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zshbuiltins (1)

Name

zshbuiltins - in commands

Synopsis

Please see following description for synopsis

Description

ZSHBUILTINS(1)              General Commands Manual             ZSHBUILTINS(1)



NAME
       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       Some  shell  builtin  commands  take options as described in individual
       entries; these are often referred to in the list below  as  `flags'  to
       avoid  confusion  with  shell options, which may also have an effect on
       the behaviour of  builtin  commands.   In  this  introductory  section,
       `option'  always  has the meaning of an option to a command that should
       be familiar to most command line users.

       Typically, options  are  single  letters  preceded  by  a  hyphen  (-).
       Options  that  take  an argument accept it either immediately following
       the option letter or after white space, for example `print  -C3  *'  or
       `print  -C  3 *' are equivalent.  Arguments to options are not the same
       as arguments to the  command;  the  documentation  indicates  which  is
       which.   Options that do not take an argument may be combined in a sin-
       gle word, for example `print -ca *' and `print -c -a *' are equivalent.

       Some shell builtin commands also  take  options  that  begin  with  `+'
       instead of `-'.  The list below makes clear which commands these are.

       Options  (together with their individual arguments, if any) must appear
       in a group before any non-option arguments; once the  first  non-option
       argument has been found, option processing is terminated.

       All  builtin  commands other than precommand modifiers, even those that
       have no options, can be given the argument  `--'  to  terminate  option
       processing.   This  indicates  that  the following words are non-option
       arguments, but is otherwise ignored.  This is  useful  in  cases  where
       arguments  to  the command may begin with `-'.  For historical reasons,
       most builtin commands also recognize a single `-' in  a  separate  word
       for  this  purpose;  note that this is less standard and use of `--' is
       recommended.

       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read commands from file and execute them in  the  current  shell
              environment.

              If  file  does  not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the
              shell looks in the components of $path  to  find  the  directory
              containing  file.   Files  in the current directory are not read
              unless  `.'  appears  somewhere  in  $path.   If  a  file  named
              `file.zwc'  is  found,  is  newer than file, and is the compiled
              form (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then  commands
              are read from that file instead of file.

              If  any  arguments  arg  are  given,  they become the positional
              parameters; the old positional parameters are restored when  the
              file is done executing.  However, if no arguments are given, the
              positional parameters remain those of the calling  context,  and
              no restoring is done.

              If  file  was  not  found  the return status is 127; if file was
              found but contained a syntax error the  return  status  is  126;
              else  the  return  status is the exit status of the last command
              executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This command does nothing, although normal  argument  expansions
              is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero
              exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For each name with a corresponding value, define an  alias  with
              that  value.   A trailing space in value causes the next word to
              be checked for alias expansion.  If  the  -g  flag  is  present,
              define  a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they
              do not occur in command position.

              If the -s flag is present, define a suffix alias: if the command
              word on a command line is in the form `text.name', where text is
              any  non-empty  string,  it  is  replaced  by  the  text  `value
              text.name'.   Note that name is treated as a literal string, not
              a pattern.  A trailing space in value is  not  special  in  this
              case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will  cause  the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv *.ps'.  As
              alias expansion is carried out earlier than globbing, the `*.ps'
              will  then  be  expanded.  Suffix aliases constitute a different
              name space from other aliases (so in the  above  example  it  is
              still  possible  to  create an alias for the command ps) and the
              two sets are never listed together.

              For each name with no value, print the value of  name,  if  any.
              With  no  arguments,  print  all currently defined aliases other
              than suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments  are
              taken  as  patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them from
              being interpreted as glob patterns), and  the  aliases  matching
              these  patterns  are  printed.  When printing aliases and one of
              the -g, -r or -s flags is  present,  restrict  the  printing  to
              global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular alias
              is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+'
              instead  of  `-',  or  ending the option list with a single `+',
              prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

              If the -L flag is present, then print each  alias  in  a  manner
              suitable  for  putting  in a startup script.  The exit status is
              nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for  which  no  alias
              has been defined.

              For  more  on  aliases, include common problems, see the section
              ALIASING in zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}TUXkmtz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and  -w.
              See  the  section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for full
              details.  The fpath parameter will be searched to find the func-
              tion definition when the function is first referenced.

              The  flag  -X  may be used only inside a shell function, and may
              not be followed by a name.  It causes the calling function to be
              marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed,
              with the current array of positional  parameters  as  arguments.
              This  replaces  the  previous definition of the function.  If no
              function definition is found, an error is printed and the  func-
              tion remains undefined and marked for autoloading.

              The  flag  +X  attempts to load each name as an autoloaded func-
              tion, but does not execute it.  The exit status  is  zero  (suc-
              cess)  if  the function was not previously defined and a defini-
              tion for it was found.  This does not replace any existing defi-
              nition of the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if
              the function was already  defined  or  when  no  definition  was
              found.   In  the  latter case the function remains undefined and
              marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style  autoloading  is  enabled,
              the  function created will contain the contents of the file plus
              a call to the function itself appended to it, thus giving normal
              ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.  If
              the -m flag is also given each name is treated as a pattern  and
              all functions already marked for autoload that match the pattern
              are loaded.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled
              with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are
              marked for autoloading.

              The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the
              zsh  or  ksh  style, as if the option KSH_AUTOLOAD were unset or
              were set, respectively.  The flags override the setting  of  the
              option at the time the function is loaded.

              Note  that  the  autoload command makes no attempt to ensure the
              shell options set during the loading or execution  of  the  file
              have any particular value.  For this, the emulate command can be
              used:

                     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

              arranges that when func is loaded the shell  is  in  native  zsh
              emulation, and this emulation is also applied when func is run.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put  each specified job in the background, or the current job if
              none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.
              If  an arithmetic expression n is specified, then break n levels
              instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory.  In the  first  form,  change  the
              current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not
              specified.  If arg is `-', change to the previous directory.

              Otherwise, if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to  the
              directory given by arg.

              If  arg  does  not  begin with a slash, the behaviour depends on
              whether the current directory `.' occurs in the list of directo-
              ries  contained  in the shell parameter cdpath.  If it does not,
              first attempt to change to the directory arg under  the  current
              directory,  and  if that fails but cdpath is set and contains at
              least one element attempt to change to the directory  arg  under
              each  component  of  cdpath  in  turn  until successful.  If `.'
              occurs in cdpath, then cdpath is searched strictly in  order  so
              that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

              The  order  of testing cdpath is modified if the option POSIX_CD
              is set, as described in the documentation for the option.

              If no directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set,  and  a
              parameter  named  arg  exists  whose  value begins with a slash,
              treat its value as the directory.  In that case,  the  parameter
              is added to the named directory hash table.

              The  second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string
              old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to
              this new directory.

              The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack,
              and changes to that directory.  An argument  of  the  form  `+n'
              identifies  a  stack entry by counting from the left of the list
              shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An  argument  of
              the  form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option
              is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook  function  chpwd
              and  the  functions in the array chpwd_functions are not called.
              This is useful for calls to cd that do not change  the  environ-
              ment seen by an interactive user.

              If  the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current
              directory if the given pathname contains symlinks.   If  the  -P
              option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links
              are resolved to their true values.  If the -L  option  is  given
              symbolic  links are retained in the directory (and not resolved)
              regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The simple command argument is  taken  as  an  external  command
              instead  of  a  function  or  builtin  and  is  executed. If the
              POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but
              certain  special  properties of them are suppressed. The -p flag
              causes a default path to be searched instead of that  in  $path.
              With  the  -v flag, command is similar to whence and with -V, it
              is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing  for,  while,  until,
              select  or  repeat loop. If an arithmetic expression n is speci-
              fied, break out of n-1 loops and resume  at  the  nth  enclosing
              loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With  no  arguments,  print the contents of the directory stack.
              Directories are added to this stack with the pushd command,  and
              removed  with  the cd or popd commands.  If arguments are speci-
              fied, load them onto the  directory  stack,  replacing  anything
              that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~
                     expressions (see Dynamic and Static named directories  in
                     zshexpn(1)).

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Temporarily  disable  the named hash table elements or patterns.
              The default is to disable builtin commands.  This allows you  to
              use an external command with the same name as a builtin command.
              The -a option  causes  disable  to  act  on  regular  or  global
              aliases.  The -s option causes disable to act on suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes disable to act on shell functions.  The  -r
              options  causes disable to act on reserved words.  Without argu-
              ments all disabled hash table elements  from  the  corresponding
              hash  table  are  printed.   With  the -m flag the arguments are
              taken as patterns (which should be quoted to prevent  them  from
              undergoing filename expansion), and all hash table elements from
              the corresponding hash table matching these  patterns  are  dis-
              abled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

              With  the  option  -p, name ... refer to elements of the shell's
              pattern syntax as described in  the  section  `Filename  Genera-
              tion'.   Certain  elements  can be disabled separately, as given
              below.

              Note that patterns not allowed by the current settings  for  the
              options  EXTENDED_GLOB,  KSH_GLOB and SH_GLOB are never enabled,
              regardless of the setting here.  For example,  if  EXTENDED_GLOB
              is  not active, the pattern ^ is ineffective even if `disable -p
              "^"' has not been issued.  The list below indicates  any  option
              settings  that  restrict  the  use of the pattern.  It should be
              noted that setting SH_GLOB has a wider effect than  merely  dis-
              abling  patterns  as  certain  expressions,  in particular those
              involving parentheses, are parsed differently.

              The following patterns may be disabled;  all  the  strings  need
              quoting  on  the  command line to prevent them from being inter-
              preted immediately as patterns and the patterns are shown  below
              in single quotes as a reminder.

              '?'    The  pattern  character  ?  wherever it occurs, including
                     when preceding a parenthesis with KSH_GLOB.

              '*'    The pattern character *  wherever  it  occurs,  including
                     recursive  globbing and when preceding a parenthesis with
                     KSH_GLOB.

              '['    Character classes.

              '<' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Numeric ranges.

              '|' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Alternation in  grouped  patterns,  case  statements,  or
                     KSH_GLOB parenthesised expressions.

              '(' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Grouping  using  single parentheses.  Disabling this does
                     not disable the use of  parentheses  for  KSH_GLOB  where
                     they  are introduced by a special character, nor for glob
                     qualifiers (use  `setopt  NO_BARE_GLOB_QUAL'  to  disable
                     glob qualifiers that use parentheses only).

              '~' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A~B.

              '^' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A^B.

              '#' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     The pattern character # wherever it occurs, both for rep-
                     etition of a previous pattern and for indicating globbing
                     flags.

              '?(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The  grouping form ?(...).  Note this is also disabled if
                     '?' is disabled.

              '*(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form *(...).  Note this is also disabled  if
                     '*' is disabled.

              '+(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form +(...).

              '!(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form !(...).

              '@(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form @(...).

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove  the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no
              longer report their status, and will not complain if you try  to
              exit  an  interactive shell with them running or stopped.  If no
              job is specified, disown the current job.

              If the jobs are currently stopped and the  AUTO_CONTINUE  option
              is  not  set,  a warning is printed containing information about
              how to make them running after they have been disowned.  If  one
              of  the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automatically be
              made running, independent of the setting  of  the  AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write  each  arg on the standard output, with a space separating
              each one.  If the -n flag is not present, print a newline at the
              end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The  -E  flag,  or  the  BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable
              these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
              to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -lLR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With single argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified
              shell as much as possible.  csh will never  be  fully  emulated.
              If  the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will
              be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the
              argument  are  the same as those used to determine the emulation
              at startup based on the shell name, see the section  COMPATIBIL-
              ITY  in zsh(1) .  In addition to setting shell options, the com-
              mand also restores the pristine state of pattern enables, as  if
              all patterns had been enabled using enable -p.

              If  the  emulate  command occurs inside a function that has been
              marked for execution tracing with functions -t then  the  xtrace
              option  will  be turned on regardless of emulation mode or other
              options.  Note that code executed inside the function by the  .,
              source,  or  eval  commands  is  not  considered  to  be running
              directly from the function, hence does not provoke  this  behav-
              iour.

              If  the  -R  switch  is given, all settable options are reset to
              their default value corresponding  to  the  specified  emulation
              mode,  except  for  certain  options  describing the interactive
              environment; otherwise,  only  those  options  likely  to  cause
              portability  problems  in scripts and functions are altered.  If
              the -L switch is given, the  options  LOCAL_OPTIONS,  LOCAL_PAT-
              TERNS  and  LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects
              of the emulate command and any setopt, disable -p or enable  -p,
              and  trap  commands  to  be local to the immediately surrounding
              shell function, if any; normally these options are turned off in
              all emulation modes except ksh. The -L switch is mutually exclu-
              sive with the use of -c in flags.

              If there is a single argument and the -l switch  is  given,  the
              options  that  would  be set or unset (the latter indicated with
              the prefix `no') are listed.  -l can be combined with -L  or  -R
              and  the list will be modified in the appropriate way.  Note the
              list does not depend on the current setting of options, i.e.  it
              includes  all  options  that  may  in principle change, not just
              those that would actually change.

              The flags may be any of the invocation-time flags  described  in
              the section INVOCATION in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o
              VI' may not be used.  Flags such as `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may  be
              prohibited in some circumstances.

              If -c arg appears in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested
              emulation is temporarily in effect.  In this case the  emulation
              mode  and  all  options  are  restored  to their previous values
              before emulate returns.  The -R switch may precede the  name  of
              the  shell  to  emulate;  note  this has a meaning distinct from
              including -R in flags.

              Use of -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions  defined
              within  the evaluated expression:  the emulation mode is associ-
              ated thereafter with the function so that whenever the  function
              is executed the emulation (respecting the -R switch, if present)
              and all options are set (and pattern  disables  cleared)  before
              entry to the function, and the state is restored after exit.  If
              the function is called when the sticky emulation is  already  in
              effect, either within an `emulate shell -c' expression or within
              another function with the same sticky emulation, entry and  exit
              from the function do not cause options to be altered (except due
              to standard processing such as the LOCAL_OPTIONS option).   This
              also  applies to functions marked for autoload within the sticky
              emulation; the appropriate set of options will be applied at the
              point the function is loaded as well as when it is run.

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The  two functions fni and fno are defined with sticky sh emula-
              tion.  fno is then executed,  causing  options  associated  with
              emulations to be set to their values in sh.  fno then calls fni;
              because fni is also marked for sticky sh  emulation,  no  option
              changes  take  place  on  entry  to  or exit from it.  Hence the
              option cshnullglob, turned off by sh emulation, will  be  turned
              on  within  fni  and remain on return to fno.  On exit from fno,
              the emulation mode and all options will be restored to the state
              they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended
              purpose of executing code designed for other shells in  a  suit-
              able environment.  More detailed rules follow.
              1.     The  sticky  emulation  environment  provided by `emulate
                     shell -c' is identical to that provided  by  entry  to  a
                     function  marked for sticky emulation as a consequence of
                     being defined in such an environment.  Hence,  for  exam-
                     ple,  the  sticky  emulation is inherited by subfunctions
                     defined within functions with sticky emulation.
              2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from
                     functions that are not marked for sticky emulation, other
                     than those that would normally take place, even if  those
                     functions are called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No  special handling is provided for functions marked for
                     autoload nor for functions present in wordcode created by
                     the zcompile command.
              4.     The  presence or absence of the -R switch to emulate cor-
                     responds to different  sticky  emulation  modes,  so  for
                     example  `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R sh -c' and `emulate
                     csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
              5.     Difference in shell options supplied in addition  to  the
                     basic  emulation also mean the sticky emulations are dif-
                     ferent, so for example `emulate zsh -c' and `emulate  zsh
                     -o cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Enable  the  named hash table elements, presumably disabled ear-
              lier with disable.  The default is to enable  builtin  commands.
              The -a option causes enable to act on regular or global aliases.
              The -s option causes enable to act on suffix  aliases.   The  -f
              option  causes  enable to act on shell functions.  The -r option
              causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without  arguments  all
              enabled  hash  table  elements from the corresponding hash table
              are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken  as  pat-
              terns  (should  be  quoted) and all hash table elements from the
              corresponding hash table matching these  patterns  are  enabled.
              Enabled  objects  can  be disabled with the disable builtin com-
              mand.

              enable -p reenables patterns disabled  with  disable  -p.   Note
              that it does not override globbing options; for example, `enable
              -p "~"' does not cause the pattern  character  ~  to  be  active
              unless the EXTENDED_GLOB option is also set.  To enable all pos-
              sible patterns (so that they may be individually  disabled  with
              disable -p), use `setopt EXTENDED_GLOB KSH_GLOB NO_SH_GLOB'.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the result-
              ing command(s) in the current shell process.  The return  status
              is the same as if the commands had been executed directly by the
              shell; if there are no args or they contain  no  commands  (i.e.
              are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] [ command [ arg ... ] ]
              Replace  the  current shell with an external command rather than
              forking.  With -c clear the environment; with -l  prepend  -  to
              the  argv[0] string of the command executed (to simulate a login
              shell); with -a argv0 set the argv[0] string of the command exe-
              cuted.  See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

              If  command  is omitted but any redirections are specified, then
              the redirections will take effect in the current shell.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit the shell with the exit status specified by  an  arithmetic
              expression n; if none is specified, use the exit status from the
              last command executed.  An EOF condition  will  also  cause  the
              shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set.

              See  notes at the end of the section JOBS in zshmisc(1) for some
              possibly unexpected interactions of the exit command with jobs.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified names are marked for automatic export to the envi-
              ronment  of subsequently executed commands.  Equivalent to type-
              set -gx.  If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is
              created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.


       fc [ -e ename ] [ -LI ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -LI ] [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              The fc command controls the interactive history mechanism.  Note
              that reading and writing of history options is only performed if
              the  shell  is  interactive.  Usually this is detected automati-
              cally, but it can be forced by setting  the  interactive  option
              when starting the shell.

              The  first  two  forms  of this command select a range of events
              from first to last from the history list.  The  arguments  first
              and  last  may be specified as a number or as a string.  A nega-
              tive number is used as an offset to the  current  history  event
              number.  A string specifies the most recent event beginning with
              the given string.  All substitutions old=new, if any,  are  then
              performed on the text of the events.

              In addition to the number range,
              -I     restricts to only internal events (not from $HISTFILE)
              -L     restricts  to  only  local events (not from other shells,
                     see SHARE_HISTORY in zshoptions(1) -- note that $HISTFILE
                     is considered local when read at startup)
              -m     takes  the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted)
                     and only the history events  matching  this  pattern  are
                     considered

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent
              event), or to -16 if the -l flag is given.  If last is not spec-
              ified,  it  will  be  set  to  first, or to -1 if the -l flag is
              given.  However, if the current event has added entries  to  the
              history with `print -s' or `fc -R', then the default last for -l
              includes all new history entries since the current event began.

              When the -l flag is given, the resulting events  are  listed  on
              standard  output.  Otherwise the editor program ename is invoked
              on a file containing these history  events.   If  ename  is  not
              given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used; if that is not
              set the value of the parameter EDITOR is used; if  that  is  not
              set  a  builtin default, usually `vi' is used.  If ename is `-',
              no editor is invoked.  When editing is complete, the edited com-
              mand is executed.

              The  flag  -r  reverses  the order of the events and the flag -n
              suppresses event numbers when listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each event
              -f     prints full time-date stamps in the US  `MM/DD/YY  hh:mm'
                     format
              -E     prints  full time-date stamps in the European `dd.mm.yyyy
                     hh:mm' format
              -i     prints  full  time-date  stamps  in  ISO8601  `yyyy-mm-dd
                     hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints  time  and date stamps in the given format; fmt is
                     formatted with the strftime function with the zsh  exten-
                     sions  described  for the %D{string} prompt format in the
                     section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The
                     resulting formatted string must be no more than 256 char-
                     acters or will not be printed
              -D     prints elapsed times; may be combined  with  one  of  the
                     options above

              `fc  -p'  pushes  the  current  history  list  onto  a stack and
              switches to a new history list.  If the -a option is also speci-
              fied,  this  history  list will be automatically popped when the
              current function scope is exited, which is a much  better  solu-
              tion than creating a trap function to call `fc -P' manually.  If
              no arguments are specified, the  history  list  is  left  empty,
              $HISTFILE  is  unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set to their
              default values.  If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is  set  to
              that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the
              history file is read in (if it exists)  to  initialize  the  new
              list.   If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST
              are instead set to the single specified numeric value.  Finally,
              if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these  environment
              values  for  the new history list however you desire in order to
              manipulate the new history list.

              `fc -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc
              -p'.   The  current  list is saved to its $HISTFILE before it is
              destroyed (assuming that $HISTFILE and $SAVEHIST are set  appro-
              priately,  of  course).  The values of $HISTFILE, $HISTSIZE, and
              $SAVEHIST are restored to the values they had when `fc  -p'  was
              called.   Note  that  this  restoration can conflict with making
              these variables "local", so your best bet is to avoid local dec-
              larations  for  these  variables  in functions that use `fc -p'.
              The one other guaranteed-safe  combination  is  declaring  these
              variables  to be local at the top of your function and using the
              automatic option (-a) with `fc -p'.  Finally, note  that  it  is
              legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic popping if you
              need to do so before the function exits.

              `fc -R' reads the history from the given file,  `fc  -W'  writes
              the  history out to the given file, and `fc -A' appends the his-
              tory out to the given file.  If no filename  is  specified,  the
              $HISTFILE  is  assumed.   If  the -I option is added to -R, only
              those events that are not already contained within the  internal
              history  list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or -W,
              only  those  events  that  are  new   since   last   incremental
              append/write  to  the history file are appended/written.  In any
              case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If  no  job
              is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZ [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -E,  except  that options irrelevant to
              floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UkmtTuz ] [ -x num ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn ...
              Equivalent to typeset -f, with the exception of the  -x  and  -M
              options.

              The -x option indicates that any functions output will have each
              leading tab for indentation, added by the shell to show  syntac-
              tic  structure, expanded to the given number num of spaces.  num
              can also be 0 to suppress all indentation.

              Use of the -M option may not be combined with any of the options
              handled by typeset -f.

              functions -M mathfn defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical
              function recognised in all forms  of  arithmetical  expressions;
              see  the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1).  By
              default mathfn may take any number of comma-separated arguments.
              If  min  is given, it must have exactly min args; if min and max
              are both given, it must have at least min and at most max  args.
              max may be -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By  default  the  function is implemented by a shell function of
              the same name; if shellfn is specified it gives the name of  the
              corresponding  shell function while mathfn remains the name used
              in arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function in $0  is
              mathfn  (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided the
              option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters
              in  the shell function correspond to the arguments of the mathe-
              matical function call.  The  result  of  the  last  arithmetical
              expression  evaluated inside the shell function (even if it is a
              form that normally only returns a status) gives  the  result  of
              the mathematical function.

              functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined func-
              tions in the same form as a  definition.   With  the  additional
              option  -m  and  a list of arguments, all functions whose mathfn
              matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the
              additional  option  -m the arguments are treated as patterns and
              all functions whose mathfn  matches  the  pattern  are  removed.
              Note  that  the shell function implementing the behaviour is not
              removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
              parameter name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use
              the positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins  with
              a  `+' or a `-'.  An argument not beginning with a `+' or a `-',
              or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a single  `-'
              is  not  considered a valid option argument.  optstring contains
              the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by
              a  `:',  that  option  requires an argument.  The options can be
              separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each time it is invoked, getopts places  the  option  letter  it
              finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg
              begins with a `+'.  The index of  the  next  arg  is  stored  in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The  first  option  to  be examined may be changed by explicitly
              assigning to OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial value of 1,  and  is
              normally  set  to  1 upon entry to a shell function and restored
              upon exit (this  is  disabled  by  the  POSIX_BUILTINS  option).
              OPTARG  is  not reset and retains its value from the most recent
              call to getopts.  If either of OPTIND or  OPTARG  is  explicitly
              unset, it remains unset, and the index or option argument is not
              stored.  The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of
              any  invalid  option  in  OPTARG,  and to set name to `?' for an
              unknown option and to `:' when a required argument  is  missing.
              Otherwise,  getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error message
              when an option is invalid.  The  exit  status  is  nonzero  when
              there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash  can be used to directly modify the contents of the command
              hash table, and the named directory hash  table.   Normally  one
              would  modify these tables by modifying one's PATH (for the com-
              mand hash table) or by  creating  appropriate  shell  parameters
              (for  the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash table
              to work on is determined by the -d option;  without  the  option
              the  command  hash  table is used, and with the option the named
              directory hash table is used.

              Given no arguments, and  neither  the  -r  or  -f  options,  the
              selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The  -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.  It
              will be subsequently rebuilt in  the  normal  fashion.   The  -f
              option  causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt imme-
              diately.  For the command hash table this hashes all  the  abso-
              lute  directories  in the PATH, and for the named directory hash
              table this adds all users' home directories.  These two  options
              cannot be used with any arguments.

              The  -m  option  causes  the  arguments  to be taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted) and the  elements  of  the  hash  table
              matching  those  patterns  are printed.  This is the only way to
              display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For each name with a corresponding  value,  put  `name'  in  the
              selected  hash  table, associating it with the pathname `value'.
              In the command hash table, this means that  whenever  `name'  is
              used  as  a  command argument, the shell will try to execute the
              file given by `value'.  In the named directory hash table,  this
              means that `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For  each  name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name
              to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the
              normal  manner  for  that  hash  table.  If an appropriate value
              can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are
              added  by explicit specification.  If has no effect if used with
              -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed
              in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}LRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -i,  except  that options irrelevant to
              integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists information about each given job, or all jobs  if  job  is
              omitted.   The  -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p flag lists
              process groups.  If the -r flag is specified only  running  jobs
              will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are
              shown.  If the -d flag is given, the directory  from  which  the
              job  was  started (which may not be the current directory of the
              job) will also be shown.

              The -Z option replaces  the  shell's  argument  and  environment
              space  with  the  given  string,  truncated if necessary to fit.
              This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This fea-
              ture is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends  either  SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs
              or processes.  Signals are given by number or by names, with  or
              without  the  `SIG'  prefix.   If  the  signal being sent is not
              `KILL' or `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT'  signal  if
              it  is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a job
              not in the job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not
              specified  the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig
              that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.   For
              each  sig  that  is a signal number or a number representing the
              exit status of a process which was terminated or  stopped  by  a
              signal the name of the signal is printed.

              On  some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few
              signals.  Typical examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and
              SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.  kill
              -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l  alt  will
              show  if  the  alternative  form corresponds to a signal number.
              For example, under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output
              29, hence kill -IO and kill -POLL have the same effect.

              Many  systems  will  allow  process IDs to be negative to kill a
              process group or zero to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the  section
              `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1)  for  a  description of
              arithmetic expressions.  The exit status is 0 if  the  value  of
              the  last  expression  is  nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and 2 if an
              error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s  flag  is  given,
              the  limit  applies  only  the  children of the shell.  If -s is
              given without other arguments, the resource limits of  the  cur-
              rent  shell  is set to the previously set resource limits of the
              children.

              If limit is not specified, print the  current  limit  placed  on
              resource,  otherwise  set  the limit to the specified value.  If
              the -h flag is given, use hard limits instead  of  soft  limits.
              If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However,  if  it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in  RAM  for  AIO  opera-
                     tions.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              kqueues
                     Maximum number of kqueues allocated.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              posixlocks
                     Maximum number of POSIX locks per user.
              pseudoterminals
                     Maximum number of pseudo-terminals.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              swapsize
                     Maximum amount of swap used.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits are available depends on the sys-
              tem.  resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.  It
              can also be an integer, which corresponds to the integer defined
              for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of
              the  resources  configured into the shell, the shell will try to
              read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this
              fails.   As  the shell does not store such resources internally,
              an attempt to set the limit will fail unless the  -s  option  is
              present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              ng     gigabytes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The  limit  command  is  not  made available by default when the
              shell starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be  made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AHUahlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not per-
              mitted.  In this case the -x option does not force  the  use  of
              -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List  all users currently logged in who are affected by the cur-
              rent setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       popd [ -q ] [ {+|-}n ]
              Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform  a  cd  to
              the  new top directory.  With no argument, the current top entry
              is removed.  An argument of the form  `+n'  identifies  a  stack
              entry  by  counting  from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n  counts
              from  the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings
              of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook  function  chpwd
              and  the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not called,
              and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful  for
              calls  to  popd  that  do  not change the environment seen by an
              interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
             [ -v name ] [ -xX tabstop ] [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With the `-f' option the arguments are printed as  described  by
              printf.   With  no flags or with the flag `-', the arguments are
              printed on the standard output as described by  echo,  with  the
              following  differences:  the  escape  sequence `\M-x' (or `\Mx')
              metafies the character x (sets  the  highest  bit),  `\C-x'  (or
              `\Cx')  produces a control character (`\C-@' and `\C-?' give the
              characters NULL and delete), a character code in octal is repre-
              sented by `\NNN' (instead of `\0NNN'), and `\E' is a synonym for
              `\e'.  Finally, if not in an escape sequence,  `\'  escapes  the
              following character and is not printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only
                     useful with the -c and -C options.

              -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the  bind-
                     key command, see the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a is also given,
                     arguments are printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a  is  also
                     given,  arguments  are  printed with the row incrementing
                     first.

              -D     Treat the arguments as paths,  replacing  directory  pre-
                     fixes  with  ~  expressions  corresponding  to  directory
                     names, as appropriate.

              -i     If given together with -o or  -O,  sorting  is  performed
                     case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spa-
                     ces.

              -m     Take the first argument as a pattern (should be  quoted),
                     and remove it from the argument list together with subse-
                     quent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform  prompt  expansion  (see  EXPANSION   OF   PROMPT
                     SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate  the  BSD  echo  command,  which does not process
                     escape sequences unless the -e flag  is  given.   The  -n
                     flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n
                     flags are recognized after -R; all  other  arguments  and
                     options are printed.

              -s     Place  the  results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.  Each argument to the print  command  is
                     treated  as  a  single word in the history, regardless of
                     its content.

              -S     Place the results in the history list instead of  on  the
                     standard  output.  In this case only a single argument is
                     allowed; it will be split into words as if it were a full
                     shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading the
                     line from a history file with the  HIST_LEX_WORDS  option
                     active.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -v name
                     Store the printed arguments as the value of the parameter
                     name.

              -x tab-stop
                     Expand leading tabs on each line of output in the printed
                     string  assuming  a  tab  stop every tab-stop characters.
                     This is appropriate  for  formatting  code  that  may  be
                     indented  with tabs.  Note that leading tabs of any argu-
                     ment to print, not just the first, are expanded, even  if
                     print  is  using spaces to separate arguments (the column
                     count is maintained across arguments but may be incorrect
                     on output owing to previous unexpanded tabs).

                     The  start of the output of each print command is assumed
                     to be aligned with a tab stop.  Widths of multibyte char-
                     acters  are handled if the option MULTIBYTE is in effect.
                     This option is ignored if other formatting options are in
                     effect,  namely  column  alignment or printf style, or if
                     output is to a special location such as shell history  or
                     the command line editor.

              -X tab-stop
                     This  is  similar  to  -x,  except  that  all tabs in the
                     printed string are expanded.  This is appropriate if tabs
                     in  the  arguments are being used to produce a table for-
                     mat.

              -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer  stack,  sepa-
                     rated by spaces.

              If  any  of `-m', `-o' or `-O' are used in combination with `-f'
              and there are no arguments (after the  removal  process  in  the
              case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf [ -v name ] format [ arg ... ]
              Print  the arguments according to the format specification. For-
              matting rules are the  same  as  used  in  C.  The  same  escape
              sequences  as  for echo are recognised in the format. All C con-
              version specifications ending in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are  han-
              dled.  In  addition to this, `%b' can be used instead of `%s' to
              cause escape sequences in the argument to be recognised and `%q'
              can  be  used to quote the argument in such a way that allows it
              to be reused as shell input. With the numeric format specifiers,
              if the corresponding argument starts with a quote character, the
              numeric value of the following character is used as  the  number
              to  print;  otherwise the argument is evaluated as an arithmetic
              expression. See the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zsh-
              misc(1)  for a description of arithmetic expressions. With `%n',
              the corresponding argument is taken as an  identifier  which  is
              created as an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument
              in order but they can explicitly specify the nth argument is  to
              be  used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and `*' by `*n$'.  It is rec-
              ommended that you do not mix references of this  explicit  style
              with  the normal style and the handling of such mixed styles may
              be subject to future change.

              If arguments remain unused after formatting, the  format  string
              is reused until all arguments have been consumed. With the print
              builtin, this can be suppressed by using the -r option. If  more
              arguments  are  required by the format than have been specified,
              the behaviour is as if zero or an empty string had  been  speci-
              fied as the argument.

              The -v option causes the output to be stored as the value of the
              parameter name, instead of printed. If name is an array and  the
              format  string is reused when consuming arguments then one array
              element will be used for each use of the format string.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory
              onto the directory stack.  In the first form, change the current
              directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second
              directory  on the stack (that is, exchange the top two entries),
              or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME  option  is  set  or  if
              there  is only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is inter-
              preted as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in  the
              second form is also the same as for cd.

              The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the direc-
              tory list.  An argument of the  form  `+n'  identifies  a  stack
              entry  by  counting  from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.   An  argument  of  the  form  `-n'
              counts  from  the  right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the
              meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook  function  chpwd
              and  the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not called,
              and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful  for
              calls  to  pushd  that  do not change the environment seen by an
              interactive user.

              If  the  option  -q  is  not  specified  and  the  shell  option
              PUSHD_SILENT  is  not  set,  the directory stack will be printed
              after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for  the  cd
              builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option
              is  set  and the -L flag is not given, the printed path will not
              contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.


       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
            [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read one line and break it into fields using the  characters  in
              $IFS  as  separators, except as noted below.  The first field is
              assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
              etc.,  with  leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If name
              is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

              -r     Raw mode: a `\' at the end of a  line  does  not  signify
                     line continuation and backslashes in the line don't quote
                     the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the terminal.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
                     `y'  if  this  character was `y' or `Y' and to `n' other-
                     wise.  With this flag set the return status is zero  only
                     if the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may be used
                     with a timeout (see  -t);  if  the  read  times  out,  or
                     encounters  end  of file, status 2 is returned.  Input is
                     read from the terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.
                     This option may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read  only  one (or num) characters.  All are assigned to
                     the first name, without word  splitting.   This  flag  is
                     ignored  when -q is present.  Input is read from the ter-
                     minal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may
                     also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note  that  despite  the  mnemonic `key' this option does
                     read full characters, which may consist of multiple bytes
                     if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
                     to the first  name,  without  word  splitting.   Text  is
                     pushed  onto  the stack with `print -z' or with push-line
                     from the line  editor  (see  zshzle(1)).   This  flag  is
                     ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The  input  read is printed (echoed) to the standard out-
                     put.  If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned to the
                     parameters.

              -A     The  first  name is taken as the name of an array and all
                     words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a  function
                     used  for  completion (specified with the -K flag to com-
                     pctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words of the current
                     command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line
                     is assigned as a scalar.  If both flags are  present,  -l
                     is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
                     is read.  With -l, the index of the character the  cursor
                     is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end  of
                     the  line,  its character index is the length of the line
                     plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input is terminated  by  the  first  character  of  delim
                     instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If
                     num is present, it must begin with a digit  and  will  be
                     evaluated  to  give  a  number of seconds, which may be a
                     floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input  is  not available within this time.  If num is not
                     present, it is taken to be zero,  so  that  read  returns
                     immediately  if  no  input  is available.  If no input is
                     available, return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor
                     buffer  with  -z, when called from within completion with
                     -c or -l, with -q which clears  the  input  queue  before
                     reading,  or  within zle where other mechanisms should be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note that read does not attempt to alter the  input  pro-
                     cessing  mode.   The  default mode is canonical input, in
                     which an entire line is read at a time, so usually  `read
                     -t'  will not read anything until an entire line has been
                     typed.  However, when reading from the terminal  with  -k
                     input  is processed one key at a time; in this case, only
                     availability of the first character is  tested,  so  that
                     e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second charac-
                     ter.  Use two instances of `read -t -k' if  this  is  not
                     what is wanted.

              If the first argument contains a `?', the remainder of this word
              is used as a prompt on standard error when the shell is interac-
              tive.

              The  value  (exit  status)  of  read is 1 when an end-of-file is
              encountered, or when -c or -l is present and the command is  not
              called  from a compctl function, or as described for -q.  Other-
              wise the value is 0.

              The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u  and  -z
              flags  is  undefined.   Presently  -q cancels all the others, -p
              cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p  and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.  With the POSIX_BUILTINS option set, same as
              typeset -gr.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes a shell function or `.' script to return to the  invoking
              script with the return status specified by an arithmetic expres-
              sion n. If n is omitted, the return status is that of  the  last
              command executed.

              If  return  was  executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the
              effect is different for zero and non-zero return  status.   With
              zero  status  (or  after  an  implicit  return at the end of the
              trap), the shell will return to whatever it was previously  pro-
              cessing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as inter-
              rupted except that the return status of the  trap  is  retained.
              Note  that the numeric value of the signal which caused the trap
              is passed as  the  first  argument,  so  the  statement  `return
              $((128+$1))'  will  return  the same status as if the signal had
              not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).


       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ]
           [ arg ... ]
              Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional  parame-
              ters,  or  declare and set an array.  If the -s option is given,
              it causes the specified arguments to be sorted before  assigning
              them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if -A is
              used).  With +s sort arguments in  descending  order.   For  the
              meaning  of  the  other  flags, see zshoptions(1).  Flags may be
              specified by name using the -o option. If no option name is sup-
              plied  with  -o, the current option states are printed:  see the
              description of setopt below for more information on the  format.
              With  +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input to
              the shell.

              If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array  containing
              the  given args; if no name is specified, all arrays are printed
              together with their values.

              If +A is used and name is an array,  the  given  arguments  will
              replace the initial elements of that array; if no name is speci-
              fied, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The behaviour of arguments after -A name or +A name  depends  on
              whether  the  option  KSH_ARRAYS  is set.  If it is not set, all
              arguments following name are treated as values  for  the  array,
              regardless  of  their form.  If the option is set, normal option
              processing continues at that point; only regular  arguments  are
              treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the
              array to foo and turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

              If the -A flag is not present, but there  are  arguments  beyond
              the  options,  the positional parameters are set.  If the option
              list (if any) is terminated by `--', and there  are  no  further
              arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values
              of all parameters are printed on the standard  output.   If  the
              only argument is `+', the names of all parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set
              - args' as `set +xv -- args' when in any  other  emulation  mode
              than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ -m ] [ name ... ]
              Set  the  options  for  the shell.  All options specified either
              with flags or by name are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently
              set  are printed.  The form is chosen so as to minimize the dif-
              ferences from the default options for the current emulation (the
              default  emulation  being  native  zsh,  shown  as <Z> in zshop-
              tions(1)).  Options that are on by default for the emulation are
              shown  with  the  prefix  no  only  if they are off, while other
              options are shown without the prefix no and only if they are on.
              In  addition  to  options  changed from the default state by the
              user, any options activated  automatically  by  the  shell  (for
              example,  SHIN_STDIN  or INTERACTIVE) will be shown in the list.
              The format is further modified by the  option  KSH_OPTION_PRINT,
              however  the  rationale for choosing options with or without the
              no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If the -m flag is given the  arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
              (which  should  be  quoted  to protect them from filename expan-
              sion), and all options with names matching  these  patterns  are
              set.

              Note  that  a bad option name does not cause execution of subse-
              quent shell code to be aborted; this is behaviour  is  different
              from  that  of  `set  -o'.  This is because set is regarded as a
              special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt is not.

       shift [ -p ] [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The positional parameters ${n+1} ...  are  renamed  to  $1  ...,
              where  n is an arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If any
              names are given then the arrays with  these  names  are  shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

              If the option -p is given arguments are instead removed (popped)
              from the end rather than the start of the array.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as  `.',  except  that  the  current  directory  is  always
              searched  and  is  always  searched first, before directories in
              $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until  it
              receives  a  SIGCONT.   Unless the -f option is given, this will
              refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like the system version of test.  Added for  compatibility;  use
              conditional  expressions  instead  (see the section `Conditional
              Expressions').  The main  differences  between  the  conditional
              expression  syntax  and the test and [ builtins are:  these com-
              mands are not handled syntactically, so  for  example  an  empty
              variable  expansion  may cause an argument to be omitted; syntax
              errors cause status 2 to be returned instead of a  shell  error;
              and  arithmetic  operators  expect integer arguments rather than
              arithmetic expressions.

              The command attempts to implement POSIX and its extensions where
              these are specified.  Unfortunately there are intrinsic ambigui-
              ties in the  syntax;  in  particular  there  is  no  distinction
              between  test  operators  and  strings  that resemble them.  The
              standard attempts to resolve these for small  numbers  of  argu-
              ments  (up  to  four);  for five or more arguments compatibility
              cannot be relied on.  Users are urged wherever possible  to  use
              the `[[' test syntax which does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print  the  accumulated  user and system times for the shell and
              for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect  it  from
              immediate  evaluation by the shell) to be read and executed when
              the shell receives any of the signals specified by one  or  more
              sig  args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the name of
              a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,
              HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If  arg  is  `-',  then the specified signals are reset to their
              defaults, or, if no sig args are present, all traps are reset.

              If arg is an  empty  string,  then  the  specified  signals  are
              ignored by the shell (and by the commands it invokes).

              If  arg  is  omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.
              the first argument is a valid signal number or name), the effect
              is the same as if arg had been specified as `-'.

              The  trap  command  with  no arguments prints a list of commands
              associated with each signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
              a nonzero exit status.  ERR is an alias for ZERR on systems that
              have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will be executed before each command if
              the  option  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as it is by default), else
              after each command.  Here, a `command' is what is described as a
              `sublist'  in the shell grammar, see the section SIMPLE COMMANDS
              & PIPELINES in zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is  set  various
              additional  features  are  available.   First, it is possible to
              skip the next command by setting the option  ERR_EXIT;  see  the
              description  of the ERR_EXIT option in zshoptions(1).  Also, the
              shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the string corresponding
              to  the  command  to  be executed following the trap.  Note that
              this string is reconstructed from the internal  format  and  may
              not be formatted the same way as the original text.  The parame-
              ter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement  is  executed  inside
              the  body  of a function, then the command arg is executed after
              the function completes.  The value of $? at the start of  execu-
              tion is the exit status of the shell or the return status of the
              function exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is
              not executed inside the body of a function, then the command arg
              is executed when the shell terminates; the trap runs before  any
              zshexit hook functions.

              ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.
              ZERR and DEBUG traps are  kept  within  subshells,  while  other
              traps are reset.

              Note  that traps defined with the trap builtin are slightly dif-
              ferent from those defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the latter
              have  their  own function environment (line numbers, local vari-
              ables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the command
              in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will  print  the  line number of a command executed after it has
              run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative signal names are allowed  as  described  under  kill
              above.   Defining a trap under either name causes any trap under
              an alternative name to be removed.  However, it  is  recommended
              that  for  consistency  users  stick  exclusively to one name or
              another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl [ -fu ]
              The -f option freezes the tty (i.e. terminal or terminal  emula-
              tor),  and  -u unfreezes it.  When the tty is frozen, no changes
              made to the tty settings by external programs will be honored by
              the  shell,  except  for  changes in the size of the screen; the
              shell will simply reset the settings to their previous values as
              soon as each command exits or is suspended.  Thus, stty and sim-
              ilar programs have no effect when the tty is  frozen.   Freezing
              the  tty  does  not  cause  the  current state to be remembered:
              instead, it causes future changes to the state to be blocked.

              Without options it reports whether the  terminal  is  frozen  or
              not.

              Note  that,  regardless of whether the tty is frozen or not, the
              shell needs to change the settings when the line editor  starts,
              so  unfreezing  the  tty does not guarantee settings made on the
              command line are preserved.  Strings  of  commands  run  between
              editing  the  command line will see a consistent tty state.  See
              also the shell variable STTY for a means of initialising the tty
              before running external commands.

       type [ -wfpamsS ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.


       typeset [ {+|-}AHUaghlmprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ]
               [ + ] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Uglprux ] [ {+|-}LRZ [ n ] ]
               [ + | SCALAR[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
       typeset -f [ {+|-}TUkmtuz ] [ + ] [ name ... ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              Except  as  noted below for control flags that change the behav-
              ior, a parameter is created for each name that does not  already
              refer  to  one.  When inside a function, a new parameter is cre-
              ated for every name (even those  that  already  exist),  and  is
              unset again when the function completes.  See `Local Parameters'
              in zshparam(1).  The same rules apply to special  shell  parame-
              ters, which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For  each  name=value  assignment,  the parameter name is set to
              value.

              If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each  remain-
              ing  name  that  refers  to a parameter that is already set, the
              name and value of the parameter are printed in the  form  of  an
              assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters, or
              when any attribute flags listed below are given along  with  the
              name.   Using  `+'  instead  of  minus to introduce an attribute
              turns it off.

              If no name is present, the names and values  of  all  parameters
              are printed.  In this case the attribute flags restrict the dis-
              play  to  only  those  parameters  that   have   the   specified
              attributes,  and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no
              parameter name.

              All  forms  of  the  command  handle  scalar  assignment.  Array
              assignment is possible if any of  the  reserved  words  declare,
              export,  float,  integer,  local, readonly or typeset is matched
              when the line is parsed (N.B. not when it is executed).  In this
              case  the  arguments  are parsed as assignments, except that the
              `+=' syntax and the GLOB_ASSIGN option are  not  supported,  and
              scalar  values after = are not split further into words, even if
              expanded (regardless of the setting of the  KSH_TYPESET  option;
              this option is obsolete).

              Examples  of  the  differences between command and reserved word
              parsing:

                     # Reserved word parsing
                     typeset svar=$(echo one word) avar=(several words)

              The above creates a scalar parameter svar and an array parameter
              avar as if the assignments had been

                     svar="one word"
                     avar=(several words)

              On the other hand:

                     # Normal builtin interface
                     builtin typeset svar=$(echo two words)

              The builtin keyword causes the above to use the standard builtin
              interface to typeset in which argument parsing is  performed  in
              the  same  way  as  for  other commands.  This example creates a
              scalar svar containing the value two and another scalar  parame-
              ter  words  with  no  value.   An array value in this case would
              either cause an error or be treated as an obscure  set  of  glob
              qualifiers.

              Arbitrary arguments are allowed if they take the form of assign-
              ments after command line expansion; however, these only  perform
              scalar assignment:

                     var='svar=val'
                     typeset $var

              The  above  sets  the  scalar  parameter  svar to the value val.
              Parentheses around the value within var would  not  cause  array
              assignment  as  they will be treated as ordinary characters when
              $var is substituted.  Any non-trivial expansion in the name part
              of  the  assignment  causes  the  argument to be treated in this
              fashion:

                     typeset {var1,var2,var3}=name

              The above syntax is valid, and has the expected effect  of  set-
              ting  the  three  parameters  to the same value, but the command
              line is parsed as a set of three normal command  line  arguments
              to  typeset after expansion.  Hence it is not possible to assign
              to multiple arrays by this means.

              Note that each interface to any of the commands my  be  disabled
              separately.   For  example,  `disable  -r  typeset' disables the
              reserved word interface to typeset, exposing the builtin  inter-
              face,  while  `disable typeset' disables the builtin.  Note that
              disabling the reserved word  interface  for  typeset  may  cause
              problems  with  the  output  of  `typeset -p', which assumes the
              reserved word interface is available in order to  restore  array
              and associative array values.

              Unlike parameter assignment statements, typeset's exit status on
              an assignment that involves  a  command  substitution  does  not
              reflect the exit status of the command substitution.  Therefore,
              to test for an error in a  command  substitution,  separate  the
              declaration of the parameter from its initialization:

                     # WRONG
                     typeset var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

                     # RIGHT
                     typeset var1 && var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

              To  initialize a parameter param to a command output and mark it
              readonly, use typeset -r  param  or  readonly  param  after  the
              parameter assignment statement.

              If  no  attribute  flags are given, and either no name arguments
              are present or the flag +m is used,  then  each  parameter  name
              printed  is preceded by a list of the attributes of that parame-
              ter (array, association, exported, float, integer, readonly,  or
              undefined  for  autoloaded parameters not yet loaded).  If +m is
              used with attribute flags, and all those  flags  are  introduced
              with  +, the matching parameter names are printed but their val-
              ues are not.

              The following control flags change the behavior of typeset:

              +      If `+' appears by itself in a separate word as  the  last
                     option,  then the names of all parameters (functions with
                     -f) are printed, but the  values  (function  bodies)  are
                     not.   No  name  arguments may appear, and it is an error
                     for any other options to follow `+'.  The effect  of  `+'
                     is  as if all attribute flags which precede it were given
                     with a `+' prefix.  For example, `typeset -U +' is equiv-
                     alent  to  `typeset  +U'  and  displays  the names of all
                     arrays having the uniqueness attribute, whereas  `typeset
                     -f  -U  +'  displays  the names of all autoloadable func-
                     tions.  If + is the only option,  then  type  information
                     (array,  readonly, etc.) is also printed for each parame-
                     ter, in the same manner as `typeset +m "*"'.

              -g     The -g (global) means that any resulting  parameter  will
                     not  be  restricted  to local scope.  Note that this does
                     not necessarily mean that the parameter will  be  global,
                     as the flag will apply to any existing parameter (even if
                     unset) from an enclosing function.  This  flag  does  not
                     affect  the  parameter  after  creation,  hence it has no
                     effect when listing existing  parameters,  nor  does  the
                     flag  +g  have  any  effect except in combination with -m
                     (see below).

              -m     If the -m flag is given the name arguments are  taken  as
                     patterns  (use quoting to prevent these from being inter-
                     preted as file patterns).  With no attribute  flags,  all
                     parameters  (or functions with the -f flag) with matching
                     names are printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not
                     used in this case).

                     If the +g flag is combined with -m, a new local parameter
                     is created for  every  matching  parameter  that  is  not
                     already  local.   Otherwise -m applies all other flags or
                     assignments to the existing parameters.

                     Except when assignments are made with  name=value,  using
                     +m forces the matching parameters and their attributes to
                     be printed, even inside a  function.   Note  that  -m  is
                     ignored  if  no  patterns are given, so `typeset -m' dis-
                     plays attributes but `typeset -a +m' does not.

              -p     If the -p option is  given,  parameters  and  values  are
                     printed  in the form of a typeset command with an assign-
                     ment, regardless of other flags and options.   Note  that
                     the  -H flag on parameters is respected; no value will be
                     shown for these parameters.

              -T [ scalar[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f;  see
                     below.   Otherwise  the  -T option requires zero, two, or
                     three arguments to be present.  With  no  arguments,  the
                     list  of  parameters  created  in  this fashion is shown.
                     With two or three arguments, the first two are  the  name
                     of  a  scalar  and  of an array parameter (in that order)
                     that will be tied together in the  manner  of  $PATH  and
                     $path.  The optional third argument is a single-character
                     separator which will be used to join the elements of  the
                     array  to form the scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as
                     with $PATH.  Only the first character of the separator is
                     significant;   any   remaining  characters  are  ignored.
                     Multibyte characters are not yet supported.

                     Only one of  the  scalar  and  array  parameters  may  be
                     assigned an initial value (the restrictions on assignment
                     forms described above also apply).

                     Both the scalar and the array may be manipulated as  nor-
                     mal.   If  one  is unset, the other will automatically be
                     unset too.  There is no  way  of  untying  the  variables
                     without unsetting them, nor of converting the type of one
                     of them with another typeset command; +T does  not  work,
                     assigning an array to scalar is an error, and assigning a
                     scalar to array sets it to be a single-element array.

                     Note that both `typeset -xT ...'   and  `export  -T  ...'
                     work,  but  only  the  scalar  will be marked for export.
                     Setting the value using the scalar version causes a split
                     on all separators (which cannot be quoted).  It is possi-
                     ble to apply -T to two previously tied variables but with
                     a  different separator character, in which case the vari-
                     ables remain  joined  as  before  but  the  separator  is
                     changed.

              Attribute  flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z, -l,
              -u) are only applied to the expanded value at  the  point  of  a
              parameter  expansion expression using `$'.  They are not applied
              when a parameter is retrieved internally by the  shell  for  any
              purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The  names  refer  to  associative  array parameters; see
                     `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

              -L [ n ]
                     Left justify and remove leading  blanks  from  the  value
                     when  the  parameter  is  expanded.   If n is nonzero, it
                     defines the width of the field.  If n is zero, the  width
                     is  determined  by  the  width  of the value of the first
                     assignment.  In  the  case  of  numeric  parameters,  the
                     length of the complete value assigned to the parameter is
                     used to determine the width, not the value that would  be
                     output.

                     The width is the count of characters, which may be multi-
                     byte characters if the MULTIBYTE  option  is  in  effect.
                     Note  that the screen width of the character is not taken
                     into account; if  this  is  required,  use  padding  with
                     parameter  expansion  flags ${(ml...)...} as described in
                     `Parameter Expansion Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right
                     with  blanks  or truncated if necessary to fit the field.
                     Note truncation  can  lead  to  unexpected  results  with
                     numeric  parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the -Z
                     flag is also set.

              -R [ n ]
                     Similar to -L, except that right justification  is  used;
                     when  the parameter is expanded, the field is left filled
                     with blanks or truncated from the end.  May not  be  com-
                     bined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For  arrays  (but  not for associative arrays), keep only
                     the first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This  may
                     also  be  set for colon-separated special parameters like
                     PATH or FIGNORE, etc.  Note  the  flag  takes  effect  on
                     assignment,  and  the type of the variable being assigned
                     to is determinative; for variables with shared values  it
                     is  therefore  recommended to set the flag for all inter-
                     faces, e.g. `typeset -U PATH path'.

                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f;  see
                     below.

              -Z [ n ]
                     Specially  handled if set along with the -L flag.  Other-
                     wise, similar to -R, except that leading zeros  are  used
                     for  padding  instead  of  blanks  if the first non-blank
                     character is a digit.  Numeric parameters  are  specially
                     handled:  they  are  always  eligible  for  padding  with
                     zeroes, and the zeroes are  inserted  at  an  appropriate
                     place in the output.

              -a     The  names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter
                     may be created this way, but it may be assigned to in the
                     typeset statement only if the reserved word form of type-
                     set is enabled (as it is by default).   When  displaying,
                     both normal and associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The  names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No
                     assignments can be made, and the only other  valid  flags
                     are -t, -T, -k, -u, -U and -z.  The flag -t turns on exe-
                     cution tracing for this function; the flag  -T  does  the
                     same, but turns off tracing for any named (not anonymous)
                     function called from the present one, unless  that  func-
                     tion  also  has  the  -t or -T flag.  The -u and -U flags
                     cause the function to be marked for autoloading; -U  also
                     causes alias expansion to be suppressed when the function
                     is loaded.  See the description of the `autoload' builtin
                     for details.

                     Note  that  the builtin functions provides the same basic
                     capabilities as typeset -f but  gives  access  to  a  few
                     extra options.

              -h     Hide:  only  useful  for special parameters (those marked
                     `<S>' in the table in zshparam(1)), and for local parame-
                     ters  with  the  same name as a special parameter, though
                     harmless for  others.   A  special  parameter  with  this
                     attribute  will  not  retain its special effect when made
                     local.  Thus after `typeset -h PATH', a function contain-
                     ing  `typeset PATH' will create an ordinary local parame-
                     ter without the usual behaviour of PATH.   Alternatively,
                     the  local  parameter may itself be given this attribute;
                     hence inside a function  `typeset  -h  PATH'  creates  an
                     ordinary  local  parameter and the special PATH parameter
                     is not altered in any way.  It is also possible to create
                     a  local  parameter using `typeset +h special', where the
                     local copy of special will retain its special  properties
                     regardless  of  having  the -h attribute.  Global special
                     parameters loaded from shell modules (currently those  in
                     zsh/mapfile  and  zsh/parameter)  are automatically given
                     the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not  display  the
                     value  of the parameter when listing parameters; the dis-
                     play for such parameters is always as if the `+' flag had
                     been  given.   Use  of the parameter is in other respects
                     normal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is
                     specified  by  name,  or  by  pattern with the -m option.
                     This  is  on  by  default  for  the  parameters  in   the
                     zsh/parameter  and  zsh/mapfile  modules.  Note, however,
                     that unlike the -h flag this is also useful for  non-spe-
                     cial parameters.

              -i [ n ]
                     Use  an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero
                     it defines the output arithmetic base,  otherwise  it  is
                     determined  by  the first assignment.  Bases from 2 to 36
                     inclusive are allowed.

              -E [ n ]
                     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.  On output the variable will be converted to sci-
                     entific notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the  number
                     of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

              -F [ n ]
                     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.  On output the  variable  will  be  converted  to
                     fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it defines
                     the number of digits to display after the decimal  point;
                     the default is ten.

              -l     Convert  the  result to lower case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that  if  name
                     is  a  special  parameter,  the readonly attribute can be
                     turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

                     If  the  POSIX_BUILTINS  option  is  set,  the   readonly
                     attribute  is  more  restrictive:  unset variables can be
                     marked readonly and cannot then be set; furthermore,  the
                     readonly  attribute  cannot be removed from any variable.
                     Note that in zsh (unlike other shells) it is still possi-
                     ble  to  create a local variable of the same name as this
                     is considered a different variable (though this variable,
                     too, can be marked readonly).

              -t     Tags  the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning
                     to the shell.  This flag has  a  different  meaning  when
                     used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert  the  result to upper case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted  when  assigned.
                     This  flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     above.

              -x     Mark for automatic export to the  environment  of  subse-
                     quently  executed  commands.  If the option GLOBAL_EXPORT
                     is set, this implies the option -g,  unless  +g  is  also
                     explicitly  given;  in  other  words the parameter is not
                     made local to the enclosing function.  This is  for  com-
                     patibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ -HSa ] [ { -bcdfiklmnpqrsTtvwx | -N resource } [ limit ] ... ]
              Set  or  display  resource limits of the shell and the processes
              started by the shell.  The value of limit can be a number in the
              unit  specified  below  or  one of the values `unlimited', which
              removes the limit on the resource, or  `hard',  which  uses  the
              current value of the hard limit on the resource.

              By  default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is
              given use hard limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is
              given together with the -H flag set both hard and soft limits.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources
              are printed.  When more than one resource value is printed,  the
              limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However,  if  it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              Not all the following resources are supported  on  all  systems.
              Running ulimit -a will show which are supported.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -k     The number of kqueues allocated.
              -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -p     The number of pseudo-terminals.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -r     Maximum  real  time priority.  On some systems where this
                     is not available, such  as  NetBSD,  this  has  the  same
                     effect as -T for compatibility with sh.
              -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
              -T     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     The number of processes available to the user.
              -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems
                     this refers to the limit called `address space'.
              -w     Kilobytes on the size of swapped out memory.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A resource may also be specified by  integer  in  the  form  `-N
              resource', where resource corresponds to the integer defined for
              the resource by the operating system.  This may be used  to  set
              the  limits for resources known to the shell which do not corre-
              spond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by number in
              the output of `ulimit -a'.

              The  number may alternatively be out of the range of limits com-
              piled into the shell.  The shell will try to read or  write  the
              limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or
              a symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is  omitted,
              the  current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask to
              be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is  printed
              as  an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permis-
              sions you specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied)
              to the users specified.

       unalias [ -ams ] name ...
              Removes  aliases.   This  command  works  the same as unhash -a,
              except that the -a option removes all regular or global aliases,
              or  with  -s  all suffix aliases: in this case no name arguments
              may appear.  The options -m (remove by pattern) and  -s  without
              -a (remove listed suffix aliases) behave as for unhash -a.  Note
              that the meaning of -a is different between unalias and unhash.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.   The
              default  is remove elements from the command hash table.  The -a
              option causes unhash to remove regular or global  aliases;  note
              when  removing a global aliases that the argument must be quoted
              to prevent it from being expanded before  being  passed  to  the
              command.   The -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes unhash to remove shell functions.   The  -d
              options  causes  unhash  to remove named directories.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken  as  patterns  (should  be
              quoted)  and  all  elements of the corresponding hash table with
              matching names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The resource limit for each resource is set to the  hard  limit.
              If  the  -h  flag  is given and the shell has appropriate privi-
              leges, the hard resource limit for  each  resource  is  removed.
              The  resources  of  the shell process are only changed if the -s
              flag is given.

              The unlimit command is not made available by  default  when  the
              shell  starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local  parameters  remain  local
              even  if unset; they appear unset within scope, but the previous
              value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
              by  using  subscript  syntax on name, which should be quoted (or
              the entire command prefixed with noglob)  to  protect  the  sub-
              script from filename generation.

              If  the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns
              (should be quoted) and all parameters with  matching  names  are
              unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative
              array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of  the
              pattern.

              The  -v  flag  specifies that name refers to parameters. This is
              the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset the options for the shell.  All options  specified  either
              with  flags or by name are unset.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m
              flag  is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as  glob  pat-
              terns),  and  all options with names matching these patterns are
              unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is  not  given
              then  all currently active child processes are waited for.  Each
              job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job
              in  the job table.  The exit status from this command is that of
              the job waited for.

              It is possible  to  wait  for  recent  processes  (specified  by
              process ID, not by job) that were running in the background even
              if the process has exited.  Typically the  process  ID  will  be
              recorded  by  capturing the value of the variable $! immediately
              after the process has been started.  There is  a  limit  on  the
              number  of process IDs remembered by the shell; this is given by
              the value of the system configuration parameter CHILD_MAX.  When
              this  limit  is  reached, older process IDs are discarded, least
              recently started processes first.

              Note there is no protection against  the  process  ID  wrapping,
              i.e.  if  the wait is not executed soon enough there is a chance
              the process waited for is the wrong  one.   A  conflict  implies
              both process IDs have been generated by the shell, as other pro-
              cesses are not recorded, and that the user is potentially inter-
              ested in both, so this problem is intrinsic to process IDs.

       whence [ -vcwfpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
              command name.

              whence is most useful when name is only the last path  component
              of  a  command, i.e. does not include a `/'; in particular, pat-
              tern matching only succeeds if just the non-directory  component
              of the command is passed.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print  the  results  in  a  csh-like  format.  This takes
                     precedence over -v.

              -w     For each name, print `name: word' where word  is  one  of
                     alias,  builtin,  command,  function, hashed, reserved or
                     none, according  as  name  corresponds  to  an  alias,  a
                     built-in  command, an external command, a shell function,
                     a command defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word,
                     or  is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and
                     -c.

              -f     Causes the contents of a shell function to be  displayed,
                     which  would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag were
                     used.

              -p     Do a path search  for  name  even  if  it  is  an  alias,
                     reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do  a  search  for all occurrences of name throughout the
                     command path.  Normally  only  the  first  occurrence  is
                     printed.

              -m     The  arguments  are taken as patterns (pattern characters
                     should be quoted), and the information is  displayed  for
                     each command matching one of these patterns.

              -s     If  a  pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free
                     pathname as well.

              -S     As -s, but if the pathname had to be resolved by  follow-
                     ing   multiple   symlinks,  the  intermediate  steps  are
                     printed, too.  The symlink resolved at each step might be
                     anywhere in the path.

              -x num Expand  tabs when outputting shell functions using the -c
                     option.  This has the same effect as the -x option to the
                     functions builtin.

       where [ -wpmsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This  builtin  command  can  be  used  to  compile  functions or
              scripts, storing the compiled form in a  file,  and  to  examine
              files   containing   the  compiled  form.   This  allows  faster
              autoloading of functions and sourcing  of  scripts  by  avoiding
              parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a com-
              piled file.  If only the file argument is given, the output file
              has the name `file.zwc' and will be placed in the same directory
              as the file.  The shell will load the compiled file  instead  of
              the  normal  function  file when the function is autoloaded; see
              the section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for a descrip-
              tion  of  how  autoloaded functions are searched.  The extension
              .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

              If there is at least one name argument, all the named files  are
              compiled  into  the output file given as the first argument.  If
              file does not end  in  .zwc,  this  extension  is  automatically
              appended.   Files  containing  multiple  compiled  functions are
              called `digest' files, and are intended to be used  as  elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The  second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled
              definitions for all the named functions into file.  For -c,  the
              names  must  be  functions  currently  defined in the shell, not
              those marked for  autoloading.   Undefined  functions  that  are
              marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
              which case the fpath is searched and the contents of the defini-
              tion  files  for  those  functions,  if found, are compiled into
              file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined  func-
              tions  and  functions  marked  for autoloading may be given.  In
              either case, the functions in files written with the  -c  or  -a
              option  will  be  autoloaded  as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option were
              unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with
              different  options is that some definition files for autoloading
              define multiple functions, including the function with the  same
              name  as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In such
              cases the output of `zcompile -c' does  not  include  the  addi-
              tional  functions defined in the file, and any other initializa-
              tion code in the file is lost.  Using `zcompile -a' captures all
              this extra information.

              If  the  -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used
              as patterns and all functions whose names  match  one  of  these
              patterns  will  be written. If no name is given, the definitions
              of all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded  will
              be written.

              Note the second form cannot be used for compiling functions that
              include redirections as  part  of  the  definition  rather  than
              within the body of the function; for example

                     fn1() { { ... } >~/logfile }

              can be compiled but

                     fn1() { ... } >~/logfile

              cannot.   It  is  possible  to use the first form of zcompile to
              compile autoloadable functions that include  the  full  function
              definition instead of just the body of the function.

              The  third  form,  with the -t option, examines an existing com-
              piled file.  Without further arguments, the names of the  origi-
              nal files compiled into it are listed.  The first line of output
              shows the version of the shell which compiled the file  and  how
              the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by mapping
              it into memory).  With arguments,  nothing  is  output  and  the
              return  status  is set to zero if definitions for all names were
              found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the  definition  for
              at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When  the  compiled file is read, its contents are copied
                     into the shell's memory, rather than  memory-mapped  (see
                     -M).   This  happens automatically on systems that do not
                     support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
                     it  is  often desirable to use this option; otherwise the
                     whole file, including the code to define functions  which
                     have  already  been  defined,  will remain mapped, conse-
                     quently wasting memory.

              -M     The compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory  when
                     read.  This is done in such a way that multiple instances
                     of the shell running on the same  host  will  share  this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin decides what to do based on the size of the  com-
                     piled file.

              -k
              -z     These  options  are  used when the compiled file contains
                     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
                     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option
                     is not set, even if it is set at the  time  the  compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will
                     be loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options  also
                     take  precedence  over  any -k or -z options specified to
                     the autoload builtin. If  neither  of  these  options  is
                     given,  the  function will be loaded as determined by the
                     setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time  the  com-
                     piled file is read.

                     These  options may also appear as many times as necessary
                     between the listed names to specify the loading style  of
                     all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file always contains two versions of the com-
                     piled format, one for big-endian  machines  and  one  for
                     small-endian  machines.   The  upshot of this is that the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped,  only  one half of the file is actually used (and
                     mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -alLme -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading
              of  modules  while the shell is running (`dynamical loading') is
              not available on all operating systems, or on all  installations
              on  a particular operating system, although the zmodload command
              itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built  into  versions  of the shell executable without dynamical
              loading.

              Without arguments the names of all currently loaded binary  mod-
              ules  are  printed.  The -L option causes this list to be in the
              form of a series of zmodload  commands.   Forms  with  arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -i ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In  the  simplest  case,  zmodload loads a binary module.
                     The module must be in a file with a  name  consisting  of
                     the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually
                     `.so' (`.sl' on HPUX).  If the module  to  be  loaded  is
                     already loaded the duplicate module is ignored.  If zmod-
                     load detects an inconsistency, such as an invalid  module
                     name  or circular dependency list, the current code block
                     is aborted.   Hence `zmodload module 2>/dev/null' is suf-
                     ficient  to test whether a module is available.  If it is
                     available, the module is loaded if necessary, while if it
                     is  not  available, non-zero status is silently returned.
                     The option -i is accepted for compatibility  but  has  no
                     effect.

                     The  named  module is searched for in the same way a com-
                     mand is, using $module_path instead of  $path.   However,
                     the  path  search  is performed even when the module name
                     contains a `/', which it usually does.  There is  no  way
                     to prevent the path search.

                     If  the  module  supports  features (see below), zmodload
                     tries to enable all features when loading a  module.   If
                     the  module  was successfully loaded but not all features
                     could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be
                     given  that  was given when the module was loaded, but it
                     is not necessary for the module to exist in the file sys-
                     tem.  The -i option suppresses the error if the module is
                     already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each module has a boot and a cleanup function.  The  mod-
                     ule will not be loaded if its boot function fails.  Simi-
                     larly a module can only be unloaded if its cleanup  func-
                     tion runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
                     zmodload  -F  allows more selective control over the fea-
                     tures provided by modules.  With no  options  apart  from
                     -F,  the  module  named  module  is loaded, if it was not
                     already loaded, and the list of features is  set  to  the
                     required state.  If no features are specified, the module
                     is loaded, if it was not already loaded, but the state of
                     features is unchanged.  Each feature may be preceded by a
                     + to turn the feature on, or - to turn it off; the  +  is
                     assumed if neither character is present.  Any feature not
                     explicitly mentioned is left in its current state; if the
                     module was not previously loaded this means any such fea-
                     tures will remain disabled.  The return status is zero if
                     all  features  were  set, 1 if the module failed to load,
                     and 2 if some features could not be set (for  example,  a
                     parameter couldn't be added because there was a different
                     parameter of the same name) but the module was loaded.

                     The standard features are builtins,  conditions,  parame-
                     ters  and math functions; these are indicated by the pre-
                     fix `b:', `c:' (`C:' for an infix  condition),  `p:'  and
                     `f:',  respectively, followed by the name that the corre-
                     sponding feature would have in the shell.   For  example,
                     `b:strftime'  indicates  a  builtin  named  strftime  and
                     p:EPOCHSECONDS indicates a parameter named  EPOCHSECONDS.
                     The module may provide other (`abstract') features of its
                     own as indicated by its documentation; these have no pre-
                     fix.

                     With  -l  or  -L,  features  provided  by  the module are
                     listed.  With -l alone, a list of features together  with
                     their  states  is  shown,  one feature per line.  With -L
                     alone, a zmodload -F command  that  would  cause  enabled
                     features  of  the  module to be turned on is shown.  With
                     -lL, a zmodload -F command that would cause all the  fea-
                     tures  to be set to their current state is shown.  If one
                     of these combinations is given with the option  -P  param
                     then  the parameter param is set to an array of features,
                     either features together with their state or (if -L alone
                     is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may be omitted; then a
                     list of all enabled features for  all  modules  providing
                     features  is printed in the form of zmodload -F commands.
                     If -l is also given, the state of both enabled  and  dis-
                     abled features is output in that form.

                     A  set of features may be provided together with -l or -L
                     and a module name; in that case only the state  of  those
                     features  is considered.  Each feature may be preceded by
                     + or - but the character has no effect.   If  no  set  of
                     features is provided, all features are considered.

                     With  -e,  the  command  first  tests  that the module is
                     loaded; if it is not, status 1 is returned.  If the  mod-
                     ule  is loaded, the list of features given as an argument
                     is examined.  Any feature given with no prefix is  simply
                     tested  to  see  if  the  module provides it; any feature
                     given with a prefix + or - is tested to see  if  is  pro-
                     vided  and  in the given state.  If the tests on all fea-
                     tures in the list succeed, status  0  is  returned,  else
                     status 1.

                     With  -m,  each  entry  in  the given list of features is
                     taken as a pattern to be matched against the list of fea-
                     tures  provided by the module.  An initial + or - must be
                     given explicitly.  This may not be combined with  the  -a
                     option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

                     With  -a,  the  given  list  of  features  is  marked for
                     autoload from the specified module, which may not yet  be
                     loaded.   An  optional  +  may  appear before the feature
                     name.  If the feature is prefixed with  -,  any  existing
                     autoload  is  removed.  The options -l and -L may be used
                     to list autoloads.  Autoloading is specific to individual
                     features;  when  the  module is loaded only the requested
                     feature is enabled.  Autoload requests are  preserved  if
                     the  module  is  subsequently  unloaded until an explicit
                     `zmodload -Fa module -feature' is issued.  It is  not  an
                     error  to  request  an autoload for a feature of a module
                     that is already loaded.

                     When the  module  is  loaded  each  autoload  is  checked
                     against  the features actually provided by the module; if
                     the feature is  not  provided  the  autoload  request  is
                     deleted.   A  warning message is output; if the module is
                     being loaded to provide a  different  feature,  and  that
                     autoload  is successful, there is no effect on the status
                     of the current command.  If the module is already  loaded
                     at the time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is
                     printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload -Fa can be used with  the  -l,  -L,  -e  and  -P
                     options   for   listing  and  testing  the  existence  of
                     autoloadable features.  In this case -l is ignored if  -L
                     is  specified.   zmodload  -FaL with no module name lists
                     autoloads for all modules.

                     Note that only standard features as described  above  can
                     be  autoloaded;  other  features require the module to be
                     loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
                     The  modules named in the second and subsequent arguments
                     will be loaded before the module named in the first argu-
                     ment.

                     With  -d and one argument, all dependencies for that mod-
                     ule are listed.  With -d and  no  arguments,  all  module
                     dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a
                     Makefile-like format.  The -L option changes this  format
                     to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
                     only one argument is given,  all  dependencies  for  that
                     module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The  -ab  option defines autoloaded builtins.  It defines
                     the specified builtins.  When any of  those  builtins  is
                     called,  the  module  specified  in the first argument is
                     loaded and all its features are  enabled  (for  selective
                     control  of  features  use  `zmodload -F -a' as described
                     above).  If only  the  name  is  given,  one  builtin  is
                     defined, with the same name as the module.  -i suppresses
                     the  error  if  the  builtin  is   already   defined   or
                     autoloaded,  but  not if another builtin of the same name
                     is already defined.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all  autoloaded  builtins  are
                     listed,  with  the  module  name  (if different) shown in
                     parentheses  after  the  builtin  name.   The  -L  option
                     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If  -b  is  used  together with the -u option, it removes
                     builtins previously defined with -ab.  This is only  pos-
                     sible  if  the  builtin is not yet loaded.  -i suppresses
                     the error if the builtin is  already  removed  (or  never
                     existed).

                     Autoload  requests  are  retained if the module is subse-
                     quently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload -ub builtin'
                     is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The  -ac  option  is  used to define autoloaded condition
                     codes. The cond strings give the names of the  conditions
                     defined  by the module. The optional -I option is used to
                     define infix condition names. Without this option  prefix
                     condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed
                     (as a series of zmodload commands if  the  -L  option  is
                     given).

                     The  -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded condi-
                     tions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c  options,  but  makes
                     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The  -f  option  is  like the -b, -p, and -c options, but
                     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
                     if  the  -A  option  is also given, module aliases corre-
                     sponding to loaded modules are also shown.  If  arguments
                     are  provided,  nothing  is printed; the return status is
                     set to zero if all strings given as arguments  are  names
                     of loaded modules and to one if at least on string is not
                     the name of a loaded module.  This can be  used  to  test
                     for  the  availability  of things implemented by modules.
                     In this case, any aliases are automatically resolved  and
                     the -A flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,
                     define modalias to be an alias for the module module.  If
                     the  module  modalias  is  ever  subsequently  requested,
                     either via a call to zmodload or  implicitly,  the  shell
                     will  attempt  to  load module instead.  If module is not
                     given, show the definition of modalias.  If no  arguments
                     are  given,  list all defined module aliases.  When list-
                     ing, if the -L flag was also given, list  the  definition
                     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The  existence of aliases for modules is completely inde-
                     pendent of whether the name resolved is  actually  loaded
                     as  a module: while the alias exists, loading and unload-
                     ing the module under  any  alias  has  exactly  the  same
                     effect  as  using  the resolved name, and does not affect
                     the connection between the alias and  the  resolved  name
                     which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by redefin-
                     ing the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where  the  first
                     resolved  name  is  itself an alias) are valid so long as
                     these are not circular.  As the  aliases  take  the  same
                     format as module names, they may include path separators:
                     in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the
                     path  named to exist as the alias will be resolved first.
                     For example, `any/old/alias' is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies added to aliased modules are actually  added
                     to  the  resolved  module;  these  remain if the alias is
                     removed.  It is valid to create an alias  whose  name  is
                     one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to a
                     different module.  However, if a module has dependencies,
                     it  will  not  be  possible  to use the module name as an
                     alias as the module will already be marked as a  loadable
                     module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
                     command anywhere module  names  are  required.   However,
                     aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with
                     a bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as
                     a module alias via zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any
                     was not defined, an error is caused and the remainder  of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note  that  zsh  makes  no distinction between modules that were
              linked into the shell and modules that are  loaded  dynamically.
              In both cases this builtin command has to be used to make avail-
              able the builtins and other things defined  by  modules  (unless
              the  module  is  autoloaded  on these definitions). This is true
              even for systems that don't support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Availability   | shell/zsh        |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Stability      | Volatile         |
       +---------------+------------------+
NOTES
       This    software    was    built    from    source     available     at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.    The  original  community
       source     was     downloaded      from       https://downloads.source-
       forge.net/project/zsh/zsh/5.3.1/zsh-5.3.1.tar.xz

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.zsh.org/.



zsh 5.3.1                      December 21, 2016                ZSHBUILTINS(1)