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zshbuiltins (1)

Name

zshbuiltins - in commands

Synopsis

Please see following description for synopsis

Description

ZSHBUILTINS(1)              General Commands Manual             ZSHBUILTINS(1)



NAME
       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       Some  shell  builtin  commands  take options as described in individual
       entries; these are often referred to in the list below  as  `flags'  to
       avoid  confusion  with  shell options, which may also have an effect on
       the behaviour of  builtin  commands.   In  this  introductory  section,
       `option'  always  has the meaning of an option to a command that should
       be familiar to most command line users.

       Typically, options  are  single  letters  preceded  by  a  hyphen  (-).
       Options  that  take  an argument accept it either immediately following
       the option letter or after white space, for example `print -C3  {1..9}'
       or  `print  -C  3 {1..9}' are equivalent.  Arguments to options are not
       the same as arguments to the command; the documentation indicates which
       is  which.   Options  that do not take an argument may be combined in a
       single word, for example `print -rca -- *' and `print -r -c  -a  --  *'
       are equivalent.

       Some  shell  builtin  commands  also  take  options that begin with `+'
       instead of `-'.  The list below makes clear which commands these are.

       Options (together with their individual arguments, if any) must  appear
       in  a  group before any non-option arguments; once the first non-option
       argument has been found, option processing is terminated.

       All builtin commands other than `echo' and precommand  modifiers,  even
       those that have no options, can be given the argument `--' to terminate
       option  processing.   This  indicates  that  the  following  words  are
       non-option  arguments,  but  is  otherwise  ignored.  This is useful in
       cases where arguments to the command may begin with `-'.  For  histori-
       cal  reasons, most builtin commands (including `echo') also recognize a
       single `-' in a separate word for this purpose; note that this is  less
       standard and use of `--' is recommended.

       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read  commands  from  file and execute them in the current shell
              environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS  is  set,  the
              shell  looks  in  the  components of $path to find the directory
              containing file.  Files in the current directory  are  not  read
              unless  `.'  appears  somewhere  in  $path.   If  a  file  named
              `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file,  and  is  the  compiled
              form  (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands
              are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg  are  given,  they  become  the  positional
              parameters;  the old positional parameters are restored when the
              file is done executing.  However, if no arguments are given, the
              positional  parameters  remain those of the calling context, and
              no restoring is done.

              If file was not found the return status  is  127;  if  file  was
              found  but  contained  a  syntax error the return status is 126;
              else the return status is the exit status of  the  last  command
              executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This  command  does nothing, although normal argument expansions
              is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero
              exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For  each  name with a corresponding value, define an alias with
              that value.  A trailing space in value causes the next  word  to
              be  checked  for  alias  expansion.   If the -g flag is present,
              define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if  they
              do not occur in command position.

              If the -s flag is present, define a suffix alias: if the command
              word on a command line is in the form `text.name', where text is
              any  non-empty  string,  it  is  replaced  by  the  text  `value
              text.name'.  Note that name is treated as a literal string,  not
              a  pattern.   A  trailing  space in value is not special in this
              case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps='gv --'

              will cause the command `*.ps' to be expanded to  `gv  --  *.ps'.
              As  alias  expansion  is  carried out earlier than globbing, the
              `*.ps' will then be expanded.  Suffix aliases constitute a  dif-
              ferent name space from other aliases (so in the above example it
              is still possible to create an alias for the command ps) and the
              two sets are never listed together.

              For  each  name  with no value, print the value of name, if any.
              With no arguments, print all  currently  defined  aliases  other
              than  suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments are
              taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve  them  from
              being  interpreted  as  glob patterns), and the aliases matching
              these patterns are printed.  When printing aliases  and  one  of
              the  -g,  -r  or  -s  flags is present, restrict the printing to
              global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular alias
              is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+'
              instead of `-', or ending the option list  with  a  single  `+',
              prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

              If  the  -L  flag  is present, then print each alias in a manner
              suitable for putting in a startup script.  The  exit  status  is
              nonzero  if  a  name (with no value) is given for which no alias
              has been defined.

              For more on aliases, include common problems,  see  the  section
              ALIASING in zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}RTUXdkmrtWz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              See  the  section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for full
              details.  The fpath parameter will be searched to find the func-
              tion definition when the function is first referenced.

              If name consists of an absolute path, the function is defined to
              load from the file given (searching as usual for dump  files  in
              the  given  location).  The name of the function is the basename
              (non-directory part) of the file.  It is normally  an  error  if
              the function is not found in the given location; however, if the
              option -d is given,  searching  for  the  function  defaults  to
              $fpath.  If a function is loaded by absolute path, any functions
              loaded from it that are marked for autoload without an  absolute
              path  have  the  load  path  of  the parent function temporarily
              prepended to $fpath.

              If the option -r or -R is given, the function  is  searched  for
              immediately and the location is recorded internally for use when
              the function is executed; a relative path is expanded using  the
              value  of  $PWD.  This protects against a change to $fpath after
              the call to autoload.  With -r, if the function is not found, it
              is  silently  left unresolved until execution; with -R, an error
              message is printed and command  processing  aborted  immediately
              the  search  fails,  i.e. at the autoload command rather than at
              function execution..

              The flag -X may be used only inside a shell function.  It causes
              the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then imme-
              diately loaded and executed, with the  current  array  of  posi-
              tional parameters as arguments.  This replaces the previous def-
              inition of the function.  If no function definition is found, an
              error  is  printed and the function remains undefined and marked
              for autoloading.  If an argument is  given,  it  is  used  as  a
              directory (i.e. it does not include the name of the function) in
              which the function is to be found; this may be combined with the
              -d  option  to allow the function search to default to $fpath if
              it is not in the given location.

              The flag +X attempts to load each name as  an  autoloaded  func-
              tion,  but  does  not execute it.  The exit status is zero (suc-
              cess) if the function was not previously defined and  a  defini-
              tion for it was found.  This does not replace any existing defi-
              nition of the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if
              the  function  was  already  defined  or  when no definition was
              found.  In the latter case the function  remains  undefined  and
              marked  for  autoloading.   If ksh-style autoloading is enabled,
              the function created will contain the contents of the file  plus
              a call to the function itself appended to it, thus giving normal
              ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.  If
              the  -m flag is also given each name is treated as a pattern and
              all functions already marked for autoload that match the pattern
              are loaded.

              With  the  -t  flag, turn on execution tracing; with -T, turn on
              execution tracing only for the current function, turning it  off
              on  entry  to any called functions that do not also have tracing
              enabled.

              With the -U flag, alias expansion is suppressed when  the  func-
              tion is loaded.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled
              with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are
              marked for autoloading.

              The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the
              zsh or ksh style, as if the option KSH_AUTOLOAD  were  unset  or
              were  set,  respectively.  The flags override the setting of the
              option at the time the function is loaded.

              Note that the autoload command makes no attempt  to  ensure  the
              shell  options  set  during the loading or execution of the file
              have any particular value.  For this, the emulate command can be
              used:

                     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

              arranges  that  when  func  is loaded the shell is in native zsh
              emulation, and this emulation is also applied when func is run.

              Some of the functions of autoload are also provided by functions
              -u  or functions -U, but autoload is a more comprehensive inter-
              face.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put each specified job in the background, or the current job  if
              none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.
              If an arithmetic expression n is specified, then break n  levels
              instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change  the  current  directory.   In the first form, change the
              current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not
              specified.  If arg is `-', change to the previous directory.

              Otherwise,  if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the
              directory given by arg.

              If arg does not begin with a slash,  the  behaviour  depends  on
              whether the current directory `.' occurs in the list of directo-
              ries contained in the shell parameter cdpath.  If it  does  not,
              first  attempt  to change to the directory arg under the current
              directory, and if that fails but cdpath is set and  contains  at
              least  one  element attempt to change to the directory arg under
              each component of cdpath  in  turn  until  successful.   If  `.'
              occurs  in  cdpath, then cdpath is searched strictly in order so
              that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

              The order of testing cdpath is modified if the  option  POSIX_CD
              is set, as described in the documentation for the option.

              If  no  directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a
              parameter named arg exists whose  value  begins  with  a  slash,
              treat  its  value as the directory.  In that case, the parameter
              is added to the named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the  string
              old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to
              this new directory.

              The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack,
              and  changes  to  that  directory.  An argument of the form `+n'
              identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of  the  list
              shown  by  the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of
              the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS  option
              is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.
              If the POSIX_CD option is set, this form of cd is not recognised
              and will be interpreted as the first form.

              If  the  -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array chpwd_functions are  not  called.
              This  is  useful for calls to cd that do not change the environ-
              ment seen by an interactive user.

              If the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the  current
              directory  if  the  given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P
              option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links
              are  resolved  to  their true values.  If the -L option is given
              symbolic links are retained in the directory (and not  resolved)
              regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The  simple  command  argument  is  taken as an external command
              instead of a  function  or  builtin  and  is  executed.  If  the
              POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but
              certain special properties of them are suppressed. The  -p  flag
              causes  a  default path to be searched instead of that in $path.
              With the -v flag, command is similar to whence and with  -V,  it
              is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume  the  next  iteration of the enclosing for, while, until,
              select or repeat loop. If an arithmetic expression n  is  speci-
              fied,  break  out  of  n-1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing
              loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With no arguments, print the contents of  the  directory  stack.
              Directories  are added to this stack with the pushd command, and
              removed with the cd or popd commands.  If arguments  are  speci-
              fied,  load  them  onto  the directory stack, replacing anything
              that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~
                     expressions  (see Dynamic and Static named directories in
                     zshexpn(1)).

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Temporarily disable the named hash table elements  or  patterns.
              The  default is to disable builtin commands.  This allows you to
              use an external command with the same name as a builtin command.
              The  -a  option  causes  disable  to  act  on  regular or global
              aliases.  The -s option causes disable to act on suffix aliases.
              The  -f option causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r
              options causes disable to act on reserved words.  Without  argu-
              ments  all  disabled  hash table elements from the corresponding
              hash table are printed.  With the  -m  flag  the  arguments  are
              taken  as  patterns (which should be quoted to prevent them from
              undergoing filename expansion), and all hash table elements from
              the  corresponding  hash  table matching these patterns are dis-
              abled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

              With the option -p, name ... refer to elements  of  the  shell's
              pattern  syntax  as  described  in the section `Filename Genera-
              tion'.  Certain elements can be disabled  separately,  as  given
              below.

              Note  that  patterns not allowed by the current settings for the
              options EXTENDED_GLOB, KSH_GLOB and SH_GLOB are  never  enabled,
              regardless  of  the setting here.  For example, if EXTENDED_GLOB
              is not active, the pattern ^ is ineffective even if `disable  -p
              "^"'  has  not been issued.  The list below indicates any option
              settings that restrict the use of the  pattern.   It  should  be
              noted  that  setting SH_GLOB has a wider effect than merely dis-
              abling patterns as  certain  expressions,  in  particular  those
              involving parentheses, are parsed differently.

              The  following  patterns  may  be disabled; all the strings need
              quoting on the command line to prevent them  from  being  inter-
              preted  immediately as patterns and the patterns are shown below
              in single quotes as a reminder.

              '?'    The pattern character ?  wherever  it  occurs,  including
                     when preceding a parenthesis with KSH_GLOB.

              '*'    The  pattern  character  *  wherever it occurs, including
                     recursive globbing and when preceding a parenthesis  with
                     KSH_GLOB.

              '['    Character classes.

              '<' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Numeric ranges.

              '|' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Alternation  in  grouped  patterns,  case  statements, or
                     KSH_GLOB parenthesised expressions.

              '(' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Grouping using single parentheses.  Disabling  this  does
                     not  disable  the  use  of parentheses for KSH_GLOB where
                     they are introduced by a special character, nor for  glob
                     qualifiers  (use  `setopt  NO_BARE_GLOB_QUAL'  to disable
                     glob qualifiers that use parentheses only).

              '~' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A~B.

              '^' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A^B.

              '#' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     The pattern character # wherever it occurs, both for rep-
                     etition of a previous pattern and for indicating globbing
                     flags.

              '?(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form ?(...).  Note this is also disabled  if
                     '?' is disabled.

              '*(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The  grouping form *(...).  Note this is also disabled if
                     '*' is disabled.

              '+(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form +(...).

              '!(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form !(...).

              '@(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form @(...).

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will  no
              longer  report their status, and will not complain if you try to
              exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped.   If  no
              job is specified, disown the current job.

              If  the  jobs are currently stopped and the AUTO_CONTINUE option
              is not set, a warning is printed  containing  information  about
              how  to make them running after they have been disowned.  If one
              of the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automatically  be
              made  running,  independent  of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a  space  separating
              each one.  If the -n flag is not present, print a newline at the
              end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress subsequent characters and final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option,  can  be  used  to  disable
              these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
              to enable them.

              Note that for standards compliance a double dash does not termi-
              nate  option  processing; instead, it is printed directly.  How-
              ever, a single dash does terminate  option  processing,  so  the
              first  dash,  possibly  following  options,  is not printed, but
              everything following it is printed as an argument.   The  single
              dash  behaviour is different from other shells.  For a more por-
              table way of printing text, see printf, and for a more  control-
              lable way of printing text within zsh, see print.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -lLR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With single argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified
              shell as much as possible.  csh will never  be  fully  emulated.
              If  the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will
              be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the
              argument  are  the same as those used to determine the emulation
              at startup based on the shell name, see the section  COMPATIBIL-
              ITY  in zsh(1) .  In addition to setting shell options, the com-
              mand also restores the pristine state of pattern enables, as  if
              all patterns had been enabled using enable -p.

              If  the  emulate  command occurs inside a function that has been
              marked for execution tracing with functions -t then  the  xtrace
              option  will  be turned on regardless of emulation mode or other
              options.  Note that code executed inside the function by the  .,
              source,  or  eval  commands  is  not  considered  to  be running
              directly from the function, hence does not provoke  this  behav-
              iour.

              If  the  -R  switch  is given, all settable options are reset to
              their default value corresponding  to  the  specified  emulation
              mode,  except  for  certain  options  describing the interactive
              environment; otherwise,  only  those  options  likely  to  cause
              portability  problems  in scripts and functions are altered.  If
              the -L switch is given, the  options  LOCAL_OPTIONS,  LOCAL_PAT-
              TERNS  and  LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects
              of the emulate command and any setopt, disable -p or enable  -p,
              and  trap  commands  to  be local to the immediately surrounding
              shell function, if any; normally these options are turned off in
              all emulation modes except ksh. The -L switch is mutually exclu-
              sive with the use of -c in flags.

              If there is a single argument and the -l switch  is  given,  the
              options  that  would  be set or unset (the latter indicated with
              the prefix `no') are listed.  -l can be combined with -L  or  -R
              and  the list will be modified in the appropriate way.  Note the
              list does not depend on the current setting of options, i.e.  it
              includes  all  options  that  may  in principle change, not just
              those that would actually change.

              The flags may be any of the invocation-time flags  described  in
              the section INVOCATION in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o
              VI' may not be used.  Flags such as `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may  be
              prohibited in some circumstances.

              If -c arg appears in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested
              emulation is temporarily in effect.  In this case the  emulation
              mode  and  all  options  are  restored  to their previous values
              before emulate returns.  The -R switch may precede the  name  of
              the  shell  to  emulate;  note  this has a meaning distinct from
              including -R in flags.

              Use of -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions  defined
              within  the evaluated expression:  the emulation mode is associ-
              ated thereafter with the function so that whenever the  function
              is executed the emulation (respecting the -R switch, if present)
              and all options are set (and pattern  disables  cleared)  before
              entry to the function, and the state is restored after exit.  If
              the function is called when the sticky emulation is  already  in
              effect, either within an `emulate shell -c' expression or within
              another function with the same sticky emulation, entry and  exit
              from the function do not cause options to be altered (except due
              to standard processing such as the LOCAL_OPTIONS option).   This
              also  applies to functions marked for autoload within the sticky
              emulation; the appropriate set of options will be applied at the
              point the function is loaded as well as when it is run.

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The  two functions fni and fno are defined with sticky sh emula-
              tion.  fno is then executed,  causing  options  associated  with
              emulations to be set to their values in sh.  fno then calls fni;
              because fni is also marked for sticky sh  emulation,  no  option
              changes  take  place  on  entry  to  or exit from it.  Hence the
              option cshnullglob, turned off by sh emulation, will  be  turned
              on  within  fni  and remain on return to fno.  On exit from fno,
              the emulation mode and all options will be restored to the state
              they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended
              purpose of executing code designed for other shells in  a  suit-
              able environment.  More detailed rules follow.
              1.     The  sticky  emulation  environment  provided by `emulate
                     shell -c' is identical to that provided  by  entry  to  a
                     function  marked for sticky emulation as a consequence of
                     being defined in such an environment.  Hence,  for  exam-
                     ple,  the  sticky  emulation is inherited by subfunctions
                     defined within functions with sticky emulation.
              2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from
                     functions that are not marked for sticky emulation, other
                     than those that would normally take place, even if  those
                     functions are called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No  special handling is provided for functions marked for
                     autoload nor for functions present in wordcode created by
                     the zcompile command.
              4.     The  presence or absence of the -R switch to emulate cor-
                     responds to different  sticky  emulation  modes,  so  for
                     example  `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R sh -c' and `emulate
                     csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
              5.     Difference in shell options supplied in addition  to  the
                     basic  emulation also mean the sticky emulations are dif-
                     ferent, so for example `emulate zsh -c' and `emulate  zsh
                     -o cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Enable  the  named hash table elements, presumably disabled ear-
              lier with disable.  The default is to enable  builtin  commands.
              The -a option causes enable to act on regular or global aliases.
              The -s option causes enable to act on suffix  aliases.   The  -f
              option  causes  enable to act on shell functions.  The -r option
              causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without  arguments  all
              enabled  hash  table  elements from the corresponding hash table
              are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken  as  pat-
              terns  (should  be  quoted) and all hash table elements from the
              corresponding hash table matching these  patterns  are  enabled.
              Enabled  objects  can  be disabled with the disable builtin com-
              mand.

              enable -p reenables patterns disabled  with  disable  -p.   Note
              that it does not override globbing options; for example, `enable
              -p "~"' does not cause the pattern  character  ~  to  be  active
              unless the EXTENDED_GLOB option is also set.  To enable all pos-
              sible patterns (so that they may be individually  disabled  with
              disable -p), use `setopt EXTENDED_GLOB KSH_GLOB NO_SH_GLOB'.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the result-
              ing command(s) in the current shell process.  The return  status
              is the same as if the commands had been executed directly by the
              shell; if there are no args or they contain  no  commands  (i.e.
              are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] [ command [ arg ... ] ]
              Replace  the current shell with command rather than forking.  If
              command is a shell builtin command  or  a  shell  function,  the
              shell executes it, and exits when the command is complete.

              With  -c clear the environment; with -l prepend - to the argv[0]
              string of the command executed (to simulate a login shell); with
              -a  argv0  set  the argv[0] string of the command executed.  See
              the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

              If the option POSIX_BUILTINS is set,  command  is  never  inter-
              preted as a shell builtin command or shell function.  This means
              further precommand modifiers such as builtin and noglob are also
              not interpreted within the shell.  Hence command is always found
              by searching the command path.

              If command is omitted but any redirections are  specified,  then
              the redirections will take effect in the current shell.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit  the  shell with the exit status specified by an arithmetic
              expression n; if none is specified, use the exit status from the
              last  command  executed.   An  EOF condition will also cause the
              shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set.

              See notes at the end of the section JOBS in zshmisc(1) for  some
              possibly unexpected interactions of the exit command with jobs.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified names are marked for automatic export to the envi-
              ronment of subsequently executed commands.  Equivalent to  type-
              set -gx.  If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is
              created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.


       fc [ -e ename ] [ -LI ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -LI ] [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              The fc command controls the interactive history mechanism.  Note
              that reading and writing of history options is only performed if
              the shell is interactive.  Usually this  is  detected  automati-
              cally,  but  it  can be forced by setting the interactive option
              when starting the shell.

              The first two forms of this command select  a  range  of  events
              from  first  to last from the history list.  The arguments first
              and last may be specified as a number or as a string.   A  nega-
              tive  number  is  used as an offset to the current history event
              number.  A string specifies the most recent event beginning with
              the  given  string.  All substitutions old=new, if any, are then
              performed on the text of the events.

              In addition to the number range,
              -I     restricts to only internal events (not from $HISTFILE)
              -L     restricts to only local events (not  from  other  shells,
                     see SHARE_HISTORY in zshoptions(1) -- note that $HISTFILE
                     is considered local when read at startup)
              -m     takes the first argument as a pattern (should be  quoted)
                     and  only  the  history  events matching this pattern are
                     considered

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent
              event), or to -16 if the -l flag is given.  If last is not spec-
              ified, it will be set to first, or to  -1  if  the  -l  flag  is
              given.   However,  if the current event has added entries to the
              history with `print -s' or `fc -R', then the default last for -l
              includes all new history entries since the current event began.

              When  the  -l  flag is given, the resulting events are listed on
              standard output.  Otherwise the editor program specified  by  -e
              ename  is invoked on a file containing these history events.  If
              -e is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is  used;  if
              that  is  not  set the value of the parameter EDITOR is used; if
              that is not set a builtin default, usually  `vi'  is  used.   If
              ename  is  `-', no editor is invoked.  When editing is complete,
              the edited command is executed.

              The flag -r reverses the order of the events  and  the  flag  -n
              suppresses event numbers when listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each event
              -f     prints  full  time-date stamps in the US `MM/DD/YY hh:mm'
                     format
              -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European  `dd.mm.yyyy
                     hh:mm' format
              -i     prints  full  time-date  stamps  in  ISO8601  `yyyy-mm-dd
                     hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints time and date stamps in the given format;  fmt  is
                     formatted  with the strftime function with the zsh exten-
                     sions described for the %D{string} prompt format  in  the
                     section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The
                     resulting formatted string must be no more than 256 char-
                     acters or will not be printed
              -D     prints  elapsed  times;  may  be combined with one of the
                     options above

              `fc -p' pushes  the  current  history  list  onto  a  stack  and
              switches to a new history list.  If the -a option is also speci-
              fied, this history list will be automatically  popped  when  the
              current  function  scope is exited, which is a much better solu-
              tion than creating a trap function to call `fc -P' manually.  If
              no  arguments  are  specified,  the  history list is left empty,
              $HISTFILE is unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set  to  their
              default  values.   If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is set to
              that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the
              history  file  is  read  in (if it exists) to initialize the new
              list.  If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE &  $SAVEHIST
              are instead set to the single specified numeric value.  Finally,
              if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value  from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment
              values for the new history list however you desire in  order  to
              manipulate the new history list.

              `fc -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc
              -p'.  The current list is saved to its $HISTFILE  before  it  is
              destroyed  (assuming that $HISTFILE and $SAVEHIST are set appro-
              priately, of course).  The values of $HISTFILE,  $HISTSIZE,  and
              $SAVEHIST  are  restored to the values they had when `fc -p' was
              called.  Note that this restoration  can  conflict  with  making
              these variables "local", so your best bet is to avoid local dec-
              larations for these variables in functions  that  use  `fc  -p'.
              The  one  other  guaranteed-safe  combination is declaring these
              variables to be local at the top of your function and using  the
              automatic  option  (-a)  with `fc -p'.  Finally, note that it is
              legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic popping if you
              need to do so before the function exits.

              `fc  -R'  reads  the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes
              the history out to the given file, and `fc -A' appends the  his-
              tory  out  to  the given file.  If no filename is specified, the
              $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is  added  to  -R,  only
              those  events that are not already contained within the internal
              history list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or  -W,
              only   those   events   that  are  new  since  last  incremental
              append/write to the history file are appended/written.   In  any
              case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring  each  specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job
              is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZ [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -E,  except  that  options  irrelevant  to
              floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UkmtTuWz ] [ -x num ] [ name ... ]
       functions -c oldfn newfn
       functions -M [-s] mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn ...
              Equivalent  to  typeset -f, with the exception of the -c, -x, -M
              and  -W  options.   For  functions  -u  and  functions  -U,  see
              autoload, which provides additional options.

              The -x option indicates that any functions output will have each
              leading tab for indentation, added by the shell to show  syntac-
              tic  structure, expanded to the given number num of spaces.  num
              can also be 0 to suppress all indentation.

              The -W option turns on the option WARN_NESTED_VAR for the  named
              function  or  functions  only.   The option is turned off at the
              start of nested  functions  (apart  from  anonoymous  functions)
              unless the called function also has the -W attribute.

              The  -c  option causes oldfn to be copied to newfn.  The copy is
              efficiently handled internally by reference counting.  If  oldfn
              was marked for autoload it is first loaded and if this fails the
              copy fails.  Either function may subsequently be redefined with-
              out  affecting  the other.  A typical idiom is that oldfn is the
              name of a library shell function which is then redefined to call
              newfn, thereby installing a modified version of the function.

              Use of the -M option may not be combined with any of the options
              handled by typeset -f.

              functions -M mathfn defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical
              function  recognised  in  all forms of arithmetical expressions;
              see the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1).   By
              default mathfn may take any number of comma-separated arguments.
              If min is given, it must have exactly min args; if min  and  max
              are  both given, it must have at least min and at most max args.
              max may be -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By default the function is implemented by a  shell  function  of
              the  same name; if shellfn is specified it gives the name of the
              corresponding shell function while mathfn remains the name  used
              in  arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function in $0 is
              mathfn (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided  the
              option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters
              in the shell function correspond to the arguments of the  mathe-
              matical  function  call.   The  result  of the last arithmetical
              expression evaluated inside the shell function (even if it is  a
              form  that  normally  only returns a status) gives the result of
              the mathematical function.

              If the additional option -s is given to functions -M, the  argu-
              ment  to  the  function is a single string: anything between the
              opening and matching closing parenthesis is passed to the  func-
              tion  as  a single argument, even if it includes commas or white
              space.  The minimum and maximum argument specifiers must  there-
              fore  be  1  if  given.   An  empty argument list is passed as a
              zero-length string.

              functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined func-
              tions  in  the  same  form as a definition.  With the additional
              option -m and a list of arguments, all  functions  whose  mathfn
              matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the
              additional option -m the arguments are treated as  patterns  and
              all  functions  whose  mathfn  matches  the pattern are removed.
              Note that the shell function implementing the behaviour  is  not
              removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

              The following string function takes a single argument, including
              the commas, so prints 11:

                     stringfn() { (( $#1 )) }
                     functions -Ms stringfn
                     print $(( stringfn(foo,bar,rod) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
              parameter name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use
              the positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins  with
              a  `+' or a `-'.  An argument not beginning with a `+' or a `-',
              or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a single  `-'
              is  not  considered a valid option argument.  optstring contains
              the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by
              a  `:',  that  option  requires an argument.  The options can be
              separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each time it is invoked, getopts places  the  option  letter  it
              finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg
              begins with a `+'.  The index of  the  next  arg  is  stored  in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The  first  option  to  be examined may be changed by explicitly
              assigning to OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial value of 1,  and  is
              normally  set  to  1 upon entry to a shell function and restored
              upon exit (this  is  disabled  by  the  POSIX_BUILTINS  option).
              OPTARG  is  not reset and retains its value from the most recent
              call to getopts.  If either of OPTIND or  OPTARG  is  explicitly
              unset, it remains unset, and the index or option argument is not
              stored.  The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of
              any  invalid  option  in  OPTARG,  and to set name to `?' for an
              unknown option and to `:' when a required argument  is  missing.
              Otherwise,  getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error message
              when an option is invalid.  The  exit  status  is  nonzero  when
              there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash  can be used to directly modify the contents of the command
              hash table, and the named directory hash  table.   Normally  one
              would  modify these tables by modifying one's PATH (for the com-
              mand hash table) or by  creating  appropriate  shell  parameters
              (for  the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash table
              to work on is determined by the -d option;  without  the  option
              the  command  hash  table is used, and with the option the named
              directory hash table is used.

              A command name starting with a / is  never  hashed,  whether  by
              explicit  use  of the hash command or otherwise.  Such a command
              is always found by direct look up in the file system.

              Given no arguments, and  neither  the  -r  or  -f  options,  the
              selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The  -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.  It
              will be subsequently rebuilt in  the  normal  fashion.   The  -f
              option  causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt imme-
              diately.  For the command hash table this hashes all  the  abso-
              lute  directories  in the PATH, and for the named directory hash
              table this adds all users' home directories.  These two  options
              cannot be used with any arguments.

              The  -m  option  causes  the  arguments  to be taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted) and the  elements  of  the  hash  table
              matching  those  patterns  are printed.  This is the only way to
              display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For each name with a corresponding  value,  put  `name'  in  the
              selected  hash  table, associating it with the pathname `value'.
              In the command hash table, this means that  whenever  `name'  is
              used  as  a  command argument, the shell will try to execute the
              file given by `value'.  In the named directory hash table,  this
              means that `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For  each  name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name
              to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the
              normal  manner  for  that  hash  table.  If an appropriate value
              can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are
              added  by explicit specification.  If has no effect if used with
              -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed
              in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}LRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -i,  except  that options irrelevant to
              integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists information about each given job, or all jobs  if  job  is
              omitted.   The  -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p flag lists
              process groups.  If the -r flag is specified only  running  jobs
              will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are
              shown.  If the -d flag is given, the directory  from  which  the
              job  was  started (which may not be the current directory of the
              job) will also be shown.

              The -Z option replaces  the  shell's  argument  and  environment
              space  with  the  given  string,  truncated if necessary to fit.
              This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This fea-
              ture is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends  either  SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs
              or processes.  Signals are given by number or by names, with  or
              without  the  `SIG'  prefix.   If  the  signal being sent is not
              `KILL' or `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT'  signal  if
              it  is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a job
              not in the job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not
              specified  the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig
              that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.   For
              each  sig  that  is a signal number or a number representing the
              exit status of a process which was terminated or  stopped  by  a
              signal the name of the signal is printed.

              On  some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few
              signals.  Typical examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and
              SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.  kill
              -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l  alt  will
              show  if  the  alternative  form corresponds to a signal number.
              For example, under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output
              29, hence kill -IO and kill -POLL have the same effect.

              Many  systems  will  allow  process IDs to be negative to kill a
              process group or zero to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the  section
              `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1)  for  a  description of
              arithmetic expressions.  The exit status is 0 if  the  value  of
              the  last  expression  is  nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and 2 if an
              error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s  flag  is  given,
              the  limit  applies  only  the  children of the shell.  If -s is
              given without other arguments, the resource limits of  the  cur-
              rent  shell  is set to the previously set resource limits of the
              children.

              If limit is not specified, print the  current  limit  placed  on
              resource,  otherwise  set  the limit to the specified value.  If
              the -h flag is given, use hard limits instead  of  soft  limits.
              If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However,  if  it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in  RAM  for  AIO  opera-
                     tions.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              kqueues
                     Maximum number of kqueues allocated.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              posixlocks
                     Maximum number of POSIX locks per user.
              pseudoterminals
                     Maximum number of pseudo-terminals.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              swapsize
                     Maximum amount of swap used.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits are available depends on the sys-
              tem.  resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.  It
              can also be an integer, which corresponds to the integer defined
              for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of
              the  resources  configured into the shell, the shell will try to
              read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this
              fails.   As  the shell does not store such resources internally,
              an attempt to set the limit will fail unless the  -s  option  is
              present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              ng     gigabytes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The  limit  command  is  not  made available by default when the
              shell starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be  made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AHUahlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not per-
              mitted.  In this case the -x option does not force  the  use  of
              -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List  all users currently logged in who are affected by the cur-
              rent setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       popd [ -q ] [ {+|-}n ]
              Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform  a  cd  to
              the  new top directory.  With no argument, the current top entry
              is removed.  An argument of the form  `+n'  identifies  a  stack
              entry  by  counting  from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n  counts
              from  the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings
              of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook  function  chpwd
              and  the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not called,
              and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful  for
              calls  to  popd  that  do  not change the environment seen by an
              interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
             [ -v name ] [ -xX tabstop ] [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With the `-f' option the arguments are printed as  described  by
              printf.   With  no flags or with the flag `-', the arguments are
              printed on the standard output as described by  echo,  with  the
              following  differences:  the  escape  sequence `\M-x' (or `\Mx')
              metafies the character x (sets  the  highest  bit),  `\C-x'  (or
              `\Cx')  produces a control character (`\C-@' and `\C-?' give the
              characters NULL and delete), a character code in octal is repre-
              sented by `\NNN' (instead of `\0NNN'), and `\E' is a synonym for
              `\e'.  Finally, if not in an escape sequence,  `\'  escapes  the
              following character and is not printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only
                     useful with the -c and -C options.

              -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the  bind-
                     key command, see the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a is also given,
                     arguments are printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a  is  also
                     given,  arguments  are  printed with the row incrementing
                     first.

              -D     Treat the arguments as paths,  replacing  directory  pre-
                     fixes  with  ~  expressions  corresponding  to  directory
                     names, as appropriate.

              -i     If given together with -o or  -O,  sorting  is  performed
                     case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spa-
                     ces.  Note: if the list of arguments is empty,  print  -l
                     will  still  output  one  empty  line.  To print a possi-
                     bly-empty list of arguments one per line, use print  -C1,
                     as in `print -rC1 -- "$list[@]"'.

              -m     Take  the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted),
                     and remove it from the argument list together with subse-
                     quent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print  the  arguments  separated and terminated by nulls.
                     Again, print -rNC1 -- "$list[@]" is a  canonical  way  to
                     print an arbitrary list as null-delimited records.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform   prompt   expansion  (see  EXPANSION  OF  PROMPT
                     SEQUENCES in  zshmisc(1)).   In  combination  with  `-f',
                     prompt  escape  sequences are parsed only within interpo-
                     lated arguments, not within the format string.

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate the BSD echo  command,  which  does  not  process
                     escape  sequences  unless  the  -e flag is given.  The -n
                     flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n
                     flags  are  recognized  after -R; all other arguments and
                     options are printed.

              -s     Place the results in the history list instead of  on  the
                     standard  output.   Each argument to the print command is
                     treated as a single word in the  history,  regardless  of
                     its content.

              -S     Place  the  results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.  In this case only a single argument  is
                     allowed; it will be split into words as if it were a full
                     shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading the
                     line  from  a history file with the HIST_LEX_WORDS option
                     active.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -v name
                     Store the printed arguments as the value of the parameter
                     name.

              -x tab-stop
                     Expand leading tabs on each line of output in the printed
                     string assuming a tab  stop  every  tab-stop  characters.
                     This  is  appropriate  for  formatting  code  that may be
                     indented with tabs.  Note that leading tabs of any  argu-
                     ment  to print, not just the first, are expanded, even if
                     print is using spaces to separate arguments  (the  column
                     count is maintained across arguments but may be incorrect
                     on output owing to previous unexpanded tabs).

                     The start of the output of each print command is  assumed
                     to be aligned with a tab stop.  Widths of multibyte char-
                     acters are handled if the option MULTIBYTE is in  effect.
                     This option is ignored if other formatting options are in
                     effect, namely column alignment or printf  style,  or  if
                     output  is to a special location such as shell history or
                     the command line editor.

              -X tab-stop
                     This is similar to  -x,  except  that  all  tabs  in  the
                     printed string are expanded.  This is appropriate if tabs
                     in the arguments are being used to produce a  table  for-
                     mat.

              -z     Push  the  arguments onto the editing buffer stack, sepa-
                     rated by spaces.

              If any of `-m', `-o' or `-O' are used in combination  with  `-f'
              and  there  are  no  arguments (after the removal process in the
              case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf [ -v name ] format [ arg ... ]
              Print the arguments according to the format specification.  For-
              matting  rules  are  the  same  as  used  in  C. The same escape
              sequences as for echo are recognised in the format. All  C  con-
              version  specifications ending in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are han-
              dled. In addition to this, `%b' can be used instead of  `%s'  to
              cause escape sequences in the argument to be recognised and `%q'
              can be used to quote the argument in such a way that  allows  it
              to be reused as shell input. With the numeric format specifiers,
              if the corresponding argument starts with a quote character, the
              numeric  value  of the following character is used as the number
              to print; otherwise the argument is evaluated as  an  arithmetic
              expression.  See  the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation' in zsh-
              misc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions. With  `%n',
              the  corresponding  argument  is taken as an identifier which is
              created as an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument
              in  order but they can explicitly specify the nth argument is to
              be used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and `*' by `*n$'.  It is  rec-
              ommended  that  you do not mix references of this explicit style
              with the normal style and the handling of such mixed styles  may
              be subject to future change.

              If  arguments  remain unused after formatting, the format string
              is reused until all arguments have been consumed. With the print
              builtin,  this can be suppressed by using the -r option. If more
              arguments are required by the format than have  been  specified,
              the  behaviour  is as if zero or an empty string had been speci-
              fied as the argument.

              The -v option causes the output to be stored as the value of the
              parameter  name, instead of printed. If name is an array and the
              format string is reused when consuming arguments then one  array
              element will be used for each use of the format string.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory
              onto the directory stack.  In the first form, change the current
              directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second
              directory on the stack (that is, exchange the top two  entries),
              or  change  to  $HOME  if  the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if
              there is only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is  inter-
              preted  as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in the
              second form is also the same as for cd.

              The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the direc-
              tory  list.   An  argument  of  the form `+n' identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown  by  the  dirs
              command,  starting  with  zero.   An  argument  of the form `-n'
              counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option  is  set,  the
              meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If  the  -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not  called,
              and  the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful for
              calls to pushd that do not change the  environment  seen  by  an
              interactive user.

              If  the  option  -q  is  not  specified  and  the  shell  option
              PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the directory  stack  will  be  printed
              after a pushd is performed.

              The  options  -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for the cd
              builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print the absolute pathname of the  current  working  directory.
              If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option
              is set and the -L flag is not given, the printed path  will  not
              contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.


       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
            [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read  one  line and break it into fields using the characters in
              $IFS as separators, except as noted below.  The first  field  is
              assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
              etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last name.   If  name
              is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

              -r     Raw  mode:  a  `\'  at the end of a line does not signify
                     line continuation and backslashes in the line don't quote
                     the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the terminal.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
                     `y' if this character was `y' or `Y' and  to  `n'  other-
                     wise.   With this flag set the return status is zero only
                     if the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may be used
                     with  a  timeout  (see  -t);  if  the  read times out, or
                     encounters end of file, status 2 is returned.   Input  is
                     read from the terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.
                     This option may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read only one (or num) characters.  All are  assigned  to
                     the  first  name,  without  word splitting.  This flag is
                     ignored when -q is present.  Input is read from the  ter-
                     minal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may
                     also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note that despite the mnemonic  `key'  this  option  does
                     read full characters, which may consist of multiple bytes
                     if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
                     to  the  first  name,  without  word  splitting.  Text is
                     pushed onto the stack with `print -z' or  with  push-line
                     from  the  line  editor  (see  zshzle(1)).   This flag is
                     ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the  standard  out-
                     put.  If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned to the
                     parameters.

              -A     The first name is taken as the name of an array  and  all
                     words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These  flags are allowed only if called inside a function
                     used for completion (specified with the -K flag  to  com-
                     pctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words of the current
                     command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line
                     is  assigned  as a scalar.  If both flags are present, -l
                     is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
                     is  read.  With -l, the index of the character the cursor
                     is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1,  not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
                     the line, its character index is the length of  the  line
                     plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input  is  terminated  by  the  first  character of delim
                     instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If
                     num  is  present,  it must begin with a digit and will be
                     evaluated to give a number of seconds,  which  may  be  a
                     floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input is not available within this time.  If num  is  not
                     present,  it  is  taken  to be zero, so that read returns
                     immediately if no input is available.   If  no  input  is
                     available, return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor
                     buffer with -z, when called from within  completion  with
                     -c  or  -l,  with  -q which clears the input queue before
                     reading, or within zle where other mechanisms  should  be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note  that  read does not attempt to alter the input pro-
                     cessing mode.  The default mode is  canonical  input,  in
                     which  an entire line is read at a time, so usually `read
                     -t' will not read anything until an entire line has  been
                     typed.   However,  when reading from the terminal with -k
                     input is processed one key at a time; in this case,  only
                     availability  of  the  first character is tested, so that
                     e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second charac-
                     ter.   Use  two  instances of `read -t -k' if this is not
                     what is wanted.

              If the first argument contains a `?', the remainder of this word
              is used as a prompt on standard error when the shell is interac-
              tive.

              The value (exit status) of read is  1  when  an  end-of-file  is
              encountered,  or when -c or -l is present and the command is not
              called from a compctl function, or as described for -q.   Other-
              wise the value is 0.

              The  behavior  of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z
              flags is undefined.  Presently -q cancels  all  the  others,  -p
              cancels  -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.  With the POSIX_BUILTINS option set, same as
              typeset -gr.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes  a shell function or `.' script to return to the invoking
              script with the return status specified by an arithmetic expres-
              sion  n.  If n is omitted, the return status is that of the last
              command executed.

              If return was executed from a trap in a  TRAPNAL  function,  the
              effect  is  different for zero and non-zero return status.  With
              zero status (or after an implicit  return  at  the  end  of  the
              trap),  the shell will return to whatever it was previously pro-
              cessing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as inter-
              rupted  except  that  the return status of the trap is retained.
              Note that the numeric value of the signal which caused the  trap
              is  passed  as  the  first  argument,  so  the statement `return
              $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if  the  signal  had
              not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).


       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ]
           [ arg ... ]
              Set  the options for the shell and/or set the positional parame-
              ters, or declare and set an array.  If the -s option  is  given,
              it  causes the specified arguments to be sorted before assigning
              them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if -A is
              used).   With  +s  sort  arguments in descending order.  For the
              meaning of the other flags, see  zshoptions(1).   Flags  may  be
              specified by name using the -o option. If no option name is sup-
              plied with -o, the current option states are printed:   see  the
              description  of setopt below for more information on the format.
              With +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input  to
              the shell.

              If  the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing
              the given args; if no name is specified, all arrays are  printed
              together with their values.

              If  +A  is  used  and name is an array, the given arguments will
              replace the initial elements of that array; if no name is speci-
              fied, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The  behaviour  of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on
              whether the option KSH_ARRAYS is set.  If it  is  not  set,  all
              arguments  following  name  are treated as values for the array,
              regardless of their form.  If the option is set,  normal  option
              processing  continues  at that point; only regular arguments are
              treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the
              array to foo and turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

              If  the  -A  flag is not present, but there are arguments beyond
              the options, the positional parameters are set.  If  the  option
              list  (if  any)  is terminated by `--', and there are no further
              arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values
              of  all  parameters  are printed on the standard output.  If the
              only argument is `+', the names of all parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set
              -  args'  as  `set +xv -- args' when in any other emulation mode
              than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ -m ] [ name ... ]
              Set the options for the shell.   All  options  specified  either
              with flags or by name are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently
              set are printed.  The form is chosen so as to minimize the  dif-
              ferences from the default options for the current emulation (the
              default emulation being native  zsh,  shown  as  <Z>  in  zshop-
              tions(1)).  Options that are on by default for the emulation are
              shown with the prefix no only  if  they  are  off,  while  other
              options are shown without the prefix no and only if they are on.
              In addition to options changed from the  default  state  by  the
              user,  any  options  activated  automatically  by the shell (for
              example, SHIN_STDIN or INTERACTIVE) will be shown in  the  list.
              The  format  is further modified by the option KSH_OPTION_PRINT,
              however the rationale for choosing options with or  without  the
              no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If  the  -m  flag  is  given the arguments are taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted to protect  them  from  filename  expan-
              sion),  and  all  options with names matching these patterns are
              set.

              Note that a bad option name does not cause execution  of  subse-
              quent  shell  code to be aborted; this is behaviour is different
              from that of `set -o'.  This is because set  is  regarded  as  a
              special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt is not.

       shift [ -p ] [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The  positional  parameters  ${n+1}  ...  are renamed to $1 ...,
              where n is an arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If  any
              names  are  given  then  the arrays with these names are shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

              If the option -p is given arguments are instead removed (popped)
              from the end rather than the start of the array.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same  as  `.',  except  that  the  current  directory  is always
              searched and is always searched  first,  before  directories  in
              $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend  the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it
              receives a SIGCONT.  Unless the -f option is  given,  this  will
              refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like  the  system version of test.  Added for compatibility; use
              conditional expressions instead (see  the  section  `Conditional
              Expressions').   The  main  differences  between the conditional
              expression syntax and the test and [ builtins are:   these  com-
              mands  are  not  handled  syntactically, so for example an empty
              variable expansion may cause an argument to be  omitted;  syntax
              errors  cause  status 2 to be returned instead of a shell error;
              and arithmetic operators expect integer  arguments  rather  than
              arithmetic expressions.

              The command attempts to implement POSIX and its extensions where
              these are specified.  Unfortunately there are intrinsic ambigui-
              ties  in  the  syntax;  in  particular  there  is no distinction
              between test operators and  strings  that  resemble  them.   The
              standard  attempts  to  resolve these for small numbers of argu-
              ments (up to four); for five  or  more  arguments  compatibility
              cannot  be  relied on.  Users are urged wherever possible to use
              the `[[' test syntax which does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for  the  shell  and
              for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg  is  a series of commands (usually quoted to protect it from
              immediate evaluation by the shell) to be read and executed  when
              the  shell  receives any of the signals specified by one or more
              sig args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the name  of
              a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,
              HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If arg is `-', then the specified signals  are  reset  to  their
              defaults, or, if no sig args are present, all traps are reset.

              If  arg  is  an  empty  string,  then  the specified signals are
              ignored by the shell (and by the commands it invokes).

              If arg is omitted but one or more sig args  are  provided  (i.e.
              the first argument is a valid signal number or name), the effect
              is the same as if arg had been specified as `-'.

              The trap command with no arguments prints  a  list  of  commands
              associated with each signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
              a nonzero exit status.  ERR is an alias for ZERR on systems that
              have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will be executed before each command if
              the option DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as it is by  default),  else
              after each command.  Here, a `command' is what is described as a
              `sublist' in the shell grammar, see the section SIMPLE  COMMANDS
              &  PIPELINES  in zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set various
              additional features are available.  First,  it  is  possible  to
              skip  the  next  command by setting the option ERR_EXIT; see the
              description of the ERR_EXIT option in zshoptions(1).  Also,  the
              shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the string corresponding
              to the command to be executed following  the  trap.   Note  that
              this  string  is  reconstructed from the internal format and may
              not be formatted the same way as the original text.  The parame-
              ter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If  sig  is  0 or EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside
              the body of a function, then the command arg is  executed  after
              the  function completes.  The value of $? at the start of execu-
              tion is the exit status of the shell or the return status of the
              function exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is
              not executed inside the body of a function, then the command arg
              is  executed when the shell terminates; the trap runs before any
              zshexit hook functions.

              ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.
              ZERR  and  DEBUG  traps  are  kept within subshells, while other
              traps are reset.

              Note that traps defined with the trap builtin are slightly  dif-
              ferent from those defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the latter
              have their own function environment (line numbers,  local  vari-
              ables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the command
              in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will print the line number of a command executed  after  it  has
              run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative  signal  names  are  allowed as described under kill
              above.  Defining a trap under either name causes any trap  under
              an  alternative  name to be removed.  However, it is recommended
              that for consistency users stick  exclusively  to  one  name  or
              another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl [ -fu ]
              The  -f option freezes the tty (i.e. terminal or terminal emula-
              tor), and -u unfreezes it.  When the tty is frozen,  no  changes
              made to the tty settings by external programs will be honored by
              the shell, except for changes in the size  of  the  screen;  the
              shell will simply reset the settings to their previous values as
              soon as each command exits or is suspended.  Thus, stty and sim-
              ilar  programs  have no effect when the tty is frozen.  Freezing
              the tty does not cause  the  current  state  to  be  remembered:
              instead, it causes future changes to the state to be blocked.

              Without  options  it  reports  whether the terminal is frozen or
              not.

              Note that, regardless of whether the tty is frozen or  not,  the
              shell  needs to change the settings when the line editor starts,
              so unfreezing the tty does not guarantee settings  made  on  the
              command  line  are  preserved.   Strings of commands run between
              editing the command line will see a consistent tty  state.   See
              also the shell variable STTY for a means of initialising the tty
              before running external commands.

       type [ -wfpamsS ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.


       typeset [ {+|-}AHUaghlmrtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZip [ n ] ]
               [ + ] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Uglrux ] [ {+|-}LRZp [ n ] ]
               [ + | SCALAR[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
       typeset -f [ {+|-}TUkmtuz ] [ + ] [ name ... ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              Except as noted below for control flags that change  the  behav-
              ior,  a parameter is created for each name that does not already
              refer to one.  When inside a function, a new parameter  is  cre-
              ated  for  every  name  (even  those that already exist), and is
              unset again when the function completes.  See `Local Parameters'
              in  zshparam(1).   The same rules apply to special shell parame-
              ters, which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For each name=value assignment, the parameter  name  is  set  to
              value.

              If  the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each remain-
              ing name that refers to a parameter that  is  already  set,  the
              name  and  value  of the parameter are printed in the form of an
              assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters, or
              when  any  attribute flags listed below are given along with the
              name.  Using `+' instead of  minus  to  introduce  an  attribute
              turns it off.

              If  no  name  is present, the names and values of all parameters
              are printed.  In this case the attribute flags restrict the dis-
              play   to   only   those  parameters  that  have  the  specified
              attributes, and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the  flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no
              parameter name.

              All forms  of  the  command  handle  scalar  assignment.   Array
              assignment  is  possible  if  any of the reserved words declare,
              export, float, integer, local, readonly or  typeset  is  matched
              when the line is parsed (N.B. not when it is executed).  In this
              case the arguments are parsed as assignments,  except  that  the
              `+='  syntax  and  the GLOB_ASSIGN option are not supported, and
              scalar values after = are not split further into words, even  if
              expanded  (regardless  of the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option;
              this option is obsolete).

              Examples of the differences between command  and  reserved  word
              parsing:

                     # Reserved word parsing
                     typeset svar=$(echo one word) avar=(several words)

              The above creates a scalar parameter svar and an array parameter
              avar as if the assignments had been

                     svar="one word"
                     avar=(several words)

              On the other hand:

                     # Normal builtin interface
                     builtin typeset svar=$(echo two words)

              The builtin keyword causes the above to use the standard builtin
              interface  to  typeset in which argument parsing is performed in
              the same way as for other  commands.   This  example  creates  a
              scalar  svar containing the value two and another scalar parame-
              ter words with no value.  An array  value  in  this  case  would
              either  cause  an  error or be treated as an obscure set of glob
              qualifiers.

              Arbitrary arguments are allowed if they take the form of assign-
              ments  after command line expansion; however, these only perform
              scalar assignment:

                     var='svar=val'
                     typeset $var

              The above sets the scalar  parameter  svar  to  the  value  val.
              Parentheses  around  the  value within var would not cause array
              assignment as they will be treated as ordinary  characters  when
              $var is substituted.  Any non-trivial expansion in the name part
              of the assignment causes the argument  to  be  treated  in  this
              fashion:

                     typeset {var1,var2,var3}=name

              The  above  syntax is valid, and has the expected effect of set-
              ting the three parameters to the same  value,  but  the  command
              line  is  parsed as a set of three normal command line arguments
              to typeset after expansion.  Hence it is not possible to  assign
              to multiple arrays by this means.

              Note  that  each interface to any of the commands my be disabled
              separately.  For example,  `disable  -r  typeset'  disables  the
              reserved  word interface to typeset, exposing the builtin inter-
              face, while `disable typeset' disables the builtin.   Note  that
              disabling  the  reserved  word  interface  for typeset may cause
              problems with the output of  `typeset  -p',  which  assumes  the
              reserved  word  interface is available in order to restore array
              and associative array values.

              Unlike parameter assignment statements, typeset's exit status on
              an  assignment  that  involves  a  command substitution does not
              reflect the exit status of the command substitution.  Therefore,
              to  test  for  an  error in a command substitution, separate the
              declaration of the parameter from its initialization:

                     # WRONG
                     typeset var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

                     # RIGHT
                     typeset var1 && var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

              To initialize a parameter param to a command output and mark  it
              readonly,  use  typeset  -r  param  or  readonly param after the
              parameter assignment statement.

              If no attribute flags are given, and either  no  name  arguments
              are  present  or  the  flag +m is used, then each parameter name
              printed is preceded by a list of the attributes of that  parame-
              ter  (array, association, exported, float, integer, readonly, or
              undefined for autoloaded parameters not yet loaded).  If  +m  is
              used  with  attribute  flags, and all those flags are introduced
              with +, the matching parameter names are printed but their  val-
              ues are not.

              The following control flags change the behavior of typeset:

              +      If  `+'  appears by itself in a separate word as the last
                     option, then the names of all parameters (functions  with
                     -f)  are  printed,  but  the values (function bodies) are
                     not.  No name arguments may appear, and it  is  an  error
                     for  any  other options to follow `+'.  The effect of `+'
                     is as if all attribute flags which precede it were  given
                     with a `+' prefix.  For example, `typeset -U +' is equiv-
                     alent to `typeset +U'  and  displays  the  names  of  all
                     arrays  having the uniqueness attribute, whereas `typeset
                     -f -U +' displays the names  of  all  autoloadable  func-
                     tions.   If  +  is the only option, then type information
                     (array, readonly, etc.) is also printed for each  parame-
                     ter, in the same manner as `typeset +m "*"'.

              -g     The  -g  (global) means that any resulting parameter will
                     not be restricted to local scope.  Note  that  this  does
                     not  necessarily  mean that the parameter will be global,
                     as the flag will apply to any existing parameter (even if
                     unset)  from  an  enclosing function.  This flag does not
                     affect the parameter after  creation,  hence  it  has  no
                     effect  when  listing  existing  parameters, nor does the
                     flag +g have any effect except  in  combination  with  -m
                     (see below).

              -m     If  the  -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as
                     patterns (use quoting to prevent these from being  inter-
                     preted  as  file patterns).  With no attribute flags, all
                     parameters (or functions with the -f flag) with  matching
                     names are printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not
                     used in this case).

                     If the +g flag is combined with -m, a new local parameter
                     is  created  for  every  matching  parameter  that is not
                     already local.  Otherwise -m applies all other  flags  or
                     assignments to the existing parameters.

                     Except  when  assignments are made with name=value, using
                     +m forces the matching parameters and their attributes to
                     be  printed,  even  inside  a  function.  Note that -m is
                     ignored if no patterns are given, so  `typeset  -m'  dis-
                     plays attributes but `typeset -a +m' does not.

              -p [ n ]
                     If  the  -p  option  is  given, parameters and values are
                     printed in the form of a typeset command with an  assign-
                     ment,  regardless  of other flags and options.  Note that
                     the -H flag on parameters is respected; no value will  be
                     shown for these parameters.

                     -p may be followed by an optional integer argument.  Cur-
                     rently only the value  1  is  supported.   In  this  case
                     arrays  and  associative arrays are printed with newlines
                     between indented elements for readability.

              -T [ scalar[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f;  see
                     below.   Otherwise  the  -T option requires zero, two, or
                     three arguments to be present.  With  no  arguments,  the
                     list  of  parameters  created  in  this fashion is shown.
                     With two or three arguments, the first two are  the  name
                     of  a  scalar  and  of an array parameter (in that order)
                     that will be tied together in the  manner  of  $PATH  and
                     $path.  The optional third argument is a single-character
                     separator which will be used to join the elements of  the
                     array  to form the scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as
                     with $PATH.  Only the first character of the separator is
                     significant;   any   remaining  characters  are  ignored.
                     Multibyte characters are not yet supported.

                     Only one of  the  scalar  and  array  parameters  may  be
                     assigned an initial value (the restrictions on assignment
                     forms described above also apply).

                     Both the scalar and the array may be manipulated as  nor-
                     mal.   If  one  is unset, the other will automatically be
                     unset too.  There is no  way  of  untying  the  variables
                     without unsetting them, nor of converting the type of one
                     of them with another typeset command; +T does  not  work,
                     assigning an array to scalar is an error, and assigning a
                     scalar to array sets it to be a single-element array.

                     Note that both `typeset -xT ...'   and  `export  -T  ...'
                     work,  but  only  the  scalar  will be marked for export.
                     Setting the value using the scalar version causes a split
                     on all separators (which cannot be quoted).  It is possi-
                     ble to apply -T to two previously tied variables but with
                     a  different separator character, in which case the vari-
                     ables remain  joined  as  before  but  the  separator  is
                     changed.

                     When an existing scalar is tied to a new array, the value
                     of the scalar is preserved but no  attribute  other  than
                     export will be preserved.

              Attribute  flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z, -l,
              -u) are only applied to the expanded value at  the  point  of  a
              parameter  expansion expression using `$'.  They are not applied
              when a parameter is retrieved internally by the  shell  for  any
              purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The  names  refer  to  associative  array parameters; see
                     `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

              -L [ n ]
                     Left justify and remove leading  blanks  from  the  value
                     when  the  parameter  is  expanded.   If n is nonzero, it
                     defines the width of the field.  If n is zero, the  width
                     is  determined  by  the  width  of the value of the first
                     assignment.  In  the  case  of  numeric  parameters,  the
                     length of the complete value assigned to the parameter is
                     used to determine the width, not the value that would  be
                     output.

                     The width is the count of characters, which may be multi-
                     byte characters if the MULTIBYTE  option  is  in  effect.
                     Note  that the screen width of the character is not taken
                     into account; if  this  is  required,  use  padding  with
                     parameter  expansion  flags ${(ml...)...} as described in
                     `Parameter Expansion Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right
                     with  blanks  or truncated if necessary to fit the field.
                     Note truncation  can  lead  to  unexpected  results  with
                     numeric  parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the -Z
                     flag is also set.

              -R [ n ]
                     Similar to -L, except that right justification  is  used;
                     when  the parameter is expanded, the field is left filled
                     with blanks or truncated from the end.  May not  be  com-
                     bined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For  arrays  (but  not for associative arrays), keep only
                     the first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This  may
                     also  be  set for tied parameters (see -T) or colon-sepa-
                     rated special parameters like PATH or FIGNORE, etc.  Note
                     the  flag takes effect on assignment, and the type of the
                     variable being assigned to is  determinative;  for  vari-
                     ables  with  shared values it is therefore recommended to
                     set the flag for all interfaces, e.g.  `typeset  -U  PATH
                     path'.

                     This  flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     below.

              -Z [ n ]
                     Specially handled if set along with the -L flag.   Other-
                     wise,  similar  to -R, except that leading zeros are used
                     for padding instead of  blanks  if  the  first  non-blank
                     character  is  a digit.  Numeric parameters are specially
                     handled:  they  are  always  eligible  for  padding  with
                     zeroes,  and  the  zeroes  are inserted at an appropriate
                     place in the output.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array  parameter
                     may be created this way, but it may be assigned to in the
                     typeset statement only if the reserved word form of type-
                     set  is  enabled (as it is by default).  When displaying,
                     both normal and associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The names refer to functions rather than parameters.   No
                     assignments  can  be made, and the only other valid flags
                     are -t, -T, -k, -u, -U and -z.  The flag -t turns on exe-
                     cution  tracing  for  this function; the flag -T does the
                     same, but turns off tracing for any named (not anonymous)
                     function  called  from the present one, unless that func-
                     tion also has the -t or -T flag.  The  -u  and  -U  flags
                     cause  the function to be marked for autoloading; -U also
                     causes alias expansion to be suppressed when the function
                     is loaded.  See the description of the `autoload' builtin
                     for details.

                     Note that the builtin functions provides the  same  basic
                     capabilities  as  typeset  -f  but  gives access to a few
                     extra options; autoload gives further additional  options
                     for the case typeset -fu and typeset -fU.

              -h     Hide:  only  useful  for special parameters (those marked
                     `<S>' in the table in zshparam(1)), and for local parame-
                     ters  with  the  same name as a special parameter, though
                     harmless for  others.   A  special  parameter  with  this
                     attribute  will  not  retain its special effect when made
                     local.  Thus after `typeset -h PATH', a function contain-
                     ing  `typeset PATH' will create an ordinary local parame-
                     ter without the usual behaviour of PATH.   Alternatively,
                     the  local  parameter may itself be given this attribute;
                     hence inside a function  `typeset  -h  PATH'  creates  an
                     ordinary  local  parameter and the special PATH parameter
                     is not altered in any way.  It is also possible to create
                     a  local  parameter using `typeset +h special', where the
                     local copy of special will retain its special  properties
                     regardless  of  having  the -h attribute.  Global special
                     parameters loaded from shell modules (currently those  in
                     zsh/mapfile  and  zsh/parameter)  are automatically given
                     the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not  display  the
                     value  of the parameter when listing parameters; the dis-
                     play for such parameters is always as if the `+' flag had
                     been  given.   Use  of the parameter is in other respects
                     normal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is
                     specified  by  name,  or  by  pattern with the -m option.
                     This  is  on  by  default  for  the  parameters  in   the
                     zsh/parameter  and  zsh/mapfile  modules.  Note, however,
                     that unlike the -h flag this is also useful for  non-spe-
                     cial parameters.

              -i [ n ]
                     Use  an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero
                     it defines the output arithmetic base,  otherwise  it  is
                     determined  by  the first assignment.  Bases from 2 to 36
                     inclusive are allowed.

              -E [ n ]
                     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.  On output the variable will be converted to sci-
                     entific notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the  number
                     of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

              -F [ n ]
                     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.  On output the  variable  will  be  converted  to
                     fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it defines
                     the number of digits to display after the decimal  point;
                     the default is ten.

              -l     Convert  the  result to lower case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that  if  name
                     is  a  special  parameter,  the readonly attribute can be
                     turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

                     If  the  POSIX_BUILTINS  option  is  set,  the   readonly
                     attribute  is  more  restrictive:  unset variables can be
                     marked readonly and cannot then be set; furthermore,  the
                     readonly attribute cannot be removed from any variable.

                     It  is  still  possible to change other attributes of the
                     variable though, some of which like -U or -Z would affect
                     the  value. More generally, the readonly attribute should
                     not be relied on as a security mechanism.

                     Note that in zsh (like in pdksh  but  unlike  most  other
                     shells)  it  is still possible to create a local variable
                     of the same name as this is considered a different  vari-
                     able (though this variable, too, can be marked readonly).
                     Special variables that have  been  made  readonly  retain
                     their value and readonly attribute when made local.

              -t     Tags  the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning
                     to the shell.  This flag has  a  different  meaning  when
                     used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert  the  result to upper case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted  when  assigned.
                     This  flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     above.

              -x     Mark for automatic export to the  environment  of  subse-
                     quently  executed  commands.  If the option GLOBAL_EXPORT
                     is set, this implies the option -g,  unless  +g  is  also
                     explicitly  given;  in  other  words the parameter is not
                     made local to the enclosing function.  This is  for  com-
                     patibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ -HSa ] [ { -bcdfiklmnpqrsTtvwx | -N resource } [ limit ] ... ]
              Set  or  display  resource limits of the shell and the processes
              started by the shell.  The value of limit can be a number in the
              unit  specified  below  or  one of the values `unlimited', which
              removes the limit on the resource, or  `hard',  which  uses  the
              current value of the hard limit on the resource.

              By  default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is
              given use hard limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is
              given together with the -H flag set both hard and soft limits.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources
              are printed.  When more than one resource value is printed,  the
              limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However,  if  it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              Not all the following resources are supported  on  all  systems.
              Running ulimit -a will show which are supported.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -k     The number of kqueues allocated.
              -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -p     The number of pseudo-terminals.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -r     Maximum  real  time priority.  On some systems where this
                     is not available, such  as  NetBSD,  this  has  the  same
                     effect as -T for compatibility with sh.
              -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
              -T     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     The number of processes available to the user.
              -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems
                     this refers to the limit called `address space'.
              -w     Kilobytes on the size of swapped out memory.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A resource may also be specified by  integer  in  the  form  `-N
              resource', where resource corresponds to the integer defined for
              the resource by the operating system.  This may be used  to  set
              the  limits for resources known to the shell which do not corre-
              spond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by number in
              the output of `ulimit -a'.

              The  number may alternatively be out of the range of limits com-
              piled into the shell.  The shell will try to read or  write  the
              limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or
              a symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is  omitted,
              the  current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask to
              be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is  printed
              as  an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permis-
              sions you specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied)
              to the users specified.

       unalias [ -ams ] name ...
              Removes  aliases.   This  command  works  the same as unhash -a,
              except that the -a option removes all regular or global aliases,
              or  with  -s  all suffix aliases: in this case no name arguments
              may appear.  The options -m (remove by pattern) and  -s  without
              -a (remove listed suffix aliases) behave as for unhash -a.  Note
              that the meaning of -a is different between unalias and unhash.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.   The
              default  is remove elements from the command hash table.  The -a
              option causes unhash to remove regular or global  aliases;  note
              when  removing a global aliases that the argument must be quoted
              to prevent it from being expanded before  being  passed  to  the
              command.   The -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes unhash to remove shell functions.   The  -d
              options  causes  unhash  to remove named directories.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken  as  patterns  (should  be
              quoted)  and  all  elements of the corresponding hash table with
              matching names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The resource limit for each resource is set to the  hard  limit.
              If  the  -h  flag  is given and the shell has appropriate privi-
              leges, the hard resource limit for  each  resource  is  removed.
              The  resources  of  the shell process are only changed if the -s
              flag is given.

              The unlimit command is not made available by  default  when  the
              shell  starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local  parameters  remain  local
              even  if unset; they appear unset within scope, but the previous
              value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
              by  using  subscript  syntax on name, which should be quoted (or
              the entire command prefixed with noglob)  to  protect  the  sub-
              script from filename generation.

              If  the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns
              (should be quoted) and all parameters with  matching  names  are
              unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative
              array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of  the
              pattern.

              The  -v  flag  specifies that name refers to parameters. This is
              the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset the options for the shell.  All options  specified  either
              with  flags or by name are unset.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m
              flag  is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as  glob  pat-
              terns),  and  all options with names matching these patterns are
              unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is  not  given
              then  all currently active child processes are waited for.  Each
              job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job
              in  the job table.  The exit status from this command is that of
              the job waited for.  If job represents an unknown job or process
              ID,  a  warning  is printed (unless the POSIX_BUILTINS option is
              set) and the exit status is 127.

              It is possible  to  wait  for  recent  processes  (specified  by
              process ID, not by job) that were running in the background even
              if the process has exited.  Typically the  process  ID  will  be
              recorded  by  capturing the value of the variable $! immediately
              after the process has been started.  There is  a  limit  on  the
              number  of process IDs remembered by the shell; this is given by
              the value of the system configuration parameter CHILD_MAX.  When
              this  limit  is  reached, older process IDs are discarded, least
              recently started processes first.

              Note there is no protection against  the  process  ID  wrapping,
              i.e.  if  the wait is not executed soon enough there is a chance
              the process waited for is the wrong  one.   A  conflict  implies
              both process IDs have been generated by the shell, as other pro-
              cesses are not recorded, and that the user is potentially inter-
              ested in both, so this problem is intrinsic to process IDs.

       whence [ -vcwfpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
              command name.

              If name is not an alias,  built-in  command,  external  command,
              shell  function,  hashed  command,  or a reserved word, the exit
              status shall be non-zero, and -- if -v, -c, or -w was passed  --
              a  message will be written to standard output.  (This is differ-
              ent from other  shells  that  write  that  message  to  standard
              error.)

              whence  is most useful when name is only the last path component
              of a command, i.e. does not include a `/'; in  particular,  pat-
              tern  matching only succeeds if just the non-directory component
              of the command is passed.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print the results  in  a  csh-like  format.   This  takes
                     precedence over -v.

              -w     For  each  name,  print `name: word' where word is one of
                     alias, builtin, command, function,  hashed,  reserved  or
                     none,  according  as  name  corresponds  to  an  alias, a
                     built-in command, an external command, a shell  function,
                     a command defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word,
                     or is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v  and
                     -c.

              -f     Causes  the contents of a shell function to be displayed,
                     which would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag  were
                     used.

              -p     Do  a  path  search  for  name  even  if  it is an alias,
                     reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do a search for all occurrences of  name  throughout  the
                     command  path.   Normally  only  the  first occurrence is
                     printed.

              -m     The arguments are taken as patterns  (pattern  characters
                     should  be  quoted), and the information is displayed for
                     each command matching one of these patterns.

              -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print  the  symlink-free
                     pathname as well.

              -S     As  -s, but if the pathname had to be resolved by follow-
                     ing  multiple  symlinks,  the  intermediate   steps   are
                     printed, too.  The symlink resolved at each step might be
                     anywhere in the path.

              -x num Expand tabs when outputting shell functions using the  -c
                     option.  This has the same effect as the -x option to the
                     functions builtin.

       where [ -wpmsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This builtin  command  can  be  used  to  compile  functions  or
              scripts,  storing  the  compiled  form in a file, and to examine
              files  containing  the  compiled  form.   This   allows   faster
              autoloading  of  functions  and  sourcing of scripts by avoiding
              parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a com-
              piled file.  If only the file argument is given, the output file
              has the name `file.zwc' and will be placed in the same directory
              as  the  file.  The shell will load the compiled file instead of
              the normal function file when the function  is  autoloaded;  see
              the section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for a descrip-
              tion of how autoloaded functions are  searched.   The  extension
              .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

              If  there is at least one name argument, all the named files are
              compiled into the output file given as the first  argument.   If
              file  does  not  end  in  .zwc,  this extension is automatically
              appended.  Files  containing  multiple  compiled  functions  are
              called  `digest'  files, and are intended to be used as elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the  compiled
              definitions  for all the named functions into file.  For -c, the
              names must be functions currently  defined  in  the  shell,  not
              those  marked  for  autoloading.   Undefined  functions that are
              marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
              which case the fpath is searched and the contents of the defini-
              tion files for those functions,  if  found,  are  compiled  into
              file.   If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined func-
              tions and functions marked for autoloading  may  be  given.   In
              either  case,  the  functions in files written with the -c or -a
              option will be autoloaded as if  the  KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  were
              unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with
              different options is that some definition files for  autoloading
              define  multiple functions, including the function with the same
              name as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In  such
              cases  the  output  of  `zcompile -c' does not include the addi-
              tional functions defined in the file, and any other  initializa-
              tion code in the file is lost.  Using `zcompile -a' captures all
              this extra information.

              If the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names  are  used
              as  patterns  and  all  functions whose names match one of these
              patterns will be written. If no name is given,  the  definitions
              of  all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded will
              be written.

              Note the second form cannot be used for compiling functions that
              include  redirections  as  part  of  the  definition rather than
              within the body of the function; for example

                     fn1() { { ... } >~/logfile }

              can be compiled but

                     fn1() { ... } >~/logfile

              cannot.  It is possible to use the first  form  of  zcompile  to
              compile  autoloadable  functions  that include the full function
              definition instead of just the body of the function.

              The third form, with the -t option, examines  an  existing  com-
              piled  file.  Without further arguments, the names of the origi-
              nal files compiled into it are listed.  The first line of output
              shows  the  version of the shell which compiled the file and how
              the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by mapping
              it  into  memory).   With  arguments,  nothing is output and the
              return status is set to zero if definitions for all  names  were
              found  in  the compiled file, and non-zero if the definition for
              at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents  are  copied
                     into  the  shell's memory, rather than memory-mapped (see
                     -M).  This happens automatically on systems that  do  not
                     support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
                     it is often desirable to use this option;  otherwise  the
                     whole  file, including the code to define functions which
                     have already been defined,  will  remain  mapped,  conse-
                     quently wasting memory.

              -M     The  compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when
                     read. This is done in such a way that multiple  instances
                     of  the  shell  running  on the same host will share this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin  decides what to do based on the size of the com-
                     piled file.

              -k
              -z     These options are used when the  compiled  file  contains
                     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
                     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option
                     is  not  set,  even if it is set at the time the compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will
                     be  loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options also
                     take precedence over any -k or -z  options  specified  to
                     the  autoload  builtin.  If  neither  of these options is
                     given, the function will be loaded as determined  by  the
                     setting  of  the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the com-
                     piled file is read.

                     These options may also appear as many times as  necessary
                     between  the listed names to specify the loading style of
                     all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file always contains two versions of the com-
                     piled  format,  one  for  big-endian machines and one for
                     small-endian machines.  The upshot of this  is  that  the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped, only one half of the file is actually  used  (and
                     mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ -s ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -alLme -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading
              of modules while the shell is running (`dynamical  loading')  is
              not  available on all operating systems, or on all installations
              on a particular operating system, although the zmodload  command
              itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built into versions of the shell  executable  without  dynamical
              loading.

              Without  arguments the names of all currently loaded binary mod-
              ules are printed.  The -L option causes this list to be  in  the
              form  of  a  series  of zmodload commands.  Forms with arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -is ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In the simplest case, zmodload  loads  a  binary  module.
                     The  module  must  be in a file with a name consisting of
                     the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually
                     `.so'  (`.sl'  on  HPUX).   If the module to be loaded is
                     already loaded the duplicate module is ignored.  If zmod-
                     load  detects an inconsistency, such as an invalid module
                     name or circular dependency list, the current code  block
                     is  aborted.  If it is available, the module is loaded if
                     necessary, while if it is not available, non-zero  status
                     is silently returned.  The option -i is accepted for com-
                     patibility but has no effect.

                     The named module is searched for in the same way  a  com-
                     mand  is,  using $module_path instead of $path.  However,
                     the path search is performed even when  the  module  name
                     contains  a  `/', which it usually does.  There is no way
                     to prevent the path search.

                     If the module supports  features  (see  below),  zmodload
                     tries  to  enable all features when loading a module.  If
                     the module was successfully loaded but not  all  features
                     could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

                     If  the  option  -s  is given, no error is printed if the
                     module was not available (though other errors  indicating
                     a  problem with the module are printed).  The return sta-
                     tus indicates if the module was loaded.  This  is  appro-
                     priate if the caller considers the module optional.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be
                     given that was given when the module was loaded,  but  it
                     is not necessary for the module to exist in the file sys-
                     tem.  The -i option suppresses the error if the module is
                     already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each  module has a boot and a cleanup function.  The mod-
                     ule will not be loaded if its boot function fails.  Simi-
                     larly  a module can only be unloaded if its cleanup func-
                     tion runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
                     zmodload -F allows more selective control over  the  fea-
                     tures  provided  by  modules.  With no options apart from
                     -F, the module named module is  loaded,  if  it  was  not
                     already  loaded,  and  the list of features is set to the
                     required state.  If no features are specified, the module
                     is loaded, if it was not already loaded, but the state of
                     features is unchanged.  Each feature may be preceded by a
                     +  to  turn the feature on, or - to turn it off; the + is
                     assumed if neither character is present.  Any feature not
                     explicitly mentioned is left in its current state; if the
                     module was not previously loaded this means any such fea-
                     tures will remain disabled.  The return status is zero if
                     all features were set, 1 if the module  failed  to  load,
                     and  2  if some features could not be set (for example, a
                     parameter couldn't be added because there was a different
                     parameter of the same name) but the module was loaded.

                     The  standard  features are builtins, conditions, parame-
                     ters and math functions; these are indicated by the  pre-
                     fix  `b:',  `c:'  (`C:' for an infix condition), `p:' and
                     `f:', respectively, followed by the name that the  corre-
                     sponding  feature  would have in the shell.  For example,
                     `b:strftime'  indicates  a  builtin  named  strftime  and
                     p:EPOCHSECONDS  indicates a parameter named EPOCHSECONDS.
                     The module may provide other (`abstract') features of its
                     own as indicated by its documentation; these have no pre-
                     fix.

                     With -l or  -L,  features  provided  by  the  module  are
                     listed.   With -l alone, a list of features together with
                     their states is shown, one feature  per  line.   With  -L
                     alone,  a  zmodload  -F  command that would cause enabled
                     features of the module to be turned on  is  shown.   With
                     -lL,  a zmodload -F command that would cause all the fea-
                     tures to be set to their current state is shown.  If  one
                     of  these  combinations is given with the option -P param
                     then the parameter param is set to an array of  features,
                     either features together with their state or (if -L alone
                     is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may be omitted; then a
                     list  of  all  enabled features for all modules providing
                     features is printed in the form of zmodload -F  commands.
                     If  -l  is also given, the state of both enabled and dis-
                     abled features is output in that form.

                     A set of features may be provided together with -l or  -L
                     and  a  module name; in that case only the state of those
                     features is considered.  Each feature may be preceded  by
                     +  or  -  but  the character has no effect.  If no set of
                     features is provided, all features are considered.

                     With -e, the command  first  tests  that  the  module  is
                     loaded;  if it is not, status 1 is returned.  If the mod-
                     ule is loaded, the list of features given as an  argument
                     is  examined.  Any feature given with no prefix is simply
                     tested to see if the  module  provides  it;  any  feature
                     given  with  a  prefix + or - is tested to see if is pro-
                     vided and in the given state.  If the tests on  all  fea-
                     tures  in  the  list  succeed, status 0 is returned, else
                     status 1.

                     With -m, each entry in the  given  list  of  features  is
                     taken as a pattern to be matched against the list of fea-
                     tures provided by the module.  An initial + or - must  be
                     given  explicitly.   This may not be combined with the -a
                     option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

                     With -a,  the  given  list  of  features  is  marked  for
                     autoload  from the specified module, which may not yet be
                     loaded.  An optional +  may  appear  before  the  feature
                     name.   If  the  feature is prefixed with -, any existing
                     autoload is removed.  The options -l and -L may  be  used
                     to list autoloads.  Autoloading is specific to individual
                     features; when the module is loaded  only  the  requested
                     feature  is  enabled.  Autoload requests are preserved if
                     the module is subsequently  unloaded  until  an  explicit
                     `zmodload  -Fa  module -feature' is issued.  It is not an
                     error to request an autoload for a feature  of  a  module
                     that is already loaded.

                     When  the  module  is  loaded  each  autoload  is checked
                     against the features actually provided by the module;  if
                     the  feature  is  not  provided  the  autoload request is
                     deleted.  A warning message is output; if the  module  is
                     being  loaded  to  provide  a different feature, and that
                     autoload is successful, there is no effect on the  status
                     of  the current command.  If the module is already loaded
                     at the time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is
                     printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload  -Fa  can  be  used  with  the -l, -L, -e and -P
                     options  for  listing  and  testing  the   existence   of
                     autoloadable  features.  In this case -l is ignored if -L
                     is specified.  zmodload -FaL with no  module  name  lists
                     autoloads for all modules.

                     Note  that  only standard features as described above can
                     be autoloaded; other features require the  module  to  be
                     loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
                     The modules named in the second and subsequent  arguments
                     will be loaded before the module named in the first argu-
                     ment.

                     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that  mod-
                     ule  are  listed.   With  -d and no arguments, all module
                     dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a
                     Makefile-like  format.  The -L option changes this format
                     to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
                     only  one  argument  is  given, all dependencies for that
                     module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The -ab option defines autoloaded builtins.   It  defines
                     the  specified  builtins.   When any of those builtins is
                     called, the module specified in  the  first  argument  is
                     loaded  and  all  its features are enabled (for selective
                     control of features use `zmodload  -F  -a'  as  described
                     above).   If  only  the  name  is  given,  one builtin is
                     defined, with the same name as the module.  -i suppresses
                     the   error   if   the  builtin  is  already  defined  or
                     autoloaded, but not if another builtin of the  same  name
                     is already defined.

                     With  -ab  and  no arguments, all autoloaded builtins are
                     listed, with the module  name  (if  different)  shown  in
                     parentheses  after  the  builtin  name.   The  -L  option
                     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If -b is used together with the  -u  option,  it  removes
                     builtins  previously defined with -ab.  This is only pos-
                     sible if the builtin is not yet  loaded.   -i  suppresses
                     the  error  if  the  builtin is already removed (or never
                     existed).

                     Autoload requests are retained if the  module  is  subse-
                     quently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload -ub builtin'
                     is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The -ac option is used  to  define  autoloaded  condition
                     codes.  The cond strings give the names of the conditions
                     defined by the module. The optional -I option is used  to
                     define  infix condition names. Without this option prefix
                     condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed
                     (as  a  series  of  zmodload commands if the -L option is
                     given).

                     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded  condi-
                     tions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The  -p  option  is like the -b and -c options, but makes
                     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The -f option is like the -b, -p,  and  -c  options,  but
                     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
                     if the -A option is also  given,  module  aliases  corre-
                     sponding  to loaded modules are also shown.  If arguments
                     are provided, nothing is printed; the  return  status  is
                     set  to  zero if all strings given as arguments are names
                     of loaded modules and to one if at least on string is not
                     the  name  of  a loaded module.  This can be used to test
                     for the availability of things  implemented  by  modules.
                     In  this case, any aliases are automatically resolved and
                     the -A flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,
                     define modalias to be an alias for the module module.  If
                     the  module  modalias  is  ever  subsequently  requested,
                     either  via  a  call to zmodload or implicitly, the shell
                     will attempt to load module instead.  If  module  is  not
                     given,  show the definition of modalias.  If no arguments
                     are given, list all defined module aliases.   When  list-
                     ing,  if  the -L flag was also given, list the definition
                     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The existence of aliases for modules is completely  inde-
                     pendent  of  whether the name resolved is actually loaded
                     as a module: while the alias exists, loading and  unload-
                     ing  the  module  under  any  alias  has exactly the same
                     effect as using the resolved name, and  does  not  affect
                     the  connection  between  the alias and the resolved name
                     which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by redefin-
                     ing  the  alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the first
                     resolved name is itself an alias) are valid  so  long  as
                     these  are  not  circular.   As the aliases take the same
                     format as module names, they may include path separators:
                     in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the
                     path named to exist as the alias will be resolved  first.
                     For example, `any/old/alias' is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies  added to aliased modules are actually added
                     to the resolved module; these  remain  if  the  alias  is
                     removed.   It  is  valid to create an alias whose name is
                     one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to a
                     different module.  However, if a module has dependencies,
                     it will not be possible to use  the  module  name  as  an
                     alias  as the module will already be marked as a loadable
                     module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
                     command  anywhere  module  names  are required.  However,
                     aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with
                     a bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as
                     a module alias via zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any
                     was  not defined, an error is caused and the remainder of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction  between  modules  that  were
              linked  into  the shell and modules that are loaded dynamically.
              In both cases this builtin command has to be used to make avail-
              able  the  builtins  and other things defined by modules (unless
              the module is autoloaded on these  definitions).  This  is  true
              even for systems that don't support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).



zsh 5.8                        February 14, 2020                ZSHBUILTINS(1)