  widget displays one or more lines of text and allows that text
       to be edited. Text widgets support four different kinds of  annotations
       on  the  text, called tags, marks, embedded windows or embedded images.
       Tags allow different portions of the text to be displayed with  differ-
       ent  fonts and colors. In addition, Tcl commands can be associated with
       tags so that scripts are invoked when particular actions such  as  key-
       strokes  and  mouse  button  presses  occur in particular ranges of the
       text. See TAGS below for more details.

       The second form of annotation consists of floating markers in the  text
       called  "marks".   Marks  are used to keep track of various interesting
       positions in the text as  it  is  edited.  See  MARKS  below  for  more
       details.

       The third form of annotation allows arbitrary windows to be embedded in
       a text widget. See EMBEDDED WINDOWS below for more details.

       The fourth form of annotation allows Tk images to be embedded in a text
       widget. See EMBEDDED IMAGES below for more details.

       The  text  widget also has a built-in undo/redo mechanism. See THE UNDO
       MECHANISM below for more details.

       The text widget allows for the creation  of  peer  widgets.  These  are
       other  text  widgets which share the same underlying data (text, marks,
       tags, images, etc).  See PEER WIDGETS below for more details.

INDICES
       Many of the widget commands for texts take one or more indices as argu-
       ments.  An index is a string used to indicate a particular place within
       a text, such as a place to insert characters or one endpoint of a range
       of characters to delete. Indices have the syntax
              base modifier modifier modifier ...
       Where  base  gives  a starting point and the modifiers adjust the index
       from the starting point (e.g. move forward or backward one  character).
       Every  index must contain a base, but the modifiers are optional.  Most
       modifiers (as documented below) allow an  optional  submodifier.  Valid
       submodifiers  are  any  and display. If the submodifier is abbreviated,
       then it must be followed by whitespace, but otherwise there need be  no
       space  between  the  submodifier and the following modifier.  Typically
       the display submodifier adjusts the meaning of the  following  modifier
       to  make  it  refer  to  visual or non-elided units rather than logical
       units, but this is explained for  each  relevant  case  below.  Lastly,
       where  count is used as part of a modifier, it can be positive or nega-
       tive, so "base - -3 lines" is perfectly valid (and equivalent to  "base
       +3lines").

       The base for an index must have one of the following forms:

       line.char   Indicates  char'th  character  on line line. Lines are num-
                   bered from 1 for consistency with other UNIX programs  that
                   use  this  numbering scheme.  Within a line, characters are
                   numbered from 0. If char is end then it refers to the  new-
                   line character that ends the line.

       @x,y        Indicates the character that covers the pixel whose x and y
                   coordinates within the text's window are x and y.

       end         Indicates the end of the text (the character just after the
                   last newline).

       mark        Indicates  the  character just after the mark whose name is
                   mark.

       tag.first   Indicates the first character in the  text  that  has  been
                   tagged  with tag.  This form generates an error if no char-
                   acters are currently tagged with tag.

       tag.last    Indicates the character just after the last one in the text
                   that has been tagged with tag. This form generates an error
                   if no characters are currently tagged with tag.

       pathName    Indicates the position of the embedded window whose name is
                   pathName.   This  form  generates  an  error if there is no
                   embedded window by the given name.

       imageName   Indicates the position of the embedded image whose name  is
                   imageName.   This  form  generates  an error if there is no
                   embedded image by the given name.

       If the base could match more than one of the above  forms,  such  as  a
       mark and imageName both having the same value, then the form earlier in
       the above list takes precedence. If modifiers follow  the  base  index,
       each one of them must have one of the forms listed below. Keywords such
       as chars and wordend may be abbreviated as long as the abbreviation  is
       unambiguous.

       + count ?submodifier? chars
              Adjust  the  index  forward by count characters, moving to later
              lines in the text if necessary. If there are  fewer  than  count
              characters  in  the  text  after the current index, then set the
              index to the last index in the text. Spaces on  either  side  of
              count  are optional. If the display submodifier is given, elided
              characters are skipped over without being  counted.  If  any  is
              given,  then all characters are counted. For historical reasons,
              if neither modifier is given then the count actually takes place
              in  units of index positions (see INDICES for details). This be-
              haviour may be changed in a future major release, so if you need
              an  index count, you are encouraged to use indices instead wher-
              ever possible.

       - count ?submodifier? chars
              Adjust the index backward by count characters, moving to earlier
              lines  in  the  text if necessary. If there are fewer than count
              characters in the text before the current index,  then  set  the
              index  to  the  first  index in the text (1.0). Spaces on either
              side of count are optional. If the display submodifier is given,
              elided characters are skipped over without being counted. If any
              is given, then all characters are counted. For  historical  rea-
              sons, if neither modifier is given then the count actually takes
              place in units of index positions  (see  INDICES  for  details).
              This  behavior  may  be changed in a future major release, so if
              you need an index count,  you  are  encouraged  to  use  indices
              instead wherever possible.

       + count ?submodifier? indices
              Adjust  the  index  forward  by count index positions, moving to
              later lines in the text if necessary. If there  are  fewer  than
              count  index positions in the text after the current index, then
              set the index to the last index position in the text. Spaces  on
              either  side  of count are optional. Note that an index position
              is either a single character  or  a  single  embedded  image  or
              embedded  window.  If  the  display submodifier is given, elided
              indices are skipped over without being counted. If any is given,
              then all indices are counted; this is also the default behaviour
              if no modifier is given.

       - count ?submodifier? indices
              Adjust the index backward by count index  positions,  moving  to
              earlier  lines in the text if necessary. If there are fewer than
              count index positions in the text before the current index, then
              set  the  index  to  the first index position (1.0) in the text.
              Spaces on either side of count are optional. If the display sub-
              modifier is given, elided indices are skipped over without being
              counted. If any is given, then all indices are counted; this  is
              also the default behaviour if no modifier is given.

       + count ?submodifier? lines
              Adjust  the  index  forward  by  count lines, retaining the same
              character position within the line.  If  there  are  fewer  than
              count  lines  after  the line containing the current index, then
              set the index to refer to the same  character  position  on  the
              last  line  of the text. Then, if the line is not long enough to
              contain a character at the indicated character position,  adjust
              the  character  position  to  refer to the last character of the
              line  (the  newline).   Spaces  on  either  side  of  count  are
              optional.  If the display submodifier is given, then each visual
              display line is counted separately.  Otherwise, if  any  (or  no
              modifier)  is  given, then each logical line (no matter how many
              times it is visually wrapped) counts just once. If the  relevant
              lines  are  not  wrapped, then these two methods of counting are
              equivalent.

       - count ?submodifier? lines
              Adjust the index backward by count logical lines, retaining  the
              same character position within the line. If there are fewer than
              count lines before the line containing the current  index,  then
              set  the  index  to  refer to the same character position on the
              first line of the text. Then, if the line is not long enough  to
              contain  a character at the indicated character position, adjust
              the character position to refer to the  last  character  of  the
              line (the newline). Spaces on either side of count are optional.
              If the display submodifier is given, then  each  visual  display
              line  is  counted separately. Otherwise, if any (or no modifier)
              is given, then each logical line (no matter how many times it is
              visually  wrapped)  counts  just once. If the relevant lines are
              not wrapped, then these two methods of counting are equivalent.

       ?submodifier? linestart
              Adjust the index to refer to the first index on the line. If the
              display  submodifier  is  given,  this is the first index on the
              display line, otherwise on the logical line.

       ?submodifier? lineend
              Adjust the index to refer to the last index  on  the  line  (the
              newline).  If the display submodifier is given, this is the last
              index on the display line, otherwise on the logical line.

       ?submodifier? wordstart
              Adjust the index to refer to the first  character  of  the  word
              containing  the  current index. A word consists of any number of
              adjacent characters that are letters, digits, or underscores, or
              a single character that is not one of these. If the display sub-
              modifier is given, this  only  examines  non-elided  characters,
              otherwise all characters (elided or not) are examined.

       ?submodifier? wordend
              Adjust  the  index to refer to the character just after the last
              one of the word containing the current  index.  If  the  current
              index  refers  to  the last character of the text then it is not
              modified. If the display submodifier is given, this  only  exam-
              ines  non-elided characters, otherwise all characters (elided or
              not) are examined.

       If more than one modifier is present then they are applied in  left-to-
       right order. For example, the index "end - 1 chars" refers to the next-
       to-last character in the text and "insert wordstart - 1  c"  refers  to
       the  character  just  before  the  first one in the word containing the
       insertion cursor. Modifiers are applied one by  one  in  this  left  to
       right  order, and after each step the resulting index is constrained to
       be a valid index in the text widget. So, for example,  the  index  "1.0
       -1c +1c" refers to the index "2.0".

       Where modifiers result in index changes by display lines, display chars
       or display indices, and the base refers to an index  inside  an  elided
       tag,  that  base index is considered to be equivalent to the first fol-
       lowing non-elided index.

TAGS
       The first form of annotation in text widgets is a tag. A tag is a  tex-
       tual  string  that is associated with some of the characters in a text.
       Tags may contain arbitrary characters, but it is probably best to avoid
       using  the  characters " " (space), +, or -: these characters have spe-
       cial meaning in indices, so tags containing  them  cannot  be  used  as
       indices.  There may be any number of tags associated with characters in
       a text. Each tag may refer to a single character, a  range  of  charac-
       ters, or several ranges of characters. An individual character may have
       any number of tags associated with it.

       A priority order is defined among tags,  and  this  order  is  used  in
       implementing  some of the tag-related functions described below. When a
       tag is defined (by associating it with characters or setting  its  dis-
       play  options or binding commands to it), it is given a priority higher
       than any existing tag. The priority order  of  tags  may  be  redefined
       using  the  "pathName  tag  raise" and "pathName tag lower" widget com-
       mands.

       Tags serve three purposes in text widgets. First, they control the  way
       information is displayed on the screen. By default, characters are dis-
       played as determined by the -background, -font, and -foreground options
       for  the  text  widget. However, display options may be associated with
       individual tags using the "pathName tag configure" widget command. If a
       character has been tagged, then the display options associated with the
       tag override the default display style. The following options are  cur-
       rently supported for tags:

       -background color
              Color specifies the background color to use for characters asso-
              ciated with the tag. It may have any of the  forms  accepted  by
              Tk_GetColor.

       -bgstipple bitmap
              Bitmap  specifies a bitmap that is used as a stipple pattern for
              the background. It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_Get-
              Bitmap.  If bitmap has not been specified, or if it is specified
              as an empty string, then a solid fill will be used for the back-
              ground.

       -borderwidth pixels
              Pixels  specifies  the  width of a border to draw around the tag
              using any of the forms accepted  by  Tk_GetPixels.  This  option
              should be used in conjunction with the -relief option to provide
              the desired border.

       -elide boolean
              Elide specifies whether the data should be elided.  Elided  data
              (characters,  images,  embedded  windows, etc.) is not displayed
              and takes no space on screen, but further  on  behaves  just  as
              normal data.

       -fgstipple bitmap
              Bitmap specifies a bitmap that is used as a stipple pattern when
              drawing text and other foreground  information  such  as  under-
              lines. It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetBitmap. If
              bitmap has not been specified, or if it is specified as an empty
              string, then a solid fill will be used.

       -font fontName
              FontName is the name of a font to use for drawing characters. It
              may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetFont.

       -foreground color
              Color specifies the color to use when  drawing  text  and  other
              foreground  information  such  as underlines. It may have any of
              the forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.

       -justify justify
              If the first non-elided character of a display line  has  a  tag
              for  which  this  option has been specified, then justify deter-
              mines how to justify the line. It must be one of left, right, or
              center. If a line wraps, then the justification for each line on
              the display is determined by the first non-elided  character  of
              that display line.

       -lmargin1 pixels
              If  the  first non-elided character of a text line has a tag for
              which this option has been specified, then pixels specifies  how
              much  the line should be indented from the left edge of the win-
              dow. Pixels may have any of the standard forms for  screen  dis-
              tances. If a line of text wraps, this option only applies to the
              first line on the display; the  -lmargin2  option  controls  the
              indentation for subsequent lines.

       -lmargin2 pixels
              If  the  first  non-elided character of a display line has a tag
              for which this option has been specified,  and  if  the  display
              line is not the first for its text line (i.e., the text line has
              wrapped), then pixels specifies how  much  the  line  should  be
              indented  from the left edge of the window.  Pixels may have any
              of the standard forms for screen distances. This option is  only
              used when wrapping is enabled, and it only applies to the second
              and later display lines for a text line.

       -lmargincolor color
              Color specifies the background color to use in regions  that  do
              not contain characters because they are indented by -lmargin1 or
              -lmargin2. It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.
              If  color  has  not  been specified, or if it is specified as an
              empty string, then the color used is  specified  by  the  -back-
              ground  tag  option  (or,  if  this  is also unspecified, by the
              -background widget option).

       -offset pixels
              Pixels specifies an amount by which the text's  baseline  should
              be  offset  vertically from the baseline of the overall line, in
              pixels. For example, a positive offset can be  used  for  super-
              scripts and a negative offset can be used for subscripts. Pixels
              may have any of the standard forms for screen distances.

       -overstrike boolean
              Specifies whether or not to draw a horizontal rule  through  the
              middle of characters. Boolean may have any of the forms accepted
              by Tcl_GetBoolean.

       -overstrikefg color
              Color specifies the color to use when displaying the overstrike.
              It  may  have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetColor. If color
              has not been specified, or  if  it  is  specified  as  an  empty
              string,  then  the color specified by the -foreground tag option
              is used.

       -relief relief
              Relief specifies the relief style to use for drawing the border,
              in  any  of  the  forms accepted by Tk_GetRelief. This option is
              used in conjunction with the -borderwidth option  to  enable  to
              the desired border appearance.

       -rmargin pixels
              If  the  first  non-elided character of a display line has a tag
              for which this option has been specified, then pixels  specifies
              how  wide  a margin to leave between the end of the line and the
              right edge of the window.  Pixels may have any of  the  standard
              forms  for screen distances. This option is only used when wrap-
              ping is enabled. If a text line wraps, the right margin for each
              line  on the display is determined by the first non-elided char-
              acter of that display line.

       -rmargincolor color
              Color specifies the background color to use in regions  that  do
              not  contain  characters because they are indented by -rmargin1.
              It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.  If  color
              has  not  been  specified,  or  if  it  is specified as an empty
              string, then the color used is specified by the -background  tag
              option (or, if this is also unspecified, by the -background wid-
              get option).

       -selectbackground color
              Color specifies the background  color  to  use  when  displaying
              selected items. It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_Get-
              Color. If color has not been specified, or if it is specified as
              an empty string, then the color specified by the -background tag
              option is used.

       -selectforeground color
              Color specifies the foreground  color  to  use  when  displaying
              selected items. It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_Get-
              Color. If color has not been specified, or if it is specified as
              an empty string, then the color specified by the -foreground tag
              option is used.

       -spacing1 pixels
              Pixels specifies how much additional space should be left  above
              each  text line, using any of the standard forms for screen dis-
              tances. If a line wraps, this option only applies to  the  first
              line on the display.

       -spacing2 pixels
              For  lines  that wrap, this option specifies how much additional
              space to leave between the display lines for a single text line.
              Pixels may have any of the standard forms for screen distances.

       -spacing3 pixels
              Pixels  specifies how much additional space should be left below
              each text line, using any of the standard forms for screen  dis-
              tances.  If  a  line wraps, this option only applies to the last
              line on the display.

       -tabs tabList
              TabList specifies a set of tab stops in the same form as for the
              -tabs  option for the text widget. This option only applies to a
              display line if it applies to the first non-elided character  on
              that  display  line.  If  this  option  is specified as an empty
              string, it cancels the option, leaving it  unspecified  for  the
              tag  (the  default).  If  the option is specified as a non-empty
              string that is  an  empty  list,  such  as  -tags { },  then  it
              requests  default  8-character  tabs  as described for the -tags
              widget option.

       -tabstyle style
              Style specifies either the tabular  or  wordprocessor  style  of
              tabbing  to use for the text widget. This option only applies to
              a display line if it applies to the first  non-elided  character
              on  that  display  line. If this option is specified as an empty
              string, it cancels the option, leaving it  unspecified  for  the
              tag (the default).

       -underline boolean
              Boolean specifies whether or not to draw an underline underneath
              characters. It may have any of the forms  accepted  by  Tcl_Get-
              Boolean.

       -underlinefg color
              Color  specifies the color to use when displaying the underline.
              It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.  If  color
              has  not  been  specified,  or  if  it  is specified as an empty
              string, then the color specified by the -foreground  tag  option
              is used.

       -wrap mode
              Mode  specifies  how  to  handle  lines  that are wider than the
              text's window. This option only applies to a display line if  it
              applies  to the first non-elided character on that display line.
              It has the same legal values as the -wrap option  for  the  text
              widget: none, char, or word. If this tag option is specified, it
              overrides the -wrap option for the text widget.

       If a character has several tags associated with it, and if  their  dis-
       play options conflict, then the options of the highest priority tag are
       used. If a particular display option has not been specified for a  par-
       ticular tag, or if it is specified as an empty string, then that option
       will never be used; the next-highest-priority tag's  option  will  used
       instead.  If  no  tag  specifies  a particular display option, then the
       default style for the widget will be used.

       The second purpose for tags is event bindings. You can associate  bind-
       ings  with a tag in much the same way you can associate bindings with a
       widget class: whenever particular X events occur on characters with the
       given  tag,  a  given Tcl command will be executed. Tag bindings can be
       used to give behaviors to ranges of  characters;  among  other  things,
       this allows hypertext-like features to be implemented. For details, see
       the description of the "pathName tag bind" widget  command  below.  Tag
       bindings  are  shared  between all peer widgets (including any bindings
       for the special sel tag).

       The third use for tags is in managing the selection. See THE  SELECTION
       below.  With  the exception of the special sel tag, all tags are shared
       between peer text widgets, and may be manipulated  on  an  equal  basis
       from  any  such widget. The sel tag exists separately and independently
       in each peer text widget (but any tag bindings to sel are shared).

MARKS
       The second form of annotation in text widgets is a mark. Marks are used
       for  remembering  particular  places in a text. They are something like
       tags, in that they have names and they refer to places in the file, but
       a mark is not associated with particular characters. Instead, a mark is
       associated with the gap between two characters. Only a single  position
       may  be  associated  with  a  mark at any given time. If the characters
       around a mark are deleted the mark will still remain; it will just have
       new  neighbor  characters.  In contrast, if the characters containing a
       tag are deleted then the tag will no longer have  an  association  with
       characters  in  the  file.  Marks may be manipulated with the "pathName
       mark" widget command, and their current locations may be determined  by
       using the mark name as an index in widget commands.

       Each  mark  also  has  a  "gravity", which is either left or right. The
       gravity for a mark specifies what happens to  the  mark  when  text  is
       inserted at the point of the mark. If a mark has left gravity, then the
       mark is treated as if it were attached to the character on its left, so
       the mark will remain to the left of any text inserted at the mark posi-
       tion. If the mark has right gravity, new  text  inserted  at  the  mark
       position  will appear to the left of the mark (so that the mark remains
       rightmost). The gravity for a mark defaults to right.

       The name space for marks is different from that for tags: the same name
       may be used for both a mark and a tag, but they will refer to different
       things.

       Two marks have special significance. First, the mark insert is  associ-
       ated with the insertion cursor, as described under THE INSERTION CURSOR
       below. Second, the mark current is associated with the character  clos-
       est to the mouse and is adjusted automatically to track the mouse posi-
       tion and any changes to the text in the widget (one exception:  current
       is  not updated in response to mouse motions if a mouse button is down;
       the  update  will  be  deferred  until  all  mouse  buttons  have  been
       released).   Neither  of  these  special marks may be deleted. With the
       exception of these two special marks, all marks are shared between peer
       text widgets, and may be manipulated on an equal basis from any peer.

EMBEDDED WINDOWS
       The  third  form  of  annotation in text widgets is an embedded window.
       Each embedded window annotation causes a window to be  displayed  at  a
       particular  point in the text. There may be any number of embedded win-
       dows in a text widget, and any widget may be used as an embedded window
       (subject  to the usual rules for geometry management, which require the
       text window to be the parent of the embedded window or a descendant  of
       its parent).

       The  embedded  window's  position  on the screen will be updated as the
       text is modified or scrolled, and it will be mapped and unmapped as  it
       moves  into and out of the visible area of the text widget. Each embed-
       ded window occupies one unit's worth of index space in the text widget,
       and  it may be referred to either by the name of its embedded window or
       by its position in the widget's index space. If the range of text  con-
       taining  the  embedded  window is deleted then the window is destroyed.
       Similarly if the text widget as a whole is deleted, then the window  is
       destroyed.

       Eliding an embedded window immediately after scheduling it for creation
       via pathName window create index -create will  prevent  it  from  being
       effectively  created. Uneliding an elided embedded window scheduled for
       creation via pathName window create index  -create  will  automatically
       trigger  the  associated  creation  script.  After destroying an elided
       embedded window, the latter won't get automatically recreated.

       When an embedded window is added to a text  widget  with  the  pathName
       window  create  widget  command,  several  configuration options may be
       associated with it. These options may be modified later with the  path-
       Name  window  configure  widget command. The following options are cur-
       rently supported:

       -align where
              If the window is not as tall as the line in  which  it  is  dis-
              played,  this option determines where the window is displayed in
              the line. Where must have one of the values top (align  the  top
              of the window with the top of the line), center (center the win-
              dow within the range of the line), bottom (align the  bottom  of
              the  window  with  the  bottom  of the line's area), or baseline
              (align the bottom of the window with the baseline of the line).

       -create script
              Specifies a Tcl script that may be evaluated to create the  win-
              dow  for the annotation. If no -window option has been specified
              for the annotation this script will be evaluated when the  anno-
              tation  is about to be displayed on the screen. Script must cre-
              ate a window for the annotation and return the name of that win-
              dow as its result. Two substitutions will be performed in script
              before evaluation. %W will be substituted by  the  name  of  the
              parent  text  widget,  and %% will be substituted by a single %.
              If the annotation's window should ever be deleted,  script  will
              be evaluated again the next time the annotation is displayed.

       -padx pixels
              Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on each side
              of the embedded window. It may  have  any  of  the  usual  forms
              defined for a screen distance.

       -pady pixels
              Pixels  specifies  the amount of extra space to leave on the top
              and on the bottom of the embedded window. It may have any of the
              usual forms defined for a screen distance.

       -stretch boolean
              If  the requested height of the embedded window is less than the
              height of the line in which it is displayed, this option can  be
              used  to  specify  whether the window should be stretched verti-
              cally to fill its line. If the -pady option has  been  specified
              as well, then the requested padding will be retained even if the
              window is stretched.

       -window pathName
              Specifies the name of a window to  display  in  the  annotation.
              Note  that  if a pathName has been set, then later configuring a
              window to the empty string will not  delete  the  widget  corre-
              sponding to the old pathName.  Rather it will remove the associ-
              ation between the old pathName and the text widget. If  multiple
              peer  widgets are in use, it is usually simpler to use the -cre-
              ate option if embedded windows are desired in each peer.

EMBEDDED IMAGES
       The final form of annotation in text widgets is an embedded image. Each
       embedded image annotation causes an image to be displayed at a particu-
       lar point in the text. There may be any number of embedded images in  a
       text  widget, and a particular image may be embedded in multiple places
       in the same text widget.

       The embedded image's position on the screen will be updated as the text
       is  modified or scrolled. Each embedded image occupies one unit's worth
       of index space in the text widget, and it may be referred to either  by
       its  position  in  the widget's index space, or the name it is assigned
       when the image is inserted into the text  widget  with  pathName  image
       create.  If  the range of text containing the embedded image is deleted
       then that copy of the image is removed from the screen.

       Eliding an embedded image immediately after scheduling it for  creation
       via  pathName  image  create  index  -create will prevent it from being
       effectively created. Uneliding an elided embedded image  scheduled  for
       creation  via  pathName  image  create index -create will automatically
       trigger the associated creation  script.  After  destroying  an  elided
       embedded image, the latter won't get automatically recreated.

       When  an  embedded  image  is  added to a text widget with the pathName
       image create widget command, a name unique  to  this  instance  of  the
       image  is  returned.  This name may then be used to refer to this image
       instance. The name is taken  to  be  the  value  of  the  -name  option
       (described below). If the -name option is not provided, the -image name
       is used instead.  If the imageName is already in use in the  text  wid-
       get,  then  #nn  is  added  to the end of the imageName, where nn is an
       arbitrary integer. This insures the imageName is unique. Once this name
       is  assigned  to  this  instance of the image, it does not change, even
       though the -image or -name values can be changed  with  pathName  image
       configure.

       When  an  embedded  image  is  added to a text widget with the pathName
       image create widget command, several configuration options may be asso-
       ciated  with  it. These options may be modified later with the pathName
       image configure widget command. The  following  options  are  currently
       supported:

       -align where
              If  the  image  is  not  as tall as the line in which it is dis-
              played, this option determines where the image is  displayed  in
              the  line.  Where must have one of the values top (align the top
              of the image with the top of the line), center (center the image
              within  the  range of the line), bottom (align the bottom of the
              image with the bottom of the line's area),  or  baseline  (align
              the bottom of the image with the baseline of the line).

       -image image
              Specifies the name of the Tk image to display in the annotation.
              If image is not a valid Tk image, then an error is returned.

       -name ImageName
              Specifies the name by which this image instance  may  be  refer-
              enced in the text widget. If ImageName is not supplied, then the
              name of the Tk image  is  used  instead.  If  the  imageName  is
              already  in  use,  #nn  is  appended  to  the end of the name as
              described above.

       -padx pixels
              Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on each side
              of  the  embedded  image.  It  may  have  any of the usual forms
              defined for a screen distance.

       -pady pixels
              Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on  the  top
              and  on the bottom of the embedded image. It may have any of the
              usual forms defined for a screen distance.

THE SELECTION
       Selection support is implemented  via  tags.  If  the  -exportselection
       option  for the text widget is true then the sel tag will be associated
       with the selection:

       [1]    Whenever characters are tagged with sel  the  text  widget  will
              claim ownership of the selection.

       [2]    Attempts  to retrieve the selection will be serviced by the text
              widget, returning all the characters with the sel tag.

       [3]    If the selection is claimed away by another  application  or  by
              another window within this application, then the sel tag will be
              removed from all characters in the text.

       [4]    Whenever the sel tag range changes a virtual event <<Selection>>
              is generated.

       The sel tag is automatically defined when a text widget is created, and
       it may not be deleted with the "pathName tag  delete"  widget  command.
       Furthermore,  the  -selectbackground,  -selectborderwidth, and -select-
       foreground options for the text widget are  tied  to  the  -background,
       -borderwidth,  and  -foreground  options  for  the  sel tag: changes in
       either will automatically be reflected in the other.  Also  the  -inac-
       tiveselectbackground  option  for  the  text  widget is used instead of
       -selectbackground when the text widget does not have  the  focus.  This
       allows  programmatic  control over the visualization of the sel tag for
       foreground and background windows, or to have  sel  not  shown  at  all
       (when  -inactiveselectbackground is empty) for background windows. Each
       peer text widget has its own sel tag which can be separately configured
       and set.

THE INSERTION CURSOR
       The  mark  named insert has special significance in text widgets. It is
       defined automatically when a text widget is created and it may  not  be
       unset  with  the  "pathName mark unset" widget command. The insert mark
       represents the position of the insertion cursor, and the insertion cur-
       sor  will automatically be drawn at this point whenever the text widget
       has the input focus.

THE MODIFIED FLAG
       The text widget can keep track of changes to the content of the  widget
       by means of the modified flag. Inserting or deleting text will set this
       flag. The flag can be queried,  set  and  cleared  programmatically  as
       well.  Whenever  the flag changes state a <<Modified>> virtual event is
       generated. See the pathName  edit  modified  widget  command  for  more
       details.

THE UNDO MECHANISM
       The  text  widget  has  an  unlimited undo and redo mechanism (when the
       -undo widget option is true) which  records  every  insert  and  delete
       action on a stack.

       Boundaries (called "separators") are inserted between edit actions. The
       purpose of these separators is to group inserts, deletes  and  replaces
       into one compound edit action. When undoing a change everything between
       two separators will be undone. The undone changes are then moved to the
       redo stack, so that an undone edit can be redone again.  The redo stack
       is cleared whenever new edit actions are recorded on  the  undo  stack.
       The  undo and redo stacks can be cleared to keep their depth under con-
       trol.

       Separators are inserted automatically when the  -autoseparators  widget
       option  is true. You can insert separators programmatically as well. If
       a separator is already present at the top of the undo  stack  no  other
       will  be inserted. That means that two separators on the undo stack are
       always separated by at least one insert or delete action.

       The <<UndoStack>> virtual event is generated every time the undo  stack
       or the redo stack becomes empty or unempty.

       The undo mechanism is also linked to the modified flag. This means that
       undoing or redoing changes can take a modified text widget back to  the
       unmodified state or vice versa. The modified flag will be set automati-
       cally to the appropriate state. This automatic coupling does  not  work
       when  the  modified  flag  has been set by the user, until the flag has
       been reset again.

       See below for the pathName edit widget command that controls  the  undo
       mechanism.

PEER WIDGETS
       The  text  widget  has a separate store of all its data concerning each
       line's textual contents, marks, tags, images and windows, and the  undo
       stack.

       While  this data store cannot be accessed directly (i.e. without a text
       widget as an intermediary), multiple text widgets can be created,  each
       of which present different views on the same underlying data. Such text
       widgets are known as peer text widgets.

       As text is added, deleted, edited and coloured in any one  widget,  and
       as images, marks, tags are adjusted, all such changes will be reflected
       in all peers.

       All data and markup is shared, except for a few small  details.  First,
       the  sel  tag  may be set and configured (in its display style) differ-
       ently for each peer. Second, each peer has its own insert  and  current
       mark  positions  (but all other marks are shared). Third, embedded win-
       dows, which are arbitrary  other  widgets,  cannot  be  shared  between
       peers.  This  means  the -window option of embedded windows is indepen-
       dently set for each peer (it is advisable to  use  the  -create  script
       capabilities  to  allow each peer to create its own embedded windows as
       needed). Fourth, all of the configuration options of  each  peer  (e.g.
       -font,  etc)  can  be  set  independently, with the exception of -undo,
       -maxundo, -autoseparators (i.e.  all  undo,  redo  and  modified  state
       issues are shared).

       Finally  any single peer need not contain all lines from the underlying
       data store. When creating a peer, a contiguous  range  of  lines  (e.g.
       only lines 52 through 125) may be specified. This allows a peer to con-
       tain just a small portion of the overall text. The range of lines  will
       expand  and contract as text is inserted or deleted. The peer will only
       ever display complete lines of text (one cannot share just  part  of  a
       line).  If  the peer's contents contracts to nothing (i.e. all complete
       lines in the peer widget have been deleted from another  widget),  then
       it  is  impossible  for  new lines to be inserted. The peer will simply
       become an empty shell on which the background can  be  configured,  but
       which  will  never  show any content (without manual reconfiguration of
       the start and end lines). Note that a peer which does not  contain  all
       of  the  underlying data store still has indices numbered from "1.0" to
       "end".  It is simply that those indices reflect a subset of  the  total
       data,  and  data  outside  the contained range is not accessible to the
       peer. This means that the command peerName index end may  return  quite
       different  values in different peers. Similarly, commands like peerName
       tag ranges will not return index ranges outside that which is  meaning-
       ful  to the peer. The configuration options -startline and -endline may
       be used to control how much of the underlying data is contained in  any
       given text widget.

       Note  that  peers are really peers. Deleting the "original" text widget
       will not cause any other peers to be deleted, or otherwise affected.

       See below for the pathName peer widget command that controls  the  cre-
       ation of peer widgets.

ASYNCHRONOUS UPDATE OF LINE HEIGHTS
       In order to maintain a responsive user-experience, the text widget cal-
       culates lines metrics (line heights in pixels) asynchronously.  Because
       of  this,  some commands of the text widget may return wrong results if
       the asynchronous calculations are not finished at the time of  calling.
       This applies to pathName count -ypixels and pathName yview.

       Again for performance reasons, it would not be appropriate to let these
       commands always wait for the end of the update  calculation  each  time
       they  are  called.  In  most use cases of these commands a more or less
       inaccurate result does not really matter compared to execution speed.

       In case accurate result is needed (and if the text widget is managed by
       a geometry manager), one can resort to pathName sync and pathName pend-
       ingsync to control the synchronization of the view of text widgets.

       The <<WidgetViewSync>> virtual event fires when the line heights of the
       text  widget become obsolete (due to some editing command or configura-
       tion change), and again when the internal data of the text  widget  are
       back  in  sync with the widget view. The detail field (%d substitution)
       is either true (when the widget is in sync) or false (when it is not).

       pathName sync, pathName pendingsync  and  <<WidgetViewSync>>  apply  to
       each text widget independently of its peers.

       Examples of use:
              ## Example 1:
              # immediately complete line metrics at any cost (GUI unresponsive)
              $w sync
              $w yview moveto $fraction

              ## Example 2:
              # synchronously wait for up-to-date line metrics (GUI responsive)
              # before executing the scheduled command, but don't block execution flow
              $w sync -command [list $w yview moveto $fraction]

              ## Example 3:
              # init
              set yud($w) 0
              proc updateaction w {
              set ::yud($w) 1
              # any other update action here...
              }
              # runtime, synchronously wait for up-to-date line metrics (GUI responsive)
              $w sync -command [list updateaction $w]
              vwait yud($w)
              $w yview moveto $fraction

              ## Example 4:
              # init
              set todo($w) {}
              proc updateaction w {
              foreach cmd $::todo($w) {uplevel #0 $cmd}
              set todo($w) {}
              }
              # runtime
              lappend todo($w) [list $w yview moveto $fraction]
              $w sync -command [list updateaction $w]

              ## Example 5:
              # init
              set todo($w) {}
              bind $w <<WidgetViewSync>> {
              if {%d} {
              foreach cmd $todo(%W) {eval $cmd}
              set todo(%W) {}
              }
              }
              # runtime
              if {![$w pendingsync]} {
              $w yview moveto $fraction
              } else {
              lappend todo($w) [list $w yview moveto $fraction]
              }

WIDGET COMMAND
       The  text  command  creates a new Tcl command whose name is the same as
       the path name of the text's window. This command may be used to  invoke
       various operations on the widget. It has the following general form:
              pathName option ?arg arg ...?
       PathName is the name of the command, which is the same as the text wid-
       get's path name. Option and the args determine the  exact  behavior  of
       the command. The following commands are possible for text widgets:

       pathName bbox index
              Returns  a  list  of four elements describing the screen area of
              the character given by index. The first two elements of the list
              give  the  x  and  y coordinates of the upper-left corner of the
              area occupied by the character, and the last two  elements  give
              the  width and height of the area. If the character is only par-
              tially visible on the screen, then  the  return  value  reflects
              just  the  visible  part. If the character is not visible on the
              screen then the return value is an empty list.

       pathName cget option
              Returns the current value of the configuration option  given  by
              option.   Option may have any of the values accepted by the text
              command.

       pathName compare index1 op index2
              Compares the indices given by index1 and index2 according to the
              relational  operator given by op, and returns 1 if the relation-
              ship is satisfied and 0 if it is not. Op  must  be  one  of  the
              operators  <,  <=,  ==,  >=,  >,  or  !=.  If op is == then 1 is
              returned if the two indices refer to the same character,  if  op
              is < then 1 is returned if index1 refers to an earlier character
              in the text than index2, and so on.

       pathName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
              Query or modify the configuration options of the widget.  If  no
              option is specified, returns a list describing all of the avail-
              able options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for  information
              on  the  format  of  this  list). If option is specified with no
              value, then the command returns a list describing the one  named
              option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist
              of the value returned if no option is specified). If one or more
              option-value  pairs are specified, then the command modifies the
              given widget option(s) to have the given value(s); in this  case
              the  command returns an empty string. Option may have any of the
              values accepted by the text command.

       pathName count ?options? index1 index2
              Counts the number of relevant things between the two indices. If
              index1  is  after  index2,  the result will be a negative number
              (and this holds for each of the possible  options).  The  actual
              items  which are counted depend on the options given. The result
              is a list of integers, one  for  the  result  of  each  counting
              option  given. Valid counting options are -chars, -displaychars,
              -displayindices, -displaylines, -indices, -lines,  -xpixels  and
              -ypixels.  The  default  value,  if  no  option is specified, is
              -indices. There is an additional possible option  -update  which
              is  a modifier. If given (and if the text widget is managed by a
              geometry manager), then all subsequent options ensure  that  any
              possible  out  of  date  information is recalculated.  This cur-
              rently only has any effect for the  -ypixels  count  (which,  if
              -update  is not given, will use the text widget's current cached
              value for each line). This -update option is obsoleted by  path-
              Name  sync,  pathName  pendingsync  and <<WidgetViewSync>>.  The
              count options are interpreted as follows:

              -chars count all characters, whether elided or not. Do not count
                     embedded windows or images.

              -displaychars
                     count all non-elided characters.

              -displayindices
                     count all non-elided characters, windows and images.

              -displaylines
                     count  all display lines (i.e. counting one for each time
                     a line wraps) from the line of the first index up to, but
                     not  including  the  display  line  of  the second index.
                     Therefore if they are both on the same display line, zero
                     will  be returned. By definition displaylines are visible
                     and therefore this only counts portions of actual visible
                     lines.

              -indices
                     count all characters and embedded windows or images (i.e.
                     everything which  counts  in  text-widget  index  space),
                     whether they are elided or not.

              -lines count  all  logical lines (irrespective of wrapping) from
                     the line of the first index up to, but not including  the
                     line  of  the second index. Therefore if they are both on
                     the same line, zero will be returned. Logical  lines  are
                     counted  whether  they are currently visible (non-elided)
                     or not.

              -xpixels
                     count the number of  horizontal  pixels  from  the  first
                     pixel of the first index to (but not including) the first
                     pixel of the second index. To  count  the  total  desired
                     width  of  the  text  widget  (assuming  wrapping  is not
                     enabled), first find the longest line and then use ".text
                     count -xpixels "${line}.0" "${line}.0 lineend"".

              -ypixels
                     count  the number of vertical pixels from the first pixel
                     of the first index to (but not including) the first pixel
                     of the second index. If both indices are on the same dis-
                     play line, zero will be returned. To count the total num-
                     ber  of  vertical  pixels  in the text widget, use ".text
                     count -ypixels 1.0 end", and to  ensure  this  is  up  to
                     date, use ".text count -update -ypixels 1.0 end".

              The command returns a positive or negative integer corresponding
              to the number of items counted between the two indices. One such
              integer is returned for each counting option given, so a list is
              returned if more than  one  option  was  supplied.  For  example
              ".text  count  -xpixels -ypixels 1.3 4.5" is perfectly valid and
              will return a list of two elements.

       pathName debug ?boolean?
              If boolean is specified, then it must have one of  the  true  or
              false  values accepted by Tcl_GetBoolean. If the value is a true
              one then internal consistency checks will be turned on in the B-
              tree  code  associated with text widgets. If boolean has a false
              value then the debugging checks will be turned  off.  In  either
              case  the  command  returns  an  empty string. If boolean is not
              specified then the command returns on or off to indicate whether
              or  not  debugging  is  turned  on.  There is a single debugging
              switch shared by all text widgets: turning debugging on  or  off
              in  any  widget  turns it on or off for all widgets. For widgets
              with large amounts of text, the consistency checks may  cause  a
              noticeable slow-down.

              When  debugging  is  turned on, the drawing routines of the text
              widget set the global variables tk_textRedraw and  tk_textRelay-
              out  to  the  lists  of  indices that are redrawn. The values of
              these variables are tested by Tk's test suite.

       pathName delete index1 ?index2 ...?
              Delete a range of characters from the text.  If both index1  and
              index2  are  specified,  then delete all the characters starting
              with the one given by index1 and  stopping  just  before  index2
              (i.e.  the  character at index2 is not deleted).  If index2 does
              not specify a position later in the text  than  index1  then  no
              characters  are  deleted.   If  index2 is not specified then the
              single character at index1 is deleted.  Attempts to delete char-
              acters  in  a way that would leave the text without a newline as
              the last character will be tweaked by the text widget  to  avoid
              this.  In  particular,  deletion of complete lines of text up to
              the end of the text will also delete the newline character  just
              before the deleted block so that it is replaced by the new final
              newline of the  text  widget.   The  command  returns  an  empty
              string.  If more indices are given, multiple ranges of text will
              be deleted.  All indices are first checked for  validity  before
              any deletions are made.  They are sorted and the text is removed
              from the last range to the first range so deleted text does  not
              cause  an  undesired  index  shifting side-effects.  If multiple
              ranges with the same start index are  given,  then  the  longest
              range  is used.  If overlapping ranges are given, then they will
              be merged into spans that do not cause deletion of text  outside
              the given ranges due to text shifted during deletion.

       pathName dlineinfo index
              Returns  a  list with five elements describing the area occupied
              by the display line containing index. The first two elements  of
              the  list  give the x and y coordinates of the upper-left corner
              of the area occupied by the line, the third and fourth  elements
              give  the  width  and  height of the area, and the fifth element
              gives the position of the baseline for the line,  measured  down
              from the top of the area. All of this information is measured in
              pixels. If the current wrap mode is none and  the  line  extends
              beyond  the boundaries of the window, the area returned reflects
              the entire area of the line, including the portions that are out
              of the window. If the line is shorter than the full width of the
              window then the area returned reflects just the portion  of  the
              line that is occupied by characters and embedded windows. If the
              display line containing index is not visible on the screen  then
              the return value is an empty list.

       pathName dump ?switches? index1 ?index2?
              Return  the  contents  of the text widget from index1 up to, but
              not including index2, including the text and  information  about
              marks,  tags,  and embedded windows. If index2 is not specified,
              then it defaults to one character past index1.  The  information
              is returned in the following format:

              key1 value1 index1 key2 value2 index2 ...

              The  possible  key  values are text, mark, tagon, tagoff, image,
              and window. The corresponding value is the text, mark name,  tag
              name,  image  name, or window name. The index information is the
              index of the start of the text, mark, tag transition,  image  or
              window.  One or more of the following switches (or abbreviations
              thereof) may be specified to control the dump:

              -all   Return information about all elements: text, marks, tags,
                     images and windows.  This is the default.

              -command command
                     Instead of returning the information as the result of the
                     dump operation, invoke the command on each element of the
                     text  widget  within  the  range.   The command has three
                     arguments appended to it before it is evaluated: the key,
                     value, and index.

              -image Include information about images in the dump results.

              -mark  Include information about marks in the dump results.

              -tag   Include  information  about  tag  transitions in the dump
                     results. Tag information is returned as tagon and  tagoff
                     elements that indicate the begin and end of each range of
                     each tag, respectively.

              -text  Include information about text in the dump  results.  The
                     value  is  the  text up to the next element or the end of
                     range indicated by index2. A text element does  not  span
                     newlines.  A  multi-line  block  of text that contains no
                     marks or tag transitions will still be dumped as a set of
                     text  segments  that each end with a newline. The newline
                     is part of the value.

              -window
                     Include information about embedded windows  in  the  dump
                     results. The value of a window is its Tk pathname, unless
                     the window has not been created yet. (It must have a cre-
                     ate  script.)  In  this case an empty string is returned,
                     and you must query the window by its  index  position  to
                     get more information.

       pathName edit option ?arg arg ...?
              This  command controls the undo mechanism and the modified flag.
              The exact behavior of the command depends on the option argument
              that  follows the edit argument. The following forms of the com-
              mand are currently supported:

              pathName edit canredo
                     Returns a boolean true if redo is possible, i.e. when the
                     redo stack is not empty. Otherwise returns false.

              pathName edit canundo
                     Returns a boolean true if undo is possible, i.e. when the
                     undo stack is not empty. Otherwise returns false.

              pathName edit modified ?boolean?
                     If boolean is not specified, returns the modified flag of
                     the  widget.  The insert, delete, edit undo and edit redo
                     commands or the user can set or clear the modified  flag.
                     If  boolean  is  specified, sets the modified flag of the
                     widget to boolean.

              pathName edit redo
                     When the -undo option is true, reapplies the last  undone
                     edits  provided no other edits were done since then. Gen-
                     erates an error when the redo stack is empty. Does  noth-
                     ing when the -undo option is false.

              pathName edit reset
                     Clears the undo and redo stacks.

              pathName edit separator
                     Inserts  a  separator  (boundary) on the undo stack. Does
                     nothing when the -undo option is false.

              pathName edit undo
                     Undoes the last edit action  when  the  -undo  option  is
                     true.  An  edit  action  is defined as all the insert and
                     delete commands that are recorded on the  undo  stack  in
                     between  two separators. Generates an error when the undo
                     stack is empty. Does nothing when  the  -undo  option  is
                     false.

       pathName get ?-displaychars? ?--? index1 ?index2 ...?
              Return  a  range  of  characters from the text. The return value
              will be all the characters in the text  starting  with  the  one
              whose index is index1 and ending just before the one whose index
              is index2 (the character at index2 will  not  be  returned).  If
              index2  is  omitted  then  the  single  character  at  index1 is
              returned. If there are no  characters  in  the  specified  range
              (e.g.  index1 is past the end of the file or index2 is less than
              or equal to index1) then an empty string  is  returned.  If  the
              specified  range contains embedded windows, no information about
              them is included in the returned string. If multiple index pairs
              are  given,  multiple ranges of text will be returned in a list.
              Invalid ranges will not be represented with empty strings in the
              list.  The  ranges  are returned in the order passed to pathName
              get. If the -displaychars option is  given,  then,  within  each
              range,  only  those  characters  which  are  not  elided will be
              returned. This may have the effect that  some  of  the  returned
              ranges are empty strings.

       pathName image option ?arg arg ...?
              This command is used to manipulate embedded images. The behavior
              of the command depends on the option argument that  follows  the
              tag  argument.  The following forms of the command are currently
              supported:

              pathName image cget index option
                     Returns the value of a configuration option for an embed-
                     ded  image.  Index  identifies  the  embedded  image, and
                     option specifies a particular configuration option, which
                     must  be  one  of the ones listed in the section EMBEDDED
                     IMAGES.

              pathName image configure index ?option value ...?
                     Query or modify the configuration options for an embedded
                     image. If no option is specified, returns a list describ-
                     ing all of the available options for the  embedded  image
                     at  index  (see  Tk_ConfigureInfo  for information on the
                     format of this list). If  option  is  specified  with  no
                     value, then the command returns a list describing the one
                     named option (this list will be identical to  the  corre-
                     sponding  sublist  of  the value returned if no option is
                     specified). If one or more option-value pairs are  speci-
                     fied,  then  the  command modifies the given option(s) to
                     have the given value(s); in this case the command returns
                     an  empty  string. See EMBEDDED IMAGES for information on
                     the options that are supported.

              pathName image create index ?option value ...?
                     This command creates a new image annotation,  which  will
                     appear  in  the  text at the position given by index. Any
                     number of option-value pairs may be specified to  config-
                     ure  the annotation. Returns a unique identifier that may
                     be used as an index to refer to this image. See  EMBEDDED
                     IMAGES for information on the options that are supported,
                     and a description of the identifier returned.

              pathName image names
                     Returns a list whose elements are the names of all  image
                     instances currently embedded in window.

       pathName index index
              Returns   the  position  corresponding  to  index  in  the  form
              line.char where line is the line number and char is the  charac-
              ter  number.   Index  may  have any of the forms described under
              INDICES above.

       pathName insert index chars ?tagList chars tagList ...?
              Inserts all of the chars arguments just before the character  at
              index.  If  index  refers  to the end of the text (the character
              after the last newline) then  the  new  text  is  inserted  just
              before  the  last  newline  instead.  If there is a single chars
              argument and no tagList, then the new text will receive any tags
              that  are present on both the character before and the character
              after the insertion point; if a tag is present on  only  one  of
              these characters then it will not be applied to the new text. If
              tagList is specified then it consists of a list  of  tag  names;
              the new characters will receive all of the tags in this list and
              no others, regardless of the tags present around  the  insertion
              point.  If  multiple  chars-tagList  argument pairs are present,
              they produce the same effect as if a  separate  pathName  insert
              widget command had been issued for each pair, in order. The last
              tagList argument may be omitted.

       pathName mark option ?arg arg ...?
              This command is used to manipulate marks. The exact behavior  of
              the command depends on the option argument that follows the mark
              argument. The following forms of the command are currently  sup-
              ported:

              pathName mark gravity markName ?direction?
                     If  direction  is not specified, returns left or right to
                     indicate which of its  adjacent  characters  markName  is
                     attached  to.  If direction is specified, it must be left
                     or right; the gravity of markName is  set  to  the  given
                     value.

              pathName mark names
                     Returns  a  list  whose elements are the names of all the
                     marks that are currently set.

              pathName mark next index
                     Returns the name of the next mark at or after  index.  If
                     index is specified in numerical form, then the search for
                     the next mark begins at that index. If index is the  name
                     of a mark, then the search for the next mark begins imme-
                     diately after that mark. This can still return a mark  at
                     the same position if there are multiple marks at the same
                     index. These semantics mean that the mark next  operation
                     can  be used to step through all the marks in a text wid-
                     get in the same order as the mark information returned by
                     the  pathName  dump  operation. If a mark has been set to
                     the special end index, then it appears to  be  after  end
                     with  respect  to  the  pathName  mark next operation. An
                     empty string is returned if  there  are  no  marks  after
                     index.

              pathName mark previous index
                     Returns the name of the mark at or before index. If index
                     is specified in numerical form, then the search  for  the
                     previous  mark begins with the character just before that
                     index. If index is the name of a mark,  then  the  search
                     for  the  next  mark begins immediately before that mark.
                     This can still return a mark  at  the  same  position  if
                     there  are multiple marks at the same index. These seman-
                     tics mean that the pathName mark previous  operation  can
                     be used to step through all the marks in a text widget in
                     the reverse order as the mark information returned by the
                     pathName  dump  operation. An empty string is returned if
                     there are no marks before index.

              pathName mark set markName index
                     Sets the mark named markName to a  position  just  before
                     the character at index. If markName already exists, it is
                     moved from its old position; if it does not exist, a  new
                     mark is created. This command returns an empty string.

              pathName mark unset markName ?markName markName ...?
                     Remove  the  mark  corresponding  to each of the markName
                     arguments. The  removed  marks  will  not  be  usable  in
                     indices  and  will  not  be  returned  by future calls to
                     "pathName mark names".  This  command  returns  an  empty
                     string.

       pathName peer option args
              This  command  is  used to create and query widget peers. It has
              two forms, depending on option:

              pathName peer create newPathName ?options?
                     Creates a peer text widget with  the  given  newPathName,
                     and  any  optional standard configuration options (as for
                     the text command). By default the peer will have the same
                     start and end line as the parent widget, but these can be
                     overridden with the standard configuration options.

              pathName peer names
                     Returns a list of peers of this  widget  (this  does  not
                     include the widget itself). The order within this list is
                     undefined.

       pathName pendingsync
              Returns 1 if the line heights calculations are not up-to-date, 0
              otherwise.

       pathName replace index1 index2 chars ?tagList chars tagList ...?
              Replaces  the range of characters between index1 and index2 with
              the given characters and tags.   See  the  section  on  pathName
              insert  for  an  explanation  of  the handling of the tagList...
              arguments, and the section on pathName delete for an explanation
              of  the  handling  of  the indices.  If index2 corresponds to an
              index earlier in the text than index1, an error will  be  gener-
              ated.

              The  deletion  and insertion are arranged so that no unnecessary
              scrolling of the window or movement of insertion cursor  occurs.
              In  addition the undo/redo stack are correctly modified, if undo
              operations are active in the text widget. The command returns an
              empty string.

       pathName scan option args
              This  command is used to implement scanning on texts. It has two
              forms, depending on option:

              pathName scan mark x y
                     Records x and y and the current view in the text  window,
                     for  use  in  conjunction with later pathName scan dragto
                     commands. Typically this command  is  associated  with  a
                     mouse  button  press  in  the widget. It returns an empty
                     string.

              pathName scan dragto x y
                     This command computes the difference between its x and  y
                     arguments  and the x and y arguments to the last pathName
                     scan mark command for the widget.  It  then  adjusts  the
                     view by 10 times the difference in coordinates. This com-
                     mand is typically associated with mouse motion events  in
                     the widget, to produce the effect of dragging the text at
                     high speed through the window. The  return  value  is  an
                     empty string.

       pathName search ?switches? pattern index ?stopIndex?
              Searches  the  text in pathName starting at index for a range of
              characters that matches pattern. If a match is found, the  index
              of  the first character in the match is returned as result; oth-
              erwise an empty string is returned. One or more of the following
              switches  (or abbreviations thereof) may be specified to control
              the search:

              -forwards
                     The search will proceed forward through the text, finding
                     the  first  matching range starting at or after the posi-
                     tion given by index. This is the default.

              -backwards
                     The search will proceed backward through the text,  find-
                     ing the matching range closest to index whose first char-
                     acter is before index (it is not allowed to be at index).
                     Note  that,  for a variety of reasons, backwards searches
                     can be substantially slower than forwards searches  (par-
                     ticularly  when using -regexp), so it is recommended that
                     performance-critical code use forward searches.

              -exact Use exact matching: the characters in the matching  range
                     must  be  identical  to  those  in  pattern.  This is the
                     default.

              -regexp
                     Treat pattern  as  a  regular  expression  and  match  it
                     against  the text using the rules for regular expressions
                     (see the  regexp  command  and  the  re_syntax  page  for
                     details).  The default matching automatically passes both
                     the -lineanchor  and  -linestop  options  to  the  regexp
                     engine  (unless  -nolinestop  is  used), so that ^$ match
                     beginning and end of line, and ., [^ sequences will never
                     match the newline character \n.

              -nolinestop
                     This allows . and [^ sequences to match the newline char-
                     acter \n, which they will otherwise not do (see the  reg-
                     exp  command for details). This option is only meaningful
                     if -regexp is also given, and an  error  will  be  thrown
                     otherwise.  For  example,  to  match the entire text, use
                     "pathName search -nolinestop -regexp ".*" 1.0".

              -nocase
                     Ignore case differences between the pattern and the text.

              -count varName
                     The argument following -count gives the name of  a  vari-
                     able;  if a match is found, the number of index positions
                     between beginning and end of the matching range  will  be
                     stored  in  the variable. If there are no embedded images
                     or windows in the matching range (and there are no elided
                     characters if -elide is not given), this is equivalent to
                     the number of characters matched.  In  either  case,  the
                     range matchIdx to matchIdx + $count chars will return the
                     entire matched text.

              -all   Find all matches in the given range and return a list  of
                     the  indices  of  the first character of each match. If a
                     -count varName switch is given, then varName is also  set
                     to  a  list  containing  one  element for each successful
                     match. Note that, even for exact searches,  the  elements
                     of  this  list  may  be  different, if there are embedded
                     images, windows  or  hidden  text.   Searches  with  -all
                     behave  very similarly to the Tcl command regexp -all, in
                     that overlapping matches are not normally  returned.  For
                     example,  applying  an  -all  search of the pattern "\w+"
                     against "hello there" will just  match  twice,  once  for
                     each  word,  and  matching "Z[a-z]+Z" against "ZooZooZoo"
                     will just match once.

              -overlap
                     When performing -all searches, the  normal  behaviour  is
                     that  matches  which  overlap an already-found match will
                     not be returned. This switch changes  that  behaviour  so
                     that  all  matches  which are not totally enclosed within
                     another match are  returned.  For  example,  applying  an
                     -overlap  search  of  the  pattern  "\w+"  against "hello
                     there" will just match twice (i.e. no different  to  just
                     -all),  but  matching "Z[a-z]+Z" against "ZooZooZoo" will
                     now match twice. An error will be thrown if  this  switch
                     is used without -all.

              -strictlimits
                     When  performing any search, the normal behaviour is that
                     the start and stop limits are checked with respect to the
                     start  of the matching text. With the -strictlimits flag,
                     the entire matching range must lie inside the  start  and
                     stop limits specified for the match to be valid.

              -elide Find  elided  (hidden) text as well. By default only dis-
                     played text is searched.

              --     This switch has no effect except to terminate the list of
                     switches:  the  next  argument will be treated as pattern
                     even if it starts with -.

              The matching range may be within a single line of text,  or  run
              across  multiple lines (if parts of the pattern can match a new-
              line). For regular expression matching one can use  the  various
              newline-matching  features such as $ to match the end of a line,
              ^ to match the beginning of a line, and to control whether .  is
              allowed  to  match  a  new-line.  If stopIndex is specified, the
              search stops at that index: for forward searches, no match at or
              after  stopIndex  will  be considered; for backward searches, no
              match earlier in the text than stopIndex will be considered.  If
              stopIndex is omitted, the entire text will be searched: when the
              beginning or end of the text is reached, the search continues at
              the  other  end until the starting location is reached again; if
              stopIndex is specified, no wrap-around will  occur.  This  means
              that,  for  example, if the search is -forwards but stopIndex is
              earlier in the text than startIndex, nothing will ever be found.
              See  KNOWN  BUGS  below for a number of minor limitations of the
              pathName search command.

       pathName see index
              Adjusts the view in the window so that the  character  given  by
              index  is  completely  visible. If index is already visible then
              the command does nothing. If index is a short  distance  out  of
              view,  the  command  adjusts  the view just enough to make index
              visible at the edge of the window.  If index is far out of view,
              then the command centers index in the window.

       pathName sync ?-command command?
              Controls the synchronization of the view of the text widget.

              pathName sync
                     Immediately brings the line metrics up-to-date by forcing
                     computation of any outdated  line  heights.  The  command
                     returns  immediately  if  there  is no such outdated line
                     heights, otherwise it returns only at the end of the com-
                     putation.  The command returns an empty string.

              pathName sync -command command
                     Schedules  command  to  be  executed  (by the event loop)
                     exactly once as soon as all line heights are  up-to-date.
                     If  there  are  no pending line metrics calculations, the
                     scheduling is immediate. The command  returns  the  empty
                     string. bgerror is called on command failure.

       pathName tag option ?arg arg ...?
              This  command  is used to manipulate tags. The exact behavior of
              the command depends on the option argument that follows the  tag
              argument.  The following forms of the command are currently sup-
              ported:

              pathName tag add tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...?
                     Associate the tag tagName  with  all  of  the  characters
                     starting  with  index1 and ending just before index2 (the
                     character at index2 is not tagged). A single command  may
                     contain  any  number  of index1-index2 pairs. If the last
                     index2 is omitted then the single character at index1  is
                     tagged. If there are no characters in the specified range
                     (e.g. index1 is past the end of the  file  or  index2  is
                     less  than  or  equal  to index1) then the command has no
                     effect.

              pathName tag bind tagName ?sequence? ?script?
                     This command associates script with the tag given by tag-
                     Name.   Whenever  the  event  sequence  given by sequence
                     occurs for a character that has been tagged with tagName,
                     the  script will be invoked. This widget command is simi-
                     lar to the bind command except that it operates on  char-
                     acters in a text rather than entire widgets. See the bind
                     manual entry  for  complete  details  on  the  syntax  of
                     sequence and the substitutions performed on script before
                     invoking it. If all arguments are specified  then  a  new
                     binding  is  created,  replacing any existing binding for
                     the same sequence and tagName (if the first character  of
                     script  is  "+"  then script augments an existing binding
                     rather than replacing it). In this case the return  value
                     is an empty string. If script is omitted then the command
                     returns the script associated with tagName  and  sequence
                     (an  error  occurs  if there is no such binding). If both
                     script and sequence are omitted then the command  returns
                     a  list of all the sequences for which bindings have been
                     defined for tagName.

                     The only events for which bindings may be  specified  are
                     those  related  to the mouse and keyboard (such as Enter,
                     Leave, ButtonPress,  Motion,  and  KeyPress)  or  virtual
                     events.  Event bindings for a text widget use the current
                     mark described under MARKS above. An Enter event triggers
                     for  a tag when the tag first becomes present on the cur-
                     rent character, and a Leave event triggers for a tag when
                     it  ceases  to be present on the current character. Enter
                     and Leave events can happen either  because  the  current
                     mark  moved  or  because  the  character at that position
                     changed. Note that these events are different than  Enter
                     and  Leave  events for windows. Mouse and keyboard events
                     are directed to the current character. If a virtual event
                     is  used  in  a binding, that binding can trigger only if
                     the virtual event is  defined  by  an  underlying  mouse-
                     related or keyboard-related event.

                     It is possible for the current character to have multiple
                     tags, and for each of them to have a binding for  a  par-
                     ticular  event sequence. When this occurs, one binding is
                     invoked for each tag, in order  from  lowest-priority  to
                     highest priority. If there are multiple matching bindings
                     for a single tag, then the most specific binding is  cho-
                     sen  (see  the  manual  entry  for  the  bind command for
                     details). continue  and  break  commands  within  binding
                     scripts  are  processed  in  the same way as for bindings
                     created with the bind command.

                     If bindings are created for the widget as a  whole  using
                     the bind command, then those bindings will supplement the
                     tag bindings. The tag bindings  will  be  invoked  first,
                     followed by bindings for the window as a whole.

              pathName tag cget tagName option
                     This  command  returns  the  current  value of the option
                     named option associated with the tag  given  by  tagName.
                     Option  may  have any of the values accepted by the path-
                     Name tag configure widget command.

              pathName tag configure tagName ?option?  ?value?  ?option  value
              ...?
                     This  command is similar to the pathName configure widget
                     command except that it modifies options  associated  with
                     the tag given by tagName instead of modifying options for
                     the overall text widget. If no option is  specified,  the
                     command  returns  a  list describing all of the available
                     options for tagName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information
                     on  the format of this list). If option is specified with
                     no value, then the command returns a list describing  the
                     one named option (this list will be identical to the cor-
                     responding sublist of the value returned if no option  is
                     specified).  If one or more option-value pairs are speci-
                     fied, then the command modifies the  given  option(s)  to
                     have the given value(s) in tagName; in this case the com-
                     mand returns an empty string.  See TAGS above for details
                     on the options available for tags.

              pathName tag delete tagName ?tagName ...?
                     Deletes all tag information for each of the tagName argu-
                     ments. The command removes the tags from  all  characters
                     in  the file and also deletes any other information asso-
                     ciated with the tags, such as bindings and display infor-
                     mation. The command returns an empty string.

              pathName tag lower tagName ?belowThis?
                     Changes  the  priority  of tag tagName so that it is just
                     lower in priority than the tag whose name  is  belowThis.
                     If  belowThis  is  omitted,  then  tagName's  priority is
                     changed to make it lowest priority of all tags.

              pathName tag names ?index?
                     Returns a list whose elements are the names  of  all  the
                     tags  that  are active at the character position given by
                     index. If index is omitted, then the  return  value  will
                     describe  all  of  the tags that exist for the text (this
                     includes all tags that have been  named  in  a  "pathName
                     tag" widget command but have not been deleted by a "path-
                     Name tag delete" widget command, even  if  no  characters
                     are  currently  marked  with  the  tag). The list will be
                     sorted in order from lowest priority to highest priority.

              pathName tag nextrange tagName index1 ?index2?
                     This command searches the text for a range of  characters
                     tagged  with  tagName  where  the  first character of the
                     range is no earlier than the character at index1  and  no
                     later  than  the  character  just  before index2 (a range
                     starting at index2 will not be  considered).  If  several
                     matching  ranges exist, the first one is chosen. The com-
                     mand's return value is a list  containing  two  elements,
                     which  are  the index of the first character of the range
                     and the index of the character just after the last one in
                     the  range. If no matching range is found then the return
                     value is an empty string. If index2 is not given then  it
                     defaults to the end of the text.

              pathName tag prevrange tagName index1 ?index2?
                     This  command searches the text for a range of characters
                     tagged with tagName where  the  first  character  of  the
                     range  is  before  the character at index1 and no earlier
                     than the character at index2 (a range starting at  index2
                     will  be  considered).  If several matching ranges exist,
                     the one closest to index1 is chosen. The command's return
                     value  is  a  list containing two elements, which are the
                     index of the first character of the range and  the  index
                     of the character just after the last one in the range. If
                     no matching range is found then the return  value  is  an
                     empty string.  If index2 is not given then it defaults to
                     the beginning of the text.

              pathName tag raise tagName ?aboveThis?
                     Changes the priority of tag tagName so that  it  is  just
                     higher  in priority than the tag whose name is aboveThis.
                     If aboveThis  is  omitted,  then  tagName's  priority  is
                     changed to make it highest priority of all tags.

              pathName tag ranges tagName
                     Returns  a list describing all of the ranges of text that
                     have been tagged with tagName. The first two elements  of
                     the list describe the first tagged range in the text, the
                     next two elements describe the second range, and  so  on.
                     The  first element of each pair contains the index of the
                     first character of the range, and the second  element  of
                     the  pair  contains the index of the character just after
                     the last one in the range. If  there  are  no  characters
                     tagged with tag then an empty string is returned.

              pathName tag remove tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...?
                     Remove  the tag tagName from all of the characters start-
                     ing at index1 and ending just before index2 (the  charac-
                     ter at index2 is not affected). A single command may con-
                     tain any number  of  index1-index2  pairs.  If  the  last
                     index2 is omitted then the tag is removed from the single
                     character at index1. If there are no  characters  in  the
                     specified  range (e.g. index1 is past the end of the file
                     or index2 is less than or equal to index1) then the  com-
                     mand has no effect. This command returns an empty string.

       pathName window option ?arg arg ...?
              This  command is used to manipulate embedded windows. The behav-
              ior of the command depends on the option argument  that  follows
              the window argument. The following forms of the command are cur-
              rently supported:

              pathName window cget index option
                     Returns the value of a configuration option for an embed-
                     ded  window.   Index  identifies the embedded window, and
                     option specifies a particular configuration option, which
                     must  be  one  of the ones listed in the section EMBEDDED
                     WINDOWS.

              pathName window configure index ?option value ...?
                     Query or modify the configuration options for an embedded
                     window.  If  no  option  is  specified,  returns  a  list
                     describing all of the available options for the  embedded
                     window  at index (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information on
                     the format of this list). If option is specified with  no
                     value, then the command returns a list describing the one
                     named option (this list will be identical to  the  corre-
                     sponding  sublist  of  the value returned if no option is
                     specified). If one or more option-value pairs are  speci-
                     fied,  then  the  command modifies the given option(s) to
                     have the given value(s); in this case the command returns
                     an  empty string. See EMBEDDED WINDOWS for information on
                     the options that are supported.

              pathName window create index ?option value ...?
                     This command creates a new window annotation, which  will
                     appear  in  the  text at the position given by index. Any
                     number of option-value pairs may be specified to  config-
                     ure  the annotation. See EMBEDDED WINDOWS for information
                     on the options  that  are  supported.  Returns  an  empty
                     string.

              pathName window names
                     Returns  a  list whose elements are the names of all win-
                     dows currently embedded in window.

       pathName xview option args
              This command is used to query and change the horizontal position
              of  the text in the widget's window. It can take any of the fol-
              lowing forms:

              pathName xview
                     Returns a list containing two elements. Each element is a
                     real fraction between 0 and 1; together they describe the
                     portion of the document's horizontal span that is visible
                     in  the  window.  For example, if the first element is .2
                     and the second element is .6, 20% of  the  text  is  off-
                     screen to the left, the middle 40% is visible in the win-
                     dow, and 40% of the text is off-screen to the right.  The
                     fractions refer only to the lines that are actually visi-
                     ble in the window: if the lines in  the  window  are  all
                     very  short,  so  that  they  are  entirely  visible, the
                     returned fractions will be 0 and 1,  even  if  there  are
                     other lines in the text that are much wider than the win-
                     dow.  These are the same values passed to scrollbars  via
                     the -xscrollcommand option.

              pathName xview moveto fraction
                     Adjusts  the  view  in the window so that fraction of the
                     horizontal span of the text is off-screen  to  the  left.
                     Fraction is a fraction between 0 and 1.

              pathName xview scroll number what
                     This  command shifts the view in the window left or right
                     according to number and what. What must be  units,  pages
                     or  pixels. If what is units or pages then number must be
                     an integer, otherwise number may be specified in  any  of
                     the  forms  acceptable to Tk_GetPixels, such as "2.0c" or
                     "1i" (the result is rounded to the nearest integer value.
                     If  no  units  are given, pixels are assumed). If what is
                     units, the view adjusts left or right by number  average-
                     width  characters on the display; if it is pages then the
                     view adjusts by number screenfuls; if it is  pixels  then
                     the  view adjusts by number pixels. If number is negative
                     then characters farther to the left become visible; if it
                     is  positive  then characters farther to the right become
                     visible.

       pathName yview ?args?
              This command is used to query and change the  vertical  position
              of  the text in the widget's window. It can take any of the fol-
              lowing forms:

              pathName yview
                     Returns a list containing two elements, both of which are
                     real  fractions  between 0 and 1. The first element gives
                     the position of the first  visible  pixel  of  the  first
                     character  (or image, etc) in the top line in the window,
                     relative to the text as a whole (0.5 means it is  halfway
                     through  the text, for example). The second element gives
                     the position of the first pixel just after the last visi-
                     ble one in the bottom line of the window, relative to the
                     text as a whole. These are  the  same  values  passed  to
                     scrollbars via the -yscrollcommand option.

              pathName yview moveto fraction
                     Adjusts the view in the window so that the pixel given by
                     fraction appears at the top of the top line of  the  win-
                     dow.  Fraction is a fraction between 0 and 1; 0 indicates
                     the first pixel of the first character in the text,  0.33
                     indicates the pixel that is one-third the way through the
                     text; and so on. Values close to 1 will  indicate  values
                     close to the last pixel in the text (1 actually refers to
                     one pixel beyond the last pixel), but in such  cases  the
                     widget  will never scroll beyond the last pixel, and so a
                     value of 1 will effectively be rounded back  to  whatever
                     fraction  ensures  the last pixel is at the bottom of the
                     window, and some other pixel is at the top.

              pathName yview scroll number what
                     This command adjust the view in the  window  up  or  down
                     according  to  number and what. What must be units, pages
                     or pixels. If what is units or pages then number must  be
                     an  integer,  otherwise number may be specified in any of
                     the forms acceptable to Tk_GetPixels, such as  "2.0c"  or
                     "1i" (the result is rounded to the nearest integer value.
                     If no units are given, pixels are assumed).  If  what  is
                     units, the view adjusts up or down by number lines on the
                     display; if it is pages then the view adjusts  by  number
                     screenfuls; if it is pixels then the view adjusts by num-
                     ber pixels. If number is negative then earlier  positions
                     in  the text become visible; if it is positive then later
                     positions in the text become visible.

              pathName yview ?-pickplace? index
                     Changes the view in the widget's  window  to  make  index
                     visible.  If  the -pickplace option is not specified then
                     index will appear at the top of the window. If -pickplace
                     is  specified then the widget chooses where index appears
                     in the window:

                     [1]    If index is already visible somewhere in the  win-
                            dow then the command does nothing.

                     [2]    If  index is only a few lines off-screen above the
                            window then it will be positioned at  the  top  of
                            the window.

                     [3]    If  index is only a few lines off-screen below the
                            window then it will be positioned at the bottom of
                            the window.

                     [4]    Otherwise, index will be centered in the window.

                     The  -pickplace option has been obsoleted by the pathName
                     see widget command (pathName see handles both x-  and  y-
                     motion to make a location visible, whereas the -pickplace
                     mode only handles motion in y).

              pathName yview number
                     This command makes the first character on the line  after
                     the one given by number visible at the top of the window.
                     Number must be an integer. This command used to  be  used
                     for scrolling, but now it is obsolete.

BINDINGS
       Tk  automatically  creates  class bindings for texts that give them the
       following default behavior. In the descriptions below, "word" is depen-
       dent on the value of the tcl_wordchars variable. See tclvars(n).

       [1]    Clicking  mouse  button  1  positions  the insertion cursor just
              before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input
              focus  to  this  widget, and clears any selection in the widget.
              Dragging with mouse button 1 strokes out a selection between the
              insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.

       [2]    Double-clicking  with  mouse button 1 selects the word under the
              mouse and positions the insertion cursor at  the  start  of  the
              word.  Dragging after a double click will stroke out a selection
              consisting of whole words.

       [3]    Triple-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the line  under  the
              mouse  and  positions  the  insertion cursor at the start of the
              line. Dragging after a triple click will stroke out a  selection
              consisting of whole lines.

       [4]    The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse
              button 1 while the Shift key is down; this will adjust  the  end
              of  the selection that was nearest to the mouse cursor when but-
              ton 1 was pressed. If the button is double-clicked before  drag-
              ging  then  the  selection  will  be  adjusted in units of whole
              words; if it  is  triple-clicked  then  the  selection  will  be
              adjusted in units of whole lines.

       [5]    Clicking  mouse  button 1 with the Control key down will reposi-
              tion the insertion cursor without affecting the selection.

       [6]    If any normal printing characters are typed, they  are  inserted
              at the point of the insertion cursor.

       [7]    The  view  in  the widget can be adjusted by dragging with mouse
              button 2. If mouse button 2 is clicked without moving the mouse,
              the  selection  is  copied  into the text at the position of the
              mouse cursor. The Insert key also inserts the selection, but  at
              the position of the insertion cursor.

       [8]    If  the  mouse  is  dragged  out of the widget while button 1 is
              pressed, the entry will automatically scroll to make  more  text
              visible  (if there is more text off-screen on the side where the
              mouse left the window).

       [9]    The Left and Right keys move the insertion cursor one  character
              to the left or right; they also clear any selection in the text.
              If Left or Right is typed with the  Shift  key  down,  then  the
              insertion  cursor moves and the selection is extended to include
              the new  character.  Control-Left  and  Control-Right  move  the
              insertion  cursor  by words, and Control-Shift-Left and Control-
              Shift-Right move the insertion cursor by words and  also  extend
              the  selection.  Control-b and Control-f behave the same as Left
              and Right, respectively. Meta-b and Meta-f behave  the  same  as
              Control-Left and Control-Right, respectively.

       [10]   The  Up  and  Down keys move the insertion cursor one line up or
              down and clear any selection in the text.  If  Up  or  Right  is
              typed  with  the Shift key down, then the insertion cursor moves
              and the selection is extended to include the new character. Con-
              trol-Up and Control-Down move the insertion cursor by paragraphs
              (groups of lines separated by blank lines), and Control-Shift-Up
              and  Control-Shift-Down  move the insertion cursor by paragraphs
              and also extend the selection. Control-p  and  Control-n  behave
              the same as Up and Down, respectively.

       [11]   The  Next  and  Prior  keys move the insertion cursor forward or
              backwards by one screenful and clear any selection in the  text.
              If the Shift key is held down while Next or Prior is typed, then
              the selection is extended to include the new character.

       [12]   Control-Next and Control-Prior scroll the view right or left  by
              one  page  without  moving the insertion cursor or affecting the
              selection.

       [13]   Home and Control-a move the insertion cursor to the beginning of
              its  display  line and clear any selection in the widget. Shift-
              Home moves the insertion cursor to the beginning of the  display
              line and also extends the selection to that point.

       [14]   End  and  Control-e  move the insertion cursor to the end of the
              display line and clear any selection in  the  widget.  Shift-End
              moves  the cursor to the end of the display line and extends the
              selection to that point.

       [15]   Control-Home and Meta-< move the insertion cursor to the  begin-
              ning of the text and clear any selection in the widget. Control-
              Shift-Home moves the insertion cursor to the  beginning  of  the
              text and also extends the selection to that point.

       [16]   Control-End  and  Meta-> move the insertion cursor to the end of
              the text and clear any selection in the  widget.  Control-Shift-
              End  moves  the  cursor  to  the end of the text and extends the
              selection to that point.

       [17]   The Select key and Control-Space set the selection anchor to the
              position of the insertion cursor. They do not affect the current
              selection.  Shift-Select  and  Control-Shift-Space  adjust   the
              selection  to  the  current  position  of  the insertion cursor,
              selecting from the anchor to the insertion cursor if  there  was
              not any selection previously.

       [18]   Control-/ selects the entire contents of the widget.

       [19]   Control-\ clears any selection in the widget.

       [20]   The  F16  key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations) or Meta-w
              copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard, if there is
              a   selection.  This  action  is  carried  out  by  the  command
              tk_textCopy.

       [21]   The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w
              copies  the selection in the widget to the clipboard and deletes
              the selection.  This  action  is  carried  out  by  the  command
              tk_textCut.  If  there  is no selection in the widget then these
              keys have no effect.

       [22]   The F18 key (labelled Paste on many Sun  workstations)  or  Con-
              trol-y  inserts the contents of the clipboard at the position of
              the insertion cursor. This action is carried out by the  command
              tk_textPaste.

       [23]   The  Delete  key  deletes  the selection, if there is one in the
              widget. If there is no selection, it deletes  the  character  to
              the right of the insertion cursor.

       [24]   Backspace and Control-h delete the selection, if there is one in
              the widget.  If there is no selection, they delete the character
              to the left of the insertion cursor.

       [25]   Control-d  deletes  the  character to the right of the insertion
              cursor.

       [26]   Meta-d deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.

       [27]   Control-k deletes from the insertion cursor to the  end  of  its
              line;  if  the insertion cursor is already at the end of a line,
              then Control-k deletes the newline character.

       [28]   Control-o opens a new line by inserting a newline  character  in
              front  of the insertion cursor without moving the insertion cur-
              sor.

       [29]   Meta-backspace and Meta-Delete delete the word to  the  left  of
              the insertion cursor.

       [30]   Control-x  deletes whatever is selected in the text widget after
              copying it to the clipboard.

       [31]   Control-t reverses the order of the two characters to the  right
              of the insertion cursor.

       [32]   Control-z  undoes  the  last  edit action if the -undo option is
              true.  Does nothing otherwise.

       [33]   Control-Z (or Control-y on Windows) reapplies  the  last  undone
              edit action if the -undo option is true. Does nothing otherwise.

       If  the  widget  is disabled using the -state option, then its view can
       still be adjusted and text can still be selected, but no insertion cur-
       sor will be displayed and no text modifications will take place.

       The behavior of texts can be changed by defining new bindings for indi-
       vidual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.

KNOWN ISSUES
   ISSUES CONCERNING CHARS AND INDICES
       Before Tk 8.5, the widget used the string "chars"  to  refer  to  index
       positions  (which  included  characters,  embedded windows and embedded
       images). As of Tk 8.5 the text widget deals  separately  and  correctly
       with  "chars" and "indices".  For backwards compatibility, however, the
       index modifiers "+N chars" and "-N chars" continue to refer to indices.
       One  must  use  any  of the full forms "+N any chars" or "-N any chars"
       etc. to refer to actual character indices. This confusion may be  fixed
       in a future release by making the widget correctly interpret "+N chars"
       as a synonym for "+N any chars".

   PERFORMANCE ISSUES
       Text widgets should run efficiently under a variety of conditions.  The
       text  widget uses about 2-3 bytes of main memory for each byte of text,
       so texts containing a megabyte or more  should  be  practical  on  most
       workstations.  Text  is  represented  internally with a modified B-tree
       structure that makes operations relatively efficient  even  with  large
       texts.  Tags  are included in the B-tree structure in a way that allows
       tags to span large ranges or have many disjoint smaller ranges  without
       loss  of  efficiency.  Marks  are also implemented in a way that allows
       large numbers of marks. In most cases it is fine to have large  numbers
       of unique tags, or a tag that has many distinct ranges.

       One  performance problem can arise if you have hundreds or thousands of
       different tags that all have the following characteristics:  the  first
       and last ranges of each tag are near the beginning and end of the text,
       respectively, or a single tag range covers most of the text widget. The
       cost  of adding and deleting tags like this is proportional to the num-
       ber of other tags with the same properties. In contrast,  there  is  no
       problem  with having thousands of distinct tags if their overall ranges
       are localized and spread uniformly throughout the text.

       Very long text lines can be expensive, especially  if  they  have  many
       marks and tags within them.

       The display line with the insert cursor is redrawn each time the cursor
       blinks, which causes a steady  stream  of  graphics  traffic.  Set  the
       -insertofftime attribute to 0 avoid this.

   KNOWN BUGS
       The  pathName  search -regexp sub-command attempts to perform sophisti-
       cated regexp matching across multiple lines  in  an  efficient  fashion
       (since  Tk  8.5),  examining  each line individually, and then in small
       groups of lines, whether searching forwards or backwards. Under certain
       conditions  the search result might differ from that obtained by apply-
       ing the same regexp to the entire text from the widget in one  go.  For
       example,  when searching with a greedy regexp, the widget will continue
       to attempt to add extra lines to the match as long as one of two condi-
       tions  are true: either Tcl's regexp library returns a code to indicate
       a longer match is possible (but there are known bugs in Tcl which  mean
       this  code  is  not  always  correctly returned); or if each extra line
       added results in at least a partial match with the pattern. This  means
       in  the  case  where the first extra line added results in no match and
       Tcl's regexp system returns the incorrect  code  and  adding  a  second
       extra  line would actually match, the text widget will return the wrong
       result. In practice this is a rare problem, but it can occur, for exam-
       ple:
              pack [text .t]
              .t insert 1.0 "aaaa\nbbbb\ncccc\nbbbb\naaaa\n"
              .t search -regexp -- {(a+|b+\nc+\nb+)+\na+} 1.0
       will  not  find  a match when one exists of 19 characters starting from
       the first "b".

       Whenever one possible match is fully enclosed in  another,  the  search
       command  will attempt to ensure only the larger match is returned. When
       performing backwards regexp searches it is possible that Tcl  will  not
       always  achieve  this,  in the case where a match is preceded by one or
       more short, non-overlapping matches, all of which  are  preceded  by  a
       large  match  which  actually encompasses all of them. The search algo-
       rithm used by the widget does not look back arbitrarily far for a  pos-
       sible  match  which might cover large portions of the widget. For exam-
       ple:
              pack [text .t]
              .t insert 1.0 "aaaa\nbbbb\nbbbb\nbbbb\nbbbb\n"
              .t search -regexp -backward -- {b+\n|a+\n(b+\n)+} end
       matches at "5.0" when a true greedy match would match at "1.0".   Simi-
       larly  if  we add -all to this case, it matches at all of "5.0", "4.0",
       "3.0" and "1.0", when really it should only match at "1.0"  since  that
       match encloses all the others.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Availability   | runtime/tk-8     |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
       +---------------+------------------+
SEE ALSO
       entry(n), scrollbar(n)

KEYWORDS
       text, widget, tkvars



NOTES
       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source        was        downloaded        from         https://source-
       forge.net/projects/tcl/files/Tcl/8.6.7/tk8.6.7-src.tar.gz/download

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.tcl.tk/.



Tk                                    8.5                             text(1t)