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zshall (1)

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ZSHALL(1)                   General Commands Manual                  ZSHALL(1)



NAME
       zshall - the Z shell meta-man page

OVERVIEW
       Because  zsh contains many features, the zsh manual has been split into
       a number of sections.  This manual page includes all the separate  man-
       ual pages in the following order:

       zshroadmap   Informal introduction to the manual
       zshmisc      Anything not fitting into the other sections
       zshexpn      Zsh command and parameter expansion
       zshparam     Zsh parameters
       zshoptions   Zsh options
       zshbuiltins  Zsh built-in functions
       zshzle       Zsh command line editing
       zshcompwid   Zsh completion widgets
       zshcompsys   Zsh completion system
       zshcompctl   Zsh completion control
       zshmodules   Zsh loadable modules
       zshcalsys    Zsh built-in calendar functions
       zshtcpsys    Zsh built-in TCP functions
       zshzftpsys   Zsh built-in FTP client
       zshcontrib   Additional zsh functions and utilities

DESCRIPTION
       Zsh  is  a  UNIX  command  interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive
       login shell and as a shell script command processor.  Of  the  standard
       shells,  zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements.
       It does not provide compatibility with POSIX or  other  shells  in  its
       default operating mode:  see the section Compatibility below.

       Zsh has command line editing, builtin spelling correction, programmable
       command completion, shell functions (with autoloading), a history mech-
       anism, and a host of other features.

AUTHOR
       Zsh  was  originally  written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.org>.  Zsh is now
       maintained by the members of the zsh-workers  mailing  list  <zsh-work-
       ers@zsh.org>.   The  development  is  currently  coordinated  by  Peter
       Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  The coordinator can be contacted at <coordi-
       nator@zsh.org>, but matters relating to the code should generally go to
       the mailing list.

AVAILABILITY
       Zsh is available from the following HTTP and anonymous FTP site.

       ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/
       https://www.zsh.org/pub/
       )

       The up-to-date source code is available via Git from Sourceforge.   See
       https://sourceforge.net/projects/zsh/   for   details.   A  summary  of
       instructions  for  the  archive  can  be  found  at  http://zsh.source-
       forge.net/.

MAILING LISTS
       Zsh has 3 mailing lists:

       <zsh-announce@zsh.org>
              Announcements about releases, major changes in the shell and the
              monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.  (moderated)

       <zsh-users@zsh.org>
              User discussions.

       <zsh-workers@zsh.org>
              Hacking, development, bug reports and patches.

       To subscribe or unsubscribe, send mail to the associated administrative
       address for the mailing list.

       <zsh-announce-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-announce-unsubscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-unsubscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-unsubscribe@zsh.org>

       YOU ONLY NEED TO JOIN ONE OF THE MAILING LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED.  All
       submissions to zsh-announce are automatically forwarded  to  zsh-users.
       All  submissions  to zsh-users are automatically forwarded to zsh-work-
       ers.

       If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any  of  the  mailing
       lists,  send mail to <listmaster@zsh.org>.  The mailing lists are main-
       tained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom.auc.dk>.

       The mailing lists are archived; the archives can be  accessed  via  the
       administrative  addresses  listed above.  There is also a hypertext ar-
       chive,  maintained  by   Geoff   Wing   <gcw@zsh.org>,   available   at
       https://www.zsh.org/mla/.

THE ZSH FAQ
       Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), maintained by Peter
       Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  It is  regularly  posted  to  the  newsgroup
       comp.unix.shell  and the zsh-announce mailing list.  The latest version
       can   be   found   at   any   of   the   Zsh   FTP   sites,    or    at
       http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/.   The  contact address for FAQ-related matters
       is <faqmaster@zsh.org>.

THE ZSH WEB PAGE
       Zsh has a web page which is located at https://www.zsh.org/.   This  is
       maintained  by  Karsten  Thygesen <karthy@zsh.org>, of SunSITE Denmark.
       The contact address for web-related matters is <webmaster@zsh.org>.

THE ZSH USERGUIDE
       A userguide is currently in preparation.  It is intended to  complement
       the  manual, with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can
       be cabbalistic, hierographic, or downright mystifying (for example, the
       word  `hierographic'  does not exist).  It can be viewed in its current
       state at http://zsh.sourceforge.net/Guide/.  At the  time  of  writing,
       chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new com-
       pletion system were essentially complete.

INVOCATION
       The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to deter-
       mine where the shell will read commands from:

       -c     Take  the  first  argument  as a command to execute, rather than
              reading commands from a script or standard input.  If  any  fur-
              ther  arguments  are  given,  the  first  one is assigned to $0,
              rather than being used as a positional parameter.

       -i     Force shell to be interactive.  It is still possible to  specify
              a script to execute.

       -s     Force shell to read commands from the standard input.  If the -s
              flag is not present and an argument is given, the first argument
              is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute.

       If  there are any remaining arguments after option processing, and nei-
       ther of the options -c or -s was supplied, the first argument is  taken
       as  the file name of a script containing shell commands to be executed.
       If the option PATH_SCRIPT is set, and the file name does not contain  a
       directory  path  (i.e.  there is no `/' in the name), first the current
       directory and then the command path given  by  the  variable  PATH  are
       searched  for  the  script.   If the option is not set or the file name
       contains a `/' it is used directly.

       After the  first  one  or  two  arguments  have  been  appropriated  as
       described above, the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional
       parameters.

       For further options,  which  are  common  to  invocation  and  the  set
       builtin, see zshoptions(1).

       The  long option `--emulate' followed (in a separate word) by an emula-
       tion mode may be passed to the shell.  The emulation  modes  are  those
       described for the emulate builtin, see zshbuiltins(1).  The `--emulate'
       option must precede any other options (which might otherwise  be  over-
       ridden),  but  following options are honoured, so may be used to modify
       the requested emulation mode.  Note that certain extra steps are  taken
       to ensure a smooth emulation when this option is used compared with the
       emulate command within the shell: for example, variables that  conflict
       with POSIX usage such as path are not defined within the shell.

       Options  may  be specified by name using the -o option.  -o acts like a
       single-letter option, but takes a following string as the option  name.
       For example,

              zsh -x -o shwordsplit scr

       runs  the  script  scr,  setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding
       letter `-x' and the SH_WORD_SPLIT  option  by  name.   Options  may  be
       turned  off  by  name  by using +o instead of -o.  -o can be stacked up
       with preceding single-letter options, so for example `-xo  shwordsplit'
       or `-xoshwordsplit' is equivalent to `-x -o shwordsplit'.

       Options  may  also  be  specified  by  name  in  GNU long option style,
       `--option-name'.  When this is done, `-' characters in the option  name
       are permitted: they are translated into `_', and thus ignored.  So, for
       example, `zsh  --sh-word-split'  invokes  zsh  with  the  SH_WORD_SPLIT
       option  turned  on.   Like other option syntaxes, options can be turned
       off by replacing the initial `-' with a `+'; thus `+-sh-word-split'  is
       equivalent  to  `--no-sh-word-split'.   Unlike  other  option syntaxes,
       GNU-style long options cannot be stacked with any other options, so for
       example  `-x-shwordsplit'  is  an error, rather than being treated like
       `-x --shwordsplit'.

       The special GNU-style option `--version' is handled; it sends to  stan-
       dard  output  the shell's version information, then exits successfully.
       `--help' is also handled; it sends to standard output a list of options
       that can be used when invoking the shell, then exits successfully.

       Option  processing  may  be finished, allowing following arguments that
       start with `-' or `+' to be treated as normal arguments, in  two  ways.
       Firstly,  a lone `-' (or `+') as an argument by itself ends option pro-
       cessing.  Secondly, a special option `--' (or `+-'), which may be spec-
       ified  on its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be stacked
       with preceding options (so `-x-' is equivalent to  `-x  --').   Options
       are not permitted to be stacked after `--' (so `-x-f' is an error), but
       note the GNU-style option form discussed above,  where  `--shwordsplit'
       is permitted and does not end option processing.

       Except  when  the sh/ksh emulation single-letter options are in effect,
       the option `-b' (or `+b') ends option processing.  `-b' is  like  `--',
       except that further single-letter options can be stacked after the `-b'
       and will take effect as normal.

COMPATIBILITY
       Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh  respec-
       tively;  more  precisely,  it  looks at the first letter of the name by
       which it was invoked, excluding any initial `r' (assumed to  stand  for
       `restricted'),  and  if  that  is `b', `s' or `k' it will emulate sh or
       ksh.  Furthermore, if invoked as su (which happens on  certain  systems
       when  the  shell  is executed by the su command), the shell will try to
       find an alternative name from the SHELL environment variable  and  per-
       form emulation based on that.

       In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not spe-
       cial and not initialized by the shell:  ARGC,  argv,  cdpath,  fignore,
       fpath,  HISTCHARS,  mailpath,  MANPATH,  manpath, path, prompt, PROMPT,
       PROMPT2, PROMPT3, PROMPT4, psvar, status, watch.

       The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed.  Login  shells
       source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/.profile.  If the ENV environment
       variable is set on  invocation,  $ENV  is  sourced  after  the  profile
       scripts.  The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion, command
       substitution, and arithmetic expansion before being  interpreted  as  a
       pathname.   Note  that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution
       of startup files.

       The following options are set if the shell is invoked  as  sh  or  ksh:
       NO_BAD_PATTERN,    NO_BANG_HIST,    NO_BG_NICE,   NO_EQUALS,   NO_FUNC-
       TION_ARGZERO, GLOB_SUBST,  NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT,  NO_HUP,  INTERACTIVE_COM-
       MENTS,  KSH_ARRAYS,  NO_MULTIOS, NO_NOMATCH, NO_NOTIFY, POSIX_BUILTINS,
       NO_PROMPT_PERCENT,    RM_STAR_SILENT,    SH_FILE_EXPANSION,    SH_GLOB,
       SH_OPTION_LETTERS,   SH_WORD_SPLIT.    Additionally  the  BSD_ECHO  and
       IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh  is  invoked  as  sh.   Also,  the
       KSH_OPTION_PRINT,  LOCAL_OPTIONS,  PROMPT_BANG,  PROMPT_SUBST  and SIN-
       GLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh.

RESTRICTED SHELL
       When the basename of the command used to invoke  zsh  starts  with  the
       letter  `r'  or the `-r' command line option is supplied at invocation,
       the shell becomes  restricted.   Emulation  mode  is  determined  after
       stripping  the  letter `r' from the invocation name.  The following are
       disabled in restricted mode:

       o      changing directories with the cd builtin

       o      changing or unsetting the EGID, EUID, GID,  HISTFILE,  HISTSIZE,
              IFS,   LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH,  LD_AOUT_PRELOAD,  LD_LIBRARY_PATH,
              LD_PRELOAD, MODULE_PATH, module_path, PATH, path, SHELL, UID and
              USERNAME parameters

       o      specifying command names containing /

       o      specifying command pathnames using hash

       o      redirecting output to files

       o      using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another
              command

       o      using jobs -Z to overwrite the shell process' argument and envi-
              ronment space

       o      using  the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external com-
              mands

       o      turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED

       These restrictions are enforced after  processing  the  startup  files.
       The  startup  files  should set up PATH to point to a directory of com-
       mands which can be safely invoked in the restricted environment.   They
       may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins.

       Restricted  mode  can  also  be  activated  any  time  by  setting  the
       RESTRICTED option.   This  immediately  enables  all  the  restrictions
       described  above  even if the shell still has not processed all startup
       files.

STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES
       Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv; this  cannot  be  overridden.
       Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options; the
       former affects all startup files, while the second only affects  global
       startup  files  (those  shown here with an path starting with a /).  If
       one of the options is  unset  at  any  point,  any  subsequent  startup
       file(s)  of the corresponding type will not be read.  It is also possi-
       ble for a file in  $ZDOTDIR  to  re-enable  GLOBAL_RCS.  Both  RCS  and
       GLOBAL_RCS are set by default.

       Commands  are then read from $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv.  If the shell is a login
       shell, commands are read from /etc/zprofile  and  then  $ZDOTDIR/.zpro-
       file.   Then,  if  the  shell  is  interactive,  commands are read from
       /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc.  Finally, if the shell is a  login
       shell, /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin are read.

       When  a  login  shell  exits,  the  files  $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout  and  then
       /etc/zlogout are read.  This happens with either an explicit  exit  via
       the exit or logout commands, or an implicit exit by reading end-of-file
       from the terminal.  However, if the shell terminates  due  to  exec'ing
       another  process,  the  logout  files  are  not  read.   These are also
       affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.  Note  also  that  the  RCS
       option  affects  the saving of history files, i.e. if RCS is unset when
       the shell exits, no history file will be saved.

       If ZDOTDIR is unset, HOME is used instead.  Files listed above as being
       in /etc may be in another directory, depending on the installation.

       As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh, it is important that it
       be kept as small as possible.  In particular, it is a good idea to  put
       code  that does not need to be run for every single shell behind a test
       of the form `if [[ -o rcs ]]; then ...' so that it will not be executed
       when zsh is invoked with the `-f' option.

       Any  of  these files may be pre-compiled with the zcompile builtin com-
       mand (see zshbuiltins(1)).  If a compiled file exists  (named  for  the
       original  file plus the .zwc extension) and it is newer than the origi-
       nal file, the compiled file will be used instead.



ZSHROADMAP(1)               General Commands Manual              ZSHROADMAP(1)



NAME
       zshroadmap - informal introduction to the zsh manual  The  Zsh  Manual,
       like the shell itself, is large and often complicated.  This section of
       the manual provides some pointers to areas of the shell that are likely
       to  be  of particular interest to new users, and indicates where in the
       rest of the manual the documentation is to be found.

WHEN THE SHELL STARTS
       When it starts, the shell reads commands from various files.  These can
       be  created  or  edited  to  customize  the  shell.   See  the  section
       Startup/Shutdown Files in zsh(1).

       If no personal initialization files exist for the current user, a func-
       tion  is  run  to help you change some of the most common settings.  It
       won't appear if your administrator has disabled the zsh/newuser module.
       The  function  is  designed  to be self-explanatory.  You can run it by
       hand with `autoload -Uz zsh-newuser-install;  zsh-newuser-install  -f'.
       See also the section User Configuration Functions in zshcontrib(1).

INTERACTIVE USE
       Interaction with the shell uses the builtin Zsh Line Editor, ZLE.  This
       is described in detail in zshzle(1).

       The first decision a user must make is whether to use the Emacs  or  Vi
       editing  mode  as  the  keys  for  editing are substantially different.
       Emacs editing mode is probably more natural for beginners  and  can  be
       selected explicitly with the command bindkey -e.

       A  history mechanism for retrieving previously typed lines (most simply
       with the Up or Down arrow keys) is available; note that,  unlike  other
       shells,  zsh  will not save these lines when the shell exits unless you
       set appropriate variables, and the number of history lines retained  by
       default  is  quite  small (30 lines).  See the description of the shell
       variables (referred to in the documentation  as  parameters)  HISTFILE,
       HISTSIZE  and  SAVEHIST  in zshparam(1).  Note that it's currently only
       possible to read and write files  saving  history  when  the  shell  is
       interactive, i.e. it does not work from scripts.

       The shell now supports the UTF-8 character set (and also others if sup-
       ported by the operating system).  This is  (mostly)  handled  transpar-
       ently  by the shell, but the degree of support in terminal emulators is
       variable.   There  is  some  discussion  of  this  in  the  shell  FAQ,
       http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/.  Note in particular that for combining charac-
       ters to be handled the option COMBINING_CHARS needs to be set.  Because
       the shell is now more sensitive to the definition of the character set,
       note that if you are upgrading from an older version of the  shell  you
       should ensure that the appropriate variable, either LANG (to affect all
       aspects of the shell's operation) or LC_CTYPE (to affect only the  han-
       dling  of character sets) is set to an appropriate value.  This is true
       even if you are using a single-byte character set including  extensions
       of  ASCII  such  as  ISO-8859-1 or ISO-8859-15.  See the description of
       LC_CTYPE in zshparam(1).

   Completion
       Completion is a feature present in many shells. It allows the  user  to
       type only a part (usually the prefix) of a word and have the shell fill
       in the rest.  The completion system in zsh is programmable.  For  exam-
       ple,  the  shell can be set to complete email addresses in arguments to
       the mail command from your ~/.abook/addressbook; usernames,  hostnames,
       and  even  remote  paths in arguments to scp, and so on.  Anything that
       can be written in or glued together with zsh can be the source of  what
       the line editor offers as possible completions.

       Zsh  has  two  completion systems, an old, so called compctl completion
       (named after the builtin command that serves as its complete  and  only
       user  interface),  and  a new one, referred to as compsys, organized as
       library of builtin and user-defined functions.  The two systems  differ
       in  their  interface  for  specifying the completion behavior.  The new
       system is more customizable and is supplied with completions  for  many
       commonly used commands; it is therefore to be preferred.

       The completion system must be enabled explicitly when the shell starts.
       For more information see zshcompsys(1).

   Extending the line editor
       Apart from completion, the line editor is highly extensible by means of
       shell  functions.   Some  useful functions are provided with the shell;
       they provide facilities such as:

       insert-composed-char
              composing characters not found on the keyboard

       match-words-by-style
              configuring what the line editor considers a word when moving or
              deleting by word

       history-beginning-search-backward-end, etc.
              alternative ways of searching the shell history

       replace-string, replace-pattern
              functions for replacing strings or patterns globally in the com-
              mand line

       edit-command-line
              edit the command line with an external editor.

       See the section `ZLE Functions' in zshcontrib(1)  for  descriptions  of
       these.

OPTIONS
       The  shell  has  a  large number of options for changing its behaviour.
       These cover all aspects of the shell; browsing the  full  documentation
       is  the only good way to become acquainted with the many possibilities.
       See zshoptions(1).

PATTERN MATCHING
       The shell has a rich set of  patterns  which  are  available  for  file
       matching  (described  in the documentation as `filename generation' and
       also known for historical reasons as `globbing') and for use when  pro-
       gramming.   These are described in the section `Filename Generation' in
       zshexpn(1).

       Of particular interest are the following patterns that are not commonly
       supported by other systems of pattern matching:

       **     for matching over multiple directories

       |      for matching either of two alternatives

       ~, ^   the   ability   to  exclude  patterns  from  matching  when  the
              EXTENDED_GLOB option is set

       (...)  glob qualifiers, included in parentheses at the end of the  pat-
              tern,  which  select  files  by  type  (such  as directories) or
              attribute (such as size).

GENERAL COMMENTS ON SYNTAX
       Although the syntax of zsh is in ways similar to the  Korn  shell,  and
       therefore  more  remotely to the original UNIX shell, the Bourne shell,
       its default behaviour does not entirely  correspond  to  those  shells.
       General  shell  syntax  is introduced in the section `Shell Grammar' in
       zshmisc(1).

       One commonly encountered difference is that variables substituted  onto
       the  command line are not split into words.  See the description of the
       shell option SH_WORD_SPLIT in the section `Parameter Expansion' in zsh-
       expn(1).  In zsh, you can either explicitly request the splitting (e.g.
       ${=foo}) or use an array when you want a variable  to  expand  to  more
       than one word.  See the section `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

PROGRAMMING
       The  most  convenient  way of adding enhancements to the shell is typi-
       cally  by  writing  a  shell  function  and  arranging  for  it  to  be
       autoloaded.  Functions are described in the section `Functions' in zsh-
       misc(1).  Users changing from the C  shell  and  its  relatives  should
       notice that aliases are less used in zsh as they don't perform argument
       substitution, only simple text replacement.

       A few general functions, other than those for the line editor described
       above,  are provided with the shell and are described in zshcontrib(1).
       Features include:

       promptinit
              a prompt theme system for changing prompts easily, see the  sec-
              tion `Prompt Themes'


       zsh-mime-setup
              a  MIME-handling  system  which dispatches commands according to
              the suffix of a file as done by graphical file managers

       zcalc  a calculator

       zargs  a version of xargs that makes the find command redundant

       zmv    a command for renaming files by means of shell patterns.



ZSHMISC(1)                  General Commands Manual                 ZSHMISC(1)



NAME
       zshmisc - everything and then some

SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES
       A simple command is a sequence of optional parameter  assignments  fol-
       lowed  by  blank-separated  words,  with  optional  redirections inter-
       spersed.  For a description of assignment, see the  beginning  of  zsh-
       param(1).

       The  first word is the command to be executed, and the remaining words,
       if any, are arguments to the command.  If a command name is given,  the
       parameter  assignments modify the environment of the command when it is
       executed.  The value of a simple command is its  exit  status,  or  128
       plus the signal number if terminated by a signal.  For example,

              echo foo

       is a simple command with arguments.

       A  pipeline  is  either  a simple command, or a sequence of two or more
       simple commands where each command is separated from the next by `|' or
       `|&'.   Where commands are separated by `|', the standard output of the
       first command is connected to the standard input of the next.  `|&'  is
       shorthand for `2>&1 |', which connects both the standard output and the
       standard error of the command to the standard input of the  next.   The
       value  of a pipeline is the value of the last command, unless the pipe-
       line is preceded by `!' in which case the value is the logical  inverse
       of the value of the last command.  For example,

              echo foo | sed 's/foo/bar/'

       is  a  pipeline,  where  the output (`foo' plus a newline) of the first
       command will be passed to the input of the second.

       If a pipeline is preceded by `coproc', it is executed as a coprocess; a
       two-way pipe is established between it and the parent shell.  The shell
       can read from or write to the coprocess by means of the `>&p' and `<&p'
       redirection  operators  or  with  `print -p' and `read -p'.  A pipeline
       cannot be preceded by both `coproc' and `!'.  If job control is active,
       the coprocess can be treated in other than input and output as an ordi-
       nary background job.

       A sublist is either a single pipeline, or a sequence  of  two  or  more
       pipelines separated by `&&' or `||'.  If two pipelines are separated by
       `&&', the second pipeline  is  executed  only  if  the  first  succeeds
       (returns  a  zero status).  If two pipelines are separated by `||', the
       second is executed only if the first fails (returns a nonzero  status).
       Both  operators  have  equal  precedence and are left associative.  The
       value of the sublist is the value of the last pipeline  executed.   For
       example,

              dmesg | grep panic && print yes

       is a sublist consisting of two pipelines, the second just a simple com-
       mand which will be executed if and only if the grep command  returns  a
       zero  status.   If it does not, the value of the sublist is that return
       status, else it is the status returned by the print  (almost  certainly
       zero).

       A list is a sequence of zero or more sublists, in which each sublist is
       terminated by `;', `&', `&|', `&!', or a newline.  This terminator  may
       optionally  be  omitted from the last sublist in the list when the list
       appears as a complex command inside `(...)' or `{...}'.  When a sublist
       is  terminated  by  `;'  or  newline,  the shell waits for it to finish
       before executing the next sublist.  If a sublist  is  terminated  by  a
       `&',  `&|',  or `&!', the shell executes the last pipeline in it in the
       background, and does not wait for it to  finish  (note  the  difference
       from  other  shells which execute the whole sublist in the background).
       A backgrounded pipeline returns a status of zero.

       More generally, a list can be seen as a set of any shell commands what-
       soever,  including the complex commands below; this is implied wherever
       the word `list' appears in later descriptions.  For example,  the  com-
       mands in a shell function form a special sort of list.

PRECOMMAND MODIFIERS
       A  simple  command may be preceded by a precommand modifier, which will
       alter how the  command  is  interpreted.   These  modifiers  are  shell
       builtin  commands  with  the exception of nocorrect which is a reserved
       word.

       -      The command is executed with a  `-'  prepended  to  its  argv[0]
              string.

       builtin
              The  command  word is taken to be the name of a builtin command,
              rather than a shell function or external command.

       command [ -pvV ]
              The command word is taken to be the name of an external command,
              rather than a shell function or builtin.   If the POSIX_BUILTINS
              option is set, builtins will also be executed but  certain  spe-
              cial  properties  of  them  are suppressed. The -p flag causes a
              default path to be searched instead of that in $path.  With  the
              -v flag, command is similar to whence and with -V, it is equiva-
              lent to whence -v.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ]
              The following command together with  any  arguments  is  run  in
              place of the current process, rather than as a sub-process.  The
              shell does not fork and is replaced.  The shell does not  invoke
              TRAPEXIT,  nor  does  it  source zlogout files.  The options are
              provided for compatibility with other shells.

              The -c option clears the environment.

              The -l option is equivalent to the  -  precommand  modifier,  to
              treat  the  replacement command as a login shell; the command is
              executed with a - prepended to its argv[0]  string.   This  flag
              has no effect if used together with the -a option.

              The  -a  option is used to specify explicitly the argv[0] string
              (the name of the command as seen by the process  itself)  to  be
              used  by  the  replacement command and is directly equivalent to
              setting a value for the ARGV0 environment variable.

       nocorrect
              Spelling correction is not done on any of the words.  This  must
              appear  before  any  other  precommand modifier, as it is inter-
              preted immediately, before any  parsing  is  done.   It  has  no
              effect in non-interactive shells.

       noglob Filename  generation  (globbing)  is not performed on any of the
              words.

COMPLEX COMMANDS
       A complex command in zsh is one of the following:

       if list then list [ elif list then list ] ... [ else list ] fi
              The if list is executed, and if it returns a zero  exit  status,
              the then list is executed.  Otherwise, the elif list is executed
              and if its status is zero, the then list is executed.   If  each
              elif list returns nonzero status, the else list is executed.

       for name ... [ in word ... ] term do list done
              where  term  is  at  least one newline or ;.  Expand the list of
              words, and set the parameter name to each of them in turn,  exe-
              cuting list each time.  If the in word is omitted, use the posi-
              tional parameters instead of the words.

              More than one parameter name  can  appear  before  the  list  of
              words.  If N names are given, then on each execution of the loop
              the next N words are assigned to the  corresponding  parameters.
              If  there  are  more  names  than remaining words, the remaining
              parameters are each set to the empty string.  Execution  of  the
              loop ends when there is no remaining word to assign to the first
              name.  It is only possible for in to appear as the first name in
              the  list,  else  it  will  be treated as marking the end of the
              list.

       for (( [expr1] ; [expr2] ; [expr3] )) do list done
              The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see the sec-
              tion  `Arithmetic Evaluation').  The arithmetic expression expr2
              is repeatedly evaluated until it  evaluates  to  zero  and  when
              non-zero,  list  is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3
              evaluated.  If any expression is omitted, then it behaves as  if
              it evaluated to 1.

       while list do list done
              Execute  the  do  list  as long as the while list returns a zero
              exit status.

       until list do list done
              Execute the do list as long as until list returns a nonzero exit
              status.

       repeat word do list done
              word  is expanded and treated as an arithmetic expression, which
              must evaluate to a number n.  list is then executed n times.

              The repeat syntax is disabled by default when the  shell  starts
              in  a  mode emulating another shell.  It can be enabled with the
              command `enable -r repeat'

       case word in [ [(] pattern [ | pattern ] ... ) list  (;;|;&|;|)  ]  ...
       esac
              Execute  the list associated with the first pattern that matches
              word, if any.  The form of the patterns is the same as that used
              for filename generation.  See the section `Filename Generation'.

              Note  further  that, unless the SH_GLOB option is set, the whole
              pattern with alternatives is treated by the shell as  equivalent
              to  a group of patterns within parentheses, although white space
              may appear about the parentheses and the vertical bar  and  will
              be  stripped  from the pattern at those points.  White space may
              appear elsewhere in the pattern; this is not stripped.   If  the
              SH_GLOB  option  is  set,  so that an opening parenthesis can be
              unambiguously treated as part of the case syntax, the expression
              is  parsed  into  separate words and these are treated as strict
              alternatives (as in other shells).

              If the list that is executed is terminated with ;&  rather  than
              ;;,  the following list is also executed.  The rule for the ter-
              minator of the following list ;;, ;& or ;| is applied unless the
              esac is reached.

              If  the  list  that  is executed is terminated with ;| the shell
              continues to scan the patterns looking for the next match,  exe-
              cuting  the  corresponding  list,  and applying the rule for the
              corresponding terminator ;;, ;& or ;|.  Note that  word  is  not
              re-expanded;  all  applicable  patterns are tested with the same
              word.

       select name [ in word ... term ] do list done
              where term is one or more newline or ; to terminate  the  words.
              Print  the  set  of words, each preceded by a number.  If the in
              word is omitted, use the  positional  parameters.   The  PROMPT3
              prompt is printed and a line is read from the line editor if the
              shell is interactive and that is active, or else standard input.
              If  this line consists of the number of one of the listed words,
              then the parameter name is set to the word corresponding to this
              number.   If  this  line is empty, the selection list is printed
              again.  Otherwise, the value of the parameter  name  is  set  to
              null.   The  contents  of  the  line read from standard input is
              saved in the parameter REPLY.  list is executed for each  selec-
              tion until a break or end-of-file is encountered.

       ( list )
              Execute  list  in a subshell.  Traps set by the trap builtin are
              reset to their default values while executing list.

       { list }
              Execute list.

       { try-list } always { always-list }
              First execute try-list.  Regardless of errors,  or  break,  con-
              tinue,  or  return commands encountered within try-list, execute
              always-list.  Execution then continues from the  result  of  the
              execution of try-list; in other words, any error, or break, con-
              tinue, or return command is treated in the  normal  way,  as  if
              always-list  were  not  present.   The  two  chunks  of code are
              referred to as the `try block' and the `always block'.

              Optional newlines or semicolons may  appear  after  the  always;
              note,  however,  that  they may not appear between the preceding
              closing brace and the always.

              An `error' in this context is a condition such as a syntax error
              which  causes  the shell to abort execution of the current func-
              tion, script, or list.   Syntax  errors  encountered  while  the
              shell  is  parsing  the  code do not cause the always-list to be
              executed.  For example, an erroneously constructed if  block  in
              try-list  would cause the shell to abort during parsing, so that
              always-list would not be executed, while an erroneous  substitu-
              tion  such as ${*foo*} would cause a run-time error, after which
              always-list would be executed.

              An error condition can be tested  and  reset  with  the  special
              integer  variable  TRY_BLOCK_ERROR.   Outside an always-list the
              value is irrelevant,  but  it  is  initialised  to  -1.   Inside
              always-list,  the  value  is  1  if  an  error  occurred  in the
              try-list, else 0.  If TRY_BLOCK_ERROR is set  to  0  during  the
              always-list,  the  error  condition  caused  by  the try-list is
              reset, and shell execution continues normally after the  end  of
              always-list.  Altering the value during the try-list is not use-
              ful (unless this forms part of an enclosing always block).

              Regardless of TRY_BLOCK_ERROR, after the end of always-list  the
              normal  shell  status  $?  is  the value returned from try-list.
              This  will  be  non-zero  if  there  was  an  error,   even   if
              TRY_BLOCK_ERROR was set to zero.

              The  following  executes  the given code, ignoring any errors it
              causes.  This is an alternative to the usual convention of  pro-
              tecting code by executing it in a subshell.

                     {
                         # code which may cause an error
                       } always {
                         # This code is executed regardless of the error.
                         (( TRY_BLOCK_ERROR = 0 ))
                     }
                     # The error condition has been reset.

              An  exit  command (or a return command executed at the outermost
              function level of a script) encountered  in  try-list  does  not
              cause  the  execution  of always-list.  Instead, the shell exits
              immediately after any EXIT trap has been executed.

       function word ... [ () ] [ term ] { list }
       word ... () [ term ] { list }
       word ... () [ term ] command
              where term is one or more newline or ;.  Define a function which
              is  referenced  by  any one of word.  Normally, only one word is
              provided; multiple words are usually  only  useful  for  setting
              traps.   The  body of the function is the list between the { and
              }.  See the section `Functions'.

              If the option  SH_GLOB  is  set  for  compatibility  with  other
              shells,  then  whitespace  may appear between the left and right
              parentheses when there is a single word;  otherwise, the  paren-
              theses  will  be  treated  as forming a globbing pattern in that
              case.

              In any of the forms above, a redirection may appear outside  the
              function body, for example

                     func() { ... } 2>&1

              The redirection is stored with the function and applied whenever
              the function is executed.  Any variables in the redirection  are
              expanded  at the point the function is executed, but outside the
              function scope.

       time [ pipeline ]
              The pipeline is executed, and timing statistics are reported  on
              the  standard error in the form specified by the TIMEFMT parame-
              ter.  If pipeline is omitted, print statistics about  the  shell
              process and its children.

       [[ exp ]]
              Evaluates  the conditional expression exp and return a zero exit
              status if it is true.  See the section `Conditional Expressions'
              for a description of exp.

ALTERNATE FORMS FOR COMPLEX COMMANDS
       Many  of  zsh's  complex  commands  have  alternate  forms.   These are
       non-standard and are likely not to be obvious even  to  seasoned  shell
       programmers; they should not be used anywhere that portability of shell
       code is a concern.

       The short versions below only work if sublist is of the form `{ list }'
       or  if the SHORT_LOOPS option is set.  For the if, while and until com-
       mands, in both these cases the test part of the loop must also be suit-
       ably  delimited, such as by `[[ ... ]]' or `(( ... ))', else the end of
       the test will not be recognized.  For the for, repeat, case and  select
       commands  no  such special form for the arguments is necessary, but the
       other condition (the special form of sublist or use of the  SHORT_LOOPS
       option) still applies.

       if list { list } [ elif list { list } ] ... [ else { list } ]
              An alternate form of if.  The rules mean that

                     if [[ -o ignorebraces ]] {
                       print yes
                     }

              works, but

                     if true {  # Does not work!
                       print yes
                     }

              does not, since the test is not suitably delimited.

       if list sublist
              A  short  form of the alternate if.  The same limitations on the
              form of list apply as for the previous form.

       for name ... ( word ... ) sublist
              A short form of for.

       for name ... [ in word ... ] term sublist
              where term is at least one newline or ;.  Another short form  of
              for.

       for (( [expr1] ; [expr2] ; [expr3] )) sublist
              A short form of the arithmetic for command.

       foreach name ... ( word ... ) list end
              Another form of for.

       while list { list }
              An  alternative form of while.  Note the limitations on the form
              of list mentioned above.

       until list { list }
              An alternative form of until.  Note the limitations on the  form
              of list mentioned above.

       repeat word sublist
              This is a short form of repeat.

       case word { [ [(] pattern [ | pattern ] ... ) list (;;|;&|;|) ] ... }
              An alternative form of case.

       select name [ in word ... term ] sublist
              where  term  is  at  least  one  newline  or ;.  A short form of
              select.

       function word ... [ () ] [ term ] sublist
              This is a short form of function.

RESERVED WORDS
       The following words are recognized as reserved words when used  as  the
       first word of a command unless quoted or disabled using disable -r:

       do  done  esac then elif else fi for case if while function repeat time
       until select coproc nocorrect foreach end ! [[ { } declare export float
       integer local readonly typeset

       Additionally,  `}'  is  recognized  in  any  position  if  neither  the
       IGNORE_BRACES option nor the IGNORE_CLOSE_BRACES option is set.

ERRORS
       Certain errors are treated as fatal by the  shell:  in  an  interactive
       shell,  they  cause  control  to  return  to the command line, and in a
       non-interactive shell they cause the shell to  be  aborted.   In  older
       versions  of  zsh,  a  non-interactive shell running a script would not
       abort completely, but would resume execution at the next command to  be
       read  from the script, skipping the remainder of any functions or shell
       constructs such as loops or conditions; this somewhat illogical  behav-
       iour can be recovered by setting the option CONTINUE_ON_ERROR.

       Fatal errors found in non-interactive shells include:

       o      Failure to parse shell options passed when invoking the shell

       o      Failure to change options with the set builtin

       o      Parse errors of all sorts, including failures to parse mathemat-
              ical expressions

       o      Failures to set  or  modify  variable  behaviour  with  typeset,
              local, declare, export, integer, float

       o      Execution  of  incorrectly  positioned  loop  control structures
              (continue, break)

       o      Attempts to use regular expression with  no  regular  expression
              module available

       o      Disallowed operations when the RESTRICTED options is set

       o      Failure to create a pipe needed for a pipeline

       o      Failure to create a multio

       o      Failure to autoload a module needed for a declared shell feature

       o      Errors creating command or process substitutions

       o      Syntax errors in glob qualifiers

       o      File  generation  errors where not caught by the option BAD_PAT-
              TERN

       o      All bad patterns used for matching within case statements

       o      File generation failures where not caused by NO_MATCH or similar
              options

       o      All  file generation errors where the pattern was used to create
              a multio

       o      Memory errors where detected by the shell

       o      Invalid subscripts to shell variables

       o      Attempts to assign read-only variables

       o      Logical errors with variables such as assignment  to  the  wrong
              type

       o      Use of invalid variable names

       o      Errors in variable substitution syntax

       o      Failure to convert characters in $'...' expressions

       If  the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, more errors associated with shell
       builtin commands are treated as fatal, as specified by the POSIX  stan-
       dard.

COMMENTS
       In  non-interactive  shells, or in interactive shells with the INTERAC-
       TIVE_COMMENTS option set, a word beginning with the third character  of
       the  histchars  parameter (`#' by default) causes that word and all the
       following characters up to a newline to be ignored.

ALIASING
       Every eligible word in the shell input is checked to see if there is an
       alias  defined  for it.  If so, it is replaced by the text of the alias
       if it is in command position (if it could be the first word of a simple
       command), or if the alias is global.  If the replacement text ends with
       a space, the next word in the shell input is always eligible  for  pur-
       poses of alias expansion.  An alias is defined using the alias builtin;
       global aliases may be defined using the -g option to that builtin.

       A word is defined as:

       o      Any plain string or glob pattern

       o      Any quoted string, using  any  quoting  method  (note  that  the
              quotes  must be part of the alias definition for this to be eli-
              gible)

       o      Any parameter reference or command substitution

       o      Any series of the foregoing, concatenated without whitespace  or
              other tokens between them

       o      Any reserved word (case, do, else, etc.)

       o      With  global  aliasing,  any  command separator, any redirection
              operator, and `(' or `)' when not part of a glob pattern

       Alias expansion is done on the shell input before any  other  expansion
       except  history  expansion.   Therefore, if an alias is defined for the
       word foo, alias expansion may be avoided by quoting part of  the  word,
       e.g.  \foo.   Any  form  of quoting works, although there is nothing to
       prevent an alias being defined for the quoted  form  such  as  \foo  as
       well.

       When POSIX_ALIASES is set, only plain unquoted strings are eligible for
       aliasing.  The alias builtin does not reject  ineligible  aliases,  but
       they are not expanded.

       For  use  with completion, which would remove an initial backslash fol-
       lowed by a character that isn't special, it may be more  convenient  to
       quote  the  word by starting with a single quote, i.e. 'foo; completion
       will automatically add the trailing single quote.

   Alias difficulties
       Although aliases can be used in ways that bend normal shell syntax, not
       every string of non-white-space characters can be used as an alias.

       Any  set  of characters not listed as a word above is not a word, hence
       no attempt is made to expand it as  an  alias,  no  matter  how  it  is
       defined  (i.e.  via  the  builtin  or  the  special  parameter  aliases
       described in the section THE ZSH/PARAMETER  MODULE  in  zshmodules(1)).
       However,  as  noted  in the case of POSIX_ALIASES above, the shell does
       not attempt to deduce whether the string corresponds to a word  at  the
       time the alias is created.

       For  example,  an  expression containing an = at the start of a command
       line is an assignment and cannot be expanded as an alias; a lone  =  is
       not  an assignment but can only be set as an alias using the parameter,
       as otherwise the = is taken part of the syntax of the builtin command.

       It is not presently possible to alias the `(('  token  that  introduces
       arithmetic expressions, because until a full statement has been parsed,
       it cannot be distinguished from two consecutive `(' tokens  introducing
       nested  subshells.   Also,  if  a  separator such as && is aliased, \&&
       turns into the two tokens \& and &, each of which may have been aliased
       separately.  Similarly for \<<, \>|, etc.

       There is a commonly encountered problem with aliases illustrated by the
       following code:

              alias echobar='echo bar'; echobar

       This prints a message that the command  echobar  could  not  be  found.
       This happens because aliases are expanded when the code is read in; the
       entire line is read in one go, so that when echobar is executed  it  is
       too late to expand the newly defined alias.  This is often a problem in
       shell scripts, functions, and code executed with `source' or `.'.  Con-
       sequently,  use  of  functions  rather  than  aliases is recommended in
       non-interactive code.

       Note also the unhelpful interaction of  aliases  and  function  defini-
       tions:

              alias func='noglob func'
              func() {
                  echo Do something with $*
              }

       Because  aliases  are expanded in function definitions, this causes the
       following command to be executed:

              noglob func() {
                  echo Do something with $*
              }

       which defines noglob as well as func as functions with the body  given.
       To  avoid this, either quote the name func or use the alternative func-
       tion definition form `function func'.  Ensuring the  alias  is  defined
       after  the function works but is problematic if the code fragment might
       be re-executed.

QUOTING
       A character may be quoted (that is, made to stand for itself)  by  pre-
       ceding it with a `\'.  `\' followed by a newline is ignored.

       A string enclosed between `$'' and `'' is processed the same way as the
       string arguments of the print builtin, and the resulting string is con-
       sidered to be entirely quoted.  A literal `'' character can be included
       in the string by using the `\'' escape.

       All characters enclosed between a pair of single quotes  ('')  that  is
       not  preceded by a `$' are quoted.  A single quote cannot appear within
       single quotes unless the option RC_QUOTES is set, in which case a  pair
       of single quotes are turned into a single quote.  For example,

              print ''''

       outputs  nothing  apart from a newline if RC_QUOTES is not set, but one
       single quote if it is set.

       Inside double quotes (""), parameter and  command  substitution  occur,
       and `\' quotes the characters `\', ``', `"', `$', and the first charac-
       ter of $histchars (default `!').

REDIRECTION
       If a command is followed by & and job control is not active,  then  the
       default  standard  input  for  the command is the empty file /dev/null.
       Otherwise, the environment for the execution of a command contains  the
       file  descriptors  of  the  invoking  shell as modified by input/output
       specifications.

       The following may appear anywhere in a simple command or may precede or
       follow  a  complex  command.   Expansion occurs before word or digit is
       used except as noted below.  If the result of substitution on word pro-
       duces  more  than  one  filename,  redirection occurs for each separate
       filename in turn.

       < word Open file word for reading as standard input.

       <> word
              Open file word for reading and writing as  standard  input.   If
              the file does not exist then it is created.

       > word Open file word for writing as standard output.  If the file does
              not exist then it is created.  If the file exists, and the CLOB-
              BER  option  is  unset,  this  causes an error; otherwise, it is
              truncated to zero length.

       >| word
       >! word
              Same as >, except that the file is truncated to zero  length  if
              it exists, even if CLOBBER is unset.

       >> word
              Open  file  word  for writing in append mode as standard output.
              If the file does not exist, and the  CLOBBER  option  is  unset,
              this causes an error; otherwise, the file is created.

       >>| word
       >>! word
              Same  as  >>,  except  that  the  file is created if it does not
              exist, even if CLOBBER is unset.

       <<[-] word
              The shell input is read up to a line that is the same  as  word,
              or to an end-of-file.  No parameter expansion, command substitu-
              tion or filename generation is performed on word.  The resulting
              document, called a here-document, becomes the standard input.

              If  any character of word is quoted with single or double quotes
              or a `\', no interpretation is placed upon the characters of the
              document.  Otherwise, parameter and command substitution occurs,
              `\' followed by a newline is removed, and `\' must  be  used  to
              quote  the  characters  `\', `$', ``' and the first character of
              word.

              Note that word itself does not undergo shell  expansion.   Back-
              quotes  in  word  do  not  have their usual effect; instead they
              behave similarly to double quotes, except  that  the  backquotes
              themselves  are  passed through unchanged.  (This information is
              given for completeness and it is not recommended that backquotes
              be  used.)  Quotes in the form $'...' have their standard effect
              of expanding backslashed references to special characters.

              If <<- is used, then all leading tabs are stripped from word and
              from the document.

       <<< word
              Perform  shell expansion on word and pass the result to standard
              input.  This is known as a here-string.  Compare the use of word
              in  here-documents  above,  where  word  does  not undergo shell
              expansion.

       <& number
       >& number
              The standard input/output is  duplicated  from  file  descriptor
              number (see dup2(2)).

       <& -
       >& -   Close the standard input/output.

       <& p
       >& p   The  input/output from/to the coprocess is moved to the standard
              input/output.

       >& word
       &> word
              (Except where `>& word' matches one of the above syntaxes;  `&>'
              can  always  be  used  to avoid this ambiguity.)  Redirects both
              standard output and standard error (file descriptor  2)  in  the
              manner  of  `>  word'.   Note  that  this does not have the same
              effect as `> word 2>&1' in the presence of multios (see the sec-
              tion below).

       >&| word
       >&! word
       &>| word
       &>! word
              Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descrip-
              tor 2) in the manner of `>| word'.

       >>& word
       &>> word
              Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descrip-
              tor 2) in the manner of `>> word'.

       >>&| word
       >>&! word
       &>>| word
       &>>! word
              Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descrip-
              tor 2) in the manner of `>>| word'.

       If one of the above is preceded by a digit, then  the  file  descriptor
       referred  to is that specified by the digit instead of the default 0 or
       1.  The order in which redirections are specified is significant.   The
       shell  evaluates  each  redirection  in  terms of the (file descriptor,
       file) association at the time of evaluation.  For example:

              ... 1>fname 2>&1

       first associates file descriptor 1 with file fname.  It then associates
       file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (that
       is, fname).  If the order of redirections were reversed, file  descrip-
       tor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1
       had been) and then file descriptor 1  would  be  associated  with  file
       fname.

       The  `|&' command separator described in Simple Commands & Pipelines in
       zshmisc(1) is a shorthand for `2>&1 |'.

       The various forms of process substitution, `<(list)', and `=(list)' for
       input  and `>(list)' for output, are often used together with redirect-
       ion.  For example, if word in an output  redirection  is  of  the  form
       `>(list)'  then the output is piped to the command represented by list.
       See Process Substitution in zshexpn(1).

OPENING FILE DESCRIPTORS USING PARAMETERS
       When the shell is parsing arguments to a command, and the shell  option
       IGNORE_BRACES  is  not set, a different form of redirection is allowed:
       instead of a digit before the operator there is a valid  shell  identi-
       fier  enclosed  in  braces.   The shell will open a new file descriptor
       that is guaranteed to be at least 10 and set the parameter named by the
       identifier  to  the  file  descriptor opened.  No whitespace is allowed
       between the closing brace and the redirection character.  For example:

              ... {myfd}>&1

       This opens a new file descriptor that is a duplicate of file descriptor
       1  and  sets  the  parameter myfd to the number of the file descriptor,
       which will be at least 10.  The new file descriptor can be  written  to
       using the syntax >&$myfd.

       The  syntax  {varid}>&-,  for example {myfd}>&-, may be used to close a
       file descriptor opened in this fashion.  Note that the parameter  given
       by varid must previously be set to a file descriptor in this case.

       It  is an error to open or close a file descriptor in this fashion when
       the parameter is readonly.  However, it is not  an  error  to  read  or
       write  a  file  descriptor using <&$param or >&$param if param is read-
       only.

       If the option CLOBBER is unset, it is an error to open a file  descrip-
       tor  using  a  parameter that is already set to an open file descriptor
       previously allocated by this mechanism.  Unsetting the parameter before
       using it for allocating a file descriptor avoids the error.

       Note  that this mechanism merely allocates or closes a file descriptor;
       it does not perform any redirections from or to it.  It is usually con-
       venient  to  allocate  a file descriptor prior to use as an argument to
       exec.  The syntax does not in any case work when  used  around  complex
       commands  such  as  parenthesised subshells or loops, where the opening
       brace is interpreted as part of a command list to be  executed  in  the
       current shell.

       The  following shows a typical sequence of allocation, use, and closing
       of a file descriptor:

              integer myfd
              exec {myfd}>~/logs/mylogfile.txt
              print This is a log message. >&$myfd
              exec {myfd}>&-

       Note that the expansion of  the  variable  in  the  expression  >&$myfd
       occurs  at  the  point  the  redirection  is opened.  This is after the
       expansion of command arguments and after any redirections to  the  left
       on the command line have been processed.

MULTIOS
       If the user tries to open a file descriptor for writing more than once,
       the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that  copies
       its  input  to  all the specified outputs, similar to tee, provided the
       MULTIOS option is set, as it is by default.  Thus:

              date >foo >bar

       writes the date to two files, named `foo' and `bar'.  Note that a  pipe
       is an implicit redirection; thus

              date >foo | cat

       writes the date to the file `foo', and also pipes it to cat.

       Note also that redirections are always expanded in order.  This happens
       regardless of the setting of the MULTIOS option, but with the option in
       effect  there  are additional consequences. For example, the meaning of
       the expression >&1 will change after a previous redirection:

              date >&1 >output

       In the case above, the >&1 refers to the standard output at  the  start
       of  the  line; the result is similar to the tee command.  However, con-
       sider:

              date >output >&1

       As redirections are evaluated in order, when the >&1 is encountered the
       standard  output is set to the file output and another copy of the out-
       put is therefore sent to that file.  This is unlikely  to  be  what  is
       intended.

       If  the MULTIOS option is set, the word after a redirection operator is
       also subjected to filename generation (globbing).  Thus

              : > *

       will truncate all files in the current directory, assuming  there's  at
       least  one.  (Without the MULTIOS option, it would create an empty file
       called `*'.)  Similarly, you can do

              echo exit 0 >> *.sh

       If the user tries to open a file descriptor for reading more than once,
       the  shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies
       all the specified inputs to its output in the order specified,  similar
       to cat, provided the MULTIOS option is set.  Thus

              sort <foo <fubar

       or even

              sort <f{oo,ubar}

       is equivalent to `cat foo fubar | sort'.

       Expansion of the redirection argument occurs at the point the redirect-
       ion is opened, at the point described above for the  expansion  of  the
       variable in >&$myfd.

       Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection; thus

              cat bar | sort <foo

       is equivalent to `cat bar foo | sort' (note the order of the inputs).

       If  the MULTIOS option is unset, each redirection replaces the previous
       redirection for that file descriptor.  However, all files redirected to
       are actually opened, so

              echo Hello > bar > baz

       when  MULTIOS  is  unset  will  truncate  `bar', and write `Hello' into
       `baz'.

       There is a problem when an output multio is  attached  to  an  external
       program.  A simple example shows this:

              cat file >file1 >file2
              cat file1 file2

       Here,  it  is  possible that the second `cat' will not display the full
       contents of file1  and  file2  (i.e.  the  original  contents  of  file
       repeated twice).

       The  reason  for  this  is  that  the multios are spawned after the cat
       process is forked from the parent shell, so the parent shell  does  not
       wait for the multios to finish writing data.  This means the command as
       shown can exit before file1 and file2 are  completely  written.   As  a
       workaround,  it  is possible to run the cat process as part of a job in
       the current shell:

              { cat file } >file >file2

       Here, the {...} job will pause to wait for both files to be written.

REDIRECTIONS WITH NO COMMAND
       When a simple command consists of one or more redirection operators and
       zero or more parameter assignments, but no command name, zsh can behave
       in several ways.

       If the parameter NULLCMD is not set or the option CSH_NULLCMD  is  set,
       an error is caused.  This is the csh behavior and CSH_NULLCMD is set by
       default when emulating csh.

       If the option SH_NULLCMD is set, the builtin `:' is inserted as a  com-
       mand  with  the given redirections.  This is the default when emulating
       sh or ksh.

       Otherwise, if the parameter NULLCMD is set, its value will be used as a
       command  with  the given redirections.  If both NULLCMD and READNULLCMD
       are set, then the value of the latter will be used instead of  that  of
       the  former  when the redirection is an input.  The default for NULLCMD
       is `cat' and for READNULLCMD is `more'. Thus

              < file

       shows the contents of file on standard output, with paging if that is a
       terminal.  NULLCMD and READNULLCMD may refer to shell functions.

COMMAND EXECUTION
       If a command name contains no slashes, the shell attempts to locate it.
       If there exists a shell function by that name, the function is  invoked
       as  described  in  the  section  `Functions'.   If there exists a shell
       builtin by that name, the builtin is invoked.

       Otherwise, the shell searches each element of  $path  for  a  directory
       containing  an  executable  file by that name.  If the search is unsuc-
       cessful, the shell prints an error message and returns a  nonzero  exit
       status.

       If  execution  fails  because the file is not in executable format, and
       the file is not a directory, it  is  assumed  to  be  a  shell  script.
       /bin/sh  is  spawned to execute it.  If the program is a file beginning
       with `#!', the remainder of the first line specifies an interpreter for
       the program.  The shell will execute the specified interpreter on oper-
       ating systems that do not handle this executable format in the kernel.

       If no external command is found but a  function  command_not_found_han-
       dler  exists  the  shell  executes  this function with all command line
       arguments.  The return status of the function becomes the status of the
       command.   If  the  function wishes to mimic the behaviour of the shell
       when the command is not found, it should print the message `command not
       found:  cmd'  to  standard  error and return status 127.  Note that the
       handler is executed in a subshell forked to execute  an  external  com-
       mand,  hence  changes  to  directories,  shell parameters, etc. have no
       effect on the main shell.

FUNCTIONS
       Shell functions are defined with the function reserved word or the spe-
       cial  syntax  `funcname  ()'.   Shell  functions are read in and stored
       internally.  Alias names are resolved when the function is read.  Func-
       tions  are  executed  like  commands with the arguments passed as posi-
       tional parameters.  (See the section `Command Execution'.)

       Functions execute in the same process as the caller and share all files
       and  present  working  directory  with  the caller.  A trap on EXIT set
       inside a function is executed after the function completes in the envi-
       ronment of the caller.

       The return builtin is used to return from function calls.

       Function  identifiers  can be listed with the functions builtin.  Func-
       tions can be undefined with the unfunction builtin.

AUTOLOADING FUNCTIONS
       A function can be marked as undefined using the  autoload  builtin  (or
       `functions  -u'  or `typeset -fu').  Such a function has no body.  When
       the function is first executed, the shell searches for  its  definition
       using the elements of the fpath variable.  Thus to define functions for
       autoloading, a typical sequence is:

              fpath=(~/myfuncs $fpath)
              autoload myfunc1 myfunc2 ...

       The usual alias expansion during reading  will  be  suppressed  if  the
       autoload builtin or its equivalent is given the option -U. This is rec-
       ommended for the use of functions supplied with the  zsh  distribution.
       Note  that  for functions precompiled with the zcompile builtin command
       the flag -U must be provided when the .zwc file is created, as the cor-
       responding information is compiled into the latter.

       For  each  element  in fpath, the shell looks for three possible files,
       the newest of which is used to load the definition for the function:

       element.zwc
              A file created with  the  zcompile  builtin  command,  which  is
              expected  to  contain  the  definitions for all functions in the
              directory named element.  The file is treated in the same manner
              as  a  directory  containing files for functions and is searched
              for the definition of the function.   If the definition  is  not
              found,  the  search for a definition proceeds with the other two
              possibilities described below.

              If element already includes a .zwc extension (i.e. the extension
              was  explicitly  given by the user), element is searched for the
              definition of the function without comparing its age to that  of
              other  files;  in  fact, there does not need to be any directory
              named element without the suffix.   Thus  including  an  element
              such as `/usr/local/funcs.zwc' in fpath will speed up the search
              for functions, with the  disadvantage  that  functions  included
              must  be  explicitly recompiled by hand before the shell notices
              any changes.

       element/function.zwc
              A file created with zcompile, which is expected to  contain  the
              definition  for function.  It may include other function defini-
              tions as well, but those are neither loaded nor executed; a file
              found  in  this way is searched only for the definition of func-
              tion.

       element/function
              A file of zsh command text, taken to be the definition for func-
              tion.

       In  summary, the order of searching is, first, in the parents of direc-
       tories in fpath for the newer of  either  a  compiled  directory  or  a
       directory  in fpath; second, if more than one of these contains a defi-
       nition for the function that is sought, the leftmost in  the  fpath  is
       chosen;  and  third, within a directory, the newer of either a compiled
       function or an ordinary function definition is used.

       If the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is set, or the file contains only  a  simple
       definition of the function, the file's contents will be executed.  This
       will normally define the function in question,  but  may  also  perform
       initialization, which is executed in the context of the function execu-
       tion, and may therefore define local parameters.  It is an error if the
       function is not defined by loading the file.

       Otherwise,  the  function body (with no surrounding `funcname() {...}')
       is taken to be the complete contents of the file.  This form allows the
       file  to be used directly as an executable shell script.  If processing
       of the file results in the  function  being  re-defined,  the  function
       itself  is  not re-executed.  To force the shell to perform initializa-
       tion and then call the function defined, the file should  contain  ini-
       tialization code (which will be executed then discarded) in addition to
       a complete function definition (which will be retained  for  subsequent
       calls to the function), and a call to the shell function, including any
       arguments, at the end.

       For example, suppose the autoload file func contains

              func() { print This is func; }
              print func is initialized

       then `func; func' with KSH_AUTOLOAD set will produce both  messages  on
       the  first  call, but only the message `This is func' on the second and
       subsequent calls.  Without KSH_AUTOLOAD set, it will produce  the  ini-
       tialization  message  on  the  first call, and the other message on the
       second and subsequent calls.

       It is also possible  to  create  a  function  that  is  not  marked  as
       autoloaded,  but  which loads its own definition by searching fpath, by
       using `autoload -X' within a shell function.  For example, the  follow-
       ing are equivalent:

              myfunc() {
                autoload -X
              }
              myfunc args...

       and

              unfunction myfunc   # if myfunc was defined
              autoload myfunc
              myfunc args...

       In  fact,  the  functions  command outputs `builtin autoload -X' as the
       body of an autoloaded function.  This is done so that

              eval "$(functions)"

       produces a reasonable result.  A true autoloaded function can be  iden-
       tified  by  the  presence  of  the  comment  `# undefined' in the body,
       because all comments are discarded from defined functions.

       To load the definition of an autoloaded function myfunc without execut-
       ing myfunc, use:

              autoload +X myfunc

ANONYMOUS FUNCTIONS
       If  no  name  is given for a function, it is `anonymous' and is handled
       specially.  Either form of function definition may be used: a `()' with
       no  preceding  name, or a `function' with an immediately following open
       brace.  The function is executed immediately at the point of definition
       and  is  not  stored  for  future  use.   The  function  name is set to
       `(anon)'.

       Arguments to the function may be specified as words following the clos-
       ing  brace  defining the function, hence if there are none no arguments
       (other than $0) are set.  This is a difference from the way other func-
       tions  are  parsed: normal function definitions may be followed by cer-
       tain keywords such as `else' or `fi', which will be  treated  as  argu-
       ments  to anonymous functions, so that a newline or semicolon is needed
       to force keyword interpretation.

       Note also that the argument list of any enclosing script or function is
       hidden  (as  would  be  the  case for any other function called at this
       point).

       Redirections may be applied to the anonymous function in the same  man-
       ner  as  to a current-shell structure enclosed in braces.  The main use
       of anonymous functions is to provide a scope for local variables.  This
       is  particularly  convenient  in start-up files as these do not provide
       their own local variable scope.

       For example,

              variable=outside
              function {
                local variable=inside
                print "I am $variable with arguments $*"
              } this and that
              print "I am $variable"

       outputs the following:

              I am inside with arguments this and that
              I am outside

       Note that function definitions with arguments that expand  to  nothing,
       for  example `name=; function $name { ... }', are not treated as anony-
       mous functions.  Instead, they are treated as normal  function  defini-
       tions where the definition is silently discarded.

SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
       Certain functions, if defined, have special meaning to the shell.

   Hook Functions
       For the functions below, it is possible to define an array that has the
       same name as the function with `_functions' appended.  Any  element  in
       such an array is taken as the name of a function to execute; it is exe-
       cuted in the same context and with the  same  arguments  as  the  basic
       function.   For example, if $chpwd_functions is an array containing the
       values `mychpwd', `chpwd_save_dirstack', then  the  shell  attempts  to
       execute  the functions `chpwd', `mychpwd' and `chpwd_save_dirstack', in
       that order.  Any function that does not exist is silently  ignored.   A
       function  found  by  this mechanism is referred to elsewhere as a `hook
       function'.  An error in any function causes subsequent functions not to
       be  run.  Note further that an error in a precmd hook causes an immedi-
       ately following periodic function not to run (though it may run at  the
       next opportunity).

       chpwd  Executed whenever the current working directory is changed.

       periodic
              If  the parameter PERIOD is set, this function is executed every
              $PERIOD seconds, just before a prompt.  Note  that  if  multiple
              functions  are  defined  using the array periodic_functions only
              one period is applied to the complete set of functions, and  the
              scheduled time is not reset if the list of functions is altered.
              Hence the set of functions is always called together.

       precmd Executed before each prompt.  Note that precommand functions are
              not  re-executed  simply because the command line is redrawn, as
              happens, for example, when a notification about an  exiting  job
              is displayed.

       preexec
              Executed  just  after a command has been read and is about to be
              executed.  If the history mechanism  is  active  (regardless  of
              whether  the  line  was  discarded from the history buffer), the
              string that the user typed is passed as the first argument, oth-
              erwise  it  is an empty string.  The actual command that will be
              executed (including expanded aliases) is passed in two different
              forms:  the  second argument is a single-line, size-limited ver-
              sion of the command (with things like function  bodies  elided);
              the  third  argument  contains  the full text that is being exe-
              cuted.

       zshaddhistory
              Executed when a history line has been  read  interactively,  but
              before  it  is executed.  The sole argument is the complete his-
              tory line  (so  that  any  terminating  newline  will  still  be
              present).

              If  any  of the hook functions returns status 1 (or any non-zero
              value other than 2, though this is  not  guaranteed  for  future
              versions  of  the  shell)  the  history  line will not be saved,
              although it lingers in the history until the next line  is  exe-
              cuted, allowing you to reuse or edit it immediately.

              If  any  of the hook functions returns status 2 the history line
              will be saved on the internal history list, but not  written  to
              the  history  file.   In  case of a conflict, the first non-zero
              status value is taken.

              A hook function may call `fc -p ...' to switch the history  con-
              text  so  that the history is saved in a different file from the
              that in the global HISTFILE parameter.   This  is  handled  spe-
              cially:  the history context is automatically restored after the
              processing of the history line is finished.

              The following example function works with  one  of  the  options
              INC_APPEND_HISTORY  or SHARE_HISTORY set, in order that the line
              is written out immediately after the history entry is added.  It
              first  adds the history line to the normal history with the new-
              line stripped, which is usually the correct behaviour.  Then  it
              switches the history context so that the line will be written to
              a history file in the current directory.

                     zshaddhistory() {
                       print -sr -- ${1%%$'\n'}
                       fc -p .zsh_local_history
                     }

       zshexit
              Executed at the point where the main shell is about to exit nor-
              mally.   This  is  not called by exiting subshells, nor when the
              exec precommand modifier is used  before  an  external  command.
              Also, unlike TRAPEXIT, it is not called when functions exit.

   Trap Functions
       The functions below are treated specially but do not have corresponding
       hook arrays.

       TRAPNAL
              If defined and non-null, this function will be executed whenever
              the shell catches a signal SIGNAL, where NAL is a signal name as
              specified for the kill  builtin.   The  signal  number  will  be
              passed as the first parameter to the function.

              If  a  function  of this form is defined and null, the shell and
              processes spawned by it will ignore SIGNAL.

              The return status from the function is handled specially.  If it
              is  zero, the signal is assumed to have been handled, and execu-
              tion continues normally.  Otherwise, the shell  will  behave  as
              interrupted  except  that  the  return  status  of  the  trap is
              retained.

              Programs terminated by uncaught  signals  typically  return  the
              status  128  plus the signal number.  Hence the following causes
              the handler for SIGINT to print a message, then mimic the  usual
              effect of the signal.

                     TRAPINT() {
                       print "Caught SIGINT, aborting."
                       return $(( 128 + $1 ))
                     }

              The  functions  TRAPZERR,  TRAPDEBUG and TRAPEXIT are never exe-
              cuted inside other traps.

       TRAPDEBUG
              If the option DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as  it  is  by  default),
              executed before each command; otherwise executed after each com-
              mand.  See the description of the trap builtin in zshbuiltins(1)
              for details of additional features provided in debug traps.

       TRAPEXIT
              Executed  when  the  shell  exits,  or when the current function
              exits if defined inside a function.  The  value  of  $?  at  the
              start of execution is the exit status of the shell or the return
              status of the function exiting.

       TRAPZERR
              Executed whenever a command has a non-zero  exit  status.   How-
              ever,  the function is not executed if the command occurred in a
              sublist followed by `&&' or `||'; only the final  command  in  a
              sublist  of this type causes the trap to be executed.  The func-
              tion TRAPERR acts the same as TRAPZERR on systems where there is
              no SIGERR (this is the usual case).

       The  functions  beginning  `TRAP' may alternatively be defined with the
       trap builtin:  this may be preferable for some uses.   Setting  a  trap
       with  one  form removes any trap of the other form for the same signal;
       removing a trap in either form removes all traps for the  same  signal.
       The forms

              TRAPNAL() {
               # code
              }

       ('function traps') and

              trap '
               # code
              ' NAL

       ('list  traps')  are  equivalent in most ways, the exceptions being the
       following:

       o      Function traps have all  the  properties  of  normal  functions,
              appearing  in  the list of functions and being called with their
              own function context rather than the context where the trap  was
              triggered.

       o      The  return  status  from  function  traps is special, whereas a
              return from a list trap causes the surrounding context to return
              with the given status.

       o      Function  traps  are  not  reset within subshells, in accordance
              with zsh behaviour; list traps are  reset,  in  accordance  with
              POSIX behaviour.

JOBS
       If  the  MONITOR  option  is set, an interactive shell associates a job
       with each pipeline.  It keeps a table of current jobs, printed  by  the
       jobs  command,  and  assigns them small integer numbers.  When a job is
       started asynchronously with `&', the shell prints a  line  to  standard
       error which looks like:

              [1] 1234

       indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number
       1 and had one (top-level) process, whose process ID was 1234.

       If a job is started with `&|' or `&!', then  that  job  is  immediately
       disowned.   After  startup,  it does not have a place in the job table,
       and is not subject to the job control features described here.

       If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit  the
       key  ^Z (control-Z) which sends a TSTP signal to the current job:  this
       key may be redefined by the susp option of the external  stty  command.
       The  shell  will  then  normally  indicate  that the job has been `sus-
       pended', and print another prompt.  You can then manipulate  the  state
       of  this  job, putting it in the background with the bg command, or run
       some other commands and then eventually bring the  job  back  into  the
       foreground  with  the foreground command fg.  A ^Z takes effect immedi-
       ately and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread  input
       are discarded when it is typed.

       A job being run in the background will suspend if it tries to read from
       the terminal.

       Note that if the job running in the foreground  is  a  shell  function,
       then  suspending  it will have the effect of causing the shell to fork.
       This is necessary to separate the function's state  from  that  of  the
       parent  shell performing the job control, so that the latter can return
       to the command line prompt.  As a result, even if fg is  used  to  con-
       tinue  the job the function will no longer be part of the parent shell,
       and any variables set by the function will not be visible in the parent
       shell.   Thus  the behaviour is different from the case where the func-
       tion was never suspended.  Zsh is different from many other  shells  in
       this regard.

       One  additional side effect is that use of disown with a job created by
       suspending shell code in this fashion is delayed: the job can  only  be
       disowned once any process started from the parent shell has terminated.
       At that point, the disowned job disappears silently from the job list.

       The same behaviour is found when the shell is  executing  code  as  the
       right  hand  side  of a pipeline or any complex shell construct such as
       if, for, etc., in order that the entire block of code can be managed as
       a  single job.  Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output,
       but this can be disabled by giving the command `stty tostop'.   If  you
       set this tty option, then background jobs will suspend when they try to
       produce output like they do when they try to read input.

       When a command is suspended and continued later with  the  fg  or  wait
       builtins,  zsh  restores tty modes that were in effect when it was sus-
       pended.  This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is  contin-
       ued via `kill -CONT', nor when it is continued with bg.

       There  are  several  ways  to refer to jobs in the shell.  A job can be
       referred to by the process ID of any process of the job or  by  one  of
       the following:

       %number
              The job with the given number.
       %string
              The last job whose command line begins with string.
       %?string
              The last job whose command line contains string.
       %%     Current job.
       %+     Equivalent to `%%'.
       %-     Previous job.

       The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state.  It nor-
       mally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked  so  that  no  further
       progress  is possible.  If the NOTIFY option is not set, it waits until
       just before it prints a prompt before it informs you.  All such notifi-
       cations  are  sent directly to the terminal, not to the standard output
       or standard error.

       When the monitor mode is on, each background job that  completes  trig-
       gers any trap set for CHLD.

       When  you  try  to leave the shell while jobs are running or suspended,
       you will be warned that `You have suspended (running) jobs'.   You  may
       use  the  jobs command to see what they are.  If you do this or immedi-
       ately try to exit again, the shell will not warn you a second time; the
       suspended  jobs will be terminated, and the running jobs will be sent a
       SIGHUP signal, if the HUP option is set.

       To avoid having the shell terminate the running jobs,  either  use  the
       nohup command (see nohup(1)) or the disown builtin.

SIGNALS
       The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the com-
       mand is followed by `&' and the MONITOR  option  is  not  active.   The
       shell  itself  always ignores the QUIT signal.  Otherwise, signals have
       the values inherited by the shell from its parent (but see the  TRAPNAL
       special functions in the section `Functions').

       Certain  jobs  are  run  asynchronously  by  the shell other than those
       explicitly put into the background; even in cases where the shell would
       usually wait for such jobs, an explicit exit command or exit due to the
       option ERR_EXIT will cause the shell to exit without waiting.  Examples
       of  such  asynchronous  jobs  are process substitution, see the section
       PROCESS SUBSTITUTION in the zshexpn(1) manual  page,  and  the  handler
       processes for multios, see the section MULTIOS in the zshmisc(1) manual
       page.

ARITHMETIC EVALUATION
       The shell can perform integer and  floating  point  arithmetic,  either
       using the builtin let, or via a substitution of the form $((...)).  For
       integers, the shell is usually compiled to use 8-byte  precision  where
       this is available, otherwise precision is 4 bytes.  This can be tested,
       for example, by giving the command `print - $(( 12345678901 ))'; if the
       number  appears unchanged, the precision is at least 8 bytes.  Floating
       point arithmetic always uses the `double'  type  with  whatever  corre-
       sponding precision is provided by the compiler and the library.

       The let builtin command takes arithmetic expressions as arguments; each
       is evaluated separately.  Since many of the  arithmetic  operators,  as
       well  as  spaces, require quoting, an alternative form is provided: for
       any command which begins with a `((', all the characters until a match-
       ing  `))'  are  treated as a quoted expression and arithmetic expansion
       performed as for an argument of  let.   More  precisely,  `((...))'  is
       equivalent  to  `let  "..."'.  The return status is 0 if the arithmetic
       value of the expression is non-zero, 1 if it is zero, and 2 if an error
       occurred.

       For example, the following statement

              (( val = 2 + 1 ))

       is equivalent to

              let "val = 2 + 1"

       both  assigning  the  value 3 to the shell variable val and returning a
       zero status.

       Integers can be in bases other than 10.  A leading `0x' or `0X' denotes
       hexadecimal and a leading `0b' or `0B' binary.  Integers may also be of
       the form `base#n', where base is  a  decimal  number  between  two  and
       thirty-six  representing  the arithmetic base and n is a number in that
       base (for example, `16#ff' is 255 in hexadecimal).  The base# may  also
       be omitted, in which case base 10 is used.  For backwards compatibility
       the form `[base]n' is also accepted.

       An integer expression or a base given in the form `base#n' may  contain
       underscores  (`_')  after  the leading digit for visual guidance; these
       are ignored in computation.   Examples  are  1_000_000  or  0xffff_ffff
       which are equivalent to 1000000 and 0xffffffff respectively.

       It is also possible to specify a base to be used for output in the form
       `[#base]', for example `[#16]'.  This is used  when  outputting  arith-
       metical  substitutions  or  when assigning to scalar parameters, but an
       explicitly defined integer or floating  point  parameter  will  not  be
       affected.   If  an  integer variable is implicitly defined by an arith-
       metic expression, any base specified in this way will  be  set  as  the
       variable's  output  arithmetic  base  as if the option `-i base' to the
       typeset builtin had been used.  The expression has no precedence and if
       it occurs more than once in a mathematical expression, the last encoun-
       tered is used.  For clarity it is recommended that  it  appear  at  the
       beginning of an expression.  As an example:

              typeset -i 16 y
              print $(( [#8] x = 32, y = 32 ))
              print $x $y

       outputs first `8#40', the rightmost value in the given output base, and
       then `8#40 16#20', because y has been explicitly declared to have  out-
       put base 16, while x (assuming it does not already exist) is implicitly
       typed by the arithmetic evaluation, where it acquires the  output  base
       8.

       The base may be replaced or followed by an underscore, which may itself
       be followed by a positive integer (if it is  missing  the  value  3  is
       used).   This  indicates  that  underscores should be inserted into the
       output string, grouping the number for visual clarity.   The  following
       integer specifies the number of digits to group together.  For example:

              setopt cbases
              print $(( [#16_4] 65536 ** 2 ))

       outputs `0x1_0000_0000'.

       The  feature can be used with floating point numbers, in which case the
       base must be omitted; grouping is away from  the  decimal  point.   For
       example,

              zmodload zsh/mathfunc
              print $(( [#_] sqrt(1e7) ))

       outputs  `3_162.277_660_168_379_5'  (the number of decimal places shown
       may vary).

       If the C_BASES option is set, hexadecimal numbers  are  output  in  the
       standard C format, for example `0xFF' instead of the usual `16#FF'.  If
       the option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default), octal  num-
       bers  will  be  treated  similarly and hence appear as `077' instead of
       `8#77'.  This option has no effect on the output of  bases  other  than
       hexadecimal  and  octal,  and  these  formats  are always understood on
       input.

       When an output base is specified using the `[#base]' syntax, an  appro-
       priate  base prefix will be output if necessary, so that the value out-
       put is valid syntax for input.   If  the  #  is  doubled,  for  example
       `[##16]', then no base prefix is output.

       Floating  point  constants  are recognized by the presence of a decimal
       point or an exponent.  The decimal point may be the first character  of
       the  constant, but the exponent character e or E may not, as it will be
       taken for a parameter name.  All numeric parts (before  and  after  the
       decimal  point  and  in the exponent) may contain underscores after the
       leading digit for visual guidance; these are ignored in computation.

       An arithmetic expression uses nearly the same syntax and  associativity
       of expressions as in C.

       In  the native mode of operation, the following operators are supported
       (listed in decreasing order of precedence):

       + - ! ~ ++ --
              unary plus/minus, logical NOT, complement, {pre,post}{in,de}cre-
              ment
       << >>  bitwise shift left, right
       &      bitwise AND
       ^      bitwise XOR
       |      bitwise OR
       **     exponentiation
       * / %  multiplication, division, modulus (remainder)
       + -    addition, subtraction
       < > <= >=
              comparison
       == !=  equality and inequality
       &&     logical AND
       || ^^  logical OR, XOR
       ? :    ternary operator
       = += -= *= /= %= &= ^= |= <<= >>= &&= ||= ^^= **=
              assignment
       ,      comma operator

       The  operators  `&&',  `||', `&&=', and `||=' are short-circuiting, and
       only one of the latter two expressions in a ternary operator is  evalu-
       ated.  Note the precedence of the bitwise AND, OR, and XOR operators.

       With the option C_PRECEDENCES the precedences (but no other properties)
       of the operators are altered to be the same as those in most other lan-
       guages that support the relevant operators:

       + - ! ~ ++ --
              unary plus/minus, logical NOT, complement, {pre,post}{in,de}cre-
              ment
       **     exponentiation
       * / %  multiplication, division, modulus (remainder)
       + -    addition, subtraction
       << >>  bitwise shift left, right
       < > <= >=
              comparison
       == !=  equality and inequality
       &      bitwise AND
       ^      bitwise XOR
       |      bitwise OR
       &&     logical AND
       ^^     logical XOR
       ||     logical OR
       ? :    ternary operator
       = += -= *= /= %= &= ^= |= <<= >>= &&= ||= ^^= **=
              assignment
       ,      comma operator

       Note the precedence of exponentiation in both cases is  below  that  of
       unary  operators, hence `-3**2' evaluates as `9', not `-9'.  Use paren-
       theses where necessary: `-(3**2)'.   This  is  for  compatibility  with
       other shells.

       Mathematical  functions  can  be  called  with the syntax `func(args)',
       where the function decides if the  args  is  used  as  a  string  or  a
       comma-separated  list  of  arithmetic  expressions. The shell currently
       defines no mathematical functions by default, but the module  zsh/math-
       func may be loaded with the zmodload builtin to provide standard float-
       ing point mathematical functions.

       An expression of the form `##x' where x is any character sequence  such
       as  `a',  `^A',  or  `\M-\C-x' gives the value of this character and an
       expression of the form `#name' gives the value of the  first  character
       of  the contents of the parameter name.  Character values are according
       to the character set used in the current locale; for multibyte  charac-
       ter  handling the option MULTIBYTE must be set.  Note that this form is
       different from `$#name', a standard parameter substitution which  gives
       the  length  of  the parameter name.  `#\' is accepted instead of `##',
       but its use is deprecated.

       Named parameters and subscripted  arrays  can  be  referenced  by  name
       within  an  arithmetic expression without using the parameter expansion
       syntax.  For example,

              ((val2 = val1 * 2))

       assigns twice the value of $val1 to the parameter named val2.

       An internal integer representation of a named parameter can  be  speci-
       fied  with  the integer builtin.  Arithmetic evaluation is performed on
       the value of each assignment to a named parameter declared  integer  in
       this  manner.   Assigning a floating point number to an integer results
       in rounding towards zero.

       Likewise, floating  point  numbers  can  be  declared  with  the  float
       builtin; there are two types, differing only in their output format, as
       described for the typeset builtin.  The output format can  be  bypassed
       by using arithmetic substitution instead of the parameter substitution,
       i.e. `${float}' uses  the  defined  format,  but  `$((float))'  uses  a
       generic floating point format.

       Promotion of integer to floating point values is performed where neces-
       sary.  In addition, if any operator which  requires  an  integer  (`&',
       `|',  `^', `<<', `>>' and their equivalents with assignment) is given a
       floating point argument, it  will  be  silently  rounded  towards  zero
       except for `~' which rounds down.

       Users  should  beware  that, in common with many other programming lan-
       guages but not software designed for calculation, the evaluation of  an
       expression  in  zsh is taken a term at a time and promotion of integers
       to floating point does not occur in terms only containing integers.   A
       typical  result of this is that a division such as 6/8 is truncated, in
       this being rounded towards 0.  The FORCE_FLOAT shell option can be used
       in  scripts  or  functions  where floating point evaluation is required
       throughout.

       Scalar variables can hold integer or floating point values at different
       times; there is no memory of the numeric type in this case.

       If a variable is first assigned in a numeric context without previously
       being declared, it will be implicitly typed as  integer  or  float  and
       retain  that  type either until the type is explicitly changed or until
       the end of the scope.  This  can  have  unforeseen  consequences.   For
       example, in the loop

              for (( f = 0; f < 1; f += 0.1 )); do
              # use $f
              done

       if  f has not already been declared, the first assignment will cause it
       to be created as an integer, and consequently the operation `f +=  0.1'
       will  always cause the result to be truncated to zero, so that the loop
       will fail.  A simple fix would be to turn the initialization into `f  =
       0.0'.   It is therefore best to declare numeric variables with explicit
       types.

CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS
       A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command  to  test
       attributes  of  files  and  to compare strings.  Each expression can be
       constructed from one or more of the following unary or  binary  expres-
       sions:

       -a file
              true if file exists.

       -b file
              true if file exists and is a block special file.

       -c file
              true if file exists and is a character special file.

       -d file
              true if file exists and is a directory.

       -e file
              true if file exists.

       -f file
              true if file exists and is a regular file.

       -g file
              true if file exists and has its setgid bit set.

       -h file
              true if file exists and is a symbolic link.

       -k file
              true if file exists and has its sticky bit set.

       -n string
              true if length of string is non-zero.

       -o option
              true if option named option is on.  option may be a single char-
              acter, in which case it is a single letter  option  name.   (See
              the section `Specifying Options'.)

              When  no  option  named  option  exists,  and the POSIX_BUILTINS
              option hasn't been set, return 3 with a warning.  If that option
              is set, return 1 with no warning.

       -p file
              true if file exists and is a FIFO special file (named pipe).

       -r file
              true if file exists and is readable by current process.

       -s file
              true if file exists and has size greater than zero.

       -t fd  true  if file descriptor number fd is open and associated with a
              terminal device.  (note: fd is not optional)

       -u file
              true if file exists and has its setuid bit set.

       -v varname
              true if shell variable varname is set.

       -w file
              true if file exists and is writable by current process.

       -x file
              true if file exists and is executable by  current  process.   If
              file  exists  and  is  a directory, then the current process has
              permission to search in the directory.

       -z string
              true if length of string is zero.

       -L file
              true if file exists and is a symbolic link.

       -O file
              true if file exists and is owned by the  effective  user  ID  of
              this process.

       -G file
              true if file exists and its group matches the effective group ID
              of this process.

       -S file
              true if file exists and is a socket.

       -N file
              true if file exists and its access time is not  newer  than  its
              modification time.

       file1 -nt file2
              true if file1 exists and is newer than file2.

       file1 -ot file2
              true if file1 exists and is older than file2.

       file1 -ef file2
              true if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file.

       string = pattern
       string == pattern
              true  if  string  matches  pattern.   The  two forms are exactly
              equivalent.  The `=' form is the traditional shell  syntax  (and
              hence the only one generally used with the test and [ builtins);
              the `==' form provides compatibility with other  sorts  of  com-
              puter language.

       string != pattern
              true if string does not match pattern.

       string =~ regexp
              true  if  string  matches the regular expression regexp.  If the
              option RE_MATCH_PCRE is set regexp is tested as a  PCRE  regular
              expression  using  the  zsh/pcre  module, else it is tested as a
              POSIX extended regular expression using  the  zsh/regex  module.
              Upon  successful match, some variables will be updated; no vari-
              ables are changed if the matching fails.

              If the option BASH_REMATCH is not set the scalar parameter MATCH
              is set to the substring that matched the pattern and the integer
              parameters MBEGIN and MEND to the index of the  start  and  end,
              respectively,  of  the  match  in string, such that if string is
              contained in variable var the expression `${var[$MBEGIN,$MEND]}'
              is  identical to `$MATCH'.  The setting of the option KSH_ARRAYS
              is respected.  Likewise, the array match  is  set  to  the  sub-
              strings that matched parenthesised subexpressions and the arrays
              mbegin and mend to the indices of the start and  end  positions,
              respectively,  of  the substrings within string.  The arrays are
              not set if there were  no  parenthesised  subexpresssions.   For
              example,  if  the string `a short string' is matched against the
              regular  expression  `s(...)t',  then   (assuming   the   option
              KSH_ARRAYS is not set) MATCH, MBEGIN and MEND are `short', 3 and
              7, respectively, while match, mbegin and mend are  single  entry
              arrays containing the strings `hor', `4' and `6', respectively.

              If  the option BASH_REMATCH is set the array BASH_REMATCH is set
              to the substring that matched the pattern followed by  the  sub-
              strings  that  matched  parenthesised  subexpressions within the
              pattern.

       string1 < string2
              true if string1 comes before string2 based  on  ASCII  value  of
              their characters.

       string1 > string2
              true  if  string1  comes  after  string2 based on ASCII value of
              their characters.

       exp1 -eq exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically equal to exp2.  Note that for purely
              numeric  comparisons use of the ((...)) builtin described in the
              section `ARITHMETIC EVALUATION' is more convenient  than  condi-
              tional expressions.

       exp1 -ne exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically not equal to exp2.

       exp1 -lt exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically less than exp2.

       exp1 -gt exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically greater than exp2.

       exp1 -le exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically less than or equal to exp2.

       exp1 -ge exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically greater than or equal to exp2.

       ( exp )
              true if exp is true.

       ! exp  true if exp is false.

       exp1 && exp2
              true if exp1 and exp2 are both true.

       exp1 || exp2
              true if either exp1 or exp2 is true.

       For  compatibility, if there is a single argument that is not syntacti-
       cally significant, typically a variable, the condition is treated as  a
       test for whether the expression expands as a string of non-zero length.
       In other words, [[ $var ]] is the same as [[ -n $var ]].  It is  recom-
       mended that the second, explicit, form be used where possible.

       Normal  shell  expansion  is  performed on the file, string and pattern
       arguments, but the result of each expansion is constrained to be a sin-
       gle word, similar to the effect of double quotes.

       Filename  generation is not performed on any form of argument to condi-
       tions.  However, it can be forced in any case where normal shell expan-
       sion  is  valid and when the option EXTENDED_GLOB is in effect by using
       an explicit glob qualifier of the form (#q) at the end of  the  string.
       A  normal  glob qualifier expression may appear between the `q' and the
       closing parenthesis; if none  appears  the  expression  has  no  effect
       beyond causing filename generation.  The results of filename generation
       are joined together to form a single word, as with the results of other
       forms of expansion.

       This  special  use of filename generation is only available with the [[
       syntax.  If the condition occurs within the [ or test builtin  commands
       then  globbing  occurs instead as part of normal command line expansion
       before the condition is evaluated.  In this case it may generate multi-
       ple words which are likely to confuse the syntax of the test command.

       For example,

              [[ -n file*(#qN) ]]

       produces  status  zero if and only if there is at least one file in the
       current directory beginning with the string `file'.  The globbing qual-
       ifier  N  ensures  that the expression is empty if there is no matching
       file.

       Pattern metacharacters are active for the pattern arguments;  the  pat-
       terns  are  the  same  as  those used for filename generation, see zsh-
       expn(1), but there is no special behaviour of `/' nor initial dots, and
       no glob qualifiers are allowed.

       In  each  of the above expressions, if file is of the form `/dev/fd/n',
       where n is an integer, then the test applied to  the  open  file  whose
       descriptor  number is n, even if the underlying system does not support
       the /dev/fd directory.

       In the forms which do numeric comparison, the expressions  exp  undergo
       arithmetic expansion as if they were enclosed in $((...)).

       For example, the following:

              [[ ( -f foo || -f bar ) && $report = y* ]] && print File exists.

       tests if either file foo or file bar exists, and if so, if the value of
       the parameter report begins with `y';  if  the  complete  condition  is
       true, the message `File exists.' is printed.

EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES
       Prompt  sequences  undergo  a  special form of expansion.  This type of
       expansion is also available using the -P option to the print builtin.

       If the PROMPT_SUBST option is set, the prompt string is first subjected
       to  parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic expansion.
       See zshexpn(1).

       Certain escape sequences may be recognised in the prompt string.

       If the PROMPT_BANG option is set, a `!' in the prompt  is  replaced  by
       the  current  history  event  number.  A literal `!' may then be repre-
       sented as `!!'.

       If the PROMPT_PERCENT option is  set,  certain  escape  sequences  that
       start  with  `%'  are  expanded.  Many escapes are followed by a single
       character, although some of these take  an  optional  integer  argument
       that  should  appear  between  the  `%'  and  the next character of the
       sequence.  More complicated escape sequences are available  to  provide
       conditional expansion.

SIMPLE PROMPT ESCAPES
   Special characters
       %%     A `%'.

       %)     A `)'.

   Login information
       %l     The line (tty) the user is logged in on, without `/dev/' prefix.
              If the name starts with `/dev/tty', that prefix is stripped.

       %M     The full machine hostname.

       %m     The hostname up to the first `.'.  An integer may follow the `%'
              to  specify  how  many  components  of the hostname are desired.
              With a negative integer, trailing components of the hostname are
              shown.

       %n     $USERNAME.

       %y     The line (tty) the user is logged in on, without `/dev/' prefix.
              This does not treat `/dev/tty' names specially.

   Shell state
       %#     A `#' if the shell is running with privileges,  a  `%'  if  not.
              Equivalent  to `%(!.#.%%)'.  The definition of `privileged', for
              these purposes, is that either the effective user  ID  is  zero,
              or,  if  POSIX.1e  capabilities are supported, that at least one
              capability is raised in  either  the  Effective  or  Inheritable
              capability vectors.

       %?     The  return  status of the last command executed just before the
              prompt.

       %_     The status of the parser, i.e. the shell constructs  (like  `if'
              and  `for') that have been started on the command line. If given
              an integer number that many strings will  be  printed;  zero  or
              negative  or  no integer means print as many as there are.  This
              is most useful in prompts PS2 for continuation lines and PS4 for
              debugging  with  the  XTRACE  option; in the latter case it will
              also work non-interactively.

       %^     The status of the parser in reverse. This is the  same  as  `%_'
              other than the order of strings.  It is often used in RPS2.

       %d
       %/     Current  working  directory.   If an integer follows the `%', it
              specifies a number of trailing components of the current working
              directory  to show; zero means the whole path.  A negative inte-
              ger specifies leading components, i.e. %-1d specifies the  first
              component.

       %~     As  %d  and %/, but if the current working directory starts with
              $HOME, that part is replaced by a `~'. Furthermore, if it has  a
              named  directory  as  its prefix, that part is replaced by a `~'
              followed by the name of the directory, but only if the result is
              shorter  than the full path; see Dynamic and Static named direc-
              tories in zshexpn(1).

       %e     Evaluation depth of the current sourced file, shell function, or
              eval.   This  is incremented or decremented every time the value
              of %N is set or reverted  to  a  previous  value,  respectively.
              This is most useful for debugging as part of $PS4.

       %h
       %!     Current history event number.

       %i     The  line number currently being executed in the script, sourced
              file, or shell function given by %N.  This is  most  useful  for
              debugging as part of $PS4.

       %I     The  line  number currently being executed in the file %x.  This
              is similar to %i, but the line number is always a line number in
              the file where the code was defined, even if the code is a shell
              function.

       %j     The number of jobs.

       %L     The current value of $SHLVL.

       %N     The name of the script, sourced file, or shell function that zsh
              is currently executing, whichever was started most recently.  If
              there is none, this is equivalent to the parameter $0.  An inte-
              ger may follow the `%' to specify a number of trailing path com-
              ponents to show; zero means the full path.  A  negative  integer
              specifies leading components.

       %x     The  name of the file containing the source code currently being
              executed.  This behaves as %N except that function and eval com-
              mand  names  are  not  shown,  instead  the file where they were
              defined.

       %c
       %.
       %C     Trailing component of the current working directory.  An integer
              may  follow the `%' to get more than one component.  Unless `%C'
              is used, tilde contraction is performed first.  These are depre-
              cated  as %c and %C are equivalent to %1~ and %1/, respectively,
              while explicit positive integers have the same effect as for the
              latter two sequences.

   Date and time
       %D     The date in yy-mm-dd format.

       %T     Current time of day, in 24-hour format.

       %t
       %@     Current time of day, in 12-hour, am/pm format.

       %*     Current time of day in 24-hour format, with seconds.

       %w     The date in day-dd format.

       %W     The date in mm/dd/yy format.

       %D{string}
              string  is  formatted  using  the  strftime function.  See strf-
              time(3) for more details.  Various zsh extensions  provide  num-
              bers  with  no  leading  zero or space if the number is a single
              digit:

              %f     a day of the month
              %K     the hour of the day on the 24-hour clock
              %L     the hour of the day on the 12-hour clock

              In addition, if the system supports the POSIX gettimeofday  sys-
              tem  call,  %.  provides decimal fractions of a second since the
              epoch with leading zeroes.  By default three decimal places  are
              provided,  but a number of digits up to 9 may be given following
              the %; hence %6.  outputs microseconds, and %9. outputs nanosec-
              onds.   (The  latter  requires a nanosecond-precision clock_get-
              time; systems lacking this will return a value multiplied by the
              appropriate power of 10.)  A typical example of this is the for-
              mat `%D{%H:%M:%S.%.}'.

              The GNU extension %N is handled as a synonym for %9..

              Additionally, the GNU extension that a `-' between the % and the
              format  character  causes a leading zero or space to be stripped
              is handled directly by the shell for the format characters d, f,
              H, k, l, m, M, S and y; any other format characters are provided
              to the system's strftime(3) with any leading `-' present, so the
              handling is system dependent.  Further GNU (or other) extensions
              are also passed to strftime(3) and may work if the  system  sup-
              ports them.

   Visual effects
       %B (%b)
              Start (stop) boldface mode.

       %E     Clear to end of line.

       %U (%u)
              Start (stop) underline mode.

       %S (%s)
              Start (stop) standout mode.

       %F (%f)
              Start  (stop)  using a different foreground colour, if supported
              by the terminal.  The colour may be specified two  ways:  either
              as  a  numeric  argument,  as normal, or by a sequence in braces
              following the %F, for example %F{red}.  In the latter  case  the
              values  allowed  are  as  described  for  the  fg  zle_highlight
              attribute; see Character Highlighting in zshzle(1).  This  means
              that numeric colours are allowed in the second format also.

       %K (%k)
              Start (stop) using a different bacKground colour.  The syntax is
              identical to that for %F and %f.

       %{...%}
              Include a string as  a  literal  escape  sequence.   The  string
              within  the braces should not change the cursor position.  Brace
              pairs can nest.

              A positive numeric argument between the % and the {  is  treated
              as described for %G below.

       %G     Within  a  %{...%} sequence, include a `glitch': that is, assume
              that a single character width will be output.   This  is  useful
              when  outputting  characters  that otherwise cannot be correctly
              handled by the shell, such as the  alternate  character  set  on
              some  terminals.   The  characters  in  question can be included
              within a %{...%} sequence together with the  appropriate  number
              of  %G  sequences  to  indicate  the  correct width.  An integer
              between the `%' and `G' indicates a character width  other  than
              one.   Hence  %{seq%2G%} outputs seq and assumes it takes up the
              width of two standard characters.

              Multiple uses of %G accumulate in the obvious fashion; the posi-
              tion  of  the %G is unimportant.  Negative integers are not han-
              dled.

              Note that when prompt truncation is in use it  is  advisable  to
              divide  up  output  into  single  characters within each %{...%}
              group so that the correct truncation point can be found.

CONDITIONAL SUBSTRINGS IN PROMPTS
       %v     The value of the first element of  the  psvar  array  parameter.
              Following  the  `%'  with  an  integer gives that element of the
              array.  Negative integers count from the end of the array.

       %(x.true-text.false-text)
              Specifies a ternary expression.  The character following  the  x
              is  arbitrary;  the  same character is used to separate the text
              for the `true' result from that for the  `false'  result.   This
              separator  may  not appear in the true-text, except as part of a
              %-escape sequence.  A `)' may appear in the false-text as  `%)'.
              true-text  and  false-text  may  both contain arbitrarily-nested
              escape sequences, including further ternary expressions.

              The left parenthesis may be preceded or followed by  a  positive
              integer  n,  which defaults to zero.  A negative integer will be
              multiplied by -1, except as noted below for `l'.  The test char-
              acter x may be any of the following:

              !      True if the shell is running with privileges.
              #      True if the effective uid of the current process is n.
              ?      True if the exit status of the last command was n.
              _      True if at least n shell constructs were started.
              C
              /      True if the current absolute path has at least n elements
                     relative to the root directory, hence / is counted  as  0
                     elements.
              c
              .
              ~      True if the current path, with prefix replacement, has at
                     least n elements relative to the root directory, hence  /
                     is counted as 0 elements.
              D      True if the month is equal to n (January = 0).
              d      True if the day of the month is equal to n.
              e      True if the evaluation depth is at least n.
              g      True if the effective gid of the current process is n.
              j      True if the number of jobs is at least n.
              L      True if the SHLVL parameter is at least n.
              l      True  if  at least n characters have already been printed
                     on the current line.  When n  is  negative,  true  if  at
                     least abs(n) characters remain before the opposite margin
                     (thus the left margin for RPROMPT).
              S      True if the SECONDS parameter is at least n.
              T      True if the time in hours is equal to n.
              t      True if the time in minutes is equal to n.
              v      True if the array psvar has at least n elements.
              V      True  if  element  n  of  the  array  psvar  is  set  and
                     non-empty.
              w      True if the day of the week is equal to n (Sunday = 0).

       %<string<
       %>string>
       %[xstring]
              Specifies  truncation  behaviour for the remainder of the prompt
              string.   The  third,  deprecated,   form   is   equivalent   to
              `%xstringx',  i.e. x may be `<' or `>'.  The string will be dis-
              played in place of the truncated portion  of  any  string;  note
              this does not undergo prompt expansion.

              The numeric argument, which in the third form may appear immedi-
              ately after the `[', specifies the maximum permitted  length  of
              the various strings that can be displayed in the prompt.  In the
              first two forms, this numeric argument may be negative, in which
              case  the  truncation  length  is  determined by subtracting the
              absolute value of the numeric argument from the number of  char-
              acter  positions  remaining on the current prompt line.  If this
              results in a zero or negative length, a length of 1 is used.  In
              other  words, a negative argument arranges that after truncation
              at least n characters remain before the right margin (left  mar-
              gin for RPROMPT).

              The  forms  with `<' truncate at the left of the string, and the
              forms with `>' truncate at the right of the string.   For  exam-
              ple,  if  the  current  directory  is  `/home/pike',  the prompt
              `%8<..<%/' will expand to `..e/pike'.  In this string, the  ter-
              minating  character (`<', `>' or `]'), or in fact any character,
              may be quoted by a preceding `\'; note when using print -P, how-
              ever, that this must be doubled as the string is also subject to
              standard  print  processing,  in  addition  to  any  backslashes
              removed  by a double quoted string:  the worst case is therefore
              `print -P "%<\\\\<<..."'.

              If the string is longer than the specified truncation length, it
              will appear in full, completely replacing the truncated string.

              The part of the prompt string to be truncated runs to the end of
              the string, or to the end of the next  enclosing  group  of  the
              `%('  construct,  or  to  the next truncation encountered at the
              same grouping level (i.e. truncations inside a  `%('  are  sepa-
              rate), which ever comes first.  In particular, a truncation with
              argument zero (e.g., `%<<') marks the end of the  range  of  the
              string  to  be truncated while turning off truncation from there
              on. For example, the prompt  `%10<...<%~%<<%#  '  will  print  a
              truncated representation of the current directory, followed by a
              `%' or `#', followed by a space.  Without the `%<<',  those  two
              characters  would  be  included  in  the string to be truncated.
              Note that `%-0<<' is not equivalent to `%<<' but specifies  that
              the prompt is truncated at the right margin.

              Truncation  applies  only  within  each  individual  line of the
              prompt, as delimited by embedded  newlines  (if  any).   If  the
              total  length  of  any  line  of  the prompt after truncation is
              greater than the terminal width, or if the part to be  truncated
              contains embedded newlines, truncation behavior is undefined and
              may  change  in  a   future   version   of   the   shell.    Use
              `%-n(l.true-text.false-text)' to remove parts of the prompt when
              the available space is less than n.



ZSHEXPN(1)                  General Commands Manual                 ZSHEXPN(1)



NAME
       zshexpn - zsh expansion and substitution

DESCRIPTION
       The following types of expansions are performed in the indicated  order
       in five steps:

       History Expansion
              This is performed only in interactive shells.

       Alias Expansion
              Aliases  are  expanded  immediately  before  the command line is
              parsed as explained under Aliasing in zshmisc(1).

       Process Substitution
       Parameter Expansion
       Command Substitution
       Arithmetic Expansion
       Brace Expansion
              These five are performed  in  left-to-right  fashion.   On  each
              argument,  any  of  the five steps that are needed are performed
              one after the other.  Hence,  for  example,  all  the  parts  of
              parameter expansion are completed before command substitution is
              started.  After these expansions, all  unquoted  occurrences  of
              the characters `\',`'' and `"' are removed.

       Filename Expansion
              If  the  SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set, the order of expansion
              is modified for compatibility with sh and  ksh.   In  that  case
              filename  expansion  is performed immediately after alias expan-
              sion, preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above.

       Filename Generation
              This expansion, commonly referred to as globbing, is always done
              last.

       The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail.

HISTORY EXPANSION
       History  expansion  allows you to use words from previous command lines
       in the command line you are typing.  This simplifies  spelling  correc-
       tions and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments.

       Immediately  before  execution,  each  command  is saved in the history
       list, the size of which is controlled by the HISTSIZE  parameter.   The
       one  most  recent  command  is always retained in any case.  Each saved
       command in the history list is called a history event and is assigned a
       number,  beginning  with 1 (one) when the shell starts up.  The history
       number that you may  see  in  your  prompt  (see  EXPANSION  OF  PROMPT
       SEQUENCES  in  zshmisc(1))  is the number that is to be assigned to the
       next command.

   Overview
       A history expansion begins with the first character  of  the  histchars
       parameter,  which is `!' by default, and may occur anywhere on the com-
       mand line, including inside double quotes (but not inside single quotes
       '...' or C-style quotes $'...' nor when escaped with a backslash).

       The  first  character  is followed by an optional event designator (see
       the section `Event Designators') and then an optional  word  designator
       (the  section  `Word  Designators'); if neither of these designators is
       present, no history expansion occurs.

       Input lines  containing  history  expansions  are  echoed  after  being
       expanded,  but  before  any  other expansions take place and before the
       command is executed.  It is this expanded form that is recorded as  the
       history event for later references.

       History expansions do not nest.

       By  default, a history reference with no event designator refers to the
       same event as any preceding history reference on that command line;  if
       it  is the only history reference in a command, it refers to the previ-
       ous command.  However, if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY  is  set,  then
       every  history  reference  with no event specification always refers to
       the previous command.

       For example, `!' is the event designator for the previous  command,  so
       `!!:1'  always  refers  to  the first word of the previous command, and
       `!!$' always refers to the last word of  the  previous  command.   With
       CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set, then `!:1' and `!$' function in the same manner
       as `!!:1' and `!!$', respectively.  Conversely,  if  CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY
       is  unset,  then  `!:1'  and  `!$'  refer  to the first and last words,
       respectively, of the same event referenced by the nearest other history
       reference  preceding them on the current command line, or to the previ-
       ous command if there is no preceding reference.

       The character sequence `^foo^bar' (where `^'  is  actually  the  second
       character of the histchars parameter) repeats the last command, replac-
       ing the string foo with bar.  More precisely, the sequence  `^foo^bar^'
       is synonymous with `!!:s^foo^bar^', hence other modifiers (see the sec-
       tion  `Modifiers')  may  follow  the   final   `^'.    In   particular,
       `^foo^bar^:G' performs a global substitution.

       If  the  shell encounters the character sequence `!"' in the input, the
       history mechanism is temporarily disabled until the current  list  (see
       zshmisc(1))  is  fully parsed.  The `!"' is removed from the input, and
       any subsequent `!' characters have no special significance.

       A less convenient but more comprehensible form of command history  sup-
       port is provided by the fc builtin.

   Event Designators
       An  event designator is a reference to a command-line entry in the his-
       tory list.  In the list below, remember that the initial  `!'  in  each
       item  may  be  changed  to  another  character by setting the histchars
       parameter.

       !      Start a history expansion, except when followed by a blank, new-
              line,  `=' or `('.  If followed immediately by a word designator
              (see the section `Word Designators'), this forms a history  ref-
              erence with no event designator (see the section `Overview').

       !!     Refer  to  the  previous  command.   By  itself,  this expansion
              repeats the previous command.

       !n     Refer to command-line n.

       !-n    Refer to the current command-line minus n.

       !str   Refer to the most recent command starting with str.

       !?str[?]
              Refer to the most recent command containing str.   The  trailing
              `?'  is necessary if this reference is to be followed by a modi-
              fier or followed by any text that is not to be  considered  part
              of str.

       !#     Refer  to the current command line typed in so far.  The line is
              treated as if it were complete up  to  and  including  the  word
              before the one with the `!#' reference.

       !{...} Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if neces-
              sary).

   Word Designators
       A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line
       are to be included in a history reference.  A `:' usually separates the
       event specification from the word designator.  It may be  omitted  only
       if  the  word designator begins with a `^', `$', `*', `-' or `%'.  Word
       designators include:

       0      The first input word (command).
       n      The nth argument.
       ^      The first argument.  That is, 1.
       $      The last argument.
       %      The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search.
       x-y    A range of words; x defaults to 0.
       *      All the arguments, or a null value if there are none.
       x*     Abbreviates `x-$'.
       x-     Like `x*' but omitting word $.

       Note that a `%' word designator works only when used in  one  of  `!%',
       `!:%'  or `!?str?:%', and only when used after a !? expansion (possibly
       in an earlier command).  Anything else results in  an  error,  although
       the error may not be the most obvious one.

   Modifiers
       After  the  optional  word designator, you can add a sequence of one or
       more of the following modifiers, each preceded by a `:'.   These  modi-
       fiers  also  work  on  the  result of filename generation and parameter
       expansion, except where noted.

       a      Turn a file name into an absolute path:   prepends  the  current
              directory,  if  necessary;  remove `.' path segments; and remove
              `..' path segments and the  segments  that  immediately  precede
              them.

              This transformation is agnostic about what is in the filesystem,
              i.e. is on the logical, not the physical  directory.   It  takes
              place  in the same manner as when changing directories when nei-
              ther of the options CHASE_DOTS or CHASE_LINKS is set.  For exam-
              ple,    `/before/here/../after'   is   always   transformed   to
              `/before/after', regardless of whether `/before/here' exists  or
              what kind of object (dir, file, symlink, etc.) it is.

       A      Turn a file name into an absolute path as the `a' modifier does,
              and then pass the result through the realpath(3)  library  func-
              tion to resolve symbolic links.

              Note:  on  systems  that do not have a realpath(3) library func-
              tion, symbolic links are not resolved, so on those  systems  `a'
              and `A' are equivalent.

              Note: foo:A and realpath(foo) are different on some inputs.  For
              realpath(foo) semantics, see the `P` modifier.

       c      Resolve a command name into an absolute path  by  searching  the
              command path given by the PATH variable.  This does not work for
              commands containing directory parts.  Note also that  this  does
              not  usually  work as a glob qualifier unless a file of the same
              name is found in the current directory.

       e      Remove all but the part of the filename extension following  the
              `.';  see  the  definition  of  the  filename  extension  in the
              description of the r modifier below.   Note  that  according  to
              that definition the result will be empty if the string ends with
              a `.'.

       h      Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving  the  head.   This
              works like `dirname'.

       l      Convert the words to all lowercase.

       p      Print  the  new  command but do not execute it.  Only works with
              history expansion.

       P      Turn a file name into an absolute path, like  realpath(3).   The
              resulting  path will be absolute, have neither `.' nor `..' com-
              ponents, and refer to the same  directory  entry  as  the  input
              filename.

              Unlike realpath(3), non-existent trailing components are permit-
              ted and preserved.

       q      Quote the substituted  words,  escaping  further  substitutions.
              Works with history expansion and parameter expansion, though for
              parameters it is only useful if the  resulting  text  is  to  be
              re-evaluated such as by eval.

       Q      Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words.

       r      Remove a filename extension leaving the root name.  Strings with
              no filename extension are not altered.  A filename extension  is
              a `.' followed by any number of characters (including zero) that
              are neither `.' nor `/' and that continue  to  the  end  of  the
              string.  For example, the extension of `foo.orig.c' is `.c', and
              `dir.c/foo' has no extension.

       s/l/r[/]
              Substitute r for l as described below.  The substitution is done
              only  for  the  first string that matches l.  For arrays and for
              filename generation, this applies to each word of  the  expanded
              text.  See below for further notes on substitutions.

              The  forms  `gs/l/r' and `s/l/r/:G' perform global substitution,
              i.e. substitute every occurrence of r for l.  Note that the g or
              :G must appear in exactly the position shown.

              See further notes on this form of substitution below.

       &      Repeat  the  previous  s  substitution.  Like s, may be preceded
              immediately by a g.  In parameter expansion the  &  must  appear
              inside braces, and in filename generation it must be quoted with
              a backslash.

       t      Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.   This
              works like `basename'.

       u      Convert the words to all uppercase.

       x      Like  q, but break into words at whitespace.  Does not work with
              parameter expansion.

       The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows.   By  default  the  left-hand
       side  of  substitutions  are  not patterns, but character strings.  Any
       character can be used as the delimiter in place of  `/'.   A  backslash
       quotes   the   delimiter   character.    The   character  `&',  in  the
       right-hand-side r, is replaced by the text from the  left-hand-side  l.
       The  `&'  can  be  quoted with a backslash.  A null l uses the previous
       string either from the previous l or from the contextual scan string  s
       from  `!?s'.  You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline immedi-
       ately follows r; the rightmost `?' in a context scan can  similarly  be
       omitted.  Note the same record of the last l and r is maintained across
       all forms of expansion.

       Note that if a `&' is used within glob qualifiers an extra backslash is
       needed as a & is a special character in this case.

       Also  note that the order of expansions affects the interpretation of l
       and r.  When used in a history expansion, which occurs before any other
       expansions, l and r are treated as literal strings (except as explained
       for HIST_SUBST_PATTERN below).  When used in parameter  expansion,  the
       replacement of r into the parameter's value is done first, and then any
       additional process, parameter, command, arithmetic, or brace references
       are applied, which may evaluate those substitutions and expansions more
       than once if l appears more than once in the starting value.  When used
       in a glob qualifier, any substitutions or expansions are performed once
       at the time the qualifier is parsed, even before  the  `:s'  expression
       itself is divided into l and r sides.

       If  the  option HIST_SUBST_PATTERN is set, l is treated as a pattern of
       the usual form described in  the  section  FILENAME  GENERATION  below.
       This can be used in all the places where modifiers are available; note,
       however, that in globbing qualifiers parameter substitution has already
       taken  place,  so parameters in the replacement string should be quoted
       to ensure they are replaced at the correct time.  Note also  that  com-
       plicated  patterns  used  in  globbing qualifiers may need the extended
       glob qualifier notation (#q:s/.../.../) in order for the shell to  rec-
       ognize the expression as a glob qualifier.  Further, note that bad pat-
       terns in the substitution are not subject to the NO_BAD_PATTERN  option
       so will cause an error.

       When  HIST_SUBST_PATTERN  is set, l may start with a # to indicate that
       the pattern must match at the start of the string  to  be  substituted,
       and a % may appear at the start or after an # to indicate that the pat-
       tern must match at the end of the string to be substituted.  The % or #
       may be quoted with two backslashes.

       For  example,  the following piece of filename generation code with the
       EXTENDED_GLOB option:

              print *.c(#q:s/#%(#b)s(*).c/'S${match[1]}.C'/)

       takes the expansion of *.c and  applies  the  glob  qualifiers  in  the
       (#q...)  expression, which consists of a substitution modifier anchored
       to the start and end of each word (#%).  This turns  on  backreferences
       ((#b)),  so  that  the  parenthesised subexpression is available in the
       replacement string as ${match[1]}.  The replacement string is quoted so
       that the parameter is not substituted before the start of filename gen-
       eration.

       The following f, F, w and W modifiers work only with  parameter  expan-
       sion and filename generation.  They are listed here to provide a single
       point of reference for all modifiers.

       f      Repeats the immediately (without  a  colon)  following  modifier
              until the resulting word doesn't change any more.

       F:expr:
              Like  f,  but repeats only n times if the expression expr evalu-
              ates to n.  Any character can be used instead  of  the  `:';  if
              `(',  `[',  or `{' is used as the opening delimiter, the closing
              delimiter should be ')', `]', or `}', respectively.

       w      Makes the immediately following modifier work on  each  word  in
              the string.

       W:sep: Like  w  but  words are considered to be the parts of the string
              that are separated by sep. Any character can be used instead  of
              the `:'; opening parentheses are handled specially, see above.

PROCESS SUBSTITUTION
       Each  part  of  a  command  argument  that  takes  the  form `<(list)',
       `>(list)' or `=(list)' is subject to process substitution.  The expres-
       sion  may be preceded or followed by other strings except that, to pre-
       vent clashes with commonly occurring strings  and  patterns,  the  last
       form  must  occur at the start of a command argument, and the forms are
       only expanded when  first  parsing  command  or  assignment  arguments.
       Process  substitutions  may be used following redirection operators; in
       this case, the substitution must appear with no trailing string.

       Note that `<<(list)' is not a special syntax; it is  equivalent  to  `<
       <(list)', redirecting standard input from the result of process substi-
       tution.  Hence all the following  documentation  applies.   The  second
       form (with the space) is recommended for clarity.

       In the case of the < or > forms, the shell runs the commands in list as
       a subprocess of the job executing the shell command line.  If the  sys-
       tem supports the /dev/fd mechanism, the command argument is the name of
       the device file corresponding to a file descriptor; otherwise,  if  the
       system  supports  named  pipes  (FIFOs), the command argument will be a
       named pipe.  If the form with > is selected then writing on  this  spe-
       cial  file  will  provide  input for list.  If < is used, then the file
       passed as an argument will be connected  to  the  output  of  the  list
       process.  For example,

              paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) |
              tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null

       cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively, pastes
       the results together, and  sends  it  to  the  processes  process1  and
       process2.

       If  =(...)  is used instead of <(...), then the file passed as an argu-
       ment will be the name of a temporary file containing the output of  the
       list  process.   This  may  be used instead of the < form for a program
       that expects to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the input file.

       There is an optimisation for substitutions of the form =(<<<arg), where
       arg is a single-word argument to the here-string redirection <<<.  This
       form produces a file name containing the value of arg after any substi-
       tutions  have been performed.  This is handled entirely within the cur-
       rent shell.  This is  effectively  the  reverse  of  the  special  form
       $(<arg) which treats arg as a file name and replaces it with the file's
       contents.

       The = form is useful as both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementa-
       tion of <(...) have drawbacks.  In the former case, some programmes may
       automatically close the file descriptor in  question  before  examining
       the  file  on  the  command line, particularly if this is necessary for
       security reasons such as when the programme is running setuid.  In  the
       second case, if the programme does not actually open the file, the sub-
       shell attempting to read from or write to the pipe will (in  a  typical
       implementation,  different  operating systems may have different behav-
       iour) block for ever and have to be killed explicitly.  In both  cases,
       the  shell actually supplies the information using a pipe, so that pro-
       grammes that expect to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work.

       Also note that the previous example can be  more  compactly  and  effi-
       ciently written (provided the MULTIOS option is set) as:

              paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) \
              > >(process1) > >(process2)

       The  shell  uses  pipes  instead  of  FIFOs to implement the latter two
       process substitutions in the above example.

       There is an additional problem with >(process); when this  is  attached
       to  an  external command, the parent shell does not wait for process to
       finish and hence an immediately following command cannot  rely  on  the
       results  being  complete.   The  problem  and  solution are the same as
       described in the section MULTIOS in zshmisc(1).  Hence in a  simplified
       version of the example above:

              paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) > >(process)

       (note that no MULTIOS are involved), process will be run asynchronously
       as far as the parent shell is concerned.  The workaround is:

              { paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) } > >(process)

       The extra processes here are spawned from the parent shell  which  will
       wait for their completion.

       Another problem arises any time a job with a substitution that requires
       a temporary file is disowned by the shell,  including  the  case  where
       `&!' or `&|' appears at the end of a command containing a substitution.
       In that case the temporary file will not be cleaned up as the shell  no
       longer  has  any memory of the job.  A workaround is to use a subshell,
       for example,

              (mycmd =(myoutput)) &!

       as the forked subshell will wait for the command to finish then  remove
       the temporary file.

       A  general  workaround  to ensure a process substitution endures for an
       appropriate length of time is to pass it as a parameter to an anonymous
       shell  function  (a  piece  of  shell code that is run immediately with
       function scope).  For example, this code:

              () {
                 print File $1:
                 cat $1
              } =(print This be the verse)

       outputs something resembling the following

              File /tmp/zsh6nU0kS:
              This be the verse

       The temporary file created by the process substitution will be  deleted
       when the function exits.

PARAMETER EXPANSION
       The  character `$' is used to introduce parameter expansions.  See zsh-
       param(1) for a description of parameters, including arrays, associative
       arrays, and subscript notation to access individual array elements.

       Note  in  particular the fact that words of unquoted parameters are not
       automatically split on whitespace unless the  option  SH_WORD_SPLIT  is
       set;  see references to this option below for more details.  This is an
       important difference from other shells.

       In the expansions discussed below that require a pattern, the  form  of
       the  pattern  is the same as that used for filename generation; see the
       section `Filename Generation'.  Note that these  patterns,  along  with
       the  replacement  text  of any substitutions, are themselves subject to
       parameter expansion, command substitution,  and  arithmetic  expansion.
       In  addition to the following operations, the colon modifiers described
       in the section `Modifiers' in the section `History  Expansion'  can  be
       applied:   for example, ${i:s/foo/bar/} performs string substitution on
       the expansion of parameter $i.

       In the following descriptions, `word' refers to a single  word  substi-
       tuted  on  the  command  line,  not necessarily a space delimited word.
       With default options, after the assignments:

              array=("first word" "second word")
              scalar="only word"

       then $array substitutes two words, `first word' and `second word',  and
       $scalar substitutes a single word `only word'.  This may be modified by
       explicit or implicit word-splitting, however.  The full rules are  com-
       plicated and are noted at the end.

       ${name}
              The  value,  if  any, of the parameter name is substituted.  The
              braces are required if the expansion is to be followed by a let-
              ter,  digit, or underscore that is not to be interpreted as part
              of name.  In addition, more complicated  forms  of  substitution
              usually require the braces to be present; exceptions, which only
              apply if the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set,  are  a  single  sub-
              script  or  any colon modifiers appearing after the name, or any
              of the characters `^', `=', `~', `#' or `+' appearing before the
              name, all of which work with or without braces.

              If  name is an array parameter, and the KSH_ARRAYS option is not
              set, then the value of each element of name is substituted,  one
              element  per word.  Otherwise, the expansion results in one word
              only; with KSH_ARRAYS, this is the first element  of  an  array.
              No   field   splitting   is   done  on  the  result  unless  the
              SH_WORD_SPLIT  option  is  set.   See  also  the  flags  =   and
              s:string:.

       ${+name}
              If  name is the name of a set parameter `1' is substituted, oth-
              erwise `0' is substituted.

       ${name-word}
       ${name:-word}
              If name is set, or in the second form is non-null, then  substi-
              tute  its  value; otherwise substitute word.  In the second form
              name may be omitted, in which case word is always substituted.

       ${name+word}
       ${name:+word}
              If name is set, or in the second form is non-null, then  substi-
              tute word; otherwise substitute nothing.

       ${name=word}
       ${name:=word}
       ${name::=word}
              In  the first form, if name is unset then set it to word; in the
              second form, if name is unset or null then set it to  word;  and
              in  the  third  form,  unconditionally set name to word.  In all
              forms, the value of the parameter is then substituted.

       ${name?word}
       ${name:?word}
              In the first form, if name is set, or in the second form if name
              is  both set and non-null, then substitute its value; otherwise,
              print word and exit from the shell.  Interactive shells  instead
              return  to the prompt.  If word is omitted, then a standard mes-
              sage is printed.

       In any of the above expressions that test a variable and substitute  an
       alternate  word,  note  that  you can use standard shell quoting in the
       word  value  to  selectively  override  the  splitting  done   by   the
       SH_WORD_SPLIT option and the = flag, but not splitting by the s:string:
       flag.

       In the following expressions, when name is an array and  the  substitu-
       tion is not quoted, or if the `(@)' flag or the name[@] syntax is used,
       matching and replacement is performed on each array element separately.

       ${name#pattern}
       ${name##pattern}
              If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of name,  then
              substitute  the  value of name with the matched portion deleted;
              otherwise, just substitute the value  of  name.   In  the  first
              form,  the smallest matching pattern is preferred; in the second
              form, the largest matching pattern is preferred.

       ${name%pattern}
       ${name%%pattern}
              If the pattern matches the end of the value of name,  then  sub-
              stitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted; oth-
              erwise, just substitute the value of name.  In the  first  form,
              the  smallest matching pattern is preferred; in the second form,
              the largest matching pattern is preferred.

       ${name:#pattern}
              If the pattern matches the value of name,  then  substitute  the
              empty  string; otherwise, just substitute the value of name.  If
              name is an array the matching array elements  are  removed  (use
              the `(M)' flag to remove the non-matched elements).

       ${name:|arrayname}
              If  arrayname is the name (N.B., not contents) of an array vari-
              able, then any elements contained in arrayname are removed  from
              the substitution of name.  If the substitution is scalar, either
              because name is a scalar variable or the expression  is  quoted,
              the  elements of arrayname are instead tested against the entire
              expression.

       ${name:*arrayname}
              Similar to the  preceding  substitution,  but  in  the  opposite
              sense, so that entries present in both the original substitution
              and as elements of arrayname are retained and others removed.

       ${name:^arrayname}
       ${name:^^arrayname}
              Zips two arrays, such that the output array is twice as long  as
              the shortest (longest for `:^^') of name and arrayname, with the
              elements alternatingly being picked from them. For `:^', if  one
              of the input arrays is longer, the output will stop when the end
              of the shorter array is reached.  Thus,

                     a=(1 2 3 4); b=(a b); print ${a:^b}

              will output `1 a 2 b'.  For `:^^', then the  input  is  repeated
              until  all  of  the  longer array has been used up and the above
              will output `1 a 2 b 3 a 4 b'.

              Either or both inputs may be a scalar, they will be  treated  as
              an  array  of  length  1 with the scalar as the only element. If
              either array is empty, the other array is output with  no  extra
              elements inserted.

              Currently  the  following  code will output `a b' and `1' as two
              separate elements, which can be  unexpected.  The  second  print
              provides  a  workaround which should continue to work if this is
              changed.

                     a=(a b); b=(1 2); print -l "${a:^b}"; print -l "${${a:^b}}"

       ${name:offset}
       ${name:offset:length}
              This syntax gives effects similar to parameter  subscripting  in
              the  form $name[start,end], but is compatible with other shells;
              note that both offset and  length  are  interpreted  differently
              from the components of a subscript.

              If offset is non-negative, then if the variable name is a scalar
              substitute the contents  starting  offset  characters  from  the
              first  character  of the string, and if name is an array substi-
              tute elements starting offset elements from the  first  element.
              If length is given, substitute that many characters or elements,
              otherwise the entire rest of the scalar or array.

              A positive offset is always treated as the offset of a character
              or  element  in  name from the first character or element of the
              array (this is different from native  zsh  subscript  notation).
              Hence  0  refers to the first character or element regardless of
              the setting of the option KSH_ARRAYS.

              A negative offset counts backwards from the end of the scalar or
              array,  so that -1 corresponds to the last character or element,
              and so on.

              When positive, length counts from the offset position toward the
              end  of  the scalar or array.  When negative, length counts back
              from the end.  If this results in a position smaller  than  off-
              set, a diagnostic is printed and nothing is substituted.

              The option MULTIBYTE is obeyed, i.e. the offset and length count
              multibyte characters where appropriate.

              offset and length undergo the same set of shell substitutions as
              for  scalar  assignment;  in  addition, they are then subject to
              arithmetic evaluation.  Hence, for example

                     print ${foo:3}
                     print ${foo: 1 + 2}
                     print ${foo:$(( 1 + 2))}
                     print ${foo:$(echo 1 + 2)}

              all have the same effect, extracting the string starting at  the
              fourth  character  of  $foo  if the substitution would otherwise
              return a scalar, or the array starting at the fourth element  if
              $foo   would  return  an  array.   Note  that  with  the  option
              KSH_ARRAYS $foo always returns a scalar (regardless of  the  use
              of the offset syntax) and a form such as ${foo[*]:3} is required
              to extract elements of an array named foo.

              If offset is negative, the - may not  appear  immediately  after
              the  : as this indicates the ${name:-word} form of substitution.
              Instead, a space may be inserted  before  the  -.   Furthermore,
              neither offset nor length may begin with an alphabetic character
              or & as these are used to indicate history-style modifiers.   To
              substitute  a value from a variable, the recommended approach is
              to precede it with a $ as this signifies the intention  (parame-
              ter substitution can easily be rendered unreadable); however, as
              arithmetic substitution  is  performed,  the  expression  ${var:
              offs} does work, retrieving the offset from $offs.

              For  further  compatibility with other shells there is a special
              case for array offset 0.  This usually accesses the  first  ele-
              ment  of  the array.  However, if the substitution refers to the
              positional parameter array, e.g. $@ or $*, then offset 0 instead
              refers to $0, offset 1 refers to $1, and so on.  In other words,
              the  positional  parameter  array  is  effectively  extended  by
              prepending  $0.  Hence ${*:0:1} substitutes $0 and ${*:1:1} sub-
              stitutes $1.

       ${name/pattern/repl}
       ${name//pattern/repl}
       ${name:/pattern/repl}
              Replace the longest possible match of pattern in  the  expansion
              of  parameter name by string repl.  The first form replaces just
              the first occurrence, the second form all occurrences,  and  the
              third  form  replaces only if pattern matches the entire string.
              Both pattern and repl are subject to double-quoted substitution,
              so that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will work, but obey
              the usual rule that pattern characters in $opat are not  treated
              specially  unless  either the option GLOB_SUBST is set, or $opat
              is instead substituted as ${~opat}.

              The pattern may begin with a `#', in which case the pattern must
              match  at the start of the string, or `%', in which case it must
              match at the end of the string, or `#%' in which case  the  pat-
              tern  must  match  the  entire string.  The repl may be an empty
              string, in which case the final `/' may  also  be  omitted.   To
              quote  the  final  `/' in other cases it should be preceded by a
              single backslash; this is not necessary if the `/' occurs inside
              a  substituted  parameter.   Note also that the `#', `%' and `#%
              are not active if they occur  inside  a  substituted  parameter,
              even at the start.

              If,  after quoting rules apply, ${name} expands to an array, the
              replacements act on each element individually.   Note  also  the
              effect  of the I and S parameter expansion flags below; however,
              the flags M, R, B, E and N are not useful.

              For example,

                     foo="twinkle twinkle little star" sub="t*e" rep="spy"
                     print ${foo//${~sub}/$rep}
                     print ${(S)foo//${~sub}/$rep}

              Here, the `~' ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a pat-
              tern rather than a plain string.  In the first case, the longest
              match for t*e is substituted and the result is `spy star', while
              in  the  second  case,  the  shortest  matches are taken and the
              result is `spy spy lispy star'.

       ${#spec}
              If spec is one of the above substitutions, substitute the length
              in  characters  of  the result instead of the result itself.  If
              spec is an array expression, substitute the number  of  elements
              of the result.  This has the side-effect that joining is skipped
              even in quoted forms, which may affect other sub-expressions  in
              spec.   Note  that  `^', `=', and `~', below, must appear to the
              left of `#' when these forms are combined.

              If the option POSIX_IDENTIFIERS is not set, and spec is a simple
              name,  then  the braces are optional; this is true even for spe-
              cial parameters so e.g. $#- and  $#*  take  the  length  of  the
              string  $-  and the array $* respectively.  If POSIX_IDENTIFIERS
              is set, then braces are required for the # to be treated in this
              fashion.

       ${^spec}
              Turn  on  the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec;
              if the `^' is doubled, turn it off.  When this  option  is  set,
              array expansions of the form foo${xx}bar, where the parameter xx
              is set to  (a  b  c),  are  substituted  with  `fooabar  foobbar
              foocbar'  instead  of  the  default `fooa b cbar'.  Note that an
              empty array will therefore cause all arguments to be removed.

              Internally, each such expansion is converted into the equivalent
              list    for    brace    expansion.     E.g.,   ${^var}   becomes
              {$var[1],$var[2],...}, and is processed as described in the sec-
              tion  `Brace Expansion' below: note, however, the expansion hap-
              pens immediately, with any explicit  brace  expansion  happening
              later.   If  word  splitting  is  also in effect the $var[N] may
              themselves be split into different list elements.

       ${=spec}
              Perform word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT  during
              the  evaluation of spec, but regardless of whether the parameter
              appears in double quotes; if the `=' is doubled,  turn  it  off.
              This forces parameter expansions to be split into separate words
              before substitution, using IFS as a delimiter.  This is done  by
              default in most other shells.

              Note  that  splitting is applied to word in the assignment forms
              of spec before  the  assignment  to  name  is  performed.   This
              affects the result of array assignments with the A flag.

       ${~spec}
              Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec; if the
              `~' is doubled, turn it off.   When  this  option  is  set,  the
              string  resulting  from  the  expansion will be interpreted as a
              pattern anywhere that is possible, such as in filename expansion
              and  filename  generation and pattern-matching contexts like the
              right hand side of the `=' and `!=' operators in conditions.

              In nested substitutions, note that the effect of the  ~  applies
              to the result of the current level of substitution.  A surround-
              ing pattern operation on the result may cancel it.   Hence,  for
              example,  if  the  parameter foo is set to *, ${~foo//\*/*.c} is
              substituted by the pattern *.c, which may be expanded  by  file-
              name  generation,  but  ${${~foo}//\*/*.c}  substitutes  to  the
              string *.c, which will not be further expanded.

       If a ${...} type parameter expression or a $(...) type command  substi-
       tution  is  used  in  place of name above, it is expanded first and the
       result is used as if it were the value of name.  Thus it is possible to
       perform  nested  operations:  ${${foo#head}%tail} substitutes the value
       of $foo with both `head' and `tail' deleted.  The form with  $(...)  is
       often  useful  in  combination  with  the flags described next; see the
       examples below.  Each name or nested ${...} in  a  parameter  expansion
       may  also  be  followed by a subscript expression as described in Array
       Parameters in zshparam(1).

       Note that double quotes may appear around nested expressions, in  which
       case   only  the  part  inside  is  treated  as  quoted;  for  example,
       ${(f)"$(foo)"} quotes the result of $(foo), but  the  flag  `(f)'  (see
       below)  is  applied using the rules for unquoted expansions.  Note fur-
       ther that quotes are themselves nested in this context; for example, in
       "${(@f)"$(foo)"}",  there  are  two sets of quotes, one surrounding the
       whole expression, the  other  (redundant)  surrounding  the  $(foo)  as
       before.

   Parameter Expansion Flags
       If  the  opening  brace is directly followed by an opening parenthesis,
       the string up to the matching closing parenthesis will be  taken  as  a
       list of flags.  In cases where repeating a flag is meaningful, the rep-
       etitions need not be consecutive; for example, `(q%q%q)' means the same
       thing  as  the  more  readable `(%%qqq)'.  The following flags are sup-
       ported:

       #      Evaluate the resulting words as numeric expressions  and  output
              the  characters  corresponding  to  the resulting integer.  Note
              that this form is entirely distinct from use of  the  #  without
              parentheses.

              If  the  MULTIBYTE  option is set and the number is greater than
              127 (i.e. not an ASCII character) it is  treated  as  a  Unicode
              character.

       %      Expand  all  % escapes in the resulting words in the same way as
              in prompts (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)). If
              this  flag  is given twice, full prompt expansion is done on the
              resulting words, depending on the setting of the PROMPT_PERCENT,
              PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options.

       @      In  double  quotes,  array elements are put into separate words.
              E.g.,  `"${(@)foo}"'  is   equivalent   to   `"${foo[@]}"'   and
              `"${(@)foo[1,2]}"'  is  the same as `"$foo[1]" "$foo[2]"'.  This
              is distinct from field splitting by the f, s or z  flags,  which
              still applies within each array element.

       A      Convert  the  substitution  into an array expression, even if it
              otherwise would be scalar.  This has lower precedence than  sub-
              scripting, so one level of nested expansion is required in order
              that subscripts apply to array elements.  Thus  ${${(A)name}[1]}
              yields the full value of name when name is scalar.

              This assigns an array parameter with `${...=...}', `${...:=...}'
              or `${...::=...}'.  If this  flag  is  repeated  (as  in  `AA'),
              assigns  an  associative  array  parameter.   Assignment is made
              before sorting or padding; if field  splitting  is  active,  the
              word  part  is  split before assignment.  The name part may be a
              subscripted range for ordinary arrays; when assigning  an  asso-
              ciative  array, the word part must be converted to an array, for
              example by using `${(AA)=name=...}' to activate field splitting.

              Surrounding context such as additional nesting  or  use  of  the
              value  in  a  scalar assignment may cause the array to be joined
              back into a single string again.

       a      Sort in array index  order;  when  combined  with  `O'  sort  in
              reverse  array  index order.  Note that `a' is therefore equiva-
              lent to the default but `Oa' is useful for obtaining an  array's
              elements in reverse order.

       b      Quote  with backslashes only characters that are special to pat-
              tern matching. This is useful when the contents of the  variable
              are to be tested using GLOB_SUBST, including the ${~...} switch.

              Quoting  using  one  of  the q family of flags does not work for
              this purpose since quotes  are  not  stripped  from  non-pattern
              characters by GLOB_SUBST.  In other words,

                     pattern=${(q)str}
                     [[ $str = ${~pattern} ]]

              works if $str is `a*b' but not if it is `a b', whereas

                     pattern=${(b)str}
                     [[ $str = ${~pattern} ]]

              is always true for any possible value of $str.

       c      With ${#name}, count the total number of characters in an array,
              as if the elements were concatenated with spaces  between  them.
              This  is not a true join of the array, so other expressions used
              with this flag may have an effect on the elements of  the  array
              before it is counted.

       C      Capitalize  the resulting words.  `Words' in this case refers to
              sequences of alphanumeric characters separated  by  non-alphanu-
              merics, not to words that result from field splitting.

       D      Assume  the  string  or  array  elements contain directories and
              attempt to substitute the leading part of these by  names.   The
              remainder  of  the path (the whole of it if the leading part was
              not substituted) is then quoted so that the whole string can  be
              used  as a shell argument.  This is the reverse of `~' substitu-
              tion:  see the section FILENAME EXPANSION below.

       e      Perform single word shell expansions,  namely  parameter  expan-
              sion,  command  substitution  and  arithmetic  expansion, on the
              result. Such expansions can be nested but too deep recursion may
              have unpredictable effects.

       f      Split  the result of the expansion at newlines. This is a short-
              hand for `ps:\n:'.

       F      Join the words of arrays together using newline as a  separator.
              This is a shorthand for `pj:\n:'.

       g:opts:
              Process  escape  sequences like the echo builtin when no options
              are given (g::).  With the o option, octal escapes don't take  a
              leading  zero.   With the c option, sequences like `^X' are also
              processed.  With the e  option,  processes  `\M-t'  and  similar
              sequences  like  the  print  builtin.   With both of the o and e
              options, behaves like the print builtin except that in  none  of
              these modes is `\c' interpreted.

       i      Sort case-insensitively.  May be combined with `n' or `O'.

       k      If  name  refers  to  an  associative array, substitute the keys
              (element names) rather than the values of  the  elements.   Used
              with  subscripts  (including  ordinary arrays), force indices or
              keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to val-
              ues.   However,  this  flag  may  not be combined with subscript
              ranges.  With the KSH_ARRAYS option a subscript `[*]'  or  `[@]'
              is needed to operate on the whole array, as usual.

       L      Convert all letters in the result to lower case.

       n      Sort  decimal integers numerically; if the first differing char-
              acters of two test strings are not digits, sorting  is  lexical.
              Integers  with  more initial zeroes are sorted before those with
              fewer or none.  Hence the array  `foo1  foo02  foo2  foo3  foo20
              foo23' is sorted into the order shown.  May be combined with `i'
              or `O'.

       o      Sort the resulting words in ascending order; if this appears  on
              its  own  the  sorting is lexical and case-sensitive (unless the
              locale renders it case-insensitive).  Sorting in ascending order
              is the default for other forms of sorting, so this is ignored if
              combined with `a', `i' or `n'.

       O      Sort the resulting words in descending order; `O'  without  `a',
              `i' or `n' sorts in reverse lexical order.  May be combined with
              `a', `i' or `n' to reverse the order of sorting.

       P      This forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as
              a  further parameter name, whose value will be used where appro-
              priate.  Note that flags set with one of the typeset  family  of
              commands (in particular case transformations) are not applied to
              the value of name used in this fashion.

              If used with a nested parameter  or  command  substitution,  the
              result  of  that  will  be taken as a parameter name in the same
              way.  For example, if you  have  `foo=bar'  and  `bar=baz',  the
              strings  ${(P)foo},  ${(P)${foo}}, and ${(P)$(echo bar)} will be
              expanded to `baz'.

              Likewise, if the reference is itself nested, the expression with
              the  flag  is  treated  as  if  it were directly replaced by the
              parameter name.  It is an error if this nested substitution pro-
              duces  an  array  with  more  than  one  word.   For example, if
              `name=assoc' where the parameter assoc is an associative  array,
              then  `${${(P)name}[elt]}' refers to the element of the associa-
              tive subscripted `elt'.

       q      Quote characters that are special to the shell in the  resulting
              words  with  backslashes;  unprintable or invalid characters are
              quoted using the $'\NNN' form, with  separate  quotes  for  each
              octet.

              If  this  flag is given twice, the resulting words are quoted in
              single quotes and if it is given  three  times,  the  words  are
              quoted  in  double quotes; in these forms no special handling of
              unprintable or invalid characters is attempted.  If the flag  is
              given four times, the words are quoted in single quotes preceded
              by a $.  Note that in all three of these forms quoting  is  done
              unconditionally,  even  if  this  does  not  change  the way the
              resulting string would be interpreted by the shell.

              If a q- is given (only a single q may appear), a minimal form of
              single  quoting is used that only quotes the string if needed to
              protect special characters.  Typically this form gives the  most
              readable output.

              If  a  q+  is  given, an extended form of minmal quoting is used
              that causes unprintable characters to be rendered using  $'...'.
              This  quoting is similar to that used by the output of values by
              the typeset family of commands.

       Q      Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words.

       t      Use a string describing the type  of  the  parameter  where  the
              value  of  the  parameter would usually appear. This string con-
              sists of keywords separated by hyphens (`-'). The first  keyword
              in  the  string  describes  the  main  type,  it  can  be one of
              `scalar', `array',  `integer',  `float'  or  `association'.  The
              other keywords describe the type in more detail:

              local  for local parameters

              left   for left justified parameters

              right_blanks
                     for right justified parameters with leading blanks

              right_zeros
                     for right justified parameters with leading zeros

              lower  for parameters whose value is converted to all lower case
                     when it is expanded

              upper  for parameters whose value is converted to all upper case
                     when it is expanded

              readonly
                     for readonly parameters

              tag    for tagged parameters

              export for exported parameters

              unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of dupli-
                     cated values

              hide   for parameters with the `hide' flag

              hideval
                     for parameters with the `hideval' flag

              special
                     for special parameters defined by the shell

       u      Expand only the first occurrence of each unique word.

       U      Convert all letters in the result to upper case.

       v      Used with k, substitute (as two consecutive words) both the  key
              and the value of each associative array element.  Used with sub-
              scripts, force values to be substituted even  if  the  subscript
              form refers to indices or keys.

       V      Make any special characters in the resulting words visible.

       w      With  ${#name}, count words in arrays or strings; the s flag may
              be used to set a word delimiter.

       W      Similar to w  with  the  difference  that  empty  words  between
              repeated delimiters are also counted.

       X      With  this  flag,  parsing  errors occurring with the Q, e and #
              flags or the pattern matching forms  such  as  `${name#pattern}'
              are reported.  Without the flag, errors are silently ignored.

       z      Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing
              to find the words, i.e. taking into account any quoting  in  the
              value.   Comments  are  not  treated  specially  but as ordinary
              strings, similar to interactive shells with the INTERACTIVE_COM-
              MENTS  option  unset  (however, see the Z flag below for related
              options)

              Note that this is done very late,  even  later  than  the  `(s)'
              flag.  So to access single words in the result use nested expan-
              sions as in `${${(z)foo}[2]}'. Likewise, to remove the quotes in
              the resulting words use `${(Q)${(z)foo}}'.

       0      Split  the  result  of  the  expansion on null bytes.  This is a
              shorthand for `ps:\0:'.

       The following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as
       shown.  Any character, or the matching pairs `(...)', `{...}', `[...]',
       or `<...>', may be used in place of a colon  as  delimiters,  but  note
       that when a flag takes more than one argument, a matched pair of delim-
       iters must surround each argument.

       p      Recognize the same escape sequences  as  the  print  builtin  in
              string arguments to any of the flags described below that follow
              this argument.

              Alternatively, with this option string arguments may be  in  the
              form  $var  in  which  case the value of the variable is substi-
              tuted.  Note this form is strict; the string argument  does  not
              undergo general parameter expansion.

              For example,

                     sep=:
                     val=a:b:c
                     print ${(ps.$sep.)val}

              splits the variable on a :.

       ~      Strings  inserted  into  the expansion by any of the flags below
              are to be treated as patterns.  This applies to the string argu-
              ments of flags that follow ~ within the same set of parentheses.
              Compare with ~ outside parentheses, which forces the entire sub-
              stituted string to be treated as a pattern.  Hence, for example,

                     [[ "?" = ${(~j.|.)array} ]]

              treats  `|' as a pattern and succeeds if and only if $array con-
              tains the string `?' as an element.  The ~ may  be  repeated  to
              toggle  the  behaviour;  its effect only lasts to the end of the
              parenthesised group.

       j:string:
              Join the words of arrays together using string as  a  separator.
              Note  that  this  occurs before field splitting by the s:string:
              flag or the SH_WORD_SPLIT option.

       l:expr::string1::string2:
              Pad the resulting words on the left.  Each word  will  be  trun-
              cated if required and placed in a field expr characters wide.

              The arguments :string1: and :string2: are optional; neither, the
              first, or both may be given.  Note that the same pairs of delim-
              iters  must  be used for each of the three arguments.  The space
              to the left will be filled with string1 (concatenated  as  often
              as  needed)  or spaces if string1 is not given.  If both string1
              and string2 are given, string2 is inserted once directly to  the
              left  of  each  word,  truncated if necessary, before string1 is
              used to produce any remaining padding.

              If either of string1 or string2 is present but empty, i.e. there
              are  two  delimiters together at that point, the first character
              of $IFS is used instead.

              If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, the flag  m  may  also  be
              given,  in which case widths will be used for the calculation of
              padding; otherwise individual multibyte characters  are  treated
              as occupying one unit of width.

              If  the  MULTIBYTE  option  is  not  in effect, each byte in the
              string is treated as occupying one unit of width.

              Control characters are always assumed to be one unit wide;  this
              allows  the  mechanism  to be used for generating repetitions of
              control characters.

       m      Only useful together with one of the flags l or r or with the  #
              length operator when the MULTIBYTE option is in effect.  Use the
              character width reported by the system in calculating  how  much
              of  the  string it occupies or the overall length of the string.
              Most printable characters have a width of one unit, however cer-
              tain  Asian character sets and certain special effects use wider
              characters; combining characters have zero width.  Non-printable
              characters are arbitrarily counted as zero width; how they would
              actually be displayed will vary.

              If the m is repeated, the character either counts  zero  (if  it
              has zero width), else one.  For printable character strings this
              has the effect of counting the number of glyphs  (visibly  sepa-
              rate characters), except for the case where combining characters
              themselves have non-zero width (true in certain alphabets).

       r:expr::string1::string2:
              As l, but pad the words on the right and insert string2  immedi-
              ately to the right of the string to be padded.

              Left  and  right padding may be used together.  In this case the
              strategy is to apply left padding to the  first  half  width  of
              each  of  the  resulting  words, and right padding to the second
              half.  If the string to be padded has odd width the  extra  pad-
              ding is applied on the left.

       s:string:
              Force  field  splitting  at  the  separator string.  Note that a
              string of two or more characters means that  all  of  them  must
              match  in  sequence;  this  differs from the treatment of two or
              more characters in the IFS parameter.  See also the =  flag  and
              the  SH_WORD_SPLIT option.  An empty string may also be given in
              which case every character will be a separate element.

              For historical reasons, the usual  behaviour  that  empty  array
              elements  are  retained  inside  double  quotes  is disabled for
              arrays generated by splitting; hence the following:

                     line="one::three"
                     print -l "${(s.:.)line}"

              produces two lines of output for one and three  and  elides  the
              empty  field.  To override this behaviour, supply the `(@)' flag
              as well, i.e.  "${(@s.:.)line}".

       Z:opts:
              As z but takes a combination of option letters between a follow-
              ing pair of delimiter characters.  With no options the effect is
              identical to z.  (Z+c+) causes comments to be parsed as a string
              and retained; any field in the resulting array beginning with an
              unquoted comment character is a comment.  (Z+C+) causes comments
              to  be  parsed  and removed.  The rule for comments is standard:
              anything between a word starting with  the  third  character  of
              $HISTCHARS,  default  #,  up  to  the next newline is a comment.
              (Z+n+) causes unquoted newlines to be treated as ordinary white-
              space,  else  they  are treated as if they are shell code delim-
              iters and converted to semicolons.  Options are combined  within
              the same set of delimiters, e.g. (Z+Cn+).

       _:flags:
              The  underscore (_) flag is reserved for future use.  As of this
              revision of zsh, there are no valid flags; anything following an
              underscore,  other  than an empty pair of delimiters, is treated
              as an error, and the flag itself has no effect.

       The following flags are meaningful with the  ${...#...}  or  ${...%...}
       forms.  The S and I flags may also be used with the ${.../...} forms.

       S      Search  substrings  as  well as beginnings or ends; with # start
              from the beginning and with % start from the end of the  string.
              With  substitution  via  ${.../...}  or  ${...//...},  specifies
              non-greedy matching, i.e. that the shortest instead of the long-
              est match should be replaced.

       I:expr:
              Search  the  exprth  match  (where  expr evaluates to a number).
              This only applies when searching for substrings, either with the
              S  flag,  or  with  ${.../...} (only the exprth match is substi-
              tuted) or ${...//...} (all matches from the exprth on  are  sub-
              stituted).  The default is to take the first match.

              The  exprth  match  is  counted such that there is either one or
              zero matches from each starting position in the string, although
              for  global  substitution  matches overlapping previous replace-
              ments are ignored.  With the ${...%...} and  ${...%%...}  forms,
              the starting position for the match moves backwards from the end
              as the index increases, while with the other forms it moves for-
              ward from the start.

              Hence with the string
                     which switch is the right switch for Ipswich?
              substitutions  of  the form ${(SI:N:)string#w*ch} as N increases
              from 1 will match  and  remove  `which',  `witch',  `witch'  and
              `wich';  the form using `##' will match and remove `which switch
              is the right switch for Ipswich', `witch is the right switch for
              Ipswich',  `witch  for  Ipswich'  and `wich'. The form using `%'
              will remove the same matches as for `#', but in  reverse  order,
              and the form using `%%' will remove the same matches as for `##'
              in reverse order.

       B      Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result.

       E      Include the index one character past the end of the match in the
              result  (note  this is inconsistent with other uses of parameter
              index).

       M      Include the matched portion in the result.

       N      Include the length of the match in the result.

       R      Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest).

   Rules
       Here is a summary of the rules  for  substitution;  this  assumes  that
       braces are present around the substitution, i.e. ${...}.  Some particu-
       lar examples are given below.  Note  that  the  Zsh  Development  Group
       accepts  no  responsibility for any brain damage which may occur during
       the reading of the following rules.

       1. Nested substitution
              If multiple nested ${...} forms  are  present,  substitution  is
              performed  from the inside outwards.  At each level, the substi-
              tution takes account of whether the current value is a scalar or
              an  array,  whether  the whole substitution is in double quotes,
              and what flags are supplied to the current  level  of  substitu-
              tion,  just  as  if  the nested substitution were the outermost.
              The flags are not propagated up to enclosing substitutions;  the
              nested  substitution  will return either a scalar or an array as
              determined by the flags, possibly adjusted for quoting.  All the
              following  steps  take  place  where applicable at all levels of
              substitution.

              Note that, unless the `(P)' flag is present, the flags  and  any
              subscripts  apply  directly to the value of the nested substitu-
              tion; for example, the expansion ${${foo}} behaves  exactly  the
              same as ${foo}.  When the `(P)' flag is present in a nested sub-
              stitution, the other substitution rules are applied to the value
              before  it  is interpreted as a name, so ${${(P)foo}} may differ
              from ${(P)foo}.

              At each nested level  of  substitution,  the  substituted  words
              undergo all forms of single-word substitution (i.e. not filename
              generation), including command substitution,  arithmetic  expan-
              sion  and  filename expansion (i.e. leading ~ and =).  Thus, for
              example, ${${:-=cat}:h} expands to the directory where  the  cat
              program resides.  (Explanation: the internal substitution has no
              parameter but a default value =cat, which is expanded  by  file-
              name  expansion  to  a  full  path;  the outer substitution then
              applies the modifier :h and takes  the  directory  part  of  the
              path.)

       2. Internal parameter flags
              Any  parameter  flags  set  by one of the typeset family of com-
              mands, in particular the -L, -R, -Z, -u and -l options for  pad-
              ding  and  capitalization, are applied directly to the parameter
              value.  Note these flags are options to the command, e.g. `type-
              set  -Z'; they are not the same as the flags used within parame-
              ter substitutions.

              At the outermost level of substitution, the `(P)' flag (rule 4.)
              ignores  these  transformations and uses the unmodified value of
              the parameter as the name to be replaced.  This is  usually  the
              desired  behavior  because  padding may make the value syntacti-
              cally illegal as a parameter name, but if capitalization changes
              are desired, use the ${${(P)foo}} form (rule 25.).

       3. Parameter subscripting
              If the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript, such
              as ${var[3]}, the effect of subscripting is applied directly  to
              the  parameter.   Subscripts are evaluated left to right; subse-
              quent subscripts apply to the scalar or array value  yielded  by
              the  previous  subscript.  Thus if var is an array, ${var[1][2]}
              is the second character of the first word, but ${var[2,4][2]} is
              the entire third word (the second word of the range of words two
              through four of the original array).  Any number  of  subscripts
              may  appear.   Flags  such  as  `(k)'  and `(v)' which alter the
              result of subscripting are applied.

       4. Parameter name replacement
              At the outermost level  of  nesting  only,  the  `(P)'  flag  is
              applied.   This  treats  the  value  so  far as a parameter name
              (which may include a subscript  expression)  and  replaces  that
              with  the corresponding value.  This replacement occurs later if
              the `(P)' flag appears in a nested substitution.

              If the value so far names a parameter that  has  internal  flags
              (rule  2.),  those  internal  flags are applied to the new value
              after replacement.

       5. Double-quoted joining
              If the value after this process is an array, and  the  substitu-
              tion  appears  in double quotes, and neither an `(@)' flag nor a
              `#' length operator is present at the current level, then  words
              of  the value are joined with the first character of the parame-
              ter $IFS, by default a space, between  each  word  (single  word
              arrays are not modified).  If the `(j)' flag is present, that is
              used for joining instead of $IFS.

       6. Nested subscripting
              Any remaining subscripts (i.e. of  a  nested  substitution)  are
              evaluated  at this point, based on whether the value is an array
              or a scalar.  As with 3., multiple subscripts can appear.   Note
              that  ${foo[2,4][2]} is thus equivalent to ${${foo[2,4]}[2]} and
              also to "${${(@)foo[2,4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution  returns
              an  array  in  both  cases), but not to "${${foo[2,4]}[2]}" (the
              nested substitution returns a scalar because of the quotes).

       7. Modifiers
              Any modifiers, as specified by a trailing `#', `%', `/'  (possi-
              bly  doubled)  or  by a set of modifiers of the form `:...' (see
              the section `Modifiers' in the section `History Expansion'), are
              applied to the words of the value at this level.

       8. Character evaluation
              Any  `(#)' flag is applied, evaluating the result so far numeri-
              cally as a character.

       9. Length
              Any initial `#' modifier, i.e. in the form ${#var}, is  used  to
              evaluate the length of the expression so far.

       10. Forced joining
              If  the  `(j)'  flag is present, or no `(j)' flag is present but
              the string is to be split as given by rule 11., and joining  did
              not  take  place  at  rule 5., any words in the value are joined
              together using the given string or the first character  of  $IFS
              if  none.  Note that the `(F)' flag implicitly supplies a string
              for joining in this manner.

       11. Simple word splitting
              If one of the `(s)' or `(f)' flags are present, or the `=' spec-
              ifier  was  present  (e.g. ${=var}), the word is split on occur-
              rences of the specified string, or (for = with  neither  of  the
              two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS.

              If  no `(s)', `(f)' or `=' was given, but the word is not quoted
              and the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set, the word is split on occur-
              rences  of  any of the characters in $IFS.  Note this step, too,
              takes place at all levels of a nested substitution.

       12. Case modification
              Any case modification from one of  the  flags  `(L)',  `(U)'  or
              `(C)' is applied.

       13. Escape sequence replacement
              First  any  replacements from the `(g)' flag are performed, then
              any prompt-style formatting from the `(%)' family  of  flags  is
              applied.

       14. Quote application
              Any quoting or unquoting using `(q)' and `(Q)' and related flags
              is applied.

       15. Directory naming
              Any directory name substitution using `(D)' flag is applied.

       16. Visibility enhancement
              Any modifications to make characters  visible  using  the  `(V)'
              flag are applied.

       17. Lexical word splitting
              If  the  '(z)'  flag  or  one  of the forms of the '(Z)' flag is
              present, the word is split as if it were a shell  command  line,
              so  that  quotation  marks  and other metacharacters are used to
              decide what constitutes a word.  Note this form of splitting  is
              entirely  distinct  from that described by rule 11.: it does not
              use $IFS, and does not cause forced joining.

       18. Uniqueness
              If the result is an array and the `(u)' flag was present, dupli-
              cate elements are removed from the array.

       19. Ordering
              If  the  result  is still an array and one of the `(o)' or `(O)'
              flags was present, the array is reordered.

       20. RC_EXPAND_PARAM
              At this point the decision is made whether any  resulting  array
              elements  are to be combined element by element with surrounding
              text, as given by either the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option or  the  `^'
              flag.

       21. Re-evaluation
              Any  `(e)'  flag  is  applied  to  the  value,  forcing it to be
              re-examined for new parameter substitutions, but also  for  com-
              mand and arithmetic substitutions.

       22. Padding
              Any padding of the value by the `(l.fill.)' or `(r.fill.)' flags
              is applied.

       23. Semantic joining
              In contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word  to
              result,  all  words are rejoined with the first character of IFS
              between.  So in `${(P)${(f)lines}}' the  value  of  ${lines}  is
              split  at  newlines,  but  then  must be joined again before the
              `(P)' flag can be applied.

              If a single word is not required, this rule is skipped.

       24. Empty argument removal
              If the substitution  does  not  appear  in  double  quotes,  any
              resulting zero-length argument, whether from a scalar or an ele-
              ment of an array, is elided from the list of arguments  inserted
              into the command line.

              Strictly speaking, the removal happens later as the same happens
              with other forms of substitution; the point to note here is sim-
              ply that it occurs after any of the above parameter operations.

       25. Nested parameter name replacement
              If  the  `(P)'  flag is present and rule 4. has not applied, the
              value so far is treated as a parameter name (which may include a
              subscript expression) and replaced with the corresponding value,
              with internal flags (rule 2.) applied to the new value.

   Examples
       The flag f is useful to split  a  double-quoted  substitution  line  by
       line.   For  example, ${(f)"$(<file)"} substitutes the contents of file
       divided so that each line is an element of the resulting  array.   Com-
       pare  this with the effect of $(<file) alone, which divides the file up
       by words, or the same inside double quotes, which makes the entire con-
       tent of the file a single string.

       The  following  illustrates  the rules for nested parameter expansions.
       Suppose that $foo contains the array (bar baz):

       "${(@)${foo}[1]}"
              This produces the  result  b.   First,  the  inner  substitution
              "${foo}",  which  has  no array (@) flag, produces a single word
              result "bar baz".  The outer substitution "${(@)...[1]}" detects
              that this is a scalar, so that (despite the `(@)' flag) the sub-
              script picks the first character.

       "${${(@)foo}[1]}"
              This produces the result `bar'.  In this case, the inner substi-
              tution  "${(@)foo}"  produces  the array `(bar baz)'.  The outer
              substitution "${...[1]}" detects that this is an array and picks
              the first word.  This is similar to the simple case "${foo[1]}".

       As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining, suppose $foo
       contains the array `(ax1 bx1)'.  Then

       ${(s/x/)foo}
              produces the words `a', `1 b' and `1'.

       ${(j/x/s/x/)foo}
              produces `a', `1', `b' and `1'.

       ${(s/x/)foo%%1*}
              produces `a' and ` b' (note the extra space).   As  substitution
              occurs  before either joining or splitting, the operation  first
              generates the modified array (ax bx), which is  joined  to  give
              "ax  bx",  and  then  split to give `a', ` b' and `'.  The final
              empty string will then be elided, as it is not in double quotes.

COMMAND SUBSTITUTION
       A command enclosed in parentheses  preceded  by  a  dollar  sign,  like
       `$(...)',  or quoted with grave accents, like ``...`', is replaced with
       its standard output, with any trailing newlines deleted.  If  the  sub-
       stitution  is  not enclosed in double quotes, the output is broken into
       words using the IFS parameter.  The substitution `$(cat  foo)'  may  be
       replaced  by  the  equivalent but faster `$(<foo)'.  In either case, if
       the option GLOB_SUBST is set, the output is eligible for filename  gen-
       eration.

ARITHMETIC EXPANSION
       A  string  of  the  form `$[exp]' or `$((exp))' is substituted with the
       value of the arithmetic expression exp.  exp is subjected to  parameter
       expansion,  command  substitution and arithmetic expansion before it is
       evaluated.  See the section `Arithmetic Evaluation'.

BRACE EXPANSION
       A string of the form `foo{xx,yy,zz}bar' is expanded to  the  individual
       words  `fooxxbar',  `fooyybar'  and `foozzbar'.  Left-to-right order is
       preserved.  This construct may be nested.   Commas  may  be  quoted  in
       order to include them literally in a word.

       An  expression of the form `{n1..n2}', where n1 and n2 are integers, is
       expanded to every number between n1 and n2 inclusive.  If either number
       begins with a zero, all the resulting numbers will be padded with lead-
       ing zeroes to that minimum width, but for negative numbers the -  char-
       acter  is also included in the width.  If the numbers are in decreasing
       order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order.

       An expression of the form `{n1..n2..n3}', where  n1,  n2,  and  n3  are
       integers,  is  expanded  as  above, but only every n3th number starting
       from n1 is output.  If n3 is negative the numbers are output in reverse
       order, this is slightly different from simply swapping n1 and n2 in the
       case that the step n3 doesn't evenly divide the  range.   Zero  padding
       can  be  specified  in  any  of the three numbers, specifying it in the
       third can be useful to pad for example `{-99..100..01}'  which  is  not
       possible  to  specify by putting a 0 on either of the first two numbers
       (i.e. pad to two characters).

       An expression of the form `{c1..c2}', where c1 and c2 are single  char-
       acters  (which may be multibyte characters), is expanded to every char-
       acter in the range from c1 to c2 in whatever character sequence is used
       internally.  For characters with code points below 128 this is US ASCII
       (this is the only case most users will need).  If any intervening char-
       acter  is  not  printable,  appropriate  quotation is used to render it
       printable.  If the character sequence is reversed,  the  output  is  in
       reverse order, e.g. `{d..a}' is substituted as `d c b a'.

       If  a  brace  expression  matches  none  of the above forms, it is left
       unchanged, unless the option  BRACE_CCL  (an  abbreviation  for  `brace
       character  class')  is  set.  In that case, it is expanded to a list of
       the individual characters between the braces sorted into the  order  of
       the characters in the ASCII character set (multibyte characters are not
       currently handled).  The syntax is similar to  a  [...]  expression  in
       filename  generation:  `-'  is  treated  specially to denote a range of
       characters, but `^' or `!' as the first character is treated  normally.
       For  example, `{abcdef0-9}' expands to 16 words 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b
       c d e f.

       Note that brace expansion is not part  of  filename  generation  (glob-
       bing);  an  expression  such  as */{foo,bar} is split into two separate
       words */foo and */bar before filename generation takes place.  In  par-
       ticular,  note  that  this  is  liable to produce a `no match' error if
       either of the two expressions does not match; this is to be  contrasted
       with  */(foo|bar),  which  is treated as a single pattern but otherwise
       has similar effects.

       To combine brace expansion with array expansion, see the ${^spec}  form
       described in the section Parameter Expansion above.

FILENAME EXPANSION
       Each  word  is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted `~'.  If it
       does, then the word up to a `/', or the end of the word if there is  no
       `/',  is  checked  to  see  if it can be substituted in one of the ways
       described here.  If so, then  the  `~'  and  the  checked  portion  are
       replaced with the appropriate substitute value.

       A `~' by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME.  A `~' followed by a
       `+' or a `-' is replaced by  current  or  previous  working  directory,
       respectively.

       A  `~'  followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that posi-
       tion in the directory stack.  `~0' is equivalent to `~+', and  `~1'  is
       the  top  of  the  stack.  `~+' followed by a number is replaced by the
       directory at that position in the directory stack.  `~+0' is equivalent
       to  `~+', and `~+1' is the top of the stack.  `~-' followed by a number
       is replaced by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the
       stack.   `~-0'  is  the  bottom  of  the stack.  The PUSHD_MINUS option
       exchanges the effects of `~+' and `~-' where they  are  followed  by  a
       number.

   Dynamic named directories
       If  the  function  zsh_directory_name  exists,  or  the  shell variable
       zsh_directory_name_functions exists and contains an array  of  function
       names,  then the functions are used to implement dynamic directory nam-
       ing.  The functions are tried in order until one returns  status  zero,
       so it is important that functions test whether they can handle the case
       in question and return an appropriate status.

       A `~' followed by a  string  namstr  in  unquoted  square  brackets  is
       treated  specially  as  a  dynamic directory name.  Note that the first
       unquoted closing square bracket always terminates  namstr.   The  shell
       function  is  passed two arguments: the string n (for name) and namstr.
       It should either set the array reply to a single element which  is  the
       directory  corresponding  to the name and return status zero (executing
       an assignment as the last  statement  is  usually  sufficient),  or  it
       should return status non-zero.  In the former case the element of reply
       is used as the directory; in the latter case the substitution is deemed
       to  have  failed.  If all functions fail and the option NOMATCH is set,
       an error results.

       The functions defined as above are also used to see if a directory  can
       be turned into a name, for example when printing the directory stack or
       when expanding %~ in prompts.  In this case each function is passed two
       arguments:  the  string d (for directory) and the candidate for dynamic
       naming.  The function should either  return  non-zero  status,  if  the
       directory  cannot  be named by the function, or it should set the array
       reply to consist of two elements: the first is the dynamic name for the
       directory (as would appear within `~[...]'), and the second is the pre-
       fix length of the directory to be replaced.  For example, if the  trial
       directory   is   /home/myname/src/zsh   and   the   dynamic   name  for
       /home/myname/src (which has 16 characters) is s, then the function sets

              reply=(s 16)

       The directory name so returned is compared with possible  static  names
       for  parts of the directory path, as described below; it is used if the
       prefix length matched (16 in the example) is longer than  that  matched
       by any static name.

       It  is not a requirement that a function implements both n and d calls;
       for example, it might be  appropriate  for  certain  dynamic  forms  of
       expansion  not  to  be contracted to names.  In that case any call with
       the first argument d should cause a non-zero status to be returned.

       The completion system calls `zsh_directory_name c' followed by  equiva-
       lent calls to elements of the array zsh_directory_name_functions, if it
       exists, in order to complete dynamic names for directories.   The  code
       for this should be as for any other completion function as described in
       zshcompsys(1).

       As a working example, here is a function that expands any dynamic names
       beginning  with  the string p: to directories below /home/pws/perforce.
       In this simple case a static name for the directory would  be  just  as
       effective.

              zsh_directory_name() {
                emulate -L zsh
                setopt extendedglob
                local -a match mbegin mend
                if [[ $1 = d ]]; then
                  # turn the directory into a name
                  if [[ $2 = (#b)(/home/pws/perforce/)([^/]##)* ]]; then
                    typeset -ga reply
                    reply=(p:$match[2] $(( ${#match[1]} + ${#match[2]} )) )
                  else
                    return 1
                  fi
                elif [[ $1 = n ]]; then
                  # turn the name into a directory
                  [[ $2 != (#b)p:(?*) ]] && return 1
                  typeset -ga reply
                  reply=(/home/pws/perforce/$match[1])
                elif [[ $1 = c ]]; then
                  # complete names
                  local expl
                  local -a dirs
                  dirs=(/home/pws/perforce/*(/:t))
                  dirs=(p:${^dirs})
                  _wanted dynamic-dirs expl 'dynamic directory' compadd -S\] -a dirs
                  return
                else
                  return 1
                fi
                return 0
              }

   Static named directories
       A `~' followed by anything not already covered consisting of any number
       of alphanumeric characters or underscore (`_'), hyphen  (`-'),  or  dot
       (`.')  is  looked up as a named directory, and replaced by the value of
       that named directory if found.  Named directories  are  typically  home
       directories  for  users on the system.  They may also be defined if the
       text after the `~' is the name of a string shell parameter whose  value
       begins with a `/'.  Note that trailing slashes will be removed from the
       path to the directory (though the original parameter is not modified).

       It is also possible to define directory names using the  -d  option  to
       the hash builtin.

       When the shell prints a path (e.g. when expanding %~ in prompts or when
       printing the directory stack), the path is checked to see if it  has  a
       named  directory  as  its  prefix.   If  so, then the prefix portion is
       replaced with a `~' followed by the name of the directory.  The shorter
       of  the two ways of referring to the directory is used, i.e. either the
       directory name or the full path; the name is used if they are the  same
       length.   The parameters $PWD and $OLDPWD are never abbreviated in this
       fashion.

   `=' expansion
       If a word begins with an unquoted `=' and the EQUALS option is set, the
       remainder  of the word is taken as the name of a command.  If a command
       exists by that name, the word is replaced by the full pathname  of  the
       command.

   Notes
       Filename  expansion  is performed on the right hand side of a parameter
       assignment, including those appearing after  commands  of  the  typeset
       family.   In  this  case,  the  right  hand  side  will be treated as a
       colon-separated list in the manner of the PATH parameter, so that a `~'
       or  an  `=' following a `:' is eligible for expansion.  All such behav-
       iour can be disabled by quoting the `~', the `=', or the whole  expres-
       sion (but not simply the colon); the EQUALS option is also respected.

       If  the option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set, any unquoted shell argument in
       the form `identifier=expression' becomes eligible for file expansion as
       described  in  the  previous  paragraph.   Quoting  the  first `=' also
       inhibits this.

FILENAME GENERATION
       If a word contains an unquoted instance of one of the  characters  `*',
       `(',  `|',  `<',  `[', or `?', it is regarded as a pattern for filename
       generation, unless the GLOB option  is  unset.   If  the  EXTENDED_GLOB
       option is set, the `^' and `#' characters also denote a pattern; other-
       wise they are not treated specially by the shell.

       The word is replaced with a list of sorted  filenames  that  match  the
       pattern.   If  no  matching  pattern is found, the shell gives an error
       message, unless the NULL_GLOB option is set, in which case the word  is
       deleted;  or unless the NOMATCH option is unset, in which case the word
       is left unchanged.

       In filename generation, the character `/' must be  matched  explicitly;
       also, a `.' must be matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or
       after a `/', unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set.  No  filename  genera-
       tion pattern matches the files `.' or `..'.  In other instances of pat-
       tern matching, the `/' and `.' are not treated specially.

   Glob Operators
       *      Matches any string, including the null string.

       ?      Matches any character.

       [...]  Matches any of the enclosed characters.   Ranges  of  characters
              can  be  specified by separating two characters by a `-'.  A `-'
              or `]' may be matched by including it as the first character  in
              the  list.   There are also several named classes of characters,
              in the form `[:name:]' with the following meanings.   The  first
              set  use the macros provided by the operating system to test for
              the given character combinations,  including  any  modifications
              due to local language settings, see ctype(3):

              [:alnum:]
                     The character is alphanumeric

              [:alpha:]
                     The character is alphabetic

              [:ascii:]
                     The  character  is 7-bit, i.e. is a single-byte character
                     without the top bit set.

              [:blank:]
                     The character is a blank character

              [:cntrl:]
                     The character is a control character

              [:digit:]
                     The character is a decimal digit

              [:graph:]
                     The character is a printable character other than  white-
                     space

              [:lower:]
                     The character is a lowercase letter

              [:print:]
                     The character is printable

              [:punct:]
                     The  character  is printable but neither alphanumeric nor
                     whitespace

              [:space:]
                     The character is whitespace

              [:upper:]
                     The character is an uppercase letter

              [:xdigit:]
                     The character is a hexadecimal digit

              Another set of named classes is handled internally by the  shell
              and is not sensitive to the locale:

              [:IDENT:]
                     The  character is allowed to form part of a shell identi-
                     fier, such as a parameter name

              [:IFS:]
                     The character is used as an input field  separator,  i.e.
                     is contained in the IFS parameter

              [:IFSSPACE:]
                     The  character  is  an IFS white space character; see the
                     documentation for IFS in the zshparam(1) manual page.

              [:INCOMPLETE:]
                     Matches a byte that starts an incomplete multibyte  char-
                     acter.   Note  that  there may be a sequence of more than
                     one bytes that taken together form the prefix of a multi-
                     byte  character.   To  test  for a potentially incomplete
                     byte sequence, use the pattern `[[:INCOMPLETE:]]*'.  This
                     will  never match a sequence starting with a valid multi-
                     byte character.

              [:INVALID:]
                     Matches a byte that does  not  start  a  valid  multibyte
                     character.   Note  this  may be a continuation byte of an
                     incomplete multibyte character as any part of a multibyte
                     string  consisting  of  invalid  and incomplete multibyte
                     characters is treated as single bytes.

              [:WORD:]
                     The character is treated as part of a word; this test  is
                     sensitive to the value of the WORDCHARS parameter

              Note  that the square brackets are additional to those enclosing
              the whole set of characters, so to test for  a  single  alphanu-
              meric  character  you  need `[[:alnum:]]'.  Named character sets
              can be used alongside other types, e.g. `[[:alpha:]0-9]'.

       [^...]
       [!...] Like [...], except that it matches any character which is not in
              the given set.

       <[x]-[y]>
              Matches  any  number  in the range x to y, inclusive.  Either of
              the numbers may be omitted to make the range  open-ended;  hence
              `<->' matches any number.  To match individual digits, the [...]
              form is more efficient.

              Be careful when using other wildcards adjacent  to  patterns  of
              this  form;  for  example, <0-9>* will actually match any number
              whatsoever at the start of the string, since  the  `<0-9>'  will
              match  the first digit, and the `*' will match any others.  This
              is a trap for the unwary, but is in fact  an  inevitable  conse-
              quence  of  the rule that the longest possible match always suc-
              ceeds.  Expressions such as  `<0-9>[^[:digit:]]*'  can  be  used
              instead.

       (...)  Matches  the  enclosed  pattern.  This is used for grouping.  If
              the KSH_GLOB option is set, then a `@', `*',  `+',  `?'  or  `!'
              immediately  preceding the `(' is treated specially, as detailed
              below. The option SH_GLOB prevents bare parentheses  from  being
              used in this way, though the KSH_GLOB option is still available.

              Note  that  grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it
              is an error to have a `/' within a group (this only applies  for
              patterns  used in filename generation).  There is one exception:
              a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path segment
              can match a sequence of directories.  For example, foo/(a*/)#bar
              matches foo/bar, foo/any/bar, foo/any/anyother/bar, and so on.

       x|y    Matches either x or y.  This operator has lower precedence  than
              any  other.   The  `|'  character must be within parentheses, to
              avoid interpretation as a pipeline.  The alternatives are  tried
              in order from left to right.

       ^x     (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Matches anything except the
              pattern x.  This has a higher precedence than `/', so `^foo/bar'
              will  search  directories in `.' except `./foo' for a file named
              `bar'.

       x~y    (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Match anything that matches
              the  pattern  x but does not match y.  This has lower precedence
              than any operator except `|', so `*/*~foo/bar' will  search  for
              all  files in all directories in `.'  and then exclude `foo/bar'
              if there was such a match.  Multiple patterns can be excluded by
              `foo~bar~baz'.   In  the  exclusion pattern (y), `/' and `.' are
              not treated specially the way they usually are in globbing.

       x#     (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Matches zero or more occur-
              rences  of  the  pattern  x.  This operator has high precedence;
              `12#' is equivalent to `1(2#)', rather than `(12)#'.  It  is  an
              error  for  an  unquoted `#' to follow something which cannot be
              repeated; this includes an empty string, a pattern already  fol-
              lowed  by  `##',  or parentheses when part of a KSH_GLOB pattern
              (for example, `!(foo)#' is  invalid  and  must  be  replaced  by
              `*(!(foo))').

       x##    (Requires  EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Matches one or more occur-
              rences of the pattern x.  This  operator  has  high  precedence;
              `12##' is equivalent to `1(2##)', rather than `(12)##'.  No more
              than two active `#' characters may appear together.   (Note  the
              potential  clash with glob qualifiers in the form `1(2##)' which
              should therefore be avoided.)

   ksh-like Glob Operators
       If the KSH_GLOB option is set, the effects of parentheses can be  modi-
       fied by a preceding `@', `*', `+', `?' or `!'.  This character need not
       be unquoted to have special effects, but the `(' must be.

       @(...) Match the pattern in the parentheses.  (Like `(...)'.)

       *(...) Match any number of occurrences.  (Like  `(...)#',  except  that
              recursive directory searching is not supported.)

       +(...) Match  at  least  one  occurrence.  (Like `(...)##', except that
              recursive directory searching is not supported.)

       ?(...) Match zero or one occurrence.  (Like `(|...)'.)

       !(...) Match  anything  but  the  expression  in  parentheses.    (Like
              `(^(...))'.)

   Precedence
       The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) `^', `/', `~',
       `|' (lowest); the remaining operators are simply treated from  left  to
       right  as  part of a string, with `#' and `##' applying to the shortest
       possible preceding unit (i.e. a character, `?', `[...]', `<...>', or  a
       parenthesised  expression).  As mentioned above, a `/' used as a direc-
       tory separator may not appear inside parentheses, while a `|'  must  do
       so;  in  patterns  used in other contexts than filename generation (for
       example, in case statements and tests within `[[...]]'), a `/'  is  not
       special;  and  `/'  is  also  not special after a `~' appearing outside
       parentheses in a filename pattern.

   Globbing Flags
       There are various flags which affect any text to their right up to  the
       end  of  the enclosing group or to the end of the pattern; they require
       the EXTENDED_GLOB option. All take the form (#X) where X may  have  one
       of the following forms:

       i      Case insensitive:  upper or lower case characters in the pattern
              match upper or lower case characters.

       l      Lower case characters in the pattern match upper or  lower  case
              characters;  upper  case  characters  in  the pattern still only
              match upper case characters.

       I      Case sensitive:  locally negates the effect of i or l from  that
              point on.

       b      Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern;
              this does not work in filename generation.  When a pattern  with
              a  set  of active parentheses is matched, the strings matched by
              the groups are stored in the array $match, the  indices  of  the
              beginning  of  the matched parentheses in the array $mbegin, and
              the indices of the end in the array $mend, with the  first  ele-
              ment  of  each  array  corresponding  to the first parenthesised
              group, and so on.  These arrays are not otherwise special to the
              shell.   The  indices  use the same convention as does parameter
              substitution, so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be  used
              in  subscripts;  the  KSH_ARRAYS  option  is respected.  Sets of
              globbing flags are not considered parenthesised groups; only the
              first nine active parentheses can be referenced.

              For example,

                     foo="a string with a message"
                     if [[ $foo = (a|an)' '(#b)(*)' '* ]]; then
                       print ${foo[$mbegin[1],$mend[1]]}
                     fi

              prints  `string  with  a'.   Note  that the first parenthesis is
              before the (#b) and does not create a backreference.

              Backreferences work with all forms  of  pattern  matching  other
              than  filename generation, but note that when performing matches
              on an entire array, such as ${array#pattern}, or a  global  sub-
              stitution,  such  as  ${param//pat/repl},  only the data for the
              last match remains available.  In the case  of  global  replace-
              ments  this may still be useful.  See the example for the m flag
              below.

              The numbering of backreferences strictly follows  the  order  of
              the  opening  parentheses  from  left  to  right  in the pattern
              string, although sets of parentheses may be nested.   There  are
              special rules for parentheses followed by `#' or `##'.  Only the
              last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example, in `[[
              abab  =  (#b)([ab])#  ]]',  only  the  final  `b'  is  stored in
              match[1].  Thus extra parentheses may be necessary to match  the
              complete  segment:  for  example,  use `X((ab|cd)#)Y' to match a
              whole string of either `ab' or `cd' between `X' and  `Y',  using
              the value of $match[1] rather than $match[2].

              If the match fails none of the parameters is altered, so in some
              cases it may be necessary to  initialise  them  beforehand.   If
              some  of  the  backreferences  fail to match -- which happens if
              they are in an alternate branch which fails to match, or if they
              are  followed  by  #  and matched zero times -- then the matched
              string is set to the empty string, and the start and end indices
              are set to -1.

              Pattern  matching  with  backreferences  is slightly slower than
              without.

       B      Deactivate backreferences, negating the effect  of  the  b  flag
              from that point on.

       cN,M   The flag (#cN,M) can be used anywhere that the # or ## operators
              can be used except in the expressions `(*/)#'  and  `(*/)##'  in
              filename generation, where `/' has special meaning; it cannot be
              combined with other globbing  flags  and  a  bad  pattern  error
              occurs  if  it is misplaced.  It is equivalent to the form {N,M}
              in regular expressions.  The  previous  character  or  group  is
              required  to  match  between N and M times, inclusive.  The form
              (#cN) requires exactly N matches; (#c,M) is equivalent to speci-
              fying N as 0; (#cN,) specifies that there is no maximum limit on
              the number of matches.

       m      Set references to the match data for the entire string  matched;
              this is similar to backreferencing and does not work in filename
              generation.  The flag must be in effect at the end of  the  pat-
              tern, i.e. not local to a group. The parameters $MATCH,  $MBEGIN
              and $MEND will be set to the string matched and to  the  indices
              of  the  beginning and end of the string, respectively.  This is
              most useful in parameter substitutions, as otherwise the  string
              matched is obvious.

              For example,

                     arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck)
                     print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}}

              forces  all the matches (i.e. all vowels) into uppercase, print-
              ing `vEldt jynx grImps wAqf zhO bUck'.

              Unlike backreferences, there is no speed penalty for using match
              references,  other than the extra substitutions required for the
              replacement strings in cases such as the example shown.

       M      Deactivate the m flag, hence no references to match data will be
              created.

       anum   Approximate  matching:  num  errors  are  allowed  in the string
              matched by the pattern.  The rules for this are described in the
              next subsection.

       s, e   Unlike the other flags, these have only a local effect, and each
              must appear on its own:  `(#s)' and `(#e)' are  the  only  valid
              forms.   The  `(#s)' flag succeeds only at the start of the test
              string, and the `(#e)' flag succeeds only at the end of the test
              string;  they  correspond  to  `^'  and  `$' in standard regular
              expressions.  They are useful for matching path segments in pat-
              terns  other  than those in filename generation (where path seg-
              ments  are  in  any  case  treated  separately).   For  example,
              `*((#s)|/)test((#e)|/)*' matches a path segment `test' in any of
              the  following  strings:   test,   test/at/start,   at/end/test,
              in/test/middle.

              Another   use   is   in   parameter  substitution;  for  example
              `${array/(#s)A*Z(#e)}' will remove only  elements  of  an  array
              which match the complete pattern `A*Z'.  There are other ways of
              performing many operations of this type, however the combination
              of  the substitution operations `/' and `//' with the `(#s)' and
              `(#e)' flags provides a single simple and memorable method.

              Note that assertions of the form `(^(#s))' also work, i.e. match
              anywhere  except at the start of the string, although this actu-
              ally means `anything except a zero-length portion at  the  start
              of  the  string';  you  need  to  use  `(""~(#s))'  to  match  a
              zero-length portion of the string not at the start.

       q      A `q' and everything up to the closing parenthesis of the  glob-
              bing  flags  are  ignored by the pattern matching code.  This is
              intended to support the use of glob qualifiers, see below.   The
              result is that the pattern `(#b)(*).c(#q.)' can be used both for
              globbing and for matching against a string.  In the former case,
              the  `(#q.)'  will be treated as a glob qualifier and the `(#b)'
              will not be useful, while in the latter case the `(#b)' is  use-
              ful  for  backreferences  and the `(#q.)' will be ignored.  Note
              that colon modifiers in the glob qualifiers are also not applied
              in ordinary pattern matching.

       u      Respect the current locale in determining the presence of multi-
              byte characters in a pattern, provided the  shell  was  compiled
              with  MULTIBYTE_SUPPORT.   This  overrides the MULTIBYTE option;
              the default behaviour is taken  from  the  option.   Compare  U.
              (Mnemonic:  typically  multibyte  characters are from Unicode in
              the UTF-8 encoding, although any extension of ASCII supported by
              the system library may be used.)

       U      All  characters  are  considered  to be a single byte long.  The
              opposite of u.  This overrides the MULTIBYTE option.

       For example, the test string  fooxx  can  be  matched  by  the  pattern
       (#i)FOOXX,  but  not  by  (#l)FOOXX, (#i)FOO(#I)XX or ((#i)FOOX)X.  The
       string (#ia2)readme specifies case-insensitive matching of readme  with
       up to two errors.

       When  using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and EXTENDED_GLOB
       must be set and the left parenthesis should be  preceded  by  @.   Note
       also that the flags do not affect letters inside [...] groups, in other
       words (#i)[a-z] still matches only lowercase  letters.   Finally,  note
       that when examining whole paths case-insensitively every directory must
       be searched for all files which match, so that a pattern  of  the  form
       (#i)/foo/bar/... is potentially slow.

   Approximate Matching
       When  matching  approximately,  the  shell  keeps a count of the errors
       found, which cannot exceed the number specified in the  (#anum)  flags.
       Four types of error are recognised:

       1.     Different characters, as in fooxbar and fooybar.

       2.     Transposition of characters, as in banana and abnana.

       3.     A  character  missing  in the target string, as with the pattern
              road and target string rod.

       4.     An extra character appearing in the target string, as with stove
              and strove.

       Thus,  the pattern (#a3)abcd matches dcba, with the errors occurring by
       using the first rule twice and the second once, grouping the string  as
       [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d].

       Non-literal  parts of the pattern must match exactly, including charac-
       ters in character ranges: hence (#a1)???   matches  strings  of  length
       four,  by  applying  rule  4  to  an empty part of the pattern, but not
       strings of length two, since all the ? must  match.   Other  characters
       which  must  match  exactly  are  initial dots in filenames (unless the
       GLOB_DOTS option is set), and all slashes in filenames, so that a/bc is
       two errors from ab/c (the slash cannot be transposed with another char-
       acter).  Similarly, errors are counted  separately  for  non-contiguous
       strings in the pattern, so that (ab|cd)ef is two errors from aebf.

       When  using  exclusion  via  the  ~  operator,  approximate matching is
       treated entirely separately for the excluded part and must be activated
       separately.  Thus, (#a1)README~READ_ME matches READ.ME but not READ_ME,
       as the trailing READ_ME is  matched  without  approximation.   However,
       (#a1)README~(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form READ?ME
       as all such forms are now excluded.

       Apart from exclusions, there is only one overall error count;  however,
       the  maximum  errors  allowed  may  be altered locally, and this can be
       delimited by grouping.  For example, (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox  allows  one
       error in total, which may not occur in the dog section, and the pattern
       (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox is equivalent.  Note that the point  at  which
       an  error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether to
       use  approximation;  for  example,  (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz  will  not   match
       abcdxyz,  because  the  error occurs at the `x', where approximation is
       turned off.

       Entire  path  segments  may   be   matched   approximately,   so   that
       `(#a1)/foo/d/is/available/at/the/bar' allows one error in any path seg-
       ment.  This is much less efficient than  without  the  (#a1),  however,
       since  every  directory  in  the  path  must  be scanned for a possible
       approximate match.  It is best to place the (#a1) after any  path  seg-
       ments which are known to be correct.

   Recursive Globbing
       A pathname component of the form `(foo/)#' matches a path consisting of
       zero or more directories matching the pattern foo.

       As a shorthand, `**/' is equivalent to `(*/)#'; note that  this  there-
       fore  matches files in the current directory as well as subdirectories.
       Thus:

              ls (*/)#bar

       or

              ls **/bar

       does a recursive directory search for files  named  `bar'  (potentially
       including the file `bar' in the current directory).  This form does not
       follow symbolic links; the alternative form `***/' does, but is  other-
       wise  identical.   Neither of these can be combined with other forms of
       globbing within the same path segment; in that case, the `*'  operators
       revert to their usual effect.

       Even  shorter  forms  are  available when the option GLOB_STAR_SHORT is
       set.  In that case if no / immediately follows a **  or  ***  they  are
       treated as if both a / plus a further * are present.  Hence:

              setopt GLOBSTARSHORT
              ls **.c

       is equivalent to

              ls **/*.c

   Glob Qualifiers
       Patterns  used  for filename generation may end in a list of qualifiers
       enclosed in parentheses.  The qualifiers specify which  filenames  that
       otherwise  match  the  given  pattern  will be inserted in the argument
       list.

       If the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set, then a trailing set of parentheses
       containing  no `|' or `(' characters (or `~' if it is special) is taken
       as a set of glob qualifiers.  A glob subexpression that would  normally
       be  taken  as  glob qualifiers, for example `(^x)', can be forced to be
       treated as part of the glob pattern by  doubling  the  parentheses,  in
       this case producing `((^x))'.

       If  the option EXTENDED_GLOB is set, a different syntax for glob quali-
       fiers is available, namely `(#qx)' where x is  any  of  the  same  glob
       qualifiers  used in the other format.  The qualifiers must still appear
       at the end of the pattern.  However, with  this  syntax  multiple  glob
       qualifiers  may be chained together.  They are treated as a logical AND
       of the individual sets of flags.  Also, as the syntax  is  unambiguous,
       the  expression  will  be  treated  as glob qualifiers just as long any
       parentheses contained within it are balanced; appearance of `|', `(' or
       `~'  does  not  negate the effect.  Note that qualifiers will be recog-
       nised in this form even if a bare glob qualifier exists at the  end  of
       the  pattern, for example `*(#q*)(.)' will recognise executable regular
       files if both options are set; however, mixed syntax should probably be
       avoided for the sake of clarity.  Note that within conditions using the
       `[[' form the presence of a parenthesised expression (#q...) at the end
       of a string indicates that globbing should be performed; the expression
       may include glob qualifiers, but it is also valid if it is simply (#q).
       This  does  not apply to the right hand side of pattern match operators
       as the syntax already has special significance.

       A qualifier may be any one of the following:

       /      directories

       F      `full' (i.e. non-empty) directories.   Note  that  the  opposite
              sense (^F) expands to empty directories and all non-directories.
              Use (/^F) for empty directories.

       .      plain files

       @      symbolic links

       =      sockets

       p      named pipes (FIFOs)

       *      executable plain files (0100 or 0010 or 0001)

       %      device files (character or block special)

       %b     block special files

       %c     character special files

       r      owner-readable files (0400)

       w      owner-writable files (0200)

       x      owner-executable files (0100)

       A      group-readable files (0040)

       I      group-writable files (0020)

       E      group-executable files (0010)

       R      world-readable files (0004)

       W      world-writable files (0002)

       X      world-executable files (0001)

       s      setuid files (04000)

       S      setgid files (02000)

       t      files with the sticky bit (01000)

       fspec  files with access rights matching spec. This spec may be a octal
              number optionally preceded by a `=', a `+', or a `-'. If none of
              these characters is given, the behavior is the same as for  `='.
              The octal number describes the mode bits to be expected, if com-
              bined with a `=', the value  given  must  match  the  file-modes
              exactly,  with a `+', at least the bits in the given number must
              be set in the file-modes, and with a `-', the bits in the number
              must  not be set. Giving a `?' instead of a octal digit anywhere
              in the  number  ensures  that  the  corresponding  bits  in  the
              file-modes  are  not checked, this is only useful in combination
              with `='.

              If the qualifier `f' is followed by any other character anything
              up  to the next matching character (`[', `{', and `<' match `]',
              `}', and `>' respectively, any other character  matches  itself)
              is  taken  as a list of comma-separated sub-specs. Each sub-spec
              may be either an octal number as described above or  a  list  of
              any of the characters `u', `g', `o', and `a', followed by a `=',
              a `+', or a `-', followed by a list of  any  of  the  characters
              `r',  `w',  `x', `s', and `t', or an octal digit. The first list
              of characters specify which access rights are to be checked.  If
              a  `u'  is given, those for the owner of the file are used, if a
              `g' is given, those of the group are checked,  a  `o'  means  to
              test  those  of  other users, and the `a' says to test all three
              groups. The `=', `+', and `-' again says how the modes are to be
              checked  and  have  the  same meaning as described for the first
              form above. The second list of  characters  finally  says  which
              access  rights  are to be expected: `r' for read access, `w' for
              write access, `x' for the right  to  execute  the  file  (or  to
              search a directory), `s' for the setuid and setgid bits, and `t'
              for the sticky bit.

              Thus, `*(f70?)' gives the files for which the  owner  has  read,
              write, and execute permission, and for which other group members
              have no rights, independent of the permissions for other  users.
              The  pattern `*(f-100)' gives all files for which the owner does
              not have execute permission,  and  `*(f:gu+w,o-rx:)'  gives  the
              files  for  which  the  owner and the other members of the group
              have at least write permission, and for which other users  don't
              have read or execute permission.

       estring
       +cmd   The string will be executed as shell code.  The filename will be
              included in the list if and only if the code returns a zero sta-
              tus (usually the status of the last command).

              In  the  first  form,  the first character after the `e' will be
              used as a separator and anything up to the next matching separa-
              tor  will  be taken  as the string; `[', `{', and `<' match `]',
              `}', and `>', respectively, while any  other  character  matches
              itself.  Note  that  expansions  must be quoted in the string to
              prevent them  from  being  expanded  before  globbing  is  done.
              string  is  then executed as shell code.  The string globqual is
              appended to the array zsh_eval_context the  duration  of  execu-
              tion.

              During  the  execution  of  string  the filename currently being
              tested is available in the parameter REPLY; the parameter may be
              altered  to a string to be inserted into the list instead of the
              original filename.  In addition, the parameter reply may be  set
              to an array or a string, which overrides the value of REPLY.  If
              set to an array, the latter is inserted into  the  command  line
              word by word.

              For   example,  suppose  a  directory  contains  a  single  file
              `lonely'.  Then the  expression  `*(e:'reply=(${REPLY}{1,2})':)'
              will cause the words `lonely1' and `lonely2' to be inserted into
              the command line.  Note the quoting of string.

              The form +cmd has the same  effect,  but  no  delimiters  appear
              around  cmd.   Instead,  cmd is taken as the longest sequence of
              characters following the + that are alphanumeric or  underscore.
              Typically cmd will be the name of a shell function that contains
              the appropriate test.  For example,

                     nt() { [[ $REPLY -nt $NTREF ]] }
                     NTREF=reffile
                     ls -l *(+nt)

              lists all files in the directory that have  been  modified  more
              recently than reffile.

       ddev   files on the device dev

       l[-|+]ct
              files having a link count less than ct (-), greater than ct (+),
              or equal to ct

       U      files owned by the effective user ID

       G      files owned by the effective group ID

       uid    files owned by user ID id if that is a  number.   Otherwise,  id
              specifies a user name: the character after the `u' will be taken
              as a separator and the string between it and the  next  matching
              separator will be taken as a user name.  The starting separators
              `[', `{', and `<' match the final separators `]', `}', and  `>',
              respectively;  any other character matches itself.  The selected
              files are those owned by this user.  For  example,  `u:foo:'  or
              `u[foo]' selects files owned by user `foo'.

       gid    like uid but with group IDs or names

       a[Mwhms][-|+]n
              files  accessed  exactly  n days ago.  Files accessed within the
              last n days are selected using a  negative  value  for  n  (-n).
              Files accessed more than n days ago are selected by a positive n
              value (+n).  Optional unit specifiers `M', `w', `h', `m' or  `s'
              (e.g.  `ah5') cause the check to be performed with months (of 30
              days), weeks, hours, minutes or seconds instead of days, respec-
              tively.  An explicit `d' for days is also allowed.

              Any  fractional  part  of the difference between the access time
              and the current part in the appropriate units is ignored in  the
              comparison.   For  instance,  `echo  *(ah-5)'  would  echo files
              accessed within the last five hours, while `echo *(ah+5)'  would
              echo  files  accessed  at least six hours ago, as times strictly
              between five and six hours are treated as five hours.

       m[Mwhms][-|+]n
              like the file access qualifier, except that  it  uses  the  file
              modification time.

       c[Mwhms][-|+]n
              like  the  file  access  qualifier, except that it uses the file
              inode change time.

       L[+|-]n
              files less than n bytes (-), more than n bytes (+), or exactly n
              bytes in length.

              If this flag is directly followed by a size specifier `k' (`K'),
              `m' (`M'), or `p' (`P') (e.g. `Lk-50') the  check  is  performed
              with  kilobytes,  megabytes,  or  blocks (of 512 bytes) instead.
              (On some systems additional specifiers are available  for  giga-
              bytes,  `g' or `G', and terabytes, `t' or `T'.) If a size speci-
              fier is used a file is regarded as "exactly"  the  size  if  the
              file size rounded up to the next unit is equal to the test size.
              Hence `*(Lm1)' matches files from 1 byte up to 1 Megabyte inclu-
              sive.  Note also that the set of files "less than" the test size
              only includes files that would  not  match  the  equality  test;
              hence `*(Lm-1)' only matches files of zero size.

       ^      negates all qualifiers following it

       -      toggles  between  making  the  qualifiers work on symbolic links
              (the default) and the files they point to

       M      sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern

       T      appends a trailing qualifier mark to the filenames, analogous to
              the LIST_TYPES option, for the current pattern (overrides M)

       N      sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern

       D      sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern

       n      sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern

       Yn     enables short-circuit mode: the pattern will expand to at most n
              filenames.  If more than n  matches  exist,  only  the  first  n
              matches in directory traversal order will be considered.

              Implies oN when no oc qualifier is used.

       oc     specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. If c is n
              they are sorted by name; if it is L they are sorted depending on
              the size (length) of the files; if l they are sorted by the num-
              ber of links; if a, m, or c they are sorted by the time  of  the
              last  access,  modification, or inode change respectively; if d,
              files in subdirectories  appear  before  those  in  the  current
              directory  at  each level of the search -- this is best combined
              with other criteria, for example `odon' to  sort  on  names  for
              files  within the same directory; if N, no sorting is performed.
              Note that a, m, and c compare the age against the current  time,
              hence the first name in the list is the youngest file. Also note
              that the modifiers ^ and - are used, so `*(^-oL)' gives  a  list
              of  all files sorted by file size in descending order, following
              any symbolic links.  Unless oN is used,  multiple  order  speci-
              fiers may occur to resolve ties.

              The  default  sorting is n (by name) unless the Y glob qualifier
              is used, in which case it is N (unsorted).

              oe and o+ are special cases; they are  each  followed  by  shell
              code, delimited as for the e glob qualifier and the + glob qual-
              ifier respectively (see above).  The code is executed  for  each
              matched  file  with  the  parameter REPLY set to the name of the
              file on entry and globsort appended  to  zsh_eval_context.   The
              code  should  modify  the  parameter  REPLY in some fashion.  On
              return, the value of the parameter is used instead of  the  file
              name  as  the string on which to sort.  Unlike other sort opera-
              tors, oe and o+ may be repeated, but note that the maximum  num-
              ber  of  sort  operators of any kind that may appear in any glob
              expression is 12.

       Oc     like `o', but sorts in descending order; i.e.  `*(^oc)'  is  the
              same  as  `*(Oc)' and `*(^Oc)' is the same as `*(oc)'; `Od' puts
              files in the current directory before those in subdirectories at
              each level of the search.

       [beg[,end]]
              specifies  which  of the matched filenames should be included in
              the returned list. The syntax is the  same  as  for  array  sub-
              scripts.  beg  and  the optional end may be mathematical expres-
              sions. As in parameter subscripting they may be negative to make
              them  count  from  the  last match backward. E.g.: `*(-OL[1,3])'
              gives a list of the names of the three largest files.

       Pstring
              The string will be prepended to each glob match  as  a  separate
              word.  string is delimited in the same way as arguments to the e
              glob qualifier described above.  The qualifier can be  repeated;
              the words are prepended separately so that the resulting command
              line contains the words in the same order they were given in the
              list of glob qualifiers.

              A typical use for this is to prepend an option before all occur-
              rences of a file name; for example, the pattern `*(P:-f:)'  pro-
              duces the command line arguments `-f file1 -f file2 ...'

              If  the  modifier  ^  is  active,  then  string will be appended
              instead of prepended.  Prepending and appending is done indepen-
              dently  so  both  can  be  used on the same glob expression; for
              example by writing `*(P:foo:^P:bar:^P:baz:)' which produces  the
              command line arguments `foo baz file1 bar ...'

       More  than one of these lists can be combined, separated by commas. The
       whole list matches if at least one of the sublists  matches  (they  are
       `or'ed,  the qualifiers in the sublists are `and'ed).  Some qualifiers,
       however, affect all matches generated, independent of  the  sublist  in
       which  they  are  given.   These are the qualifiers `M', `T', `N', `D',
       `n', `o', `O' and the subscripts given in brackets (`[...]').

       If a `:' appears in a qualifier list, the remainder of  the  expression
       in  parenthesis  is  interpreted  as a modifier (see the section `Modi-
       fiers' in the section `History  Expansion').   Each  modifier  must  be
       introduced  by a separate `:'.  Note also that the result after modifi-
       cation does not have to be an existing file.  The name of any  existing
       file  can  be  followed  by  a modifier of the form `(:...)' even if no
       actual filename generation is performed, although note that  the  pres-
       ence of the parentheses causes the entire expression to be subjected to
       any global pattern matching options such as NULL_GLOB. Thus:

              ls *(-/)

       lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories, and

              ls *(-@)

       lists all broken symbolic links, and

              ls *(%W)

       lists all world-writable device files in the current directory, and

              ls *(W,X)

       lists all files in the current directory  that  are  world-writable  or
       world-executable, and

              echo /tmp/foo*(u0^@:t)

       outputs  the basename of all root-owned files beginning with the string
       `foo' in /tmp, ignoring symlinks, and

              ls *.*~(lex|parse).[ch](^D^l1)

       lists all files having a link count of one whose names  contain  a  dot
       (but  not  those  starting  with  a  dot, since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly
       switched off) except for lex.c, lex.h, parse.c and parse.h.

              print b*.pro(#q:s/pro/shmo/)(#q.:s/builtin/shmiltin/)

       demonstrates how colon modifiers and other qualifiers  may  be  chained
       together.   The ordinary qualifier `.' is applied first, then the colon
       modifiers in order from left to right.  So if EXTENDED_GLOB is set  and
       the  base  pattern matches the regular file builtin.pro, the shell will
       print `shmiltin.shmo'.



ZSHPARAM(1)                 General Commands Manual                ZSHPARAM(1)



NAME
       zshparam - zsh parameters

DESCRIPTION
       A parameter has a name, a value, and a number of  attributes.   A  name
       may  be any sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores, or the
       single characters `*', `@', `#', `?', `-', `$', or  `!'.   A  parameter
       whose  name  begins with an alphanumeric or underscore is also referred
       to as a variable.

       The attributes of a parameter determine the type of  its  value,  often
       referred  to  as  the parameter type or variable type, and also control
       other processing that may be applied to the value  when  it  is  refer-
       enced.   The  value  type  may  be a scalar (a string, an integer, or a
       floating point number), an array (indexed numerically), or an  associa-
       tive array (an unordered set of name-value pairs, indexed by name, also
       referred to as a hash).

       Named scalar parameters may have the exported, -x, attribute,  to  copy
       them  into the process environment, which is then passed from the shell
       to any new processes that it starts.  Exported  parameters  are  called
       environment  variables. The shell also imports environment variables at
       startup time and automatically marks the  corresponding  parameters  as
       exported.   Some  environment variables are not imported for reasons of
       security or because they would interfere with the correct operation  of
       other shell features.

       Parameters  may  also  be  special,  that is, they have a predetermined
       meaning to the  shell.   Special  parameters  cannot  have  their  type
       changed or their readonly attribute turned off, and if a special param-
       eter is unset, then later recreated, the  special  properties  will  be
       retained.

       To  declare  the  type of a parameter, or to assign a string or numeric
       value to a scalar parameter, use the typeset builtin.

       The value of a scalar parameter may also be assigned by writing:

              name=value

       In scalar assignment, value is expanded as a single  string,  in  which
       the  elements  of arrays are joined together; filename expansion is not
       performed unless the option GLOB_ASSIGN is set.

       When the integer attribute, -i, or a floating point  attribute,  -E  or
       -F,  is  set  for  name, the value is subject to arithmetic evaluation.
       Furthermore, by replacing `=' with `+=', a parameter can be incremented
       or  appended  to.   See  the  section `Array Parameters' and Arithmetic
       Evaluation (in zshmisc(1)) for additional forms of assignment.

       Note that assignment may implicitly change the attributes of a  parame-
       ter.  For example, assigning a number to a variable in arithmetic eval-
       uation may change its type to integer or float,  and  with  GLOB_ASSIGN
       assigning a pattern to a variable may change its type to an array.

       To reference the value of a parameter, write `$name' or `${name}'.  See
       Parameter Expansion in zshexpn(1) for complete details.   That  section
       also  explains  the  effect  of the difference between scalar and array
       assignment on parameter expansion.

ARRAY PARAMETERS
       To assign an array value, write one of:

              set -A name value ...
              name=(value ...)
              name=([key]=value ...)

       If no parameter name exists, an ordinary array  parameter  is  created.
       If  the  parameter name exists and is a scalar, it is replaced by a new
       array.

       In the third form, key is an  expression  that  will  be  evaluated  in
       arithmetic  context  (in  its simplest form, an integer) that gives the
       index of the element to be assigned with value.  In this form any  ele-
       ments  not  explicitly  mentioned that come before the largest index to
       which a value is assigned are assigned an empty  string.   The  indices
       may  be  in  any order.  Note that this syntax is strict: [ and ]= must
       not be quoted, and key may not consist of the unquoted string  ]=,  but
       is  otherwise  treated  as a simple string.  The enhanced forms of sub-
       script expression that may be used when directly subscripting  a  vari-
       able  name,  described  in  the section Array Subscripts below, are not
       available.

       The syntaxes with and without  the  explicit  key  may  be  mixed.   An
       implicit  key  is deduced by incrementing the index from the previously
       assigned element.  Note that it is not treated as an  error  if  latter
       assignments in this form overwrite earlier assignments.

       For example, assuming the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set, the following:

              array=(one [3]=three four)

       causes  the array variable array to contain four elements one, an empty
       string, three and four, in that order.

       In the forms where only value is specified, full command line expansion
       is performed.

       In the [key]=value form, both key and value undergo all forms of expan-
       sion allowed for single word shell expansions (this  does  not  include
       filename generation); these are as performed by the parameter expansion
       flag (e) as described in zshparam(1).  Nested parentheses may  surround
       value  and  are  included  as part of the value, which is joined into a
       plain string; this differs from ksh which allows the values  themselves
       to  be arrays.  A future version of zsh may support that.  To cause the
       brackets to be interpreted as a character class  for  filename  genera-
       tion,  and  therefore  to treat the resulting list of files as a set of
       values, quote the equal sign using any form of quoting.  Example:

              name=([a-z]'='*)

       To append to an array without changing the existing values, use one  of
       the following:

              name+=(value ...)
              name+=([key]=value ...)

       In  the  second  form  key  may specify an existing index as well as an
       index off the end of the old array; any existing value  is  overwritten
       by  value.   Also,  it is possible to use [key]+=value to append to the
       existing value at that index.

       Within the parentheses on the right hand side of  either  form  of  the
       assignment,  newlines  and  semicolons  are  treated  the same as white
       space, separating individual values.  Any consecutive sequence of  such
       characters has the same effect.

       Ordinary array parameters may also be explicitly declared with:

              typeset -a name

       Associative arrays must be declared before assignment, by using:

              typeset -A name

       When  name refers to an associative array, the list in an assignment is
       interpreted as alternating keys and values:

              set -A name key value ...
              name=(key value ...)
              name=([key]=value ...)

       Note that only one of the two syntaxes above may be used in  any  given
       assignment;  the  forms  may  not be mixed.  This is unlike the case of
       numerically indexed arrays.

       Every key must have a value in this case.  Note that  this  assigns  to
       the entire array, deleting any elements that do not appear in the list.
       The append syntax may also be used with an associative array:

              name+=(key value ...)
              name+=([key]=value ...)

       This adds a new key/value pair if the key is not already  present,  and
       replaces  the  value for the existing key if it is.  In the second form
       it is also possible to use [key]+=value to append to the existing value
       at  that  key.  Expansion is performed identically to the corresponding
       forms for normal arrays, as described above.

       To create an empty array (including associative arrays), use one of:

              set -A name
              name=()

   Array Subscripts
       Individual elements of an array may be selected using a  subscript.   A
       subscript of the form `[exp]' selects the single element exp, where exp
       is an arithmetic expression which will be subject to arithmetic  expan-
       sion as if it were surrounded by `$((...))'.  The elements are numbered
       beginning with 1, unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is  set  in  which  case
       they are numbered from zero.

       Subscripts  may be used inside braces used to delimit a parameter name,
       thus `${foo[2]}' is equivalent to `$foo[2]'.  If the KSH_ARRAYS  option
       is  set,  the  braced  form  is  the  only one that works, as bracketed
       expressions otherwise are not treated as subscripts.

       If the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set, then by  default  accesses  to  an
       array  element  with a subscript that evaluates to zero return an empty
       string, while an attempt to write such an  element  is  treated  as  an
       error.  For backward compatibility the KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT option can be
       set to cause subscript values  0  and  1  to  be  equivalent;  see  the
       description of the option in zshoptions(1).

       The  same  subscripting  syntax  is used for associative arrays, except
       that no arithmetic expansion is applied to exp.  However,  the  parsing
       rules  for  arithmetic  expressions  still apply, which affects the way
       that certain special characters must be protected from  interpretation.
       See Subscript Parsing below for details.

       A  subscript of the form `[*]' or `[@]' evaluates to all elements of an
       array; there is no difference between the two except when  they  appear
       within  double  quotes.   `"$foo[*]"'  evaluates  to  `"$foo[1] $foo[2]
       ..."', whereas `"$foo[@]"' evaluates to `"$foo[1]" "$foo[2]" ...'.  For
       associative  arrays,  `[*]'  or `[@]' evaluate to all the values, in no
       particular order.  Note that this does not substitute the keys; see the
       documentation  for the `k' flag under Parameter Expansion Flags in zsh-
       expn(1) for complete details.  When an array parameter is referenced as
       `$name'  (with  no  subscript)  it  evaluates to `$name[*]', unless the
       KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case  it  evaluates  to  `${name[0]}'
       (for  an  associative array, this means the value of the key `0', which
       may not exist even if there are values for other keys).

       A subscript of the form `[exp1,exp2]' selects all elements in the range
       exp1  to  exp2, inclusive. (Associative arrays are unordered, and so do
       not support ranges.) If one of the subscripts evaluates to  a  negative
       number, say -n, then the nth element from the end of the array is used.
       Thus `$foo[-3]' is the third element from the end of the array foo, and
       `$foo[1,-1]' is the same as `$foo[*]'.

       Subscripting  may  also be performed on non-array values, in which case
       the subscripts specify a substring to be extracted.   For  example,  if
       FOO is set to `foobar', then `echo $FOO[2,5]' prints `ooba'.  Note that
       some forms of subscripting described below  perform  pattern  matching,
       and  in  that case the substring extends from the start of the match of
       the first subscript to the end of the match of  the  second  subscript.
       For example,

              string="abcdefghijklm"
              print ${string[(r)d?,(r)h?]}

       prints  `defghi'.   This  is  an obvious generalisation of the rule for
       single-character matches.  For a single subscript, only a single  char-
       acter is referenced (not the range of characters covered by the match).

       Note  that in substring operations the second subscript is handled dif-
       ferently by the r and R subscript flags: the former takes the  shortest
       match  as  the  length  and the latter the longest match.  Hence in the
       former case a * at the end is redundant while in  the  latter  case  it
       matches  the  whole  remainder of the string.  This does not affect the
       result of the single subscript case as here the length of the match  is
       irrelevant.

   Array Element Assignment
       A subscript may be used on the left side of an assignment like so:

              name[exp]=value

       In  this  form  of  assignment the element or range specified by exp is
       replaced by the expression on the right side.  An  array  (but  not  an
       associative  array) may be created by assignment to a range or element.
       Arrays do not nest, so assigning a parenthesized list of values  to  an
       element  or range changes the number of elements in the array, shifting
       the other elements to accommodate the new values.  (This  is  not  sup-
       ported for associative arrays.)

       This syntax also works as an argument to the typeset command:

              typeset "name[exp]"=value

       The  value  may  not  be  a  parenthesized list in this case; only sin-
       gle-element assignments may be made with typeset.  Note that quotes are
       necessary  in  this case to prevent the brackets from being interpreted
       as filename generation operators.  The noglob precommand modifier could
       be used instead.

       To delete an element of an ordinary array, assign `()' to that element.
       To delete an element of an associative array, use the unset command:

              unset "name[exp]"

   Subscript Flags
       If the opening bracket, or the comma  in  a  range,  in  any  subscript
       expression  is  directly followed by an opening parenthesis, the string
       up to the matching closing one is considered to be a list of flags,  as
       in `name[(flags)exp]'.

       The  flags s, n and b take an argument; the delimiter is shown below as
       `:', but  any  character,  or  the  matching  pairs  `(...)',  `{...}',
       `[...]',  or  `<...>',  may  be used, but note that `<...>' can only be
       used if the subscript is inside a double quoted expression or a parame-
       ter  substitution  enclosed  in  braces  as otherwise the expression is
       interpreted as a redirection.

       The flags currently understood are:

       w      If the parameter subscripted is a scalar then  this  flag  makes
              subscripting  work  on words instead of characters.  The default
              word separator is whitespace.  When combined with  the  i  or  I
              flag,  the effect is to produce the index of the first character
              of the first/last word which matches  the  given  pattern;  note
              that a failed match in this case always yields 0.

       s:string:
              This  gives  the string that separates words (for use with the w
              flag).  The delimiter character : is arbitrary; see above.

       p      Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in  the
              string argument of a subsequent `s' flag.

       f      If  the  parameter  subscripted is a scalar then this flag makes
              subscripting work on lines instead of characters, i.e. with ele-
              ments separated by newlines.  This is a shorthand for `pws:\n:'.

       r      Reverse subscripting: if this flag is given, the exp is taken as
              a pattern and the result is the first  matching  array  element,
              substring  or  word  (if  the  parameter is an array, if it is a
              scalar, or if it is a scalar and the `w' flag is given,  respec-
              tively).   The subscript used is the number of the matching ele-
              ment, so that pairs of subscripts such  as  `$foo[(r)??,3]'  and
              `$foo[(r)??,(r)f*]'  are  possible  if  the  parameter is not an
              associative array.  If the parameter is  an  associative  array,
              only the value part of each pair is compared to the pattern, and
              the result is that value.

              If a search through an ordinary array failed,  the  search  sets
              the  subscript  to  one  past  the  end  of the array, and hence
              ${array[(r)pattern]} will substitute the empty string.  Thus the
              success  of  a  search  can be tested by using the (i) flag, for
              example (assuming the option KSH_ARRAYS is not in effect):

                     [[ ${array[(i)pattern]} -le ${#array} ]]

              If KSH_ARRAYS is in effect, the -le should be replaced by -lt.

       R      Like `r', but gives the last  match.   For  associative  arrays,
              gives  all  possible matches. May be used for assigning to ordi-
              nary array  elements,  but  not  for  assigning  to  associative
              arrays.   On  failure,  for normal arrays this has the effect of
              returning the element corresponding  to  subscript  0;  this  is
              empty unless one of the options KSH_ARRAYS or KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT
              is in effect.

              Note that in subscripts with both `r' and `R' pattern characters
              are  active  even  if  they  were  substituted  for  a parameter
              (regardless of the setting of  GLOB_SUBST  which  controls  this
              feature  in normal pattern matching).  The flag `e' can be added
              to inhibit pattern matching.  As  this  flag  does  not  inhibit
              other  forms  of  substitution,  care is still required; using a
              parameter to hold the key has the desired effect:

                     key2='original key'
                     print ${array[(Re)$key2]}

       i      Like `r', but gives the index of the match instead; this may not
              be  combined  with  a  second  argument.  On the left side of an
              assignment, behaves like `r'.  For associative arrays,  the  key
              part  of  each  pair  is  compared to the pattern, and the first
              matching key found is the result.  On  failure  substitutes  the
              length of the array plus one, as discussed under the description
              of `r', or the empty string for an associative array.

       I      Like `i', but gives the index of the last match, or all possible
              matching  keys  in an associative array.  On failure substitutes
              0, or the empty string for an associative array.  This  flag  is
              best when testing for values or keys that do not exist.

       k      If used in a subscript on an associative array, this flag causes
              the keys to be interpreted as patterns, and  returns  the  value
              for  the  first key found where exp is matched by the key.  Note
              this could be any such key as no ordering of associative  arrays
              is  defined.   This  flag  does  not work on the left side of an
              assignment to an associative array element.  If used on  another
              type of parameter, this behaves like `r'.

       K      On  an associative array this is like `k' but returns all values
              where exp is matched by the keys.  On other types of  parameters
              this has the same effect as `R'.

       n:expr:
              If  combined  with `r', `R', `i' or `I', makes them give the nth
              or nth last match (if  expr  evaluates  to  n).   This  flag  is
              ignored  when the array is associative.  The delimiter character
              : is arbitrary; see above.

       b:expr:
              If combined with `r', `R', `i' or `I', makes them begin  at  the
              nth  or  nth last element, word, or character (if expr evaluates
              to n).  This flag is ignored when the array is associative.  The
              delimiter character : is arbitrary; see above.

       e      This flag causes any pattern matching that would be performed on
              the subscript to  use  plain  string  matching  instead.   Hence
              `${array[(re)*]}'  matches only the array element whose value is
              *.  Note that other forms of substitution such as parameter sub-
              stitution are not inhibited.

              This  flag can also be used to force * or @ to be interpreted as
              a single key rather than as a reference to all values.   It  may
              be used for either purpose on the left side of an assignment.

       See  Parameter  Expansion  Flags  (zshexpn(1))  for  additional ways to
       manipulate the results of array subscripting.

   Subscript Parsing
       This discussion applies mainly to associative array key strings and  to
       patterns used for reverse subscripting (the `r', `R', `i', etc. flags),
       but it may also affect parameter substitutions that appear as  part  of
       an arithmetic expression in an ordinary subscript.

       To  avoid  subscript  parsing limitations in assignments to associative
       array elements, use the append syntax:

              aa+=('key with "*strange*" characters' 'value string')

       The basic rule to remember when writing a subscript expression is  that
       all  text between the opening `[' and the closing `]' is interpreted as
       if it were in double quotes (see zshmisc(1)).  However,  unlike  double
       quotes  which  normally  cannot  nest, subscript expressions may appear
       inside double-quoted strings or inside other subscript expressions  (or
       both!), so the rules have two important differences.

       The first difference is that brackets (`[' and `]') must appear as bal-
       anced pairs in a subscript expression unless they  are  preceded  by  a
       backslash  (`\').  Therefore, within a subscript expression (and unlike
       true double-quoting) the sequence `\[' becomes `[', and similarly  `\]'
       becomes  `]'.  This applies even in cases where a backslash is not nor-
       mally required; for example, the pattern `[^[]' (to match any character
       other than an open bracket) should be written `[^\[]' in a reverse-sub-
       script pattern.  However, note that `\[^\[\]' and even `\[^[]' mean the
       same  thing,  because  backslashes are always stripped when they appear
       before brackets!

       The same rule applies to parentheses (`(' and `)') and braces (`{'  and
       `}'):  they must appear either in balanced pairs or preceded by a back-
       slash, and backslashes that protect parentheses or braces  are  removed
       during parsing.  This is because parameter expansions may be surrounded
       by balanced braces, and subscript  flags  are  introduced  by  balanced
       parentheses.

       The  second  difference is that a double-quote (`"') may appear as part
       of a subscript expression without being preceded by  a  backslash,  and
       therefore  that the two characters `\"' remain as two characters in the
       subscript (in true double-quoting, `\"' becomes `"').  However, because
       of the standard shell quoting rules, any double-quotes that appear must
       occur in balanced pairs unless preceded by a backslash.  This makes  it
       more  difficult  to  write  a subscript expression that contains an odd
       number of double-quote characters, but the reason for  this  difference
       is  so  that  when  a  subscript  expression  appears  inside true dou-
       ble-quotes, one can still write `\"' (rather than `\\\"') for `"'.

       To use an odd number of double quotes as a key in  an  assignment,  use
       the typeset builtin and an enclosing pair of double quotes; to refer to
       the value of that key, again use double quotes:

              typeset -A aa
              typeset "aa[one\"two\"three\"quotes]"=QQQ
              print "$aa[one\"two\"three\"quotes]"

       It is important to note that the quoting rules do  not  change  when  a
       parameter expansion with a subscript is nested inside another subscript
       expression.  That is, it is not necessary to use additional backslashes
       within the inner subscript expression; they are removed only once, from
       the innermost subscript outwards.  Parameters are  also  expanded  from
       the innermost subscript first, as each expansion is encountered left to
       right in the outer expression.

       A further complication arises from a way in which subscript parsing  is
       not  different  from  double quote parsing.  As in true double-quoting,
       the sequences `\*', and `\@' remain as two characters when they  appear
       in  a subscript expression.  To use a literal `*' or `@' as an associa-
       tive array key, the `e' flag must be used:

              typeset -A aa
              aa[(e)*]=star
              print $aa[(e)*]

       A last detail must be considered  when  reverse  subscripting  is  per-
       formed.   Parameters  appearing  in  the subscript expression are first
       expanded and then the complete expression is interpreted as a  pattern.
       This has two effects: first, parameters behave as if GLOB_SUBST were on
       (and it cannot be turned  off);  second,  backslashes  are  interpreted
       twice, once when parsing the array subscript and again when parsing the
       pattern.  In a reverse subscript, it's  necessary  to  use  four  back-
       slashes  to cause a single backslash to match literally in the pattern.
       For complex patterns, it is often easiest to assign the desired pattern
       to  a  parameter  and  then  refer  to that parameter in the subscript,
       because then the backslashes, brackets,  parentheses,  etc.,  are  seen
       only  when the complete expression is converted to a pattern.  To match
       the value of a parameter literally in a reverse subscript, rather  than
       as  a  pattern, use `${(q)name}' (see zshexpn(1)) to quote the expanded
       value.

       Note that the `k' and `K' flags are reverse subscripting for  an  ordi-
       nary  array, but are not reverse subscripting for an associative array!
       (For an associative array, the keys in the array itself are interpreted
       as  patterns  by  those  flags; the subscript is a plain string in that
       case.)

       One final note, not directly related to subscripting: the numeric names
       of positional parameters (described below) are parsed specially, so for
       example `$2foo' is equivalent to `${2}foo'.   Therefore,  to  use  sub-
       script  syntax  to extract a substring from a positional parameter, the
       expansion must be surrounded by braces; for example, `${2[3,5]}' evalu-
       ates  to  the  third  through fifth characters of the second positional
       parameter, but `$2[3,5]' is the entire  second  parameter  concatenated
       with the filename generation pattern `[3,5]'.

POSITIONAL PARAMETERS
       The  positional parameters provide access to the command-line arguments
       of a shell function, shell script, or the shell itself; see the section
       `Invocation', and also the section `Functions'.  The parameter n, where
       n is a number, is the nth positional parameter.  The parameter `$0'  is
       a special case, see the section `Parameters Set By The Shell'.

       The  parameters  *, @ and argv are arrays containing all the positional
       parameters; thus `$argv[n]', etc., is equivalent to simply `$n'.   Note
       that the options KSH_ARRAYS or KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT apply to these arrays
       as well, so with either of those options set, `${argv[0]}'  is  equiva-
       lent to `$1' and so on.

       Positional parameters may be changed after the shell or function starts
       by using the set builtin, by assigning to the argv array, or by  direct
       assignment  of  the  form  `n=value' where n is the number of the posi-
       tional parameter to be changed.  This also creates (with empty  values)
       any of the positions from 1 to n that do not already have values.  Note
       that, because the positional parameters form an array, an array assign-
       ment  of  the  form  `n=(value  ...)' is allowed, and has the effect of
       shifting all the values at positions greater than n by  as  many  posi-
       tions as necessary to accommodate the new values.

LOCAL PARAMETERS
       Shell function executions delimit scopes for shell parameters.  (Param-
       eters are dynamically scoped.)  The typeset builtin, and  its  alterna-
       tive  forms  declare, integer, local and readonly (but not export), can
       be used to declare a parameter as being local to the innermost scope.

       When a parameter is read or assigned to, the innermost existing parame-
       ter  of  that  name  is  used.  (That is, the local parameter hides any
       less-local parameter.)  However, assigning to a non-existent parameter,
       or  declaring  a  new parameter with export, causes it to be created in
       the outermost scope.

       Local parameters disappear when their scope ends.  unset can be used to
       delete  a  parameter while it is still in scope; any outer parameter of
       the same name remains hidden.

       Special parameters may also be made local; they  retain  their  special
       attributes  unless  either  the existing or the newly-created parameter
       has the -h (hide) attribute.  This may have unexpected  effects:  there
       is  no  default  value,  so  if there is no assignment at the point the
       variable is made local, it will be set to an empty value  (or  zero  in
       the case of integers).  The following:

              typeset PATH=/new/directory:$PATH

       is  valid  for temporarily allowing the shell or programmes called from
       it to find the programs in /new/directory inside a function.

       Note that the restriction in older versions of zsh that  local  parame-
       ters were never exported has been removed.

PARAMETERS SET BY THE SHELL
       In  the  parameter lists that follow, the mark `<S>' indicates that the
       parameter is special.  `<Z>' indicates  that  the  parameter  does  not
       exist when the shell initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode.

       The following parameters are automatically set by the shell:

       ! <S>  The  process  ID  of  the last command started in the background
              with &, or put into the background with the bg builtin.

       # <S>  The number of positional parameters in decimal.  Note that  some
              confusion  may  occur  with the syntax $#param which substitutes
              the length of param.  Use ${#} to resolve ambiguities.  In  par-
              ticular,  the  sequence  `$#-...' in an arithmetic expression is
              interpreted as the length of the parameter -, q.v.

       ARGC <S> <Z>
              Same as #.

       $ <S>  The process ID of this shell.   Note  that  this  indicates  the
              original  shell  started  by  invoking zsh; all processes forked
              from the shells without executing a new program,  such  as  sub-
              shells started by (...), substitute the same value.

       - <S>  Flags  supplied  to  the  shell  on  invocation or by the set or
              setopt commands.

       * <S>  An array containing the positional parameters.

       argv <S> <Z>
              Same as *.  Assigning  to  argv  changes  the  local  positional
              parameters,  but argv is not itself a local parameter.  Deleting
              argv with unset in any function deletes it everywhere,  although
              only  the  innermost positional parameter array is deleted (so *
              and @ in other scopes are not affected).

       @ <S>  Same as argv[@], even when argv is not set.

       ? <S>  The exit status returned by the last command.

       0 <S>  The name used to invoke the current shell, or as set by  the  -c
              command  line  option  upon invocation.  If the FUNCTION_ARGZERO
              option is set, $0 is set upon entry to a shell function  to  the
              name  of the function, and upon entry to a sourced script to the
              name of the script, and reset to its  previous  value  when  the
              function or script returns.

       status <S> <Z>
              Same as ?.

       pipestatus <S> <Z>
              An  array  containing the exit statuses returned by all commands
              in the last pipeline.

       _ <S>  The last argument of the previous command.  Also, this parameter
              is  set in the environment of every command executed to the full
              pathname of the command.

       CPUTYPE
              The machine type (microprocessor class  or  machine  model),  as
              determined at run time.

       EGID <S>
              The effective group ID of the shell process.  If you have suffi-
              cient privileges, you may change the effective group ID  of  the
              shell  process  by  assigning to this parameter.  Also (assuming
              sufficient privileges), you may start a single  command  with  a
              different effective group ID by `(EGID=gid; command)'

              If this is made local, it is not implicitly set to 0, but may be
              explicitly set locally.

       EUID <S>
              The effective user ID of the shell process.  If you have  suffi-
              cient  privileges,  you  may change the effective user ID of the
              shell process by assigning to this  parameter.   Also  (assuming
              sufficient  privileges),  you  may start a single command with a
              different effective user ID by `(EUID=uid; command)'

              If this is made local, it is not implicitly set to 0, but may be
              explicitly set locally.

       ERRNO <S>
              The  value  of  errno (see errno(3)) as set by the most recently
              failed system call.  This  value  is  system  dependent  and  is
              intended  for  debugging  purposes.   It is also useful with the
              zsh/system module which allows the number to be  turned  into  a
              name or message.

       FUNCNEST <S>
              Integer.   If greater than or equal to zero, the maximum nesting
              depth of shell functions.  When it  is  exceeded,  an  error  is
              raised  at  the  point  where a function is called.  The default
              value is determined when the shell is configured, but  is  typi-
              cally  500.  Increasing the value increases the danger of a run-
              away function recursion causing the shell to crash.   Setting  a
              negative value turns off the check.

       GID <S>
              The  real group ID of the shell process.  If you have sufficient
              privileges, you may change the group ID of the shell process  by
              assigning  to  this parameter.  Also (assuming sufficient privi-
              leges), you may start a single command under a  different  group
              ID by `(GID=gid; command)'

              If this is made local, it is not implicitly set to 0, but may be
              explicitly set locally.

       HISTCMD
              The current history event number in  an  interactive  shell,  in
              other  words  the  event  number  for  the  command  that caused
              $HISTCMD to be read.  If the current history event modifies  the
              history,  HISTCMD  changes to the new maximum history event num-
              ber.

       HOST   The current hostname.

       LINENO <S>
              The line number of the current line within the  current  script,
              sourced  file,  or  shell function being executed, whichever was
              started most recently.  Note that in the case of shell functions
              the  line  number  refers  to the function as it appeared in the
              original definition, not necessarily as displayed by  the  func-
              tions builtin.

       LOGNAME
              If  the  corresponding variable is not set in the environment of
              the shell, it is initialized to the login name corresponding  to
              the current login session. This parameter is exported by default
              but this can be disabled using the typeset builtin.   The  value
              is  set to the string returned by the getlogin(3) system call if
              that is available.

       MACHTYPE
              The machine type (microprocessor class  or  machine  model),  as
              determined at compile time.

       OLDPWD The previous working directory.  This is set when the shell ini-
              tializes and whenever the directory changes.

       OPTARG <S>
              The value of the last option argument processed by  the  getopts
              command.

       OPTIND <S>
              The  index  of the last option argument processed by the getopts
              command.

       OSTYPE The operating system, as determined at compile time.

       PPID <S>
              The process ID of the parent of the shell.  As for $$, the value
              indicates  the  parent of the original shell and does not change
              in subshells.

       PWD    The present working directory.  This is set when the shell  ini-
              tializes and whenever the directory changes.

       RANDOM <S>
              A  pseudo-random  integer  from 0 to 32767, newly generated each
              time this parameter is referenced.  The random number  generator
              can be seeded by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM.

              The   values   of   RANDOM   form   an  intentionally-repeatable
              pseudo-random sequence; subshells  that  reference  RANDOM  will
              result  in  identical  pseudo-random  values unless the value of
              RANDOM is referenced or seeded in the parent  shell  in  between
              subshell invocations.

       SECONDS <S>
              The number of seconds since shell invocation.  If this parameter
              is assigned a value, then the value returned upon reference will
              be  the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since
              the assignment.

              Unlike other special parameters, the type of the SECONDS parame-
              ter  can be changed using the typeset command.  Only integer and
              one of the floating  point  types  are  allowed.   For  example,
              `typeset -F SECONDS' causes the value to be reported as a float-
              ing point number.  The value is available to  microsecond  accu-
              racy, although the shell may show more or fewer digits depending
              on the use of typeset.  See the documentation  for  the  builtin
              typeset in zshbuiltins(1) for more details.

       SHLVL <S>
              Incremented by one each time a new shell is started.

       signals
              An  array  containing  the names of the signals.  Note that with
              the standard zsh numbering of array  indices,  where  the  first
              element has index 1, the signals are offset by 1 from the signal
              number used by the operating system.  For  example,  on  typical
              Unix-like  systems HUP is signal number 1, but is referred to as
              $signals[2].  This is because of  EXIT  at  position  1  in  the
              array,  which  is used internally by zsh but is not known to the
              operating system.

       TRY_BLOCK_ERROR <S>
              In an always block, indicates whether the preceding list of code
              caused  an error.  The value is 1 to indicate an error, 0 other-
              wise.  It may be reset, clearing the error condition.  See  Com-
              plex Commands in zshmisc(1)

       TRY_BLOCK_INTERRUPT <S>
              This  variable  works  in  a similar way to TRY_BLOCK_ERROR, but
              represents the status of an interrupt from  the  signal  SIGINT,
              which  typically comes from the keyboard when the user types ^C.
              If set to 0, any such interrupt will be  reset;  otherwise,  the
              interrupt is propagated after the always block.

              Note  that  it  is possible that an interrupt arrives during the
              execution of the always block; this  interrupt  is  also  propa-
              gated.

       TTY    The name of the tty associated with the shell, if any.

       TTYIDLE <S>
              The idle time of the tty associated with the shell in seconds or
              -1 if there is no such tty.

       UID <S>
              The real user ID of the shell process.  If you  have  sufficient
              privileges, you may change the user ID of the shell by assigning
              to this parameter.  Also (assuming sufficient  privileges),  you
              may  start  a  single  command  under  a  different  user  ID by
              `(UID=uid; command)'

              If this is made local, it is not implicitly set to 0, but may be
              explicitly set locally.

       USERNAME <S>
              The  username  corresponding  to  the  real user ID of the shell
              process.  If you have sufficient privileges, you may change  the
              username  (and  also  the  user ID and group ID) of the shell by
              assigning to this parameter.  Also (assuming  sufficient  privi-
              leges),  you  may start a single command under a different user-
              name (and user ID and group  ID)  by  `(USERNAME=username;  com-
              mand)'

       VENDOR The vendor, as determined at compile time.

       zsh_eval_context <S> <Z> (ZSH_EVAL_CONTEXT <S>)
              An  array (colon-separated list) indicating the context of shell
              code that is being run.  Each time a piece of shell code that is
              stored  within  the  shell  is  executed a string is temporarily
              appended to the array to indicate the type of operation that  is
              being performed.  Read in order the array gives an indication of
              the stack of operations being performed with the most  immediate
              context last.

              Note  that  the  variable does not give information on syntactic
              context such as pipelines or subshells.   Use  $ZSH_SUBSHELL  to
              detect subshells.

              The context is one of the following:
              cmdarg Code  specified by the -c option to the command line that
                     invoked the shell.

              cmdsubst
                     Command substitution using the `...` or $(...) construct.

              equalsubst
                     File substitution using the =(...) construct.

              eval   Code executed by the eval builtin.

              evalautofunc
                     Code executed with the KSH_AUTOLOAD mechanism in order to
                     define an autoloaded function.

              fc     Code  from the shell history executed by the -e option to
                     the fc builtin.

              file   Lines of code being read directly from a file, for  exam-
                     ple by the source builtin.

              filecode
                     Lines  of  code  being  read  from a .zwc file instead of
                     directly from the source file.

              globqual
                     Code executed by the e or + glob qualifier.

              globsort
                     Code executed to order files by the o glob qualifier.

              insubst
                     File substitution using the <(...) construct.

              loadautofunc
                     Code read directly from a file to  define  an  autoloaded
                     function.

              outsubst
                     File substitution using the >(...) construct.

              sched  Code executed by the sched builtin.

              shfunc A shell function.

              stty   Code  passed  to  stty  by the STTY environment variable.
                     Normally this is passed directly  to  the  system's  stty
                     command,  so  this  value is unlikely to be seen in prac-
                     tice.

              style  Code executed as part of a style retrieved by the  zstyle
                     builtin from the zsh/zutil module.

              toplevel
                     The  highest  execution  level of a script or interactive
                     shell.

              trap   Code executed as a trap  defined  by  the  trap  builtin.
                     Traps  defined  as functions have the context shfunc.  As
                     traps are asynchronous they may have a different  hierar-
                     chy from other code.

              zpty   Code  executed by the zpty builtin from the zsh/zpty mod-
                     ule.

              zregexparse-guard
                     Code executed as a guard by the zregexparse command  from
                     the zsh/zutil module.

              zregexparse-action
                     Code  executed  as  an  action by the zregexparse command
                     from the zsh/zutil module.

       ZSH_ARGZERO
              If zsh was invoked to run a script, this  is  the  name  of  the
              script.   Otherwise,  it  is the name used to invoke the current
              shell.   This  is  the  same  as  the  value  of  $0  when   the
              POSIX_ARGZERO option is set, but is always available.

       ZSH_EXECUTION_STRING
              If  the  shell was started with the option -c, this contains the
              argument passed to the option.  Otherwise it is not set.

       ZSH_NAME
              Expands to the basename of  the  command  used  to  invoke  this
              instance of zsh.

       ZSH_PATCHLEVEL
              The  output  of `git describe --tags --long' for the zsh reposi-
              tory used to build the shell.  This is most useful in  order  to
              keep  track  of versions of the shell during development between
              releases; hence most users should not use it and should  instead
              rely on $ZSH_VERSION.

       zsh_scheduled_events
              See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ZSH_SCRIPT
              If  zsh  was  invoked  to  run a script, this is the name of the
              script, otherwise it is unset.

       ZSH_SUBSHELL
              Readonly integer.  Initially zero,  incremented  each  time  the
              shell  forks  to  create  a  subshell for executing code.  Hence
              `(print $ZSH_SUBSHELL)' and `print $(print $ZSH_SUBSHELL)'  out-
              put 1, while `( (print $ZSH_SUBSHELL) )' outputs 2.

       ZSH_VERSION
              The version number of the release of zsh.

PARAMETERS USED BY THE SHELL
       The following parameters are used by the shell.  Again, `<S>' indicates
       that the parameter is special and `<Z>' indicates  that  the  parameter
       does not exist when the shell initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode.

       In  cases  where  there are two parameters with an upper- and lowercase
       form of the same name, such as path and PATH, the lowercase form is  an
       array and the uppercase form is a scalar with the elements of the array
       joined together by colons.  These are similar to tied  parameters  cre-
       ated  via `typeset -T'.  The normal use for the colon-separated form is
       for exporting to the environment, while the array  form  is  easier  to
       manipulate  within  the  shell.  Note that unsetting either of the pair
       will unset the other; they retain their special properties when  recre-
       ated, and recreating one of the pair will recreate the other.

       ARGV0  If  exported,  its value is used as the argv[0] of external com-
              mands.  Usually used in constructs like `ARGV0=emacs nethack'.

       BAUD   The rate in bits per second at which data reaches the  terminal.
              The line editor will use this value in order to compensate for a
              slow terminal by delaying updates to the  display  until  neces-
              sary.   If  the parameter is unset or the value is zero the com-
              pensation mechanism is turned off.  The parameter is not set  by
              default.

              This parameter may be profitably set in some circumstances, e.g.
              for slow modems dialing into a communications server,  or  on  a
              slow  wide  area  network.  It should be set to the baud rate of
              the slowest part of the link for best performance.

       cdpath <S> <Z> (CDPATH <S>)
              An array (colon-separated list) of  directories  specifying  the
              search path for the cd command.

       COLUMNS <S>
              The  number  of  columns  for  this  terminal session.  Used for
              printing select lists and for the line editor.

       CORRECT_IGNORE
              If set, is treated as a pattern during spelling correction.  Any
              potential  correction  that matches the pattern is ignored.  For
              example, if the value is `_*' then completion functions  (which,
              by  convention,  have  names  beginning  with `_') will never be
              offered as spelling corrections.  The pattern does not apply  to
              the  correction  of  file  names,  as applied by the CORRECT_ALL
              option (so with the example just given files beginning with  `_'
              in the current directory would still be completed).

       CORRECT_IGNORE_FILE
              If  set,  is  treated as a pattern during spelling correction of
              file names.  Any file name that matches  the  pattern  is  never
              offered as a correction.  For example, if the value is `.*' then
              dot file names will never be offered  as  spelling  corrections.
              This is useful with the CORRECT_ALL option.

       DIRSTACKSIZE
              The  maximum size of the directory stack, by default there is no
              limit.  If the stack gets larger than this, it will be truncated
              automatically.  This is useful with the AUTO_PUSHD option.

       ENV    If the ENV environment variable is set when zsh is invoked as sh
              or ksh, $ENV is sourced after the profile scripts.  The value of
              ENV  is  subjected to parameter expansion, command substitution,
              and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname.
              Note  that  ENV  is not used unless the shell is interactive and
              zsh is emulating sh or ksh.

       FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin.  If FCEDIT  is  not  set,
              the  parameter  EDITOR  is  used;  if  that is not set either, a
              builtin default, usually vi, is used.

       fignore <S> <Z> (FIGNORE <S>)
              An array (colon separated list) containing the suffixes of files
              to  be  ignored during filename completion.  However, if comple-
              tion only generates files with suffixes in this list, then these
              files are completed anyway.

       fpath <S> <Z> (FPATH <S>)
              An  array  (colon  separated list) of directories specifying the
              search path for function definitions.   This  path  is  searched
              when a function with the -u attribute is referenced.  If an exe-
              cutable file is found, then it is read and executed in the  cur-
              rent environment.

       histchars <S>
              Three  characters used by the shell's history and lexical analy-
              sis mechanism.  The first character signals the start of a  his-
              tory  expansion (default `!').  The second character signals the
              start of a quick history substitution (default `^').  The  third
              character is the comment character (default `#').

              The  characters  must be in the ASCII character set; any attempt
              to set histchars to characters with a  locale-dependent  meaning
              will be rejected with an error message.

       HISTCHARS <S> <Z>
              Same as histchars.  (Deprecated.)

       HISTFILE
              The file to save the history in when an interactive shell exits.
              If unset, the history is not saved.

       HISTORY_IGNORE
              If set, is treated as a pattern at the time  history  files  are
              written.   Any  potential history entry that matches the pattern
              is skipped.  For example, if the value is `fc *'  then  commands
              that  invoke the interactive history editor are never written to
              the history file.

              Note that HISTORY_IGNORE defines a single  pattern:  to  specify
              alternatives use the `(first|second|...)' syntax.

              Compare  the  HIST_NO_STORE  option  or  the zshaddhistory hook,
              either of which would prevent such commands from being added  to
              the  interactive  history  at  all.   If  you  wish  to use HIS-
              TORY_IGNORE to stop history being added in the first place,  you
              can define the following hook:

                     zshaddhistory() {
                       emulate -L zsh
                       ## uncomment if HISTORY_IGNORE
                       ## should use EXTENDED_GLOB syntax
                       # setopt extendedglob
                       [[ $1 != ${~HISTORY_IGNORE} ]]
                     }

       HISTSIZE <S>
              The  maximum  number  of  events  stored in the internal history
              list.  If you use  the  HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST  option,  setting
              this  value larger than the SAVEHIST size will give you the dif-
              ference as a cushion for saving duplicated history events.

              If this is made local, it is not implicitly set to 0, but may be
              explicitly set locally.

       HOME <S>
              The  default argument for the cd command.  This is not set auto-
              matically by the shell in sh, ksh or csh emulation,  but  it  is
              typically  present  in the environment anyway, and if it becomes
              set it has its usual special behaviour.

       IFS <S>
              Internal field separators (by default space,  tab,  newline  and
              NUL),  that are used to separate words which result from command
              or parameter expansion and words read by the read builtin.   Any
              characters  from  the  set space, tab and newline that appear in
              the IFS are called IFS white space.  One or more IFS white space
              characters  or  one  non-IFS white space character together with
              any adjacent IFS white space character delimit a field.   If  an
              IFS  white  space  character  appears twice consecutively in the
              IFS, this character is treated as if it were not  an  IFS  white
              space character.

              If the parameter is unset, the default is used.  Note this has a
              different effect from setting the parameter to an empty string.

       KEYBOARD_HACK
              This variable defines a character to be removed from the end  of
              the  command  line  before  interpreting  it (interactive shells
              only). It is intended to fix the problem with keys placed annoy-
              ingly  close  to  return and replaces the SUNKEYBOARDHACK option
              which did this for backquotes only.  Should the chosen character
              be one of singlequote, doublequote or backquote, there must also
              be an odd number of them on the command line for the last one to
              be removed.

              For  backward  compatibility,  if  the SUNKEYBOARDHACK option is
              explicitly set, the value of KEYBOARD_HACK reverts to backquote.
              If  the  option  is  explicitly  unset,  this variable is set to
              empty.

       KEYTIMEOUT
              The time the shell waits, in hundredths of seconds, for  another
              key to be pressed when reading bound multi-character sequences.

       LANG <S>
              This  variable  determines  the locale category for any category
              not specifically selected via a variable starting with `LC_'.

       LC_ALL <S>
              This variable overrides the value of the `LANG' variable and the
              value of any of the other variables starting with `LC_'.

       LC_COLLATE <S>
              This  variable determines the locale category for character col-
              lation information within ranges in glob brackets and for  sort-
              ing.

       LC_CTYPE <S>
              This  variable determines the locale category for character han-
              dling functions.  If the MULTIBYTE  option  is  in  effect  this
              variable  or LANG should contain a value that reflects the char-
              acter set in use, even if it is  a  single-byte  character  set,
              unless  only  the 7-bit subset (ASCII) is used.  For example, if
              the character set is  ISO-8859-1,  a  suitable  value  might  be
              en_US.iso88591  (certain Linux distributions) or en_US.ISO8859-1
              (MacOS).

       LC_MESSAGES <S>
              This variable determines the language in which  messages  should
              be written.  Note that zsh does not use message catalogs.

       LC_NUMERIC <S>
              This  variable affects the decimal point character and thousands
              separator character for the formatted input/output functions and
              string conversion functions.  Note that zsh ignores this setting
              when parsing floating point mathematical expressions.

       LC_TIME <S>
              This variable determines the locale category for date  and  time
              formatting in prompt escape sequences.

       LINES <S>
              The  number of lines for this terminal session.  Used for print-
              ing select lists and for the line editor.

       LISTMAX
              In the line editor, the number of matches to list without asking
              first.  If  the  value is negative, the list will be shown if it
              spans at most as many lines as given by the absolute value.   If
              set to zero, the shell asks only if the top of the listing would
              scroll off the screen.

       LOGCHECK
              The interval in seconds between checks for login/logout activity
              using the watch parameter.

       MAIL   If  this  parameter  is  set  and mailpath is not set, the shell
              looks for mail in the specified file.

       MAILCHECK
              The interval in seconds between checks for new mail.

       mailpath <S> <Z> (MAILPATH <S>)
              An array (colon-separated list) of filenames to  check  for  new
              mail.  Each filename can be followed by a `?' and a message that
              will be printed.  The message will undergo parameter  expansion,
              command  substitution and arithmetic expansion with the variable
              $_ defined as the name  of  the  file  that  has  changed.   The
              default  message  is  `You  have  new mail'.  If an element is a
              directory instead of a file the  shell  will  recursively  check
              every file in every subdirectory of the element.

       manpath <S> <Z> (MANPATH <S> <Z>)
              An  array  (colon-separated list) whose value is not used by the
              shell.  The manpath array can be useful, however, since  setting
              it also sets MANPATH, and vice versa.

       match
       mbegin
       mend   Arrays set by the shell when the b globbing flag is used in pat-
              tern matches.  See the subsection Globbing flags in the documen-
              tation for Filename Generation in zshexpn(1).

       MATCH
       MBEGIN
       MEND   Set  by  the  shell  when the m globbing flag is used in pattern
              matches.  See the subsection Globbing flags in the documentation
              for Filename Generation in zshexpn(1).

       module_path <S> <Z> (MODULE_PATH <S>)
              An  array  (colon-separated  list)  of directories that zmodload
              searches for dynamically loadable modules.  This is  initialized
              to  a  standard  pathname, usually `/usr/local/lib/zsh/$ZSH_VER-
              SION'.  (The `/usr/local/lib' part varies from  installation  to
              installation.)  For security reasons, any value set in the envi-
              ronment when the shell is started will be ignored.

              These parameters only exist if the installation supports dynamic
              module loading.

       NULLCMD <S>
              The command name to assume if a redirection is specified with no
              command.  Defaults to cat.  For sh/ksh behavior, change this  to
              :.   For csh-like behavior, unset this parameter; the shell will
              print an error message if null commands are entered.

       path <S> <Z> (PATH <S>)
              An array (colon-separated list) of  directories  to  search  for
              commands.  When this parameter is set, each directory is scanned
              and all files found are put in a hash table.

       POSTEDIT <S>
              This string is output whenever the line editor exits.   It  usu-
              ally contains termcap strings to reset the terminal.

       PROMPT <S> <Z>
       PROMPT2 <S> <Z>
       PROMPT3 <S> <Z>
       PROMPT4 <S> <Z>
              Same as PS1, PS2, PS3 and PS4, respectively.

       prompt <S> <Z>
              Same as PS1.

       PROMPT_EOL_MARK
              When   the   PROMPT_CR   and  PROMPT_SP  options  are  set,  the
              PROMPT_EOL_MARK parameter can be used to customize how  the  end
              of  partial  lines  are  shown.  This parameter undergoes prompt
              expansion, with the PROMPT_PERCENT option set.  If not set,  the
              default behavior is equivalent to the value `%B%S%#%s%b'.

       PS1 <S>
              The primary prompt string, printed before a command is read.  It
              undergoes a special form of expansion  before  being  displayed;
              see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The default is
              `%m%# '.

       PS2 <S>
              The secondary prompt, printed when the shell needs more informa-
              tion  to  complete a command.  It is expanded in the same way as
              PS1.  The default is `%_> ', which displays any shell constructs
              or quotation marks which are currently being processed.

       PS3 <S>
              Selection  prompt  used within a select loop.  It is expanded in
              the same way as PS1.  The default is `?# '.

       PS4 <S>
              The execution trace prompt.  Default is `+%N:%i> ',  which  dis-
              plays  the name of the current shell structure and the line num-
              ber within it.  In sh or ksh emulation, the default is `+ '.

       psvar <S> <Z> (PSVAR <S>)
              An array (colon-separated list) whose elements can  be  used  in
              PROMPT strings.  Setting psvar also sets PSVAR, and vice versa.

       READNULLCMD <S>
              The  command  name  to  assume  if a single input redirection is
              specified with no command.  Defaults to more.

       REPORTMEMORY
              If  nonnegative,  commands  whose  maximum  resident  set   size
              (roughly  speaking,  main  memory usage) in kilobytes is greater
              than this value have timing  statistics  reported.   The  format
              used to output statistics is the value of the TIMEFMT parameter,
              which is the same as for the REPORTTIME variable  and  the  time
              builtin; note that by default this does not output memory usage.
              Appending " max RSS %M" to the value of  TIMEFMT  causes  it  to
              output  the  value  that triggered the report.  If REPORTTIME is
              also in use, at most a single report is printed for  both  trig-
              gers.   This  feature requires the getrusage() system call, com-
              monly supported by modern Unix-like systems.

       REPORTTIME
              If nonnegative, commands whose combined user and  system  execu-
              tion  times  (measured  in  seconds) are greater than this value
              have timing statistics printed for them.  Output  is  suppressed
              for  commands executed within the line editor, including comple-
              tion; commands explicitly marked with  the  time  keyword  still
              cause the summary to be printed in this case.

       REPLY  This  parameter  is reserved by convention to pass string values
              between shell scripts and shell builtins in situations  where  a
              function call or redirection are impossible or undesirable.  The
              read builtin and the select complex command may set  REPLY,  and
              filename generation both sets and examines its value when evalu-
              ating certain expressions.  Some modules also employ  REPLY  for
              similar purposes.

       reply  As REPLY, but for array values rather than strings.

       RPROMPT <S>
       RPS1 <S>
              This  prompt  is  displayed on the right-hand side of the screen
              when the primary prompt is being displayed on  the  left.   This
              does  not  work  if  the  SINGLE_LINE_ZLE  option is set.  It is
              expanded in the same way as PS1.

       RPROMPT2 <S>
       RPS2 <S>
              This prompt is displayed on the right-hand side  of  the  screen
              when  the secondary prompt is being displayed on the left.  This
              does not work if the  SINGLE_LINE_ZLE  option  is  set.   It  is
              expanded in the same way as PS2.

       SAVEHIST
              The  maximum  number  of  history  events to save in the history
              file.

              If this is made local, it is not implicitly set to 0, but may be
              explicitly set locally.

       SPROMPT <S>
              The  prompt  used  for  spelling  correction.  The sequence `%R'
              expands to the string which presumably  needs  spelling  correc-
              tion,  and  `%r'  expands to the proposed correction.  All other
              prompt escapes are also allowed.

              The actions available at the prompt are [nyae]:
              n (`no') (default)
                     Discard the correction and run the command.
              y (`yes')
                     Make the correction and run the command.
              a (`abort')
                     Discard the entire command line without running it.
              e (`edit')
                     Resume editing the command line.

       STTY   If this parameter is set in a command's environment,  the  shell
              runs  the stty command with the value of this parameter as argu-
              ments in order to set up the terminal before executing the  com-
              mand. The modes apply only to the command, and are reset when it
              finishes or is suspended. If the command is suspended  and  con-
              tinued  later with the fg or wait builtins it will see the modes
              specified by STTY, as if it were not  suspended.   This  (inten-
              tionally)  does  not apply if the command is continued via `kill
              -CONT'.  STTY is ignored if the command  is  run  in  the  back-
              ground,  or  if  it  is  in the environment of the shell but not
              explicitly assigned to in the input line.  This  avoids  running
              stty  at  every  external  command by accidentally exporting it.
              Also note that STTY should not be used for window size  specifi-
              cations; these will not be local to the command.

       TERM <S>
              The type of terminal in use.  This is used when looking up term-
              cap sequences.  An assignment to TERM causes zsh to  re-initial-
              ize  the  terminal,  even  if  the  value does not change (e.g.,
              `TERM=$TERM').  It is necessary to make such an assignment  upon
              any  change to the terminal definition database or terminal type
              in order for the new settings to take effect.

       TERMINFO <S>
              A reference to your terminfo database, used  by  the  `terminfo'
              library  when  the system has it; see terminfo(5).  If set, this
              causes the shell to reinitialise the terminal, making the  work-
              around `TERM=$TERM' unnecessary.

       TERMINFO_DIRS <S>
              A colon-seprarated list of terminfo databases, used by the `ter-
              minfo' library when the system has  it;  see  terminfo(5).  This
              variable is only used by certain terminal libraries, in particu-
              lar ncurses; see terminfo(5) to check support  on  your  system.
              If set, this causes the shell to reinitialise the terminal, mak-
              ing the workaround `TERM=$TERM' unnecessary.  Note  that  unlike
              other colon-separated arrays this is not tied to a zsh array.

       TIMEFMT
              The  format  of process time reports with the time keyword.  The
              default is `%J  %U user %S system %P cpu %*E total'.  Recognizes
              the  following  escape sequences, although not all may be avail-
              able on all systems, and some that are available may not be use-
              ful:

              %%     A `%'.
              %U     CPU seconds spent in user mode.
              %S     CPU seconds spent in kernel mode.
              %E     Elapsed time in seconds.
              %P     The CPU percentage, computed as 100*(%U+%S)/%E.
              %W     Number of times the process was swapped.
              %X     The  average  amount in (shared) text space used in kilo-
                     bytes.
              %D     The average amount in (unshared) data/stack space used in
                     kilobytes.
              %K     The total space used (%X+%D) in kilobytes.
              %M     The  maximum memory the process had in use at any time in
                     kilobytes.
              %F     The number of  major  page  faults  (page  needed  to  be
                     brought from disk).
              %R     The number of minor page faults.
              %I     The number of input operations.
              %O     The number of output operations.
              %r     The number of socket messages received.
              %s     The number of socket messages sent.
              %k     The number of signals received.
              %w     Number of voluntary context switches (waits).
              %c     Number of involuntary context switches.
              %J     The name of this job.

              A star may be inserted between the percent sign and flags print-
              ing time (e.g., `%*E'); this causes the time to  be  printed  in
              `hh:mm:ss.ttt'  format  (hours  and  minutes are only printed if
              they are not zero).  Alternatively,  `m'  or  `u'  may  be  used
              (e.g.,   `%mE')  to  produce  time  output  in  milliseconds  or
              microseconds, respectively.

       TMOUT  If this parameter is nonzero, the shell  will  receive  an  ALRM
              signal  if  a command is not entered within the specified number
              of seconds after issuing  a  prompt.  If  there  is  a  trap  on
              SIGALRM,  it will be executed and a new alarm is scheduled using
              the value of the TMOUT parameter after executing the  trap.   If
              no  trap  is  set, and the idle time of the terminal is not less
              than the value of the TMOUT parameter, zsh  terminates.   Other-
              wise  a  new  alarm is scheduled to TMOUT seconds after the last
              keypress.

       TMPPREFIX
              A pathname prefix which the shell will  use  for  all  temporary
              files.   Note  that  this should include an initial part for the
              file name as well  as  any  directory  names.   The  default  is
              `/tmp/zsh'.

       TMPSUFFIX
              A  filename  suffix which the shell will use for temporary files
              created by process substitutions (e.g., `=(list)').   Note  that
              the  value  should  include  a leading dot `.' if intended to be
              interpreted as a file extension.  The default is not  to  append
              any  suffix,  thus  this  parameter should be assigned only when
              needed and then unset again.

       watch <S> <Z> (WATCH <S>)
              An  array  (colon-separated  list)  of  login/logout  events  to
              report.

              If  it  contains  the  single  word `all', then all login/logout
              events are reported.  If it contains the  single  word  `notme',
              then all events are reported as with `all' except $USERNAME.

              An entry in this list may consist of a username, an `@' followed
              by a remote hostname, and a `%' followed by a line  (tty).   Any
              of  these  may  be  a  pattern (be sure to quote this during the
              assignment to watch so that it does not immediately perform file
              generation);   the   setting  of  the  EXTENDED_GLOB  option  is
              respected.  Any or all of these components may be present in  an
              entry;  if  a  login/logout  event  matches  all  of them, it is
              reported.

              For example, with the EXTENDED_GLOB option set, the following:

                     watch=('^(pws|barts)')

              causes reports for activity assoicated with any user other  than
              pws or barts.

       WATCHFMT
              The  format  of  login/logout  reports if the watch parameter is
              set.  Default is `%n has %a %l from %m'.  Recognizes the follow-
              ing escape sequences:

              %n     The name of the user that logged in/out.

              %a     The observed action, i.e. "logged on" or "logged off".

              %l     The line (tty) the user is logged in on.

              %M     The full hostname of the remote host.

              %m     The hostname up to the first `.'.  If only the IP address
                     is available or the utmp field contains the  name  of  an
                     X-windows display, the whole name is printed.

                     NOTE:  The  `%m' and `%M' escapes will work only if there
                     is a host name field in the utmp on your machine.  Other-
                     wise they are treated as ordinary strings.

              %S (%s)
                     Start (stop) standout mode.

              %U (%u)
                     Start (stop) underline mode.

              %B (%b)
                     Start (stop) boldface mode.

              %t
              %@     The time, in 12-hour, am/pm format.

              %T     The time, in 24-hour format.

              %w     The date in `day-dd' format.

              %W     The date in `mm/dd/yy' format.

              %D     The date in `yy-mm-dd' format.

              %D{string}
                     The date formatted as string using the strftime function,
                     with zsh extensions as described by EXPANSION  OF  PROMPT
                     SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

              %(x:true-text:false-text)
                     Specifies  a ternary expression.  The character following
                     the x is arbitrary; the same character is used  to  sepa-
                     rate  the  text  for  the "true" result from that for the
                     "false" result.  Both the separator and the right  paren-
                     thesis  may be escaped with a backslash.  Ternary expres-
                     sions may be nested.

                     The test character x may be any one of `l', `n',  `m'  or
                     `M',  which indicate a `true' result if the corresponding
                     escape sequence would return a non-empty value; or it may
                     be  `a',  which  indicates a `true' result if the watched
                     user has logged in, or `false'  if  he  has  logged  out.
                     Other  characters evaluate to neither true nor false; the
                     entire expression is omitted in this case.

                     If the result is `true', then the true-text is  formatted
                     according  to  the  rules  above  and  printed,  and  the
                     false-text is skipped.   If  `false',  the  true-text  is
                     skipped  and  the  false-text  is  formatted and printed.
                     Either or both of the branches may  be  empty,  but  both
                     separators must be present in any case.

       WORDCHARS <S>
              A  list of non-alphanumeric characters considered part of a word
              by the line editor.

       ZBEEP  If set, this gives a string of characters, which can use all the
              same  codes  as  the bindkey command as described in the zsh/zle
              module entry in zshmodules(1), that will be output to the termi-
              nal  instead  of beeping.  This may have a visible instead of an
              audible effect; for example,  the  string  `\e[?5h\e[?5l'  on  a
              vt100 or xterm will have the effect of flashing reverse video on
              and off (if you usually use reverse video, you  should  use  the
              string  `\e[?5l\e[?5h' instead).  This takes precedence over the
              NOBEEP option.

       ZDOTDIR
              The directory to search for shell startup files  (.zshrc,  etc),
              if not $HOME.

       zle_bracketed_paste
              Many  terminal emulators have a feature that allows applications
              to identify when text is pasted into the  terminal  rather  than
              being  typed  normally. For ZLE, this means that special charac-
              ters such as tabs and newlines can be inserted instead of invok-
              ing  editor  commands.   Furthermore, pasted text forms a single
              undo event and if the region is active, pasted text will replace
              the region.

              This  two-element  array  contains the terminal escape sequences
              for enabling and disabling the feature. These  escape  sequences
              are  used  to enable bracketed paste when ZLE is active and dis-
              able it at other times.  Unsetting the parameter has the  effect
              of ensuring that bracketed paste remains disabled.

       zle_highlight
              An  array  describing contexts in which ZLE should highlight the
              input text.  See Character Highlighting in zshzle(1).

       ZLE_LINE_ABORTED
              This parameter is set by the line editor when an  error  occurs.
              It  contains  the line that was being edited at the point of the
              error.  `print -zr -- $ZLE_LINE_ABORTED' can be used to  recover
              the line.  Only the most recent line of this kind is remembered.

       ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS
       ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS
              These  parameters  are used by the line editor.  In certain cir-
              cumstances suffixes (typically space or slash) added by the com-
              pletion system will be removed automatically, either because the
              next editing command was not an insertable character, or because
              the character was marked as requiring the suffix to be removed.

              These  variables  can  contain  the sets of characters that will
              cause the suffix to be removed.  If  ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS  is
              set,  those  characters  will cause the suffix to be removed; if
              ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS is set, those characters will  cause  the
              suffix to be removed and replaced by a space.

              If  ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS is not set, the default behaviour is
              equivalent to:

                     ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS=$' \t\n;&|'

              If ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS is set but is  empty,  no  characters
              have  this  behaviour.  ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS takes precedence,
              so that the following:

                     ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS=$'&|'

              causes the characters `&' and `|' to remove the  suffix  but  to
              replace it with a space.

              To   illustrate   the   difference,   suppose  that  the  option
              AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH is in effect and the directory  DIR  has  just
              been  completed,  with  an  appended /, following which the user
              types `&'.  The default result is `DIR&'.  With  ZLE_REMOVE_SUF-
              FIX_CHARS  set  but without including `&' the result is `DIR/&'.
              With ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS set to include  `&'  the  result  is
              `DIR &'.

              Note  that  certain  completions  may  provide  their own suffix
              removal or replacement  behaviour  which  overrides  the  values
              described here.  See the completion system documentation in zsh-
              compsys(1).

       ZLE_RPROMPT_INDENT <S>
              If set, used to give the indentation between the right hand side
              of  the  right  prompt  in  the  line editor as given by RPS1 or
              RPROMPT and the right hand side of the screen.  If not set,  the
              value 1 is used.

              Typically  this  will  be used to set the value to 0 so that the
              prompt appears flush with the right hand  side  of  the  screen.
              This  is  not  the  default as many terminals do not handle this
              correctly, in particular when the prompt appears at the  extreme
              bottom  right  of the screen.  Recent virtual terminals are more
              likely to handle this case correctly.  Some  experimentation  is
              necessary.



ZSHOPTIONS(1)               General Commands Manual              ZSHOPTIONS(1)



NAME
       zshoptions - zsh options

SPECIFYING OPTIONS
       Options are primarily referred to by name.  These names are case insen-
       sitive and underscores are ignored.  For example, `allexport' is equiv-
       alent to `A__lleXP_ort'.

       The  sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with `no',
       so `setopt No_Beep' is equivalent to `unsetopt beep'.   This  inversion
       can only be done once, so `nonobeep' is not a synonym for `beep'.  Sim-
       ilarly, `tify' is not  a  synonym  for  `nonotify'  (the  inversion  of
       `notify').

       Some  options also have one or more single letter names.  There are two
       sets of single letter options: one used by default, and another used to
       emulate  sh/ksh  (used  when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set).  The
       single letter options can be used on the shell command  line,  or  with
       the  set, setopt and unsetopt builtins, as normal Unix options preceded
       by `-'.

       The sense of the single letter options may be  inverted  by  using  `+'
       instead  of  `-'.   Some  of the single letter option names refer to an
       option being off, in which case the inversion of that  name  refers  to
       the  option  being  on.  For example, `+n' is the short name of `exec',
       and `-n' is the short name of its inversion, `noexec'.

       In strings of single letter options supplied to the shell  at  startup,
       trailing  whitespace  will  be ignored; for example the string `-f    '
       will be treated just as `-f', but the string `-f i' is an error.   This
       is  because many systems which implement the `#!' mechanism for calling
       scripts do not strip trailing whitespace.

DESCRIPTION OF OPTIONS
       In the following list, options set by default  in  all  emulations  are
       marked  <D>;  those  set by default only in csh, ksh, sh, or zsh emula-
       tions are marked <C>, <K>,  <S>,  <Z>  as  appropriate.   When  listing
       options  (by  `setopt', `unsetopt', `set -o' or `set +o'), those turned
       on by default appear in the list prefixed  with  `no'.   Hence  (unless
       KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set), `setopt' shows all options whose settings are
       changed from the default.

   Changing Directories
       AUTO_CD (-J)
              If a command is issued that can't be executed as a  normal  com-
              mand, and the command is the name of a directory, perform the cd
              command to that directory.  This option is  only  applicable  if
              the  option  SHIN_STDIN  is set, i.e. if commands are being read
              from standard input.  The option  is  designed  for  interactive
              use;  it is recommended that cd be used explicitly in scripts to
              avoid ambiguity.

       AUTO_PUSHD (-N)
              Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack.

       CDABLE_VARS (-T)
              If the argument to a cd command  (or  an  implied  cd  with  the
              AUTO_CD  option set) is not a directory, and does not begin with
              a slash, try to expand the expression as if it were preceded  by
              a `~' (see the section `Filename Expansion').

       CHASE_DOTS
              When  changing  to  a  directory  containing a path segment `..'
              which would otherwise be treated as canceling the previous  seg-
              ment in the path (in other words, `foo/..' would be removed from
              the path, or if `..' is the first part of  the  path,  the  last
              part of the current working directory would be removed), instead
              resolve the path to the  physical  directory.   This  option  is
              overridden by CHASE_LINKS.

              For  example,  suppose  /foo/bar  is  a  link  to  the directory
              /alt/rod.  Without this option set, `cd /foo/bar/..' changes  to
              /foo;  with it set, it changes to /alt.  The same applies if the
              current directory is /foo/bar and `cd ..' is  used.   Note  that
              all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved.

       CHASE_LINKS (-w)
              Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing direc-
              tory.  This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS, i.e. a `..'  path
              segment  will  be  treated  as referring to the physical parent,
              even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link.

       POSIX_CD <K> <S>
              Modifies the behaviour of cd, chdir and pushd commands  to  make
              them more compatible with the POSIX standard. The behaviour with
              the option unset is described in the documentation  for  the  cd
              builtin in zshbuiltins(1).  If the option is set, the shell does
              not test for directories beneath the local directory (`.') until
              after all directories in cdpath have been tested.

              Also, if the option is set, the conditions under which the shell
              prints the new directory after changing to it are modified.   It
              is no longer restricted to interactive shells (although printing
              of the directory stack with pushd is still limited  to  interac-
              tive  shells); and any use of a component of CDPATH, including a
              `.' but excluding an empty component that is  otherwise  treated
              as `.', causes the directory to be printed.

       PUSHD_IGNORE_DUPS
              Don't push multiple copies of the same directory onto the direc-
              tory stack.

       PUSHD_MINUS
              Exchanges the meanings of `+' and `-' when used with a number to
              specify a directory in the stack.

       PUSHD_SILENT (-E)
              Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd.

       PUSHD_TO_HOME (-D)
              Have pushd with no arguments act like `pushd $HOME'.

   Completion
       ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT <D>
              If  unset,  key functions that list completions try to return to
              the last prompt if given a numeric argument. If set these  func-
              tions try to return to the last prompt if given no numeric argu-
              ment.

       ALWAYS_TO_END
              If a completion is performed with the cursor within a word,  and
              a full completion is inserted, the cursor is moved to the end of
              the word.  That is, the cursor is moved to the end of  the  word
              if  either a single match is inserted or menu completion is per-
              formed.

       AUTO_LIST (-9) <D>
              Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion.

       AUTO_MENU <D>
              Automatically use menu completion after the  second  consecutive
              request  for  completion,  for  example  by pressing the tab key
              repeatedly. This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE.

       AUTO_NAME_DIRS
              Any parameter that is set to the absolute name  of  a  directory
              immediately becomes a name for that directory, that will be used
              by the `%~' and related prompt sequences, and will be  available
              when completion is performed on a word starting with `~'.  (Oth-
              erwise, the parameter must be used in the form `~param' first.)

       AUTO_PARAM_KEYS <D>
              If a parameter name was  completed  and  a  following  character
              (normally  a space) automatically inserted, and the next charac-
              ter typed is one of those that have to come directly  after  the
              name (like `}', `:', etc.), the automatically added character is
              deleted, so that the character typed comes immediately after the
              parameter  name.   Completion  in  a brace expansion is affected
              similarly: the added character is a `,', which will  be  removed
              if `}' is typed next.

       AUTO_PARAM_SLASH <D>
              If  a  parameter  is  completed  whose  content is the name of a
              directory, then add a trailing slash instead of a space.

       AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH <D>
              When the last character resulting from a completion is  a  slash
              and  the next character typed is a word delimiter, a slash, or a
              character that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an  amper-
              sand), remove the slash.

       BASH_AUTO_LIST
              On  an ambiguous completion, automatically list choices when the
              completion function is called twice in succession.   This  takes
              precedence  over  AUTO_LIST.   The  setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS is
              respected.  If AUTO_MENU is set, the menu  behaviour  will  then
              start  with  the third press.  Note that this will not work with
              MENU_COMPLETE, since repeated completion calls immediately cycle
              through the list in that case.

       COMPLETE_ALIASES
              Prevents  aliases on the command line from being internally sub-
              stituted before completion is attempted.  The effect is to  make
              the alias a distinct command for completion purposes.

       COMPLETE_IN_WORD
              If unset, the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion
              is started. Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from
              both ends.

       GLOB_COMPLETE
              When  the current word has a glob pattern, do not insert all the
              words resulting from the expansion but generate matches  as  for
              completion  and  cycle  through  them  like  MENU_COMPLETE.  The
              matches are generated as if a `*' was added to the  end  of  the
              word,  or  inserted  at the cursor when COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set.
              This actually uses pattern matching, not globbing, so  it  works
              not only for files but for any completion, such as options, user
              names, etc.

              Note that when the pattern matcher  is  used,  matching  control
              (for  example,  case-insensitive or anchored matching) cannot be
              used.  This limitation only applies when the current  word  con-
              tains a pattern; simply turning on the GLOB_COMPLETE option does
              not have this effect.

       HASH_LIST_ALL <D>
              Whenever  a  command  completion  or  spelling   correction   is
              attempted,  make  sure  the entire command path is hashed first.
              This makes the first completion slower but avoids false  reports
              of spelling errors.

       LIST_AMBIGUOUS <D>
              This  option works when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set.
              If there is an unambiguous prefix to insert on the command line,
              that is done without a completion list being displayed; in other
              words, auto-listing behaviour  only  takes  place  when  nothing
              would  be  inserted.   In the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST, this means
              that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function.

       LIST_BEEP <D>
              Beep on an ambiguous completion.  More accurately,  this  forces
              the  completion  widgets to return status 1 on an ambiguous com-
              pletion, which causes the shell to beep if the  option  BEEP  is
              also  set;  this  may be modified if completion is called from a
              user-defined widget.

       LIST_PACKED
              Try to make the completion list smaller (occupying  less  lines)
              by printing the matches in columns with different widths.

       LIST_ROWS_FIRST
              Lay  out  the  matches  in completion lists sorted horizontally,
              that is, the second match is to the right of the first one,  not
              under it as usual.

       LIST_TYPES (-X) <D>
              When  listing files that are possible completions, show the type
              of each file with a trailing identifying mark.

       MENU_COMPLETE (-Y)
              On an ambiguous completion, instead of listing possibilities  or
              beeping,  insert the first match immediately.  Then when comple-
              tion is requested again, remove the first match and  insert  the
              second  match,  etc.  When there are no more matches, go back to
              the first one again.  reverse-menu-complete may be used to  loop
              through  the  list in the other direction. This option overrides
              AUTO_MENU.

       REC_EXACT (-S)
              If the string on the command line exactly  matches  one  of  the
              possible  completions,  it is accepted, even if there is another
              completion (i.e. that string with  something  else  added)  that
              also matches.

   Expansion and Globbing
       BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z>
              If  a  pattern for filename generation is badly formed, print an
              error message.  (If this option is unset, the  pattern  will  be
              left unchanged.)

       BARE_GLOB_QUAL <Z>
              In  a  glob  pattern,  treat  a trailing set of parentheses as a
              qualifier list, if it contains no `|', `(' or (if  special)  `~'
              characters.  See the section `Filename Generation'.

       BRACE_CCL
              Expand  expressions  in braces which would not otherwise undergo
              brace expansion to a lexically ordered list of all  the  charac-
              ters.  See the section `Brace Expansion'.

       CASE_GLOB <D>
              Make  globbing  (filename  generation)  sensitive to case.  Note
              that other uses of patterns are always sensitive  to  case.   If
              the option is unset, the presence of any character which is spe-
              cial to filename generation will cause  case-insensitive  match-
              ing.   For  example, cvs(/) can match the directory CVS owing to
              the  presence  of  the  globbing   flag   (unless   the   option
              BARE_GLOB_QUAL is unset).

       CASE_MATCH <D>
              Make  regular  expressions using the zsh/regex module (including
              matches with =~) sensitive to case.

       CSH_NULL_GLOB <C>
              If a pattern for filename generation has no matches, delete  the
              pattern  from  the  argument list; do not report an error unless
              all the patterns  in  a  command  have  no  matches.   Overrides
              NOMATCH.

       EQUALS <Z>
              Perform = filename expansion.  (See the section `Filename Expan-
              sion'.)

       EXTENDED_GLOB
              Treat the `#', `~' and `^' characters as part  of  patterns  for
              filename  generation, etc.  (An initial unquoted `~' always pro-
              duces named directory expansion.)

       FORCE_FLOAT
              Constants in arithmetic evaluation will be treated  as  floating
              point  even  without  the  use of a decimal point; the values of
              integer variables will be converted to floating point when  used
              in  arithmetic  expressions.   Integers in any base will be con-
              verted.

       GLOB (+F, ksh: +f) <D>
              Perform filename generation (globbing).  (See the section `File-
              name Generation'.)

       GLOB_ASSIGN <C>
              If  this  option  is set, filename generation (globbing) is per-
              formed on the right hand side of scalar parameter assignments of
              the  form  `name=pattern (e.g. `foo=*').  If the result has more
              than one word the parameter will  become  an  array  with  those
              words  as  arguments. This option is provided for backwards com-
              patibility only: globbing is always performed on the right  hand
              side  of  array  assignments  of  the  form `name=(value)' (e.g.
              `foo=(*)') and this form is recommended for clarity;  with  this
              option  set,  it  is  not possible to predict whether the result
              will be an array or a scalar.

       GLOB_DOTS (-4)
              Do not require a leading `.' in a filename to be matched explic-
              itly.

       GLOB_STAR_SHORT
              When this option is set and the default zsh-style globbing is in
              effect, the pattern `**/*' can be abbreviated to  `**'  and  the
              pattern `***/*' can be abbreviated to ***.  Hence `**.c' finds a
              file ending in .c in any subdirectory, and `***.c' does the same
              while  also following symbolic links.  A / immediately after the
              `**' or `***' forces the pattern to be treated as the unabbrevi-
              ated form.

       GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S>
              Treat any characters resulting from parameter expansion as being
              eligible for filename expansion and filename generation, and any
              characters resulting from command substitution as being eligible
              for filename generation.  Braces (and commas in between) do  not
              become eligible for expansion.

       HIST_SUBST_PATTERN
              Substitutions  using  the  :s  and :& history modifiers are per-
              formed with pattern matching instead of string  matching.   This
              occurs  wherever  history  modifiers  are  valid, including glob
              qualifiers and parameters.  See the section  Modifiers  in  zsh-
              expn(1).

       IGNORE_BRACES (-I) <S>
              Do  not  perform  brace  expansion.  For historical reasons this
              also includes the effect of the IGNORE_CLOSE_BRACES option.

       IGNORE_CLOSE_BRACES
              When neither this option nor IGNORE_BRACES is set, a sole  close
              brace character `}' is syntactically significant at any point on
              a command line.  This has the effect that no semicolon  or  new-
              line  is  necessary  before  the brace terminating a function or
              current shell construct.  When either option is set,  a  closing
              brace  is  syntactically  significant  only in command position.
              Unlike IGNORE_BRACES, this option does not disable brace  expan-
              sion.

              For  example,  with both options unset a function may be defined
              in the following fashion:

                     args() { echo $# }

              while if either option is set, this does not work and  something
              equivalent to the following is required:

                     args() { echo $#; }

       KSH_GLOB <K>
              In  pattern  matching,  the  interpretation  of  parentheses  is
              affected by a preceding `@', `*', `+', `?' or `!'.  See the sec-
              tion `Filename Generation'.

       MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST
              All unquoted arguments of the form `anything=expression' appear-
              ing after the command name have  filename  expansion  (that  is,
              where  expression has a leading `~' or `=') performed on expres-
              sion as if it were a parameter assignment.  The argument is  not
              otherwise  treated  specially;  it is passed to the command as a
              single argument, and not used as an actual parameter assignment.
              For  example,  in  echo  foo=~/bar:~/rod,  both occurrences of ~
              would be replaced.  Note that this happens anyway  with  typeset
              and similar statements.

              This  option respects the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option.  In
              other words, if both options are in  effect,  arguments  looking
              like assignments will not undergo word splitting.

       MARK_DIRS (-8, ksh: -X)
              Append  a  trailing  `/'  to  all directory names resulting from
              filename generation (globbing).

       MULTIBYTE <D>
              Respect multibyte characters when found in strings.   When  this
              option  is set, strings are examined using the system library to
              determine how many bytes form a character, depending on the cur-
              rent  locale.   This  affects  the way characters are counted in
              pattern matching, parameter values and various delimiters.

              The option is on by default  if  the  shell  was  compiled  with
              MULTIBYTE_SUPPORT;  otherwise  it  is  off by default and has no
              effect if turned on.

              If the option is off a single byte is always treated as a single
              character.   This  setting  is  designed  purely  for  examining
              strings known to contain raw bytes or other values that may  not
              be  characters  in  the  current locale.  It is not necessary to
              unset the option merely because the character set for  the  cur-
              rent locale does not contain multibyte characters.

              The  option  does  not  affect the shell's editor,  which always
              uses the locale to  determine  multibyte  characters.   This  is
              because  the character set displayed by the terminal emulator is
              independent of shell settings.

       NOMATCH (+3) <C> <Z>
              If a pattern for filename generation has no  matches,  print  an
              error,  instead  of  leaving  it unchanged in the argument list.
              This also applies to file expansion of an initial `~' or `='.

       NULL_GLOB (-G)
              If a pattern for filename generation has no matches, delete  the
              pattern  from  the  argument list instead of reporting an error.
              Overrides NOMATCH.

       NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT
              If numeric filenames are matched by a filename  generation  pat-
              tern,  sort  the filenames numerically rather than lexicographi-
              cally.

       RC_EXPAND_PARAM (-P)
              Array expansions of the form `foo${xx}bar', where the  parameter
              xx  is  set  to  (a  b c), are substituted with `fooabar foobbar
              foocbar' instead of the default `fooa b  cbar'.   Note  that  an
              empty array will therefore cause all arguments to be removed.

       REMATCH_PCRE
              If  set,  regular  expression matching with the =~ operator will
              use Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions from the  PCRE  library.
              (The  zsh/pcre  module  must be available.)  If not set, regular
              expressions will use the extended regexp syntax provided by  the
              system libraries.

       SH_GLOB <K> <S>
              Disables  the special meaning of `(', `|', `)' and '<' for glob-
              bing the result of parameter and command substitutions,  and  in
              some  other places where the shell accepts patterns.  If SH_GLOB
              is set but KSH_GLOB is not, the shell allows the  interpretation
              of  subshell  expressions  enclosed in parentheses in some cases
              where there is no space before  the  opening  parenthesis,  e.g.
              !(true)  is  interpreted  as  if there were a space after the !.
              This option is set by default if zsh is invoked as sh or ksh.

       UNSET (+u, ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z>
              Treat unset parameters as if they were empty when  substituting.
              Otherwise they are treated as an error.

       WARN_CREATE_GLOBAL
              Print  a warning message when a global parameter is created in a
              function by an assignment or in math context.  This often  indi-
              cates  that  a  parameter  has  not  been declared local when it
              should have been.  Parameters explicitly  declared  global  from
              within a function using typeset -g do not cause a warning.  Note
              that there is no warning when a local parameter is  assigned  to
              in a nested function, which may also indicate an error.

       WARN_NESTED_VAR
              Print  a  warning  message  when  an  existing parameter from an
              enclosing function scope, or global, is set in a function by  an
              assignment  or  in  math  context.   Assignment to shell special
              parameters does not cause a warning.  This is the  companion  to
              WARN_CREATE_GLOBAL  as  in this case the warning is only printed
              when a parameter is not created.  Where possible, use of typeset
              -g to set the parameter suppresses the error, but note that this
              needs to be used every time the parameter is set.   To  restrict
              the effect of this option to a single function scope, use `func-
              tions -W'.

              For example, the following  code  produces  a  warning  for  the
              assignment  inside  the  function  nested  as that overrides the
              value within toplevel

                     toplevel() {
                       local foo="in fn"
                       nested
                     }
                     nested() {
                          foo="in nested"
                     }
                     setopt warn_nested_var
                     toplevel

   History
       APPEND_HISTORY <D>
              If this is set, zsh sessions will append their history  list  to
              the  history file, rather than replace it. Thus, multiple paral-
              lel zsh sessions will all have the new entries from  their  his-
              tory  lists  added  to  the history file, in the order that they
              exit.  The file will still be periodically re-written to trim it
              when the number of lines grows 20% beyond the value specified by
              $SAVEHIST (see also the HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).

       BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z>
              Perform textual history expansion, csh-style, treating the char-
              acter `!' specially.

       EXTENDED_HISTORY <C>
              Save  each  command's  beginning timestamp (in seconds since the
              epoch) and the duration (in seconds) to the history  file.   The
              format of this prefixed data is:

              `: <beginning time>:<elapsed seconds>;<command>'.

       HIST_ALLOW_CLOBBER
              Add `|' to output redirections in the history.  This allows his-
              tory references to clobber files even when CLOBBER is unset.

       HIST_BEEP <D>
              Beep in ZLE when a widget attempts to  access  a  history  entry
              which isn't there.

       HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST
              If  the  internal history needs to be trimmed to add the current
              command line, setting this option will cause the oldest  history
              event  that  has  a  duplicate to be lost before losing a unique
              event from the list.  You should be sure to  set  the  value  of
              HISTSIZE  to  a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to give you
              some room for the duplicated events, otherwise this option  will
              behave  just like HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills up
              with unique events.

       HIST_FCNTL_LOCK
              When writing out the history file, by default  zsh  uses  ad-hoc
              file  locking to avoid known problems with locking on some oper-
              ating systems.  With this option locking is done by means of the
              system's  fcntl call, where this method is available.  On recent
              operating systems this may provide better performance,  in  par-
              ticular  avoiding  history  corruption  when files are stored on
              NFS.

       HIST_FIND_NO_DUPS
              When searching for history entries in the line  editor,  do  not
              display  duplicates  of  a  line  previously  found, even if the
              duplicates are not contiguous.

       HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS
              If a new command line being added to the history list duplicates
              an  older  one, the older command is removed from the list (even
              if it is not the previous event).

       HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (-h)
              Do not enter command lines into the history  list  if  they  are
              duplicates of the previous event.

       HIST_IGNORE_SPACE (-g)
              Remove  command lines from the history list when the first char-
              acter on the line is a  space,  or  when  one  of  the  expanded
              aliases  contains  a  leading  space.   Only normal aliases (not
              global or suffix aliases) have this behaviour.   Note  that  the
              command  lingers  in the internal history until the next command
              is entered before it vanishes, allowing you to briefly reuse  or
              edit the line.  If you want to make it vanish right away without
              entering another command, type a space and press return.

       HIST_LEX_WORDS
              By default, shell history that is read in from  files  is  split
              into  words  on all white space.  This means that arguments with
              quoted whitespace are not correctly  handled,  with  the  conse-
              quence  that references to words in history lines that have been
              read from a file may be inaccurate.  When this  option  is  set,
              words  read  in  from a history file are divided up in a similar
              fashion to normal shell command line  handling.   Although  this
              produces  more  accurately  delimited  words, if the size of the
              history file is large this can be slow.  Trial and error is nec-
              essary to decide.

       HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS
              Remove  function  definitions  from the history list.  Note that
              the function lingers in the internal history until the next com-
              mand  is entered before it vanishes, allowing you to briefly re-
              use or edit the definition.

       HIST_NO_STORE
              Remove the history (fc -l) command from the  history  list  when
              invoked.   Note that the command lingers in the internal history
              until the next command is entered before it  vanishes,  allowing
              you to briefly reuse or edit the line.

       HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
              Remove  superfluous blanks from each command line being added to
              the history list.

       HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY <D>
              When the history file is re-written, we  normally  write  out  a
              copy of the file named $HISTFILE.new and then rename it over the
              old one.  However, if this option is unset, we instead  truncate
              the old history file and write out the new version in-place.  If
              one of the history-appending options  is  enabled,  this  option
              only  has  an  effect when the enlarged history file needs to be
              re-written to trim it down to size.  Disable this  only  if  you
              have  special  needs, as doing so makes it possible to lose his-
              tory entries if zsh gets interrupted during the save.

              When writing out a copy of the history file, zsh  preserves  the
              old file's permissions and group information, but will refuse to
              write out a new file if  it  would  change  the  history  file's
              owner.

       HIST_SAVE_NO_DUPS
              When writing out the history file, older commands that duplicate
              newer ones are omitted.

       HIST_VERIFY
              Whenever the user enters a line with  history  expansion,  don't
              execute  the  line  directly; instead, perform history expansion
              and reload the line into the editing buffer.

       INC_APPEND_HISTORY
              This option works like APPEND_HISTORY except  that  new  history
              lines  are added to the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as they
              are entered), rather than waiting until the  shell  exits.   The
              file  will  still be periodically re-written to trim it when the
              number of lines grows 20% beyond the value specified  by  $SAVE-
              HIST (see also the HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).

       INC_APPEND_HISTORY_TIME
              This  option  is a variant of INC_APPEND_HISTORY in which, where
              possible, the history entry is written out to the file after the
              command  is  finished,  so that the time taken by the command is
              recorded correctly in the history file in EXTENDED_HISTORY  for-
              mat.   This  means  that the history entry will not be available
              immediately from other instances of the shell that are using the
              same history file.

              This  option is only useful if INC_APPEND_HISTORY and SHARE_HIS-
              TORY are turned off.  The three  options  should  be  considered
              mutually exclusive.

       SHARE_HISTORY <K>

              This option both imports new commands from the history file, and
              also causes your typed commands to be appended  to  the  history
              file  (the  latter  is like specifying INC_APPEND_HISTORY, which
              should be turned off if this option is in effect).  The  history
              lines  are  also  output  with  timestamps  ala EXTENDED_HISTORY
              (which makes it easier to find the spot where we left off  read-
              ing the file after it gets re-written).

              By  default,  history movement commands visit the imported lines
              as well as the local lines, but you can toggle this on  and  off
              with  the set-local-history zle binding.  It is also possible to
              create a zle widget that will make some commands ignore imported
              commands, and some include them.

              If  you  find  that you want more control over when commands get
              imported,   you   may   wish   to   turn   SHARE_HISTORY    off,
              INC_APPEND_HISTORY  or  INC_APPEND_HISTORY_TIME  (see above) on,
              and then manually import commands whenever you need  them  using
              `fc -RI'.

   Initialisation
       ALL_EXPORT (-a, ksh: -a)
              All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported.

       GLOBAL_EXPORT <Z>
              If  this  option  is  set,  passing  the -x flag to the builtins
              declare, float, integer, readonly and typeset  (but  not  local)
              will  also  set  the  -g flag;  hence parameters exported to the
              environment will not be made local to  the  enclosing  function,
              unless they were already or the flag +g is given explicitly.  If
              the option is unset, exported parameters will be made  local  in
              just the same way as any other parameter.

              This  option is set by default for backward compatibility; it is
              not recommended that its behaviour be relied  upon.   Note  that
              the  builtin  export  always  sets both the -x and -g flags, and
              hence its effect extends beyond the scope of the enclosing func-
              tion; this is the most portable way to achieve this behaviour.

       GLOBAL_RCS (-d) <D>
              If  this  option  is  unset,  the  startup  files /etc/zprofile,
              /etc/zshrc, /etc/zlogin and /etc/zlogout will not  be  run.   It
              can  be  disabled  and  re-enabled at any time, including inside
              local startup files (.zshrc, etc.).

       RCS (+f) <D>
              After /etc/zshenv is sourced on  startup,  source  the  .zshenv,
              /etc/zprofile, .zprofile, /etc/zshrc, .zshrc, /etc/zlogin, .zlo-
              gin, and .zlogout files, as described in  the  section  `Files'.
              If  this option is unset, the /etc/zshenv file is still sourced,
              but any of the others will not be; it can be set at any time  to
              prevent  the remaining startup files after the currently execut-
              ing one from being sourced.

   Input/Output
       ALIASES <D>
              Expand aliases.

       CLOBBER (+C, ksh: +C) <D>
              Allows `>' redirection to truncate  existing  files.   Otherwise
              `>!' or `>|' must be used to truncate a file.

              If  the  option is not set, and the option APPEND_CREATE is also
              not set, `>>!' or `>>|' must be  used  to  create  a  file.   If
              either option is set, `>>' may be used.

       CORRECT (-0)
              Try  to  correct  the spelling of commands.  Note that, when the
              HASH_LIST_ALL option is not set or when some directories in  the
              path  are  not readable, this may falsely report spelling errors
              the first time some commands are used.

              The shell variable CORRECT_IGNORE may be set  to  a  pattern  to
              match words that will never be offered as corrections.

       CORRECT_ALL (-O)
              Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line.

              The  shell  variable CORRECT_IGNORE_FILE may be set to a pattern
              to match file names that will never be offered as corrections.

       DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty  keyboard
              as  a  basis for examining spelling mistakes for the CORRECT and
              CORRECT_ALL options and the spell-word editor command.

       FLOW_CONTROL <D>
              If this option is unset,  output  flow  control  via  start/stop
              characters  (usually  assigned  to  ^S/^Q)  is  disabled  in the
              shell's editor.

       IGNORE_EOF (-7)
              Do not exit on end-of-file.  Require the use of exit  or  logout
              instead.   However, ten consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to
              exit anyway, to avoid the shell hanging if its tty goes away.

              Also, if this option is set and the Zsh  Line  Editor  is  used,
              widgets implemented by shell functions can be bound to EOF (nor-
              mally Control-D) without printing the  normal  warning  message.
              This works only for normal widgets, not for completion widgets.

       INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS (-k) <K> <S>
              Allow comments even in interactive shells.

       HASH_CMDS <D>
              Note the location of each command the first time it is executed.
              Subsequent invocations of the same command will  use  the  saved
              location,  avoiding  a path search.  If this option is unset, no
              path hashing is done at all.  However, when CORRECT is set, com-
              mands whose names do not appear in the functions or aliases hash
              tables are hashed in order to avoid reporting them  as  spelling
              errors.

       HASH_DIRS <D>
              Whenever a command name is hashed, hash the directory containing
              it, as well as all directories that occur earlier in  the  path.
              Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is set.

       HASH_EXECUTABLES_ONLY
              When  hashing commands because of HASH_CMDS, check that the file
              to be hashed is actually an executable.  This option is unset by
              default  as  if the path contains a large number of commands, or
              consists of many remote files, the additional tests can  take  a
              long  time.  Trial and error is needed to show if this option is
              beneficial.

       MAIL_WARNING (-U)
              Print a warning message if a mail file has been  accessed  since
              the shell last checked.

       PATH_DIRS (-Q)
              Perform  a  path  search  even  on command names with slashes in
              them.  Thus if `/usr/local/bin' is in the user's path, and he or
              she  types  `X11/xinit',  the command `/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit'
              will be executed  (assuming  it  exists).   Commands  explicitly
              beginning  with  `/',  `./' or `../' are not subject to the path
              search.  This also applies to the `.' and source builtins.

              Note that subdirectories of the  current  directory  are  always
              searched  for  executables  specified  in this form.  This takes
              place before any search indicated by this option, and regardless
              of  whether  `.'  or the current directory appear in the command
              search path.

       PATH_SCRIPT <K> <S>
              If this option  is  not  set,  a  script  passed  as  the  first
              non-option  argument  to  the shell must contain the name of the
              file to open.  If this option is set, and the  script  does  not
              specify  a directory path, the script is looked for first in the
              current directory, then in the command path.   See  the  section
              INVOCATION in zsh(1).

       PRINT_EIGHT_BIT
              Print  eight  bit characters literally in completion lists, etc.
              This option is not necessary if your  system  correctly  returns
              the printability of eight bit characters (see ctype(3)).

       PRINT_EXIT_VALUE (-1)
              Print  the  exit  value  of  programs with non-zero exit status.
              This is only  available  at  the  command  line  in  interactive
              shells.

       RC_QUOTES
              Allow  the  character  sequence  `'''  to signify a single quote
              within singly quoted strings.   Note  this  does  not  apply  in
              quoted strings using the format $'...', where a backslashed sin-
              gle quote can be used.

       RM_STAR_SILENT (-H) <K> <S>
              Do not query the user before executing `rm *' or `rm path/*'.

       RM_STAR_WAIT
              If querying the user before executing `rm  *'  or  `rm  path/*',
              first  wait  ten seconds and ignore anything typed in that time.
              This avoids the problem of reflexively answering  `yes'  to  the
              query  when  one  didn't really mean it.  The wait and query can
              always be avoided by expanding the `*' in ZLE (with tab).

       SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z>
              Allow the short forms of for, repeat, select, if,  and  function
              constructs.

       SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK (-L)
              If  a line ends with a backquote, and there are an odd number of
              backquotes on the line, ignore the trailing backquote.  This  is
              useful  on some keyboards where the return key is too small, and
              the backquote key lies annoyingly close to it.  As  an  alterna-
              tive the variable KEYBOARD_HACK lets you choose the character to
              be removed.

   Job Control
       AUTO_CONTINUE
              With this option set, stopped jobs that are removed from the job
              table  with  the disown builtin command are automatically sent a
              CONT signal to make them running.

       AUTO_RESUME (-W)
              Treat single word simple commands without redirection as  candi-
              dates for resumption of an existing job.

       BG_NICE (-6) <C> <Z>
              Run all background jobs at a lower priority.  This option is set
              by default.

       CHECK_JOBS <Z>
              Report the status of background and suspended jobs before  exit-
              ing a shell with job control; a second attempt to exit the shell
              will succeed.  NO_CHECK_JOBS is best used  only  in  combination
              with NO_HUP, else such jobs will be killed automatically.

              The  check is omitted if the commands run from the previous com-
              mand line included a `jobs' command, since  it  is  assumed  the
              user  is  aware  that there are background or suspended jobs.  A
              `jobs' command run from one of the hook functions defined in the
              section  SPECIAL FUNCTIONS in zshmisc(1) is not counted for this
              purpose.

       CHECK_RUNNING_JOBS <Z>
              Check for both running and suspended  jobs  when  CHECK_JOBS  is
              enabled.  When this option is disabled, zsh checks only for sus-
              pended jobs, which matches the default behavior of bash.

              This option has no effect unless CHECK_JOBS is set.

       HUP <Z>
              Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits.

       LONG_LIST_JOBS (-R)
              Print job notifications in the long format by default.

       MONITOR (-m, ksh: -m)
              Allow job control.  Set by default in interactive shells.

       NOTIFY (-5, ksh: -b) <Z>
              Report the status of background jobs  immediately,  rather  than
              waiting until just before printing a prompt.

       POSIX_JOBS <K> <S>
              This  option  makes  job  control  more compliant with the POSIX
              standard.

              When the option is not set, the MONITOR option is unset on entry
              to subshells, so that job control is no longer active.  When the
              option is set, the MONITOR option and job control remain  active
              in  the  subshell,  but  note that the subshell has no access to
              jobs in the parent shell.

              When the option is not set, jobs put in the background or  fore-
              ground  with  bg  or  fg are displayed with the same information
              that would be reported by jobs.  When the option  is  set,  only
              the  text  is  printed.   The  output  from  jobs  itself is not
              affected by the option.

              When the option is not set,  job  information  from  the  parent
              shell is saved for output within a subshell (for example, within
              a pipeline).  When the option is set,  the  output  of  jobs  is
              empty until a job is started within the subshell.

              In  previous  versions  of the shell, it was necessary to enable
              POSIX_JOBS in order for the builtin command wait to  return  the
              status  of  background jobs that had already exited.  This is no
              longer the case.

   Prompting
       PROMPT_BANG <K>
              If set, `!' is  treated  specially  in  prompt  expansion.   See
              EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_CR (+V) <D>
              Print  a  carriage  return  just before printing a prompt in the
              line editor.  This is on by default  as  multi-line  editing  is
              only  possible  if  the editor knows where the start of the line
              appears.

       PROMPT_SP <D>
              Attempt to preserve a partial line (i.e. a line that did not end
              with  a  newline) that would otherwise be covered up by the com-
              mand prompt due to the PROMPT_CR option.   This  works  by  out-
              putting  some  cursor-control  characters, including a series of
              spaces, that should make the terminal wrap to the next line when
              a  partial line is present (note that this is only successful if
              your terminal has automatic margins, which is typical).

              When a partial line is preserved, by default  you  will  see  an
              inverse+bold  character  at  the end of the partial line:  a `%'
              for a normal user or a `#' for root.  If set, the shell  parame-
              ter PROMPT_EOL_MARK can be used to customize how the end of par-
              tial lines are shown.

              NOTE: if the PROMPT_CR option is not set, enabling  this  option
              will have no effect.  This option is on by default.

       PROMPT_PERCENT <C> <Z>
              If  set,  `%'  is  treated  specially  in prompt expansion.  See
              EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_SUBST <K> <S>
              If set, parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic
              expansion   are  performed  in  prompts.   Substitutions  within
              prompts do not affect the command status.

       TRANSIENT_RPROMPT
              Remove any right prompt from display when  accepting  a  command
              line.   This  may  be useful with terminals with other cut/paste
              methods.

   Scripts and Functions
       ALIAS_FUNC_DEF <S>
              By default, zsh does not allow the definition of functions using
              the  `name  ()'  syntax  if  name was expanded as an alias: this
              causes an error.  This is usually the desired behaviour, as oth-
              erwise  the  combination of an alias and a function based on the
              same definition can easily cause problems.

              When this option is set, aliases can be used for defining  func-
              tions.

              For  example,  consider  the following definitions as they might
              occur in a startup file.

                     alias foo=bar
                     foo() {
                       print This probably does not do what you expect.
                     }

              Here, foo is expanded as an  alias  to  bar  before  the  ()  is
              encountered,  so  the  function  defined would be named bar.  By
              default this is instead an error  in  native  mode.   Note  that
              quoting  any  part  of  the  function name, or using the keyword
              function, avoids the problem, so is recommended when  the  func-
              tion name can also be an alias.

       C_BASES
              Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format, for example
              `0xFF' instead of the usual `16#FF'.  If the option OCTAL_ZEROES
              is  also  set  (it  is  not  by  default), octal numbers will be
              treated similarly and hence appear as `077' instead  of  `8#77'.
              This  option has no effect on the choice of the output base, nor
              on the output of bases other than hexadecimal and  octal.   Note
              that  these  formats will be understood on input irrespective of
              the setting of C_BASES.

       C_PRECEDENCES
              This alters the precedence of arithmetic operators  to  be  more
              like  C  and other programming languages; the section ARITHMETIC
              EVALUATION in zshmisc(1) has an explicit list.

       DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD <D>
              Run the DEBUG trap before each  command;  otherwise  it  is  run
              after each command.  Setting this option mimics the behaviour of
              ksh 93; with the option unset the behaviour is that of ksh 88.

       ERR_EXIT (-e, ksh: -e)
              If a command has a non-zero exit status, execute the ZERR  trap,
              if set, and exit.  This is disabled while running initialization
              scripts.

              The behaviour is also disabled inside DEBUG traps.  In this case
              the  option  is  handled  specially: it is unset on entry to the
              trap.  If the option  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD  is  set,  as  it  is  by
              default,  and  the  option ERR_EXIT is found to have been set on
              exit, then the command for which the DEBUG trap  is  being  exe-
              cuted is skipped.  The option is restored after the trap exits.

              Non-zero status in a command list containing && or || is ignored
              for commands not at the end of the list.  Hence

                     false && true

              does not trigger exit.

              Exiting due to ERR_EXIT has certain interactions with  asynchro-
              nous jobs noted in the section JOBS in zshmisc(1).

       ERR_RETURN
              If a command has a non-zero exit status, return immediately from
              the enclosing function.   The  logic  is  similar  to  that  for
              ERR_EXIT,  except  that an implicit return statement is executed
              instead of an exit.  This will trigger an exit at the  outermost
              level of a non-interactive script.

              Normally  this  option  inherits  the behaviour of ERR_EXIT that
              code followed by `&&' `||' does not trigger a return.  Hence  in
              the following:

                     summit || true

              no  return  is  forced  as the combined effect always has a zero
              return status.

              Note. however, that if summit in the above example is  itself  a
              function,  code inside it is considered separately: it may force
              a return from summit (assuming the  option  remains  set  within
              summit),  but not from the enclosing context.  This behaviour is
              different from ERR_EXIT which is unaffected by function scope.

       EVAL_LINENO <Z>
              If set, line numbers of expressions evaluated using the  builtin
              eval  are tracked separately of the enclosing environment.  This
              applies both to the parameter LINENO and the line number  output
              by  the  prompt  escape  %i.   If  the option is set, the prompt
              escape %N will output the string `(eval)' instead of the  script
              or function name as an indication.   (The two prompt escapes are
              typically used in the parameter PS4 to be output when the option
              XTRACE is set.)  If EVAL_LINENO is unset, the line number of the
              surrounding script or function is retained  during  the  evalua-
              tion.

       EXEC (+n, ksh: +n) <D>
              Do execute commands.  Without this option, commands are read and
              checked for syntax errors, but not executed.  This option cannot
              be  turned off in an interactive shell, except when `-n' is sup-
              plied to the shell at startup.

       FUNCTION_ARGZERO <C> <Z>
              When executing a shell function or sourcing  a  script,  set  $0
              temporarily  to the name of the function/script.  Note that tog-
              gling FUNCTION_ARGZERO from on to off (or off to  on)  does  not
              change  the  current  value of $0.  Only the state upon entry to
              the function or script has an effect.  Compare POSIX_ARGZERO.

       LOCAL_LOOPS
              When this option is not set, the effect of  break  and  continue
              commands  may  propagate outside function scope, affecting loops
              in calling functions.  When the option is set in a calling func-
              tion,  a  break or a continue that is not caught within a called
              function (regardless of the setting of the  option  within  that
              function) produces a warning and the effect is cancelled.

       LOCAL_OPTIONS <K>
              If  this option is set at the point of return from a shell func-
              tion, most options (including this one) which were in force upon
              entry  to  the  function  are  restored;  options  that  are not
              restored are PRIVILEGED and RESTRICTED.   Otherwise,  only  this
              option, and the LOCAL_LOOPS, XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options
              are restored.  Hence if this is  explicitly  unset  by  a  shell
              function  the other options in force at the point of return will
              remain so.  A shell function can also guarantee itself  a  known
              shell  configuration  with  a formulation like `emulate -L zsh';
              the -L activates LOCAL_OPTIONS.

       LOCAL_PATTERNS
              If this option is set at the point of return from a shell  func-
              tion,  the  state  of  pattern disables, as set with the builtin
              command `disable -p', is restored to what it was when the  func-
              tion  was  entered.   The behaviour of this option is similar to
              the effect of LOCAL_OPTIONS on options; hence  `emulate  -L  sh'
              (or  indeed  any  other  emulation with the -L option) activates
              LOCAL_PATTERNS.

       LOCAL_TRAPS <K>
              If this option is set when a signal trap is set inside  a  func-
              tion,  then the previous status of the trap for that signal will
              be restored when the function exits.  Note that this option must
              be  set  prior  to  altering  the  trap behaviour in a function;
              unlike LOCAL_OPTIONS, the value on exit  from  the  function  is
              irrelevant.   However,  it  does  not  need to be set before any
              global trap for that to be correctly  restored  by  a  function.
              For example,

                     unsetopt localtraps
                     trap - INT
                     fn() { setopt localtraps; trap '' INT; sleep 3; }

              will restore normal handling of SIGINT after the function exits.

       MULTI_FUNC_DEF <Z>
              Allow definitions of multiple functions at once in the form `fn1
              fn2...()'; if the option is not set, this causes a parse  error.
              Definition  of  multiple  functions with the function keyword is
              always allowed.  Multiple function  definitions  are  not  often
              used and can cause obscure errors.

       MULTIOS <Z>
              Perform  implicit  tees  or  cats when multiple redirections are
              attempted (see the section `Redirection').

       OCTAL_ZEROES <S>
              Interpret any integer constant beginning with a 0 as octal,  per
              IEEE  Std 1003.2-1992 (ISO 9945-2:1993).  This is not enabled by
              default as it causes problems with parsing of, for example, date
              and time strings with leading zeroes.

              Sequences  of  digits indicating a numeric base such as the `08'
              component in `08#77' are always interpreted as decimal,  regard-
              less of leading zeroes.

       PIPE_FAIL
              By  default,  when  a pipeline exits the exit status recorded by
              the shell and returned by the shell variable $? reflects that of
              the rightmost element of a pipeline.  If this option is set, the
              exit status instead reflects the status of the rightmost element
              of  the  pipeline  that  was  non-zero,  or zero if all elements
              exited with zero status.

       SOURCE_TRACE
              If set, zsh will print an informational message  announcing  the
              name of each file it loads.  The format of the output is similar
              to that for the XTRACE option, with the  message  <sourcetrace>.
              A  file  may be loaded by the shell itself when it starts up and
              shuts down  (Startup/Shutdown  Files)  or  by  the  use  of  the
              `source' and `dot' builtin commands.

       TYPESET_SILENT
              If  this is unset, executing any of the `typeset' family of com-
              mands with no options and a list of parameters that have no val-
              ues  to  be assigned but already exist will display the value of
              the parameter.  If the option is set, they will  only  be  shown
              when  parameters  are selected with the `-m' option.  The option
              `-p' is available whether or not the option is set.

       VERBOSE (-v, ksh: -v)
              Print shell input lines as they are read.

       XTRACE (-x, ksh: -x)
              Print commands and their arguments as they  are  executed.   The
              output  is preceded by the value of $PS4, formatted as described
              in the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

   Shell Emulation
       APPEND_CREATE <K> <S>
              This option only applies when NO_CLOBBER (-C) is in effect.

              If this option is not set, the shell will report an error when a
              append  redirection (>>) is used on a file that does not already
              exists (the traditional zsh behaviour of  NO_CLOBBER).   If  the
              option is set, no error is reported (POSIX behaviour).

       BASH_REMATCH
              When  set,  matches  performed with the =~ operator will set the
              BASH_REMATCH array variable, instead of the  default  MATCH  and
              match  variables.   The  first element of the BASH_REMATCH array
              will contain the entire matched  text  and  subsequent  elements
              will contain extracted substrings.  This option makes more sense
              when KSH_ARRAYS is also set, so that the entire matched  portion
              is  stored  at  index  0  and the first substring is at index 1.
              Without this option, the  MATCH  variable  contains  the  entire
              matched text and the match array variable contains substrings.

       BSD_ECHO <S>
              Make  the  echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command.
              This disables  backslashed  escape  sequences  in  echo  strings
              unless the -e option is specified.

       CONTINUE_ON_ERROR
              If  a fatal error is encountered (see the section ERRORS in zsh-
              misc(1)), and the code is running in a script,  the  shell  will
              resume  execution at the next statement in the script at the top
              level, in other words outside all functions or shell  constructs
              such  as  loops  and  conditions.   This mimics the behaviour of
              interactive shells, where the shell returns to the  line  editor
              to  read  a new command; it was the normal behaviour in versions
              of zsh before 5.0.1.

       CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY <C>
              A history reference without an event specifier will always refer
              to  the  previous  command.  Without this option, such a history
              reference refers to the same event as the previous history  ref-
              erence  on  the current command line, defaulting to the previous
              command.

       CSH_JUNKIE_LOOPS <C>
              Allow loop bodies to take the form `list; end'  instead  of  `do
              list; done'.

       CSH_JUNKIE_QUOTES <C>
              Changes  the  rules  for single- and double-quoted text to match
              that of csh.  These require that embedded newlines  be  preceded
              by  a backslash; unescaped newlines will cause an error message.
              In double-quoted strings, it is made impossible to  escape  `$',
              ``'  or  `"' (and `\' itself no longer needs escaping).  Command
              substitutions are only expanded once, and cannot be nested.

       CSH_NULLCMD <C>
              Do not use the values of NULLCMD and  READNULLCMD  when  running
              redirections  with no command.  This make such redirections fail
              (see the section `Redirection').

       KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S>
              Emulate ksh array handling as  closely  as  possible.   If  this
              option  is  set, array elements are numbered from zero, an array
              parameter without subscript refers to the first element  instead
              of  the  whole  array, and braces are required to delimit a sub-
              script (`${path[2]}' rather than just `$path[2]')  or  to  apply
              modifiers to any parameter (`${PWD:h}' rather than `$PWD:h').

       KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S>
              Emulate  ksh function autoloading.  This means that when a func-
              tion is autoloaded, the corresponding file is  merely  executed,
              and  must define the function itself.  (By default, the function
              is defined to the contents of the file.  However, the most  com-
              mon  ksh-style case - of the file containing only a simple defi-
              nition of the function - is always handled in the ksh-compatible
              manner.)

       KSH_OPTION_PRINT <K>
              Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate
              lists of set and unset options, all options  are  shown,  marked
              `on' if they are in the non-default state, `off' otherwise.

       KSH_TYPESET
              This  option is now obsolete: a better appropximation to the be-
              haviour of other shells  is  obtained  with  the  reserved  word
              interface  to  declare,  export, float, integer, local, readonly
              and typeset.  Note that the option  is  only  applied  when  the
              reserved word interface is not in use.

              Alters  the  way  arguments  to  the typeset family of commands,
              including declare, export, float, integer, local  and  readonly,
              are  processed.   Without  this  option, zsh will perform normal
              word splitting after command and parameter  expansion  in  argu-
              ments  of  an  assignment; with it, word splitting does not take
              place in those cases.

       KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT
              Treat use of a subscript  of  value  zero  in  array  or  string
              expressions  as  a reference to the first element, i.e. the ele-
              ment that usually has the subscript 1.  Ignored if KSH_ARRAYS is
              also set.

              If  neither  this  option  nor KSH_ARRAYS is set, accesses to an
              element of an array or string  with  subscript  zero  return  an
              empty  element  or string, while attempts to set element zero of
              an array or string are treated as an error.   However,  attempts
              to  set  an  otherwise  valid subscript range that includes zero
              will succeed.  For example, if KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT is not set,

                     array[0]=(element)

              is an error, while

                     array[0,1]=(element)

              is not and will replace the first element of the array.

              This option is for compatibility  with  older  versions  of  the
              shell and is not recommended in new code.

       POSIX_ALIASES <K> <S>
              When  this  option is set, reserved words are not candidates for
              alias expansion:  it is still possible to declare any of them as
              an  alias, but the alias will never be expanded.  Reserved words
              are described in the section RESERVED WORDS in zshmisc(1).

              Alias expansion takes place while text is being read; hence when
              this  option is set it does not take effect until the end of any
              function or other piece of shell code parsed as one unit.   Note
              this  may  cause  differences  from  other  shells even when the
              option is in effect.  For example, when running a  command  with
              `zsh  -c',  or even `zsh -o posixaliases -c', the entire command
              argument is parsed as one unit, so aliases  defined  within  the
              argument  are  not  available even in later lines.  If in doubt,
              avoid use of aliases in non-interactive code.

       POSIX_ARGZERO
              This option may be used to temporarily disable  FUNCTION_ARGZERO
              and  thereby  restore the value of $0 to the name used to invoke
              the shell (or as set by the -c command line option).   For  com-
              patibility  with  previous versions of the shell, emulations use
              NO_FUNCTION_ARGZERO instead of POSIX_ARGZERO, which  may  result
              in  unexpected  scoping  of  $0 if the emulation mode is changed
              inside a function or script.  To avoid this,  explicitly  enable
              POSIX_ARGZERO in the emulate command:

                     emulate sh -o POSIX_ARGZERO

              Note that NO_POSIX_ARGZERO has no effect unless FUNCTION_ARGZERO
              was already enabled upon entry to the function or script.

       POSIX_BUILTINS <K> <S>
              When this option is set the command builtin can be used to  exe-
              cute  shell  builtin  commands.  Parameter assignments specified
              before shell functions and special builtins are kept  after  the
              command  completes  unless  the special builtin is prefixed with
              the command builtin.  Special builtins are  .,  :,  break,  con-
              tinue,  declare,  eval,  exit, export, integer, local, readonly,
              return, set, shift, source, times, trap and unset.

              In addition, various error conditions associated with the  above
              builtins  or  exec  cause a non-interactive shell to exit and an
              interactive shell to return to its top-level processing.

              Furthermore, functions and shell builtins are not executed after
              an  exec  prefix; the command to be executed must be an external
              command found in the path.

              Furthermore, the getopts builtin behaves in  a  POSIX-compatible
              fashion in that the associated variable OPTIND is not made local
              to functions.

              Moreover, the warning and special exit code from [[ -o non_exis-
              tent_option ]] are suppressed.

       POSIX_IDENTIFIERS <K> <S>
              When  this option is set, only the ASCII characters a to z, A to
              Z, 0 to 9 and _ may be  used  in  identifiers  (names  of  shell
              parameters and modules).

              In  addition, setting this option limits the effect of parameter
              substitution with no  braces,  so  that  the  expression  $#  is
              treated  as the parameter $# even if followed by a valid parame-
              ter name.  When it is unset, zsh allows expressions of the  form
              $#name  to  refer to the length of $name, even for special vari-
              ables, for example in expressions such as $#- and $#*.

              Another difference is that with the option set assignment to  an
              unset  variable  in arithmetic context causes the variable to be
              created as a scalar rather than a numeric type.  So after `unset
              t;  ((  t  =  3 ))'. without POSIX_IDENTIFIERS set t has integer
              type, while with it set it has scalar type.

              When the option is unset  and  multibyte  character  support  is
              enabled  (i.e.  it  is  compiled  in and the option MULTIBYTE is
              set), then additionally any alphanumeric characters in the local
              character set may be used in identifiers.  Note that scripts and
              functions written with this feature are not portable,  and  also
              that  both  options must be set before the script or function is
              parsed; setting them during execution is not sufficient  as  the
              syntax  variable=value  has  already  been  parsed  as a command
              rather than an assignment.

              If multibyte character support is not compiled  into  the  shell
              this  option  is ignored; all octets with the top bit set may be
              used in identifiers.  This is non-standard  but  is  the  tradi-
              tional zsh behaviour.

       POSIX_STRINGS <K> <S>
              This  option affects processing of quoted strings.  Currently it
              only affects the behaviour of null characters, i.e. character  0
              in the portable character set corresponding to US ASCII.

              When  this  option  is  not set, null characters embedded within
              strings of the form $'...' are treated as  ordinary  characters.
              The  entire  string is maintained within the shell and output to
              files where necessary, although owing  to  restrictions  of  the
              library  interface the string is truncated at the null character
              in file names, environment variables, or in arguments to  exter-
              nal programs.

              When  this  option is set, the $'...' expression is truncated at
              the null character.  Note  that  remaining  parts  of  the  same
              string beyond the termination of the quotes are not truncated.

              For example, the command line argument a$'b\0c'd is treated with
              the option off as the characters a, b, null, c, d, and with  the
              option on as the characters a, b, d.

       POSIX_TRAPS <K> <S>
              When  this  option  is set, the usual zsh behaviour of executing
              traps for EXIT on exit from shell functions is  suppressed.   In
              that case, manipulating EXIT traps always alters the global trap
              for exiting the shell; the LOCAL_TRAPS option is ignored for the
              EXIT  trap.   Furthermore, a return statement executed in a trap
              with no argument passes back from the function  the  value  from
              the surrounding context, not from code executed within the trap.

       SH_FILE_EXPANSION <K> <S>
              Perform  filename expansion (e.g., ~ expansion) before parameter
              expansion, command substitution, arithmetic expansion and  brace
              expansion.  If this option is unset, it is performed after brace
              expansion, so things like `~$USERNAME' and `~{pfalstad,rc}' will
              work.

       SH_NULLCMD <K> <S>
              Do  not  use  the  values  of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when doing
              redirections, use `:' instead (see the section `Redirection').

       SH_OPTION_LETTERS <K> <S>
              If this option is set the shell tries to interpret single letter
              options  (which  are  used  with  set and setopt) like ksh does.
              This also affects the value of the - special parameter.

       SH_WORD_SPLIT (-y) <K> <S>
              Causes field splitting to be  performed  on  unquoted  parameter
              expansions.   Note  that this option has nothing to do with word
              splitting.  (See the section `Parameter Expansion'.)

       TRAPS_ASYNC
              While waiting for a program to  exit,  handle  signals  and  run
              traps  immediately.   Otherwise  the  trap  is run after a child
              process has exited.  Note this does  not  affect  the  point  at
              which  traps  are  run for any case other than when the shell is
              waiting for a child process.

   Shell State
       INTERACTIVE (-i, ksh: -i)
              This is an interactive shell.  This option is set upon initiali-
              sation  if  the  standard  input is a tty and commands are being
              read from standard input.  (See the discussion  of  SHIN_STDIN.)
              This  heuristic may be overridden by specifying a state for this
              option on the command line.  The value of this option  can  only
              be  changed  via  flags supplied at invocation of the shell.  It
              cannot be changed once zsh is running.

       LOGIN (-l, ksh: -l)
              This is a login shell.  If this option is  not  explicitly  set,
              the  shell  becomes  a login shell if the first character of the
              argv[0] passed to the shell is a `-'.

       PRIVILEGED (-p, ksh: -p)
              Turn on privileged mode. Typically this is used when  script  is
              to  be run with elevated privileges. This should be done as fol-
              lows directly with the -p option to zsh so that it takes  effect
              during startup.

                     #!/bin/zsh -p

              The  option is enabled automatically on startup if the effective
              user (group) ID is not equal to the real  user  (group)  ID.  In
              this  case, turning the option off causes the effective user and
              group IDs to be set to the real user and  group  IDs.  Be  aware
              that  if  that fails the shell may be running with different IDs
              than was intended so a script should check for failure  and  act
              accordingly, for example:

                     unsetopt privileged || exit

              The  PRIVILEGED option disables sourcing user startup files.  If
              zsh  is  invoked  as  `sh'  or  `ksh'  with  this  option   set,
              /etc/suid_profile  is sourced (after /etc/profile on interactive
              shells). Sourcing ~/.profile is disabled and the contents of the
              ENV variable is ignored. This option cannot be changed using the
              -m option of setopt and unsetopt, and changing it inside a func-
              tion  always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS
              option.

       RESTRICTED (-r)
              Enables restricted mode.  This option cannot  be  changed  using
              unsetopt,  and  setting  it  inside a function always changes it
              globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option.  See  the  sec-
              tion `Restricted Shell'.

       SHIN_STDIN (-s, ksh: -s)
              Commands  are  being read from the standard input.  Commands are
              read from standard input if no command is specified with -c  and
              no  file of commands is specified.  If SHIN_STDIN is set explic-
              itly on the command line, any argument that would otherwise have
              been  taken as a file to run will instead be treated as a normal
              positional parameter.   Note  that  setting  or  unsetting  this
              option on the command line does not necessarily affect the state
              the option will have while the shell is running - that is purely
              an  indicator of whether or not commands are actually being read
              from standard input.  The value  of  this  option  can  only  be
              changed  via flags supplied at invocation of the shell.  It can-
              not be changed once zsh is running.

       SINGLE_COMMAND (-t, ksh: -t)
              If the shell is reading from standard input, it  exits  after  a
              single  command  has  been  executed.  This also makes the shell
              non-interactive, unless the INTERACTIVE option is explicitly set
              on  the  command  line.   The  value  of this option can only be
              changed via flags supplied at invocation of the shell.  It  can-
              not be changed once zsh is running.

   Zle
       BEEP (+B) <D>
              Beep on error in ZLE.

       COMBINING_CHARS
              Assume  that  the  terminal  displays  combining characters cor-
              rectly.  Specifically, if a base alphanumeric character is  fol-
              lowed  by  one or more zero-width punctuation characters, assume
              that the zero-width characters will be  displayed  as  modifica-
              tions to the base character within the same width.  Not all ter-
              minals handle this.  If this option is not set, zero-width char-
              acters are displayed separately with special mark-up.

              If  this  option  is  set, the pattern test [[:WORD:]] matches a
              zero-width punctuation character on the assumption that it  will
              be  used as part of a word in combination with a word character.
              Otherwise the base shell does not  handle  combining  characters
              specially.

       EMACS  If  ZLE  is  loaded,  turning  on this option has the equivalent
              effect of `bindkey -e'.  In addition, the VI  option  is  unset.
              Turning it off has no effect.  The option setting is not guaran-
              teed to reflect the current keymap.  This option is provided for
              compatibility; bindkey is the recommended interface.

       OVERSTRIKE
              Start up the line editor in overstrike mode.

       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (-M) <K>
              Use single-line command line editing instead of multi-line.

              Note  that  although  this  is on by default in ksh emulation it
              only provides superficial compatibility with the ksh line editor
              and reduces the effectiveness of the zsh line editor.  As it has
              no effect on shell syntax, many users may wish to  disable  this
              option when using ksh emulation interactively.

       VI     If  ZLE  is  loaded,  turning  on this option has the equivalent
              effect of `bindkey -v'.  In addition, the EMACS option is unset.
              Turning it off has no effect.  The option setting is not guaran-
              teed to reflect the current keymap.  This option is provided for
              compatibility; bindkey is the recommended interface.

       ZLE (-Z)
              Use  the  zsh line editor.  Set by default in interactive shells
              connected to a terminal.

OPTION ALIASES
       Some options have alternative names.  These aliases are never used  for
       output,  but  can be used just like normal option names when specifying
       options to the shell.

       BRACE_EXPAND
              NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and bash compatibility)

       DOT_GLOB
              GLOB_DOTS (bash compatibility)

       HASH_ALL
              HASH_CMDS (bash compatibility)

       HIST_APPEND
              APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility)

       HIST_EXPAND
              BANG_HIST (bash compatibility)

       LOG    NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh compatibility)

       MAIL_WARN
              MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility)

       ONE_CMD
              SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility)

       PHYSICAL
              CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash compatibility)

       PROMPT_VARS
              PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility)

       STDIN  SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility)

       TRACK_ALL
              HASH_CMDS (ksh compatibility)

SINGLE LETTER OPTIONS
   Default set
       -0     CORRECT
       -1     PRINT_EXIT_VALUE
       -2     NO_BAD_PATTERN
       -3     NO_NOMATCH
       -4     GLOB_DOTS
       -5     NOTIFY
       -6     BG_NICE
       -7     IGNORE_EOF
       -8     MARK_DIRS
       -9     AUTO_LIST
       -B     NO_BEEP
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -D     PUSHD_TO_HOME
       -E     PUSHD_SILENT
       -F     NO_GLOB
       -G     NULL_GLOB
       -H     RM_STAR_SILENT
       -I     IGNORE_BRACES
       -J     AUTO_CD
       -K     NO_BANG_HIST
       -L     SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK
       -M     SINGLE_LINE_ZLE
       -N     AUTO_PUSHD
       -O     CORRECT_ALL
       -P     RC_EXPAND_PARAM
       -Q     PATH_DIRS
       -R     LONG_LIST_JOBS
       -S     REC_EXACT
       -T     CDABLE_VARS
       -U     MAIL_WARNING
       -V     NO_PROMPT_CR
       -W     AUTO_RESUME
       -X     LIST_TYPES
       -Y     MENU_COMPLETE
       -Z     ZLE
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_RCS
       -g     HIST_IGNORE_SPACE
       -h     HIST_IGNORE_DUPS
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -k     INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -w     CHASE_LINKS
       -x     XTRACE
       -y     SH_WORD_SPLIT

   sh/ksh emulation set
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -T     TRAPS_ASYNC
       -X     MARK_DIRS
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -b     NOTIFY
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_GLOB
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -x     XTRACE

   Also note
       -A     Used by set for setting arrays
       -b     Used on the command line to specify end of option processing
       -c     Used on the command line to specify a single command
       -m     Used by setopt for pattern-matching option setting
       -o     Used in all places to allow use of long option names
       -s     Used by set to sort positional parameters

ZSHBUILTINS(1)              General Commands Manual             ZSHBUILTINS(1)



NAME
       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       Some shell builtin commands take options  as  described  in  individual
       entries;  these  are  often referred to in the list below as `flags' to
       avoid confusion with shell options, which may also have  an  effect  on
       the  behaviour  of  builtin  commands.   In  this introductory section,
       `option' always has the meaning of an option to a command  that  should
       be familiar to most command line users.

       Typically,  options  are  single  letters  preceded  by  a  hyphen (-).
       Options that take an argument accept it  either  immediately  following
       the  option  letter  or after white space, for example `print -C3 *' or
       `print -C 3 *' are equivalent.  Arguments to options are not  the  same
       as  arguments  to  the  command;  the  documentation indicates which is
       which.  Options that do not take an argument may be combined in a  sin-
       gle word, for example `print -ca *' and `print -c -a *' are equivalent.

       Some  shell  builtin  commands  also  take  options that begin with `+'
       instead of `-'.  The list below makes clear which commands these are.

       Options (together with their individual arguments, if any) must  appear
       in  a  group before any non-option arguments; once the first non-option
       argument has been found, option processing is terminated.

       All builtin commands other than precommand modifiers, even  those  that
       have  no  options,  can  be given the argument `--' to terminate option
       processing.  This indicates that the  following  words  are  non-option
       arguments,  but  is  otherwise  ignored.  This is useful in cases where
       arguments to the command may begin with `-'.  For  historical  reasons,
       most  builtin  commands  also recognize a single `-' in a separate word
       for this purpose; note that this is less standard and use  of  `--'  is
       recommended.

       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read  commands  from  file and execute them in the current shell
              environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS  is  set,  the
              shell  looks  in  the  components of $path to find the directory
              containing file.  Files in the current directory  are  not  read
              unless  `.'  appears  somewhere  in  $path.   If  a  file  named
              `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file,  and  is  the  compiled
              form  (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands
              are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg  are  given,  they  become  the  positional
              parameters;  the old positional parameters are restored when the
              file is done executing.  However, if no arguments are given, the
              positional  parameters  remain those of the calling context, and
              no restoring is done.

              If file was not found the return status  is  127;  if  file  was
              found  but  contained  a  syntax error the return status is 126;
              else the return status is the exit status of  the  last  command
              executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This  command  does nothing, although normal argument expansions
              is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero
              exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For  each  name with a corresponding value, define an alias with
              that value.  A trailing space in value causes the next  word  to
              be  checked  for  alias  expansion.   If the -g flag is present,
              define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if  they
              do not occur in command position.

              If the -s flag is present, define a suffix alias: if the command
              word on a command line is in the form `text.name', where text is
              any  non-empty  string,  it  is  replaced  by  the  text  `value
              text.name'.  Note that name is treated as a literal string,  not
              a  pattern.   A  trailing  space in value is not special in this
              case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will cause the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv  *.ps'.   As
              alias expansion is carried out earlier than globbing, the `*.ps'
              will then be expanded.  Suffix aliases  constitute  a  different
              name  space  from  other  aliases (so in the above example it is
              still possible to create an alias for the command  ps)  and  the
              two sets are never listed together.

              For  each  name  with no value, print the value of name, if any.
              With no arguments, print all  currently  defined  aliases  other
              than  suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments are
              taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve  them  from
              being  interpreted  as  glob patterns), and the aliases matching
              these patterns are printed.  When printing aliases  and  one  of
              the  -g,  -r  or  -s  flags is present, restrict the printing to
              global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular alias
              is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+'
              instead of `-', or ending the option list  with  a  single  `+',
              prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

              If  the  -L  flag  is present, then print each alias in a manner
              suitable for putting in a startup script.  The  exit  status  is
              nonzero  if  a  name (with no value) is given for which no alias
              has been defined.

              For more on aliases, include common problems,  see  the  section
              ALIASING in zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}RTUXdkmrtWz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              See  the  section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for full
              details.  The fpath parameter will be searched to find the func-
              tion definition when the function is first referenced.

              If name consists of an absolute path, the function is defined to
              load from the file given (searching as usual for dump  files  in
              the  given  location).  The name of the function is the basename
              (non-directory part) of the file.  It is normally  an  error  if
              the function is not found in the given location; however, if the
              option -d is given,  searching  for  the  function  defaults  to
              $fpath.  If a function is loaded by absolute path, any functions
              loaded from it that are marked for autoload without an  absolute
              path  have  the  load  path  of  the parent function temporarily
              prepended to $fpath.

              If the option -r or -R is given, the function  is  searched  for
              immediately and the location is recorded internally for use when
              the function is executed; a relative path is expanded using  the
              value  of  $PWD.  This protects against a change to $fpath after
              the call to autoload.  With -r, if the function is not found, it
              is  silently  left unresolved until execution; with -R, an error
              message is printed and command  processing  aborted  immediately
              the  search  fails,  i.e. at the autoload command rather than at
              function execution..

              The flag -X may be used only inside a shell function.  It causes
              the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then imme-
              diately loaded and executed, with the  current  array  of  posi-
              tional parameters as arguments.  This replaces the previous def-
              inition of the function.  If no function definition is found, an
              error  is  printed and the function remains undefined and marked
              for autoloading.  If an argument is  given,  it  is  used  as  a
              directory (i.e. it does not include the name of the function) in
              which the function is to be found; this may be combined with the
              -d  option  to allow the function search to default to $fpath if
              it is not in the given location.

              The flag +X attempts to load each name as  an  autoloaded  func-
              tion,  but  does  not execute it.  The exit status is zero (suc-
              cess) if the function was not previously defined and  a  defini-
              tion for it was found.  This does not replace any existing defi-
              nition of the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if
              the  function  was  already  defined  or  when no definition was
              found.  In the latter case the function  remains  undefined  and
              marked  for  autoloading.   If ksh-style autoloading is enabled,
              the function created will contain the contents of the file  plus
              a call to the function itself appended to it, thus giving normal
              ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.  If
              the  -m flag is also given each name is treated as a pattern and
              all functions already marked for autoload that match the pattern
              are loaded.

              With  the  -t  flag, turn on execution tracing; with -T, turn on
              execution tracing only for the current function, turning it  off
              on  entry  to any called functions that do not also have tracing
              enabled.

              With the -U flag, alias expansion is suppressed when  the  func-
              tion is loaded.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled
              with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are
              marked for autoloading.

              The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the
              zsh or ksh style, as if the option KSH_AUTOLOAD  were  unset  or
              were  set,  respectively.  The flags override the setting of the
              option at the time the function is loaded.

              Note that the autoload command makes no attempt  to  ensure  the
              shell  options  set  during the loading or execution of the file
              have any particular value.  For this, the emulate command can be
              used:

                     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

              arranges  that  when  func  is loaded the shell is in native zsh
              emulation, and this emulation is also applied when func is run.

              Some of the functions of autoload are also provided by functions
              -u  or functions -U, but autoload is a more comprehensive inter-
              face.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put each specified job in the background, or the current job  if
              none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.
              If an arithmetic expression n is specified, then break n  levels
              instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change  the  current  directory.   In the first form, change the
              current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not
              specified.  If arg is `-', change to the previous directory.

              Otherwise,  if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the
              directory given by arg.

              If arg does not begin with a slash,  the  behaviour  depends  on
              whether the current directory `.' occurs in the list of directo-
              ries contained in the shell parameter cdpath.  If it  does  not,
              first  attempt  to change to the directory arg under the current
              directory, and if that fails but cdpath is set and  contains  at
              least  one  element attempt to change to the directory arg under
              each component of cdpath  in  turn  until  successful.   If  `.'
              occurs  in  cdpath, then cdpath is searched strictly in order so
              that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

              The order of testing cdpath is modified if the  option  POSIX_CD
              is set, as described in the documentation for the option.

              If  no  directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a
              parameter named arg exists whose  value  begins  with  a  slash,
              treat  its  value as the directory.  In that case, the parameter
              is added to the named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the  string
              old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to
              this new directory.

              The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack,
              and  changes  to  that  directory.  An argument of the form `+n'
              identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of  the  list
              shown  by  the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of
              the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS  option
              is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If  the  -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array chpwd_functions are  not  called.
              This  is  useful for calls to cd that do not change the environ-
              ment seen by an interactive user.

              If the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the  current
              directory  if  the  given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P
              option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links
              are  resolved  to  their true values.  If the -L option is given
              symbolic links are retained in the directory (and not  resolved)
              regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The  simple  command  argument  is  taken as an external command
              instead of a  function  or  builtin  and  is  executed.  If  the
              POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but
              certain special properties of them are suppressed. The  -p  flag
              causes  a  default path to be searched instead of that in $path.
              With the -v flag, command is similar to whence and with  -V,  it
              is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume  the  next  iteration of the enclosing for, while, until,
              select or repeat loop. If an arithmetic expression n  is  speci-
              fied,  break  out  of  n-1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing
              loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With no arguments, print the contents of  the  directory  stack.
              Directories  are added to this stack with the pushd command, and
              removed with the cd or popd commands.  If arguments  are  speci-
              fied,  load  them  onto  the directory stack, replacing anything
              that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~
                     expressions  (see Dynamic and Static named directories in
                     zshexpn(1)).

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Temporarily disable the named hash table elements  or  patterns.
              The  default is to disable builtin commands.  This allows you to
              use an external command with the same name as a builtin command.
              The  -a  option  causes  disable  to  act  on  regular or global
              aliases.  The -s option causes disable to act on suffix aliases.
              The  -f option causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r
              options causes disable to act on reserved words.  Without  argu-
              ments  all  disabled  hash table elements from the corresponding
              hash table are printed.  With the  -m  flag  the  arguments  are
              taken  as  patterns (which should be quoted to prevent them from
              undergoing filename expansion), and all hash table elements from
              the  corresponding  hash  table matching these patterns are dis-
              abled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

              With the option -p, name ... refer to elements  of  the  shell's
              pattern  syntax  as  described  in the section `Filename Genera-
              tion'.  Certain elements can be disabled  separately,  as  given
              below.

              Note  that  patterns not allowed by the current settings for the
              options EXTENDED_GLOB, KSH_GLOB and SH_GLOB are  never  enabled,
              regardless  of  the setting here.  For example, if EXTENDED_GLOB
              is not active, the pattern ^ is ineffective even if `disable  -p
              "^"'  has  not been issued.  The list below indicates any option
              settings that restrict the use of the  pattern.   It  should  be
              noted  that  setting SH_GLOB has a wider effect than merely dis-
              abling patterns as  certain  expressions,  in  particular  those
              involving parentheses, are parsed differently.

              The  following  patterns  may  be disabled; all the strings need
              quoting on the command line to prevent them  from  being  inter-
              preted  immediately as patterns and the patterns are shown below
              in single quotes as a reminder.

              '?'    The pattern character ?  wherever  it  occurs,  including
                     when preceding a parenthesis with KSH_GLOB.

              '*'    The  pattern  character  *  wherever it occurs, including
                     recursive globbing and when preceding a parenthesis  with
                     KSH_GLOB.

              '['    Character classes.

              '<' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Numeric ranges.

              '|' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Alternation  in  grouped  patterns,  case  statements, or
                     KSH_GLOB parenthesised expressions.

              '(' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Grouping using single parentheses.  Disabling  this  does
                     not  disable  the  use  of parentheses for KSH_GLOB where
                     they are introduced by a special character, nor for  glob
                     qualifiers  (use  `setopt  NO_BARE_GLOB_QUAL'  to disable
                     glob qualifiers that use parentheses only).

              '~' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A~B.

              '^' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A^B.

              '#' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     The pattern character # wherever it occurs, both for rep-
                     etition of a previous pattern and for indicating globbing
                     flags.

              '?(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form ?(...).  Note this is also disabled  if
                     '?' is disabled.

              '*(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The  grouping form *(...).  Note this is also disabled if
                     '*' is disabled.

              '+(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form +(...).

              '!(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form !(...).

              '@(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form @(...).

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will  no
              longer  report their status, and will not complain if you try to
              exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped.   If  no
              job is specified, disown the current job.

              If  the  jobs are currently stopped and the AUTO_CONTINUE option
              is not set, a warning is printed  containing  information  about
              how  to make them running after they have been disowned.  If one
              of the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automatically  be
              made  running,  independent  of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a  space  separating
              each one.  If the -n flag is not present, print a newline at the
              end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress subsequent characters and final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option,  can  be  used  to  disable
              these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
              to enable them.

              Note that for standards compliance a double dash does not termi-
              nate  option  processing; instead, it is printed directly.  How-
              ever, a single dash does terminate  option  processing,  so  the
              first  dash,  possibly  following  options,  is not printed, but
              everything following it is printed as an argument.   The  single
              dash  behaviour is different from other shells.  For a more por-
              table way of printing text, see printf, and for a more  control-
              lable way of printing text within zsh, see print.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -lLR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With single argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified
              shell as much as possible.  csh will never  be  fully  emulated.
              If  the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will
              be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the
              argument  are  the same as those used to determine the emulation
              at startup based on the shell name, see the section  COMPATIBIL-
              ITY  in zsh(1) .  In addition to setting shell options, the com-
              mand also restores the pristine state of pattern enables, as  if
              all patterns had been enabled using enable -p.

              If  the  emulate  command occurs inside a function that has been
              marked for execution tracing with functions -t then  the  xtrace
              option  will  be turned on regardless of emulation mode or other
              options.  Note that code executed inside the function by the  .,
              source,  or  eval  commands  is  not  considered  to  be running
              directly from the function, hence does not provoke  this  behav-
              iour.

              If  the  -R  switch  is given, all settable options are reset to
              their default value corresponding  to  the  specified  emulation
              mode,  except  for  certain  options  describing the interactive
              environment; otherwise,  only  those  options  likely  to  cause
              portability  problems  in scripts and functions are altered.  If
              the -L switch is given, the  options  LOCAL_OPTIONS,  LOCAL_PAT-
              TERNS  and  LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects
              of the emulate command and any setopt, disable -p or enable  -p,
              and  trap  commands  to  be local to the immediately surrounding
              shell function, if any; normally these options are turned off in
              all emulation modes except ksh. The -L switch is mutually exclu-
              sive with the use of -c in flags.

              If there is a single argument and the -l switch  is  given,  the
              options  that  would  be set or unset (the latter indicated with
              the prefix `no') are listed.  -l can be combined with -L  or  -R
              and  the list will be modified in the appropriate way.  Note the
              list does not depend on the current setting of options, i.e.  it
              includes  all  options  that  may  in principle change, not just
              those that would actually change.

              The flags may be any of the invocation-time flags  described  in
              the section INVOCATION in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o
              VI' may not be used.  Flags such as `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may  be
              prohibited in some circumstances.

              If -c arg appears in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested
              emulation is temporarily in effect.  In this case the  emulation
              mode  and  all  options  are  restored  to their previous values
              before emulate returns.  The -R switch may precede the  name  of
              the  shell  to  emulate;  note  this has a meaning distinct from
              including -R in flags.

              Use of -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions  defined
              within  the evaluated expression:  the emulation mode is associ-
              ated thereafter with the function so that whenever the  function
              is executed the emulation (respecting the -R switch, if present)
              and all options are set (and pattern  disables  cleared)  before
              entry to the function, and the state is restored after exit.  If
              the function is called when the sticky emulation is  already  in
              effect, either within an `emulate shell -c' expression or within
              another function with the same sticky emulation, entry and  exit
              from the function do not cause options to be altered (except due
              to standard processing such as the LOCAL_OPTIONS option).   This
              also  applies to functions marked for autoload within the sticky
              emulation; the appropriate set of options will be applied at the
              point the function is loaded as well as when it is run.

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The  two functions fni and fno are defined with sticky sh emula-
              tion.  fno is then executed,  causing  options  associated  with
              emulations to be set to their values in sh.  fno then calls fni;
              because fni is also marked for sticky sh  emulation,  no  option
              changes  take  place  on  entry  to  or exit from it.  Hence the
              option cshnullglob, turned off by sh emulation, will  be  turned
              on  within  fni  and remain on return to fno.  On exit from fno,
              the emulation mode and all options will be restored to the state
              they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended
              purpose of executing code designed for other shells in  a  suit-
              able environment.  More detailed rules follow.
              1.     The  sticky  emulation  environment  provided by `emulate
                     shell -c' is identical to that provided  by  entry  to  a
                     function  marked for sticky emulation as a consequence of
                     being defined in such an environment.  Hence,  for  exam-
                     ple,  the  sticky  emulation is inherited by subfunctions
                     defined within functions with sticky emulation.
              2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from
                     functions that are not marked for sticky emulation, other
                     than those that would normally take place, even if  those
                     functions are called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No  special handling is provided for functions marked for
                     autoload nor for functions present in wordcode created by
                     the zcompile command.
              4.     The  presence or absence of the -R switch to emulate cor-
                     responds to different  sticky  emulation  modes,  so  for
                     example  `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R sh -c' and `emulate
                     csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
              5.     Difference in shell options supplied in addition  to  the
                     basic  emulation also mean the sticky emulations are dif-
                     ferent, so for example `emulate zsh -c' and `emulate  zsh
                     -o cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Enable  the  named hash table elements, presumably disabled ear-
              lier with disable.  The default is to enable  builtin  commands.
              The -a option causes enable to act on regular or global aliases.
              The -s option causes enable to act on suffix  aliases.   The  -f
              option  causes  enable to act on shell functions.  The -r option
              causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without  arguments  all
              enabled  hash  table  elements from the corresponding hash table
              are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken  as  pat-
              terns  (should  be  quoted) and all hash table elements from the
              corresponding hash table matching these  patterns  are  enabled.
              Enabled  objects  can  be disabled with the disable builtin com-
              mand.

              enable -p reenables patterns disabled  with  disable  -p.   Note
              that it does not override globbing options; for example, `enable
              -p "~"' does not cause the pattern  character  ~  to  be  active
              unless the EXTENDED_GLOB option is also set.  To enable all pos-
              sible patterns (so that they may be individually  disabled  with
              disable -p), use `setopt EXTENDED_GLOB KSH_GLOB NO_SH_GLOB'.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the result-
              ing command(s) in the current shell process.  The return  status
              is the same as if the commands had been executed directly by the
              shell; if there are no args or they contain  no  commands  (i.e.
              are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] [ command [ arg ... ] ]
              Replace  the current shell with command rather than forking.  If
              command is a shell builtin command  or  a  shell  function,  the
              shell executes it, and exits when the command is complete.

              With  -c clear the environment; with -l prepend - to the argv[0]
              string of the command executed (to simulate a login shell); with
              -a  argv0  set  the argv[0] string of the command executed.  See
              the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

              If the option POSIX_BUILTINS is set,  command  is  never  inter-
              preted as a shell builtin command or shell function.  This means
              further precommand modifiers such as builtin and noglob are also
              not interpreted within the shell.  Hence command is always found
              by searching the command path.

              If command is omitted but any redirections are  specified,  then
              the redirections will take effect in the current shell.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit  the  shell with the exit status specified by an arithmetic
              expression n; if none is specified, use the exit status from the
              last  command  executed.   An  EOF condition will also cause the
              shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set.

              See notes at the end of the section JOBS in zshmisc(1) for  some
              possibly unexpected interactions of the exit command with jobs.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified names are marked for automatic export to the envi-
              ronment of subsequently executed commands.  Equivalent to  type-
              set -gx.  If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is
              created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.


       fc [ -e ename ] [ -LI ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -LI ] [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              The fc command controls the interactive history mechanism.  Note
              that reading and writing of history options is only performed if
              the shell is interactive.  Usually this  is  detected  automati-
              cally,  but  it  can be forced by setting the interactive option
              when starting the shell.

              The first two forms of this command select  a  range  of  events
              from  first  to last from the history list.  The arguments first
              and last may be specified as a number or as a string.   A  nega-
              tive  number  is  used as an offset to the current history event
              number.  A string specifies the most recent event beginning with
              the  given  string.  All substitutions old=new, if any, are then
              performed on the text of the events.

              In addition to the number range,
              -I     restricts to only internal events (not from $HISTFILE)
              -L     restricts to only local events (not  from  other  shells,
                     see SHARE_HISTORY in zshoptions(1) -- note that $HISTFILE
                     is considered local when read at startup)
              -m     takes the first argument as a pattern (should be  quoted)
                     and  only  the  history  events matching this pattern are
                     considered

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent
              event), or to -16 if the -l flag is given.  If last is not spec-
              ified, it will be set to first, or to  -1  if  the  -l  flag  is
              given.   However,  if the current event has added entries to the
              history with `print -s' or `fc -R', then the default last for -l
              includes all new history entries since the current event began.

              When  the  -l  flag is given, the resulting events are listed on
              standard output.  Otherwise the editor program ename is  invoked
              on  a  file  containing  these  history events.  If ename is not
              given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used; if that is not
              set  the  value  of the parameter EDITOR is used; if that is not
              set a builtin default, usually `vi' is used.  If ename  is  `-',
              no editor is invoked.  When editing is complete, the edited com-
              mand is executed.

              The flag -r reverses the order of the events  and  the  flag  -n
              suppresses event numbers when listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each event
              -f     prints  full  time-date stamps in the US `MM/DD/YY hh:mm'
                     format
              -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European  `dd.mm.yyyy
                     hh:mm' format
              -i     prints  full  time-date  stamps  in  ISO8601  `yyyy-mm-dd
                     hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints time and date stamps in the given format;  fmt  is
                     formatted  with the strftime function with the zsh exten-
                     sions described for the %D{string} prompt format  in  the
                     section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The
                     resulting formatted string must be no more than 256 char-
                     acters or will not be printed
              -D     prints  elapsed  times;  may  be combined with one of the
                     options above

              `fc -p' pushes  the  current  history  list  onto  a  stack  and
              switches to a new history list.  If the -a option is also speci-
              fied, this history list will be automatically  popped  when  the
              current  function  scope is exited, which is a much better solu-
              tion than creating a trap function to call `fc -P' manually.  If
              no  arguments  are  specified,  the  history list is left empty,
              $HISTFILE is unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set  to  their
              default  values.   If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is set to
              that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the
              history  file  is  read  in (if it exists) to initialize the new
              list.  If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE &  $SAVEHIST
              are instead set to the single specified numeric value.  Finally,
              if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value  from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment
              values for the new history list however you desire in  order  to
              manipulate the new history list.

              `fc -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc
              -p'.  The current list is saved to its $HISTFILE  before  it  is
              destroyed  (assuming that $HISTFILE and $SAVEHIST are set appro-
              priately, of course).  The values of $HISTFILE,  $HISTSIZE,  and
              $SAVEHIST  are  restored to the values they had when `fc -p' was
              called.  Note that this restoration  can  conflict  with  making
              these variables "local", so your best bet is to avoid local dec-
              larations for these variables in functions  that  use  `fc  -p'.
              The  one  other  guaranteed-safe  combination is declaring these
              variables to be local at the top of your function and using  the
              automatic  option  (-a)  with `fc -p'.  Finally, note that it is
              legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic popping if you
              need to do so before the function exits.

              `fc  -R'  reads  the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes
              the history out to the given file, and `fc -A' appends the  his-
              tory  out  to  the given file.  If no filename is specified, the
              $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is  added  to  -R,  only
              those  events that are not already contained within the internal
              history list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or  -W,
              only   those   events   that  are  new  since  last  incremental
              append/write to the history file are appended/written.   In  any
              case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring  each  specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job
              is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZ [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -E,  except  that  options  irrelevant  to
              floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UkmtTuWz ] [ -x num ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M [-s] mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn ...
              Equivalent  to  typeset -f, with the exception of the -x, -M and
              -W options.  For functions -u and functions  -U,  see  autoload,
              which provides additional options.

              The -x option indicates that any functions output will have each
              leading tab for indentation, added by the shell to show  syntac-
              tic  structure, expanded to the given number num of spaces.  num
              can also be 0 to suppress all indentation.

              The -W option turns on the option WARN_NESTED_VAR for the  named
              function  or  functions  only.   The option is turned off at the
              start of nested  functions  (apart  from  anonoymous  functions)
              unless the called function also has the -W attribute.

              Use of the -M option may not be combined with any of the options
              handled by typeset -f.

              functions -M mathfn defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical
              function  recognised  in  all forms of arithmetical expressions;
              see the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1).   By
              default mathfn may take any number of comma-separated arguments.
              If min is given, it must have exactly min args; if min  and  max
              are  both given, it must have at least min and at most max args.
              max may be -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By default the function is implemented by a  shell  function  of
              the  same name; if shellfn is specified it gives the name of the
              corresponding shell function while mathfn remains the name  used
              in  arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function in $0 is
              mathfn (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided  the
              option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters
              in the shell function correspond to the arguments of the  mathe-
              matical  function  call.   The  result  of the last arithmetical
              expression evaluated inside the shell function (even if it is  a
              form  that  normally  only returns a status) gives the result of
              the mathematical function.

              If the additional option -s is given to functions -M, the  argu-
              ment  to  the  function is a single string: anything between the
              opening and matching closing parenthesis is passed to the  func-
              tion  as  a single argument, even if it includes commas or white
              space.  The minimum and maximum argument specifiers must  there-
              fore  be  1  if  given.   An  empty argument list is passed as a
              zero-length string.

              functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined func-
              tions  in  the  same  form as a definition.  With the additional
              option -m and a list of arguments, all  functions  whose  mathfn
              matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the
              additional option -m the arguments are treated as  patterns  and
              all  functions  whose  mathfn  matches  the pattern are removed.
              Note that the shell function implementing the behaviour  is  not
              removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

              The following string function takes a single argument, including
              the commas, so prints 11:

                     stringfn() { (( $#1 )) }
                     functions -Ms stringfn
                     print $(( stringfn(foo,bar,rod) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
              parameter name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use
              the positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins  with
              a  `+' or a `-'.  An argument not beginning with a `+' or a `-',
              or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a single  `-'
              is  not  considered a valid option argument.  optstring contains
              the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by
              a  `:',  that  option  requires an argument.  The options can be
              separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each time it is invoked, getopts places  the  option  letter  it
              finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg
              begins with a `+'.  The index of  the  next  arg  is  stored  in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The  first  option  to  be examined may be changed by explicitly
              assigning to OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial value of 1,  and  is
              normally  set  to  1 upon entry to a shell function and restored
              upon exit (this  is  disabled  by  the  POSIX_BUILTINS  option).
              OPTARG  is  not reset and retains its value from the most recent
              call to getopts.  If either of OPTIND or  OPTARG  is  explicitly
              unset, it remains unset, and the index or option argument is not
              stored.  The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of
              any  invalid  option  in  OPTARG,  and to set name to `?' for an
              unknown option and to `:' when a required argument  is  missing.
              Otherwise,  getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error message
              when an option is invalid.  The  exit  status  is  nonzero  when
              there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash  can be used to directly modify the contents of the command
              hash table, and the named directory hash  table.   Normally  one
              would  modify these tables by modifying one's PATH (for the com-
              mand hash table) or by  creating  appropriate  shell  parameters
              (for  the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash table
              to work on is determined by the -d option;  without  the  option
              the  command  hash  table is used, and with the option the named
              directory hash table is used.

              Given no arguments, and  neither  the  -r  or  -f  options,  the
              selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The  -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.  It
              will be subsequently rebuilt in  the  normal  fashion.   The  -f
              option  causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt imme-
              diately.  For the command hash table this hashes all  the  abso-
              lute  directories  in the PATH, and for the named directory hash
              table this adds all users' home directories.  These two  options
              cannot be used with any arguments.

              The  -m  option  causes  the  arguments  to be taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted) and the  elements  of  the  hash  table
              matching  those  patterns  are printed.  This is the only way to
              display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For each name with a corresponding  value,  put  `name'  in  the
              selected  hash  table, associating it with the pathname `value'.
              In the command hash table, this means that  whenever  `name'  is
              used  as  a  command argument, the shell will try to execute the
              file given by `value'.  In the named directory hash table,  this
              means that `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For  each  name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name
              to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the
              normal  manner  for  that  hash  table.  If an appropriate value
              can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are
              added  by explicit specification.  If has no effect if used with
              -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed
              in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}LRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -i,  except  that options irrelevant to
              integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists information about each given job, or all jobs  if  job  is
              omitted.   The  -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p flag lists
              process groups.  If the -r flag is specified only  running  jobs
              will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are
              shown.  If the -d flag is given, the directory  from  which  the
              job  was  started (which may not be the current directory of the
              job) will also be shown.

              The -Z option replaces  the  shell's  argument  and  environment
              space  with  the  given  string,  truncated if necessary to fit.
              This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This fea-
              ture is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends  either  SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs
              or processes.  Signals are given by number or by names, with  or
              without  the  `SIG'  prefix.   If  the  signal being sent is not
              `KILL' or `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT'  signal  if
              it  is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a job
              not in the job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not
              specified  the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig
              that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.   For
              each  sig  that  is a signal number or a number representing the
              exit status of a process which was terminated or  stopped  by  a
              signal the name of the signal is printed.

              On  some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few
              signals.  Typical examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and
              SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.  kill
              -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l  alt  will
              show  if  the  alternative  form corresponds to a signal number.
              For example, under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output
              29, hence kill -IO and kill -POLL have the same effect.

              Many  systems  will  allow  process IDs to be negative to kill a
              process group or zero to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the  section
              `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1)  for  a  description of
              arithmetic expressions.  The exit status is 0 if  the  value  of
              the  last  expression  is  nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and 2 if an
              error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s  flag  is  given,
              the  limit  applies  only  the  children of the shell.  If -s is
              given without other arguments, the resource limits of  the  cur-
              rent  shell  is set to the previously set resource limits of the
              children.

              If limit is not specified, print the  current  limit  placed  on
              resource,  otherwise  set  the limit to the specified value.  If
              the -h flag is given, use hard limits instead  of  soft  limits.
              If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However,  if  it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in  RAM  for  AIO  opera-
                     tions.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              kqueues
                     Maximum number of kqueues allocated.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              posixlocks
                     Maximum number of POSIX locks per user.
              pseudoterminals
                     Maximum number of pseudo-terminals.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              swapsize
                     Maximum amount of swap used.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits are available depends on the sys-
              tem.  resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.  It
              can also be an integer, which corresponds to the integer defined
              for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of
              the  resources  configured into the shell, the shell will try to
              read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this
              fails.   As  the shell does not store such resources internally,
              an attempt to set the limit will fail unless the  -s  option  is
              present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              ng     gigabytes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The  limit  command  is  not  made available by default when the
              shell starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be  made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AHUahlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not per-
              mitted.  In this case the -x option does not force  the  use  of
              -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List  all users currently logged in who are affected by the cur-
              rent setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       popd [ -q ] [ {+|-}n ]
              Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform  a  cd  to
              the  new top directory.  With no argument, the current top entry
              is removed.  An argument of the form  `+n'  identifies  a  stack
              entry  by  counting  from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n  counts
              from  the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings
              of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook  function  chpwd
              and  the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not called,
              and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful  for
              calls  to  popd  that  do  not change the environment seen by an
              interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
             [ -v name ] [ -xX tabstop ] [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With the `-f' option the arguments are printed as  described  by
              printf.   With  no flags or with the flag `-', the arguments are
              printed on the standard output as described by  echo,  with  the
              following  differences:  the  escape  sequence `\M-x' (or `\Mx')
              metafies the character x (sets  the  highest  bit),  `\C-x'  (or
              `\Cx')  produces a control character (`\C-@' and `\C-?' give the
              characters NULL and delete), a character code in octal is repre-
              sented by `\NNN' (instead of `\0NNN'), and `\E' is a synonym for
              `\e'.  Finally, if not in an escape sequence,  `\'  escapes  the
              following character and is not printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only
                     useful with the -c and -C options.

              -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the  bind-
                     key command, see the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a is also given,
                     arguments are printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a  is  also
                     given,  arguments  are  printed with the row incrementing
                     first.

              -D     Treat the arguments as paths,  replacing  directory  pre-
                     fixes  with  ~  expressions  corresponding  to  directory
                     names, as appropriate.

              -i     If given together with -o or  -O,  sorting  is  performed
                     case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spa-
                     ces.

              -m     Take the first argument as a pattern (should be  quoted),
                     and remove it from the argument list together with subse-
                     quent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform  prompt  expansion  (see  EXPANSION   OF   PROMPT
                     SEQUENCES  in  zshmisc(1)).   In  combination  with `-f',
                     prompt escape sequences are parsed only  within  interpo-
                     lated arguments, not within the format string.

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate  the  BSD  echo  command,  which does not process
                     escape sequences unless the -e flag  is  given.   The  -n
                     flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n
                     flags are recognized after -R; all  other  arguments  and
                     options are printed.

              -s     Place  the  results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.  Each argument to the print  command  is
                     treated  as  a  single word in the history, regardless of
                     its content.

              -S     Place the results in the history list instead of  on  the
                     standard  output.  In this case only a single argument is
                     allowed; it will be split into words as if it were a full
                     shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading the
                     line from a history file with the  HIST_LEX_WORDS  option
                     active.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -v name
                     Store the printed arguments as the value of the parameter
                     name.

              -x tab-stop
                     Expand leading tabs on each line of output in the printed
                     string  assuming  a  tab  stop every tab-stop characters.
                     This is appropriate  for  formatting  code  that  may  be
                     indented  with tabs.  Note that leading tabs of any argu-
                     ment to print, not just the first, are expanded, even  if
                     print  is  using spaces to separate arguments (the column
                     count is maintained across arguments but may be incorrect
                     on output owing to previous unexpanded tabs).

                     The  start of the output of each print command is assumed
                     to be aligned with a tab stop.  Widths of multibyte char-
                     acters  are handled if the option MULTIBYTE is in effect.
                     This option is ignored if other formatting options are in
                     effect,  namely  column  alignment or printf style, or if
                     output is to a special location such as shell history  or
                     the command line editor.

              -X tab-stop
                     This  is  similar  to  -x,  except  that  all tabs in the
                     printed string are expanded.  This is appropriate if tabs
                     in  the  arguments are being used to produce a table for-
                     mat.

              -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer  stack,  sepa-
                     rated by spaces.

              If  any  of `-m', `-o' or `-O' are used in combination with `-f'
              and there are no arguments (after the  removal  process  in  the
              case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf [ -v name ] format [ arg ... ]
              Print  the arguments according to the format specification. For-
              matting rules are the  same  as  used  in  C.  The  same  escape
              sequences  as  for echo are recognised in the format. All C con-
              version specifications ending in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are  han-
              dled.  In  addition to this, `%b' can be used instead of `%s' to
              cause escape sequences in the argument to be recognised and `%q'
              can  be  used to quote the argument in such a way that allows it
              to be reused as shell input. With the numeric format specifiers,
              if the corresponding argument starts with a quote character, the
              numeric value of the following character is used as  the  number
              to  print;  otherwise the argument is evaluated as an arithmetic
              expression. See the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zsh-
              misc(1)  for a description of arithmetic expressions. With `%n',
              the corresponding argument is taken as an  identifier  which  is
              created as an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument
              in order but they can explicitly specify the nth argument is  to
              be  used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and `*' by `*n$'.  It is rec-
              ommended that you do not mix references of this  explicit  style
              with  the normal style and the handling of such mixed styles may
              be subject to future change.

              If arguments remain unused after formatting, the  format  string
              is reused until all arguments have been consumed. With the print
              builtin, this can be suppressed by using the -r option. If  more
              arguments  are  required by the format than have been specified,
              the behaviour is as if zero or an empty string had  been  speci-
              fied as the argument.

              The -v option causes the output to be stored as the value of the
              parameter name, instead of printed. If name is an array and  the
              format  string is reused when consuming arguments then one array
              element will be used for each use of the format string.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory
              onto the directory stack.  In the first form, change the current
              directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second
              directory  on the stack (that is, exchange the top two entries),
              or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME  option  is  set  or  if
              there  is only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is inter-
              preted as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in  the
              second form is also the same as for cd.

              The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the direc-
              tory list.  An argument of the  form  `+n'  identifies  a  stack
              entry  by  counting  from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.   An  argument  of  the  form  `-n'
              counts  from  the  right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the
              meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook  function  chpwd
              and  the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not called,
              and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful  for
              calls  to  pushd  that  do not change the environment seen by an
              interactive user.

              If  the  option  -q  is  not  specified  and  the  shell  option
              PUSHD_SILENT  is  not  set,  the directory stack will be printed
              after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for  the  cd
              builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option
              is  set  and the -L flag is not given, the printed path will not
              contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.


       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
            [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read one line and break it into fields using the  characters  in
              $IFS  as  separators, except as noted below.  The first field is
              assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
              etc.,  with  leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If name
              is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

              -r     Raw mode: a `\' at the end of a  line  does  not  signify
                     line continuation and backslashes in the line don't quote
                     the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the terminal.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
                     `y'  if  this  character was `y' or `Y' and to `n' other-
                     wise.  With this flag set the return status is zero  only
                     if the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may be used
                     with a timeout (see  -t);  if  the  read  times  out,  or
                     encounters  end  of file, status 2 is returned.  Input is
                     read from the terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.
                     This option may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read  only  one (or num) characters.  All are assigned to
                     the first name, without word  splitting.   This  flag  is
                     ignored  when -q is present.  Input is read from the ter-
                     minal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may
                     also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note  that  despite  the  mnemonic `key' this option does
                     read full characters, which may consist of multiple bytes
                     if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
                     to the first  name,  without  word  splitting.   Text  is
                     pushed  onto  the stack with `print -z' or with push-line
                     from the line  editor  (see  zshzle(1)).   This  flag  is
                     ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The  input  read is printed (echoed) to the standard out-
                     put.  If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned to the
                     parameters.

              -A     The  first  name is taken as the name of an array and all
                     words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a  function
                     used  for  completion (specified with the -K flag to com-
                     pctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words of the current
                     command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line
                     is assigned as a scalar.  If both flags are  present,  -l
                     is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
                     is read.  With -l, the index of the character the  cursor
                     is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end  of
                     the  line,  its character index is the length of the line
                     plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input is terminated  by  the  first  character  of  delim
                     instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If
                     num is present, it must begin with a digit  and  will  be
                     evaluated  to  give  a  number of seconds, which may be a
                     floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input  is  not available within this time.  If num is not
                     present, it is taken to be zero,  so  that  read  returns
                     immediately  if  no  input  is available.  If no input is
                     available, return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor
                     buffer  with  -z, when called from within completion with
                     -c or -l, with -q which clears  the  input  queue  before
                     reading,  or  within zle where other mechanisms should be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note that read does not attempt to alter the  input  pro-
                     cessing  mode.   The  default mode is canonical input, in
                     which an entire line is read at a time, so usually  `read
                     -t'  will not read anything until an entire line has been
                     typed.  However, when reading from the terminal  with  -k
                     input  is processed one key at a time; in this case, only
                     availability of the first character is  tested,  so  that
                     e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second charac-
                     ter.  Use two instances of `read -t -k' if  this  is  not
                     what is wanted.

              If the first argument contains a `?', the remainder of this word
              is used as a prompt on standard error when the shell is interac-
              tive.

              The  value  (exit  status)  of  read is 1 when an end-of-file is
              encountered, or when -c or -l is present and the command is  not
              called  from a compctl function, or as described for -q.  Other-
              wise the value is 0.

              The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u  and  -z
              flags  is  undefined.   Presently  -q cancels all the others, -p
              cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p  and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.  With the POSIX_BUILTINS option set, same as
              typeset -gr.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes a shell function or `.' script to return to the  invoking
              script with the return status specified by an arithmetic expres-
              sion n. If n is omitted, the return status is that of  the  last
              command executed.

              If  return  was  executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the
              effect is different for zero and non-zero return  status.   With
              zero  status  (or  after  an  implicit  return at the end of the
              trap), the shell will return to whatever it was previously  pro-
              cessing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as inter-
              rupted except that the return status of the  trap  is  retained.
              Note  that the numeric value of the signal which caused the trap
              is passed as  the  first  argument,  so  the  statement  `return
              $((128+$1))'  will  return  the same status as if the signal had
              not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).


       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ]
           [ arg ... ]
              Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional  parame-
              ters,  or  declare and set an array.  If the -s option is given,
              it causes the specified arguments to be sorted before  assigning
              them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if -A is
              used).  With +s sort arguments in  descending  order.   For  the
              meaning  of  the  other  flags, see zshoptions(1).  Flags may be
              specified by name using the -o option. If no option name is sup-
              plied  with  -o, the current option states are printed:  see the
              description of setopt below for more information on the  format.
              With  +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input to
              the shell.

              If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array  containing
              the  given args; if no name is specified, all arrays are printed
              together with their values.

              If +A is used and name is an array,  the  given  arguments  will
              replace the initial elements of that array; if no name is speci-
              fied, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The behaviour of arguments after -A name or +A name  depends  on
              whether  the  option  KSH_ARRAYS  is set.  If it is not set, all
              arguments following name are treated as values  for  the  array,
              regardless  of  their form.  If the option is set, normal option
              processing continues at that point; only regular  arguments  are
              treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the
              array to foo and turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

              If the -A flag is not present, but there  are  arguments  beyond
              the  options,  the positional parameters are set.  If the option
              list (if any) is terminated by `--', and there  are  no  further
              arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values
              of all parameters are printed on the standard  output.   If  the
              only argument is `+', the names of all parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set
              - args' as `set +xv -- args' when in any  other  emulation  mode
              than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ -m ] [ name ... ]
              Set  the  options  for  the shell.  All options specified either
              with flags or by name are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently
              set  are printed.  The form is chosen so as to minimize the dif-
              ferences from the default options for the current emulation (the
              default  emulation  being  native  zsh,  shown  as <Z> in zshop-
              tions(1)).  Options that are on by default for the emulation are
              shown  with  the  prefix  no  only  if they are off, while other
              options are shown without the prefix no and only if they are on.
              In  addition  to  options  changed from the default state by the
              user, any options activated  automatically  by  the  shell  (for
              example,  SHIN_STDIN  or INTERACTIVE) will be shown in the list.
              The format is further modified by the  option  KSH_OPTION_PRINT,
              however  the  rationale for choosing options with or without the
              no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If the -m flag is given the  arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
              (which  should  be  quoted  to protect them from filename expan-
              sion), and all options with names matching  these  patterns  are
              set.

              Note  that  a bad option name does not cause execution of subse-
              quent shell code to be aborted; this is behaviour  is  different
              from  that  of  `set  -o'.  This is because set is regarded as a
              special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt is not.

       shift [ -p ] [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The positional parameters ${n+1} ...  are  renamed  to  $1  ...,
              where  n is an arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If any
              names are given then the arrays with  these  names  are  shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

              If the option -p is given arguments are instead removed (popped)
              from the end rather than the start of the array.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as  `.',  except  that  the  current  directory  is  always
              searched  and  is  always  searched first, before directories in
              $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until  it
              receives  a  SIGCONT.   Unless the -f option is given, this will
              refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like the system version of test.  Added for  compatibility;  use
              conditional  expressions  instead  (see the section `Conditional
              Expressions').  The main  differences  between  the  conditional
              expression  syntax  and the test and [ builtins are:  these com-
              mands are not handled syntactically, so  for  example  an  empty
              variable  expansion  may cause an argument to be omitted; syntax
              errors cause status 2 to be returned instead of a  shell  error;
              and  arithmetic  operators  expect integer arguments rather than
              arithmetic expressions.

              The command attempts to implement POSIX and its extensions where
              these are specified.  Unfortunately there are intrinsic ambigui-
              ties in the  syntax;  in  particular  there  is  no  distinction
              between  test  operators  and  strings  that resemble them.  The
              standard attempts to resolve these for small  numbers  of  argu-
              ments  (up  to  four);  for five or more arguments compatibility
              cannot be relied on.  Users are urged wherever possible  to  use
              the `[[' test syntax which does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print  the  accumulated  user and system times for the shell and
              for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect  it  from
              immediate  evaluation by the shell) to be read and executed when
              the shell receives any of the signals specified by one  or  more
              sig  args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the name of
              a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,
              HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If  arg  is  `-',  then the specified signals are reset to their
              defaults, or, if no sig args are present, all traps are reset.

              If arg is an  empty  string,  then  the  specified  signals  are
              ignored by the shell (and by the commands it invokes).

              If  arg  is  omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.
              the first argument is a valid signal number or name), the effect
              is the same as if arg had been specified as `-'.

              The  trap  command  with  no arguments prints a list of commands
              associated with each signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
              a nonzero exit status.  ERR is an alias for ZERR on systems that
              have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will be executed before each command if
              the  option  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as it is by default), else
              after each command.  Here, a `command' is what is described as a
              `sublist'  in the shell grammar, see the section SIMPLE COMMANDS
              & PIPELINES in zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is  set  various
              additional  features  are  available.   First, it is possible to
              skip the next command by setting the option  ERR_EXIT;  see  the
              description  of the ERR_EXIT option in zshoptions(1).  Also, the
              shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the string corresponding
              to  the  command  to  be executed following the trap.  Note that
              this string is reconstructed from the internal  format  and  may
              not be formatted the same way as the original text.  The parame-
              ter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement  is  executed  inside
              the  body  of a function, then the command arg is executed after
              the function completes.  The value of $? at the start of  execu-
              tion is the exit status of the shell or the return status of the
              function exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is
              not executed inside the body of a function, then the command arg
              is executed when the shell terminates; the trap runs before  any
              zshexit hook functions.

              ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.
              ZERR and DEBUG traps are  kept  within  subshells,  while  other
              traps are reset.

              Note  that traps defined with the trap builtin are slightly dif-
              ferent from those defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the latter
              have  their  own function environment (line numbers, local vari-
              ables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the command
              in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will  print  the  line number of a command executed after it has
              run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative signal names are allowed  as  described  under  kill
              above.   Defining a trap under either name causes any trap under
              an alternative name to be removed.  However, it  is  recommended
              that  for  consistency  users  stick  exclusively to one name or
              another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl [ -fu ]
              The -f option freezes the tty (i.e. terminal or terminal  emula-
              tor),  and  -u unfreezes it.  When the tty is frozen, no changes
              made to the tty settings by external programs will be honored by
              the  shell,  except  for  changes in the size of the screen; the
              shell will simply reset the settings to their previous values as
              soon as each command exits or is suspended.  Thus, stty and sim-
              ilar programs have no effect when the tty is  frozen.   Freezing
              the  tty  does  not  cause  the  current state to be remembered:
              instead, it causes future changes to the state to be blocked.

              Without options it reports whether the  terminal  is  frozen  or
              not.

              Note  that,  regardless of whether the tty is frozen or not, the
              shell needs to change the settings when the line editor  starts,
              so  unfreezing  the  tty does not guarantee settings made on the
              command line are preserved.  Strings  of  commands  run  between
              editing  the  command line will see a consistent tty state.  See
              also the shell variable STTY for a means of initialising the tty
              before running external commands.

       type [ -wfpamsS ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.


       typeset [ {+|-}AHUaghlmrtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZip [ n ] ]
               [ + ] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Uglrux ] [ {+|-}LRZp [ n ] ]
               [ + | SCALAR[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
       typeset -f [ {+|-}TUkmtuz ] [ + ] [ name ... ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              Except  as  noted below for control flags that change the behav-
              ior, a parameter is created for each name that does not  already
              refer  to  one.  When inside a function, a new parameter is cre-
              ated for every name (even those  that  already  exist),  and  is
              unset again when the function completes.  See `Local Parameters'
              in zshparam(1).  The same rules apply to special  shell  parame-
              ters, which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For  each  name=value  assignment,  the parameter name is set to
              value.

              If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each  remain-
              ing  name  that  refers  to a parameter that is already set, the
              name and value of the parameter are printed in the  form  of  an
              assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters, or
              when any attribute flags listed below are given along  with  the
              name.   Using  `+'  instead  of  minus to introduce an attribute
              turns it off.

              If no name is present, the names and values  of  all  parameters
              are printed.  In this case the attribute flags restrict the dis-
              play  to  only  those  parameters  that   have   the   specified
              attributes,  and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no
              parameter name.

              All  forms  of  the  command  handle  scalar  assignment.  Array
              assignment is possible if any of  the  reserved  words  declare,
              export,  float,  integer,  local, readonly or typeset is matched
              when the line is parsed (N.B. not when it is executed).  In this
              case  the  arguments  are parsed as assignments, except that the
              `+=' syntax and the GLOB_ASSIGN option are  not  supported,  and
              scalar  values after = are not split further into words, even if
              expanded (regardless of the setting of the  KSH_TYPESET  option;
              this option is obsolete).

              Examples  of  the  differences between command and reserved word
              parsing:

                     # Reserved word parsing
                     typeset svar=$(echo one word) avar=(several words)

              The above creates a scalar parameter svar and an array parameter
              avar as if the assignments had been

                     svar="one word"
                     avar=(several words)

              On the other hand:

                     # Normal builtin interface
                     builtin typeset svar=$(echo two words)

              The builtin keyword causes the above to use the standard builtin
              interface to typeset in which argument parsing is  performed  in
              the  same  way  as  for  other commands.  This example creates a
              scalar svar containing the value two and another scalar  parame-
              ter  words  with  no  value.   An array value in this case would
              either cause an error or be treated as an obscure  set  of  glob
              qualifiers.

              Arbitrary arguments are allowed if they take the form of assign-
              ments after command line expansion; however, these only  perform
              scalar assignment:

                     var='svar=val'
                     typeset $var

              The  above  sets  the  scalar  parameter  svar to the value val.
              Parentheses around the value within var would  not  cause  array
              assignment  as  they will be treated as ordinary characters when
              $var is substituted.  Any non-trivial expansion in the name part
              of  the  assignment  causes  the  argument to be treated in this
              fashion:

                     typeset {var1,var2,var3}=name

              The above syntax is valid, and has the expected effect  of  set-
              ting  the  three  parameters  to the same value, but the command
              line is parsed as a set of three normal command  line  arguments
              to  typeset after expansion.  Hence it is not possible to assign
              to multiple arrays by this means.

              Note that each interface to any of the commands my  be  disabled
              separately.   For  example,  `disable  -r  typeset' disables the
              reserved word interface to typeset, exposing the builtin  inter-
              face,  while  `disable typeset' disables the builtin.  Note that
              disabling the reserved word  interface  for  typeset  may  cause
              problems  with  the  output  of  `typeset -p', which assumes the
              reserved word interface is available in order to  restore  array
              and associative array values.

              Unlike parameter assignment statements, typeset's exit status on
              an assignment that involves  a  command  substitution  does  not
              reflect the exit status of the command substitution.  Therefore,
              to test for an error in a  command  substitution,  separate  the
              declaration of the parameter from its initialization:

                     # WRONG
                     typeset var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

                     # RIGHT
                     typeset var1 && var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

              To  initialize a parameter param to a command output and mark it
              readonly, use typeset -r  param  or  readonly  param  after  the
              parameter assignment statement.

              If  no  attribute  flags are given, and either no name arguments
              are present or the flag +m is used,  then  each  parameter  name
              printed  is preceded by a list of the attributes of that parame-
              ter (array, association, exported, float, integer, readonly,  or
              undefined  for  autoloaded parameters not yet loaded).  If +m is
              used with attribute flags, and all those  flags  are  introduced
              with  +, the matching parameter names are printed but their val-
              ues are not.

              The following control flags change the behavior of typeset:

              +      If `+' appears by itself in a separate word as  the  last
                     option,  then the names of all parameters (functions with
                     -f) are printed, but the  values  (function  bodies)  are
                     not.   No  name  arguments may appear, and it is an error
                     for any other options to follow `+'.  The effect  of  `+'
                     is  as if all attribute flags which precede it were given
                     with a `+' prefix.  For example, `typeset -U +' is equiv-
                     alent  to  `typeset  +U'  and  displays  the names of all
                     arrays having the uniqueness attribute, whereas  `typeset
                     -f  -U  +'  displays  the names of all autoloadable func-
                     tions.  If + is the only option,  then  type  information
                     (array,  readonly, etc.) is also printed for each parame-
                     ter, in the same manner as `typeset +m "*"'.

              -g     The -g (global) means that any resulting  parameter  will
                     not  be  restricted  to local scope.  Note that this does
                     not necessarily mean that the parameter will  be  global,
                     as the flag will apply to any existing parameter (even if
                     unset) from an enclosing function.  This  flag  does  not
                     affect  the  parameter  after  creation,  hence it has no
                     effect when listing existing  parameters,  nor  does  the
                     flag  +g  have  any  effect except in combination with -m
                     (see below).

              -m     If the -m flag is given the name arguments are  taken  as
                     patterns  (use quoting to prevent these from being inter-
                     preted as file patterns).  With no attribute  flags,  all
                     parameters  (or functions with the -f flag) with matching
                     names are printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not
                     used in this case).

                     If the +g flag is combined with -m, a new local parameter
                     is created for  every  matching  parameter  that  is  not
                     already  local.   Otherwise -m applies all other flags or
                     assignments to the existing parameters.

                     Except when assignments are made with  name=value,  using
                     +m forces the matching parameters and their attributes to
                     be printed, even inside a  function.   Note  that  -m  is
                     ignored  if  no  patterns are given, so `typeset -m' dis-
                     plays attributes but `typeset -a +m' does not.

              -p [ n ]
                     If the -p option is  given,  parameters  and  values  are
                     printed  in the form of a typeset command with an assign-
                     ment, regardless of other flags and options.   Note  that
                     the  -H flag on parameters is respected; no value will be
                     shown for these parameters.

                     -p may be followed by an optional integer argument.  Cur-
                     rently  only  the  value  1  is  supported.  In this case
                     arrays and associative arrays are printed  with  newlines
                     between indented elements for readability.

              -T [ scalar[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
                     This  flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     below.  Otherwise the -T option requires  zero,  two,  or
                     three  arguments  to  be present.  With no arguments, the
                     list of parameters created  in  this  fashion  is  shown.
                     With  two  or three arguments, the first two are the name
                     of a scalar and of an array  parameter  (in  that  order)
                     that  will  be  tied  together in the manner of $PATH and
                     $path.  The optional third argument is a single-character
                     separator  which will be used to join the elements of the
                     array to form the scalar; if absent, a colon is used,  as
                     with $PATH.  Only the first character of the separator is
                     significant;  any  remaining  characters   are   ignored.
                     Multibyte characters are not yet supported.

                     Only  one  of  the  scalar  and  array  parameters may be
                     assigned an initial value (the restrictions on assignment
                     forms described above also apply).

                     Both  the scalar and the array may be manipulated as nor-
                     mal.  If one is unset, the other  will  automatically  be
                     unset  too.   There  is  no  way of untying the variables
                     without unsetting them, nor of converting the type of one
                     of  them  with another typeset command; +T does not work,
                     assigning an array to scalar is an error, and assigning a
                     scalar to array sets it to be a single-element array.

                     Note  that  both  `typeset  -xT ...'  and `export -T ...'
                     work, but only the scalar  will  be  marked  for  export.
                     Setting the value using the scalar version causes a split
                     on all separators (which cannot be quoted).  It is possi-
                     ble to apply -T to two previously tied variables but with
                     a different separator character, in which case the  vari-
                     ables  remain  joined  as  before  but  the  separator is
                     changed.

              Attribute flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z,  -l,
              -u)  are  only  applied  to the expanded value at the point of a
              parameter expansion expression using `$'.  They are not  applied
              when  a  parameter  is retrieved internally by the shell for any
              purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The names refer  to  associative  array  parameters;  see
                     `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

              -L [ n ]
                     Left  justify  and  remove  leading blanks from the value
                     when the parameter is expanded.   If  n  is  nonzero,  it
                     defines  the width of the field.  If n is zero, the width
                     is determined by the width of  the  value  of  the  first
                     assignment.   In  the  case  of  numeric  parameters, the
                     length of the complete value assigned to the parameter is
                     used  to determine the width, not the value that would be
                     output.

                     The width is the count of characters, which may be multi-
                     byte  characters  if  the  MULTIBYTE option is in effect.
                     Note that the screen width of the character is not  taken
                     into  account;  if  this  is  required,  use padding with
                     parameter expansion flags ${(ml...)...} as  described  in
                     `Parameter Expansion Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right
                     with blanks or truncated if necessary to fit  the  field.
                     Note  truncation  can  lead  to  unexpected  results with
                     numeric parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the  -Z
                     flag is also set.

              -R [ n ]
                     Similar  to  -L, except that right justification is used;
                     when the parameter is expanded, the field is left  filled
                     with  blanks  or truncated from the end.  May not be com-
                     bined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For arrays (but not for associative  arrays),  keep  only
                     the  first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This may
                     also be set for colon-separated special  parameters  like
                     PATH  or  FIGNORE,  etc.   Note  the flag takes effect on
                     assignment, and the type of the variable  being  assigned
                     to  is determinative; for variables with shared values it
                     is therefore recommended to set the flag for  all  inter-
                     faces, e.g. `typeset -U PATH path'.

                     This  flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     below.

              -Z [ n ]
                     Specially handled if set along with the -L flag.   Other-
                     wise,  similar  to -R, except that leading zeros are used
                     for padding instead of  blanks  if  the  first  non-blank
                     character  is  a digit.  Numeric parameters are specially
                     handled:  they  are  always  eligible  for  padding  with
                     zeroes,  and  the  zeroes  are inserted at an appropriate
                     place in the output.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array  parameter
                     may be created this way, but it may be assigned to in the
                     typeset statement only if the reserved word form of type-
                     set  is  enabled (as it is by default).  When displaying,
                     both normal and associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The names refer to functions rather than parameters.   No
                     assignments  can  be made, and the only other valid flags
                     are -t, -T, -k, -u, -U and -z.  The flag -t turns on exe-
                     cution  tracing  for  this function; the flag -T does the
                     same, but turns off tracing for any named (not anonymous)
                     function  called  from the present one, unless that func-
                     tion also has the -t or -T flag.  The  -u  and  -U  flags
                     cause  the function to be marked for autoloading; -U also
                     causes alias expansion to be suppressed when the function
                     is loaded.  See the description of the `autoload' builtin
                     for details.

                     Note that the builtin functions provides the  same  basic
                     capabilities  as  typeset  -f  but  gives access to a few
                     extra options; autoload gives further additional  options
                     for the case typeset -fu and typeset -fU.

              -h     Hide:  only  useful  for special parameters (those marked
                     `<S>' in the table in zshparam(1)), and for local parame-
                     ters  with  the  same name as a special parameter, though
                     harmless for  others.   A  special  parameter  with  this
                     attribute  will  not  retain its special effect when made
                     local.  Thus after `typeset -h PATH', a function contain-
                     ing  `typeset PATH' will create an ordinary local parame-
                     ter without the usual behaviour of PATH.   Alternatively,
                     the  local  parameter may itself be given this attribute;
                     hence inside a function  `typeset  -h  PATH'  creates  an
                     ordinary  local  parameter and the special PATH parameter
                     is not altered in any way.  It is also possible to create
                     a  local  parameter using `typeset +h special', where the
                     local copy of special will retain its special  properties
                     regardless  of  having  the -h attribute.  Global special
                     parameters loaded from shell modules (currently those  in
                     zsh/mapfile  and  zsh/parameter)  are automatically given
                     the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not  display  the
                     value  of the parameter when listing parameters; the dis-
                     play for such parameters is always as if the `+' flag had
                     been  given.   Use  of the parameter is in other respects
                     normal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is
                     specified  by  name,  or  by  pattern with the -m option.
                     This  is  on  by  default  for  the  parameters  in   the
                     zsh/parameter  and  zsh/mapfile  modules.  Note, however,
                     that unlike the -h flag this is also useful for  non-spe-
                     cial parameters.

              -i [ n ]
                     Use  an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero
                     it defines the output arithmetic base,  otherwise  it  is
                     determined  by  the first assignment.  Bases from 2 to 36
                     inclusive are allowed.

              -E [ n ]
                     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.  On output the variable will be converted to sci-
                     entific notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the  number
                     of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

              -F [ n ]
                     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.  On output the  variable  will  be  converted  to
                     fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it defines
                     the number of digits to display after the decimal  point;
                     the default is ten.

              -l     Convert  the  result to lower case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that  if  name
                     is  a  special  parameter,  the readonly attribute can be
                     turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

                     If  the  POSIX_BUILTINS  option  is  set,  the   readonly
                     attribute  is  more  restrictive:  unset variables can be
                     marked readonly and cannot then be set; furthermore,  the
                     readonly  attribute  cannot be removed from any variable.
                     Note that in zsh (unlike other shells) it is still possi-
                     ble  to  create a local variable of the same name as this
                     is considered a different variable (though this variable,
                     too, can be marked readonly).

              -t     Tags  the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning
                     to the shell.  This flag has  a  different  meaning  when
                     used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert  the  result to upper case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted  when  assigned.
                     This  flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     above.

              -x     Mark for automatic export to the  environment  of  subse-
                     quently  executed  commands.  If the option GLOBAL_EXPORT
                     is set, this implies the option -g,  unless  +g  is  also
                     explicitly  given;  in  other  words the parameter is not
                     made local to the enclosing function.  This is  for  com-
                     patibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ -HSa ] [ { -bcdfiklmnpqrsTtvwx | -N resource } [ limit ] ... ]
              Set  or  display  resource limits of the shell and the processes
              started by the shell.  The value of limit can be a number in the
              unit  specified  below  or  one of the values `unlimited', which
              removes the limit on the resource, or  `hard',  which  uses  the
              current value of the hard limit on the resource.

              By  default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is
              given use hard limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is
              given together with the -H flag set both hard and soft limits.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources
              are printed.  When more than one resource value is printed,  the
              limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However,  if  it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              Not all the following resources are supported  on  all  systems.
              Running ulimit -a will show which are supported.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -k     The number of kqueues allocated.
              -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -p     The number of pseudo-terminals.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -r     Maximum  real  time priority.  On some systems where this
                     is not available, such  as  NetBSD,  this  has  the  same
                     effect as -T for compatibility with sh.
              -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
              -T     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     The number of processes available to the user.
              -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems
                     this refers to the limit called `address space'.
              -w     Kilobytes on the size of swapped out memory.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A resource may also be specified by  integer  in  the  form  `-N
              resource', where resource corresponds to the integer defined for
              the resource by the operating system.  This may be used  to  set
              the  limits for resources known to the shell which do not corre-
              spond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by number in
              the output of `ulimit -a'.

              The  number may alternatively be out of the range of limits com-
              piled into the shell.  The shell will try to read or  write  the
              limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or
              a symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is  omitted,
              the  current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask to
              be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is  printed
              as  an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permis-
              sions you specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied)
              to the users specified.

       unalias [ -ams ] name ...
              Removes  aliases.   This  command  works  the same as unhash -a,
              except that the -a option removes all regular or global aliases,
              or  with  -s  all suffix aliases: in this case no name arguments
              may appear.  The options -m (remove by pattern) and  -s  without
              -a (remove listed suffix aliases) behave as for unhash -a.  Note
              that the meaning of -a is different between unalias and unhash.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.   The
              default  is remove elements from the command hash table.  The -a
              option causes unhash to remove regular or global  aliases;  note
              when  removing a global aliases that the argument must be quoted
              to prevent it from being expanded before  being  passed  to  the
              command.   The -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes unhash to remove shell functions.   The  -d
              options  causes  unhash  to remove named directories.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken  as  patterns  (should  be
              quoted)  and  all  elements of the corresponding hash table with
              matching names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The resource limit for each resource is set to the  hard  limit.
              If  the  -h  flag  is given and the shell has appropriate privi-
              leges, the hard resource limit for  each  resource  is  removed.
              The  resources  of  the shell process are only changed if the -s
              flag is given.

              The unlimit command is not made available by  default  when  the
              shell  starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local  parameters  remain  local
              even  if unset; they appear unset within scope, but the previous
              value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
              by  using  subscript  syntax on name, which should be quoted (or
              the entire command prefixed with noglob)  to  protect  the  sub-
              script from filename generation.

              If  the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns
              (should be quoted) and all parameters with  matching  names  are
              unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative
              array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of  the
              pattern.

              The  -v  flag  specifies that name refers to parameters. This is
              the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset the options for the shell.  All options  specified  either
              with  flags or by name are unset.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m
              flag  is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as  glob  pat-
              terns),  and  all options with names matching these patterns are
              unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is  not  given
              then  all currently active child processes are waited for.  Each
              job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job
              in  the job table.  The exit status from this command is that of
              the job waited for.

              It is possible  to  wait  for  recent  processes  (specified  by
              process ID, not by job) that were running in the background even
              if the process has exited.  Typically the  process  ID  will  be
              recorded  by  capturing the value of the variable $! immediately
              after the process has been started.  There is  a  limit  on  the
              number  of process IDs remembered by the shell; this is given by
              the value of the system configuration parameter CHILD_MAX.  When
              this  limit  is  reached, older process IDs are discarded, least
              recently started processes first.

              Note there is no protection against  the  process  ID  wrapping,
              i.e.  if  the wait is not executed soon enough there is a chance
              the process waited for is the wrong  one.   A  conflict  implies
              both process IDs have been generated by the shell, as other pro-
              cesses are not recorded, and that the user is potentially inter-
              ested in both, so this problem is intrinsic to process IDs.

       whence [ -vcwfpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
              command name.

              whence is most useful when name is only the last path  component
              of  a  command, i.e. does not include a `/'; in particular, pat-
              tern matching only succeeds if just the non-directory  component
              of the command is passed.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print  the  results  in  a  csh-like  format.  This takes
                     precedence over -v.

              -w     For each name, print `name: word' where word  is  one  of
                     alias,  builtin,  command,  function, hashed, reserved or
                     none, according  as  name  corresponds  to  an  alias,  a
                     built-in  command, an external command, a shell function,
                     a command defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word,
                     or  is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and
                     -c.

              -f     Causes the contents of a shell function to be  displayed,
                     which  would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag were
                     used.

              -p     Do a path search  for  name  even  if  it  is  an  alias,
                     reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do  a  search  for all occurrences of name throughout the
                     command path.  Normally  only  the  first  occurrence  is
                     printed.

              -m     The  arguments  are taken as patterns (pattern characters
                     should be quoted), and the information is  displayed  for
                     each command matching one of these patterns.

              -s     If  a  pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free
                     pathname as well.

              -S     As -s, but if the pathname had to be resolved by  follow-
                     ing   multiple   symlinks,  the  intermediate  steps  are
                     printed, too.  The symlink resolved at each step might be
                     anywhere in the path.

              -x num Expand  tabs when outputting shell functions using the -c
                     option.  This has the same effect as the -x option to the
                     functions builtin.

       where [ -wpmsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This  builtin  command  can  be  used  to  compile  functions or
              scripts, storing the compiled form in a  file,  and  to  examine
              files   containing   the  compiled  form.   This  allows  faster
              autoloading of functions and sourcing  of  scripts  by  avoiding
              parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a com-
              piled file.  If only the file argument is given, the output file
              has the name `file.zwc' and will be placed in the same directory
              as the file.  The shell will load the compiled file  instead  of
              the  normal  function  file when the function is autoloaded; see
              the section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for a descrip-
              tion  of  how  autoloaded functions are searched.  The extension
              .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

              If there is at least one name argument, all the named files  are
              compiled  into  the output file given as the first argument.  If
              file does not end  in  .zwc,  this  extension  is  automatically
              appended.   Files  containing  multiple  compiled  functions are
              called `digest' files, and are intended to be used  as  elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The  second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled
              definitions for all the named functions into file.  For -c,  the
              names  must  be  functions  currently  defined in the shell, not
              those marked for  autoloading.   Undefined  functions  that  are
              marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
              which case the fpath is searched and the contents of the defini-
              tion  files  for  those  functions,  if found, are compiled into
              file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined  func-
              tions  and  functions  marked  for autoloading may be given.  In
              either case, the functions in files written with the  -c  or  -a
              option  will  be  autoloaded  as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option were
              unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with
              different  options is that some definition files for autoloading
              define multiple functions, including the function with the  same
              name  as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In such
              cases the output of `zcompile -c' does  not  include  the  addi-
              tional  functions defined in the file, and any other initializa-
              tion code in the file is lost.  Using `zcompile -a' captures all
              this extra information.

              If  the  -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used
              as patterns and all functions whose names  match  one  of  these
              patterns  will  be written. If no name is given, the definitions
              of all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded  will
              be written.

              Note the second form cannot be used for compiling functions that
              include redirections as  part  of  the  definition  rather  than
              within the body of the function; for example

                     fn1() { { ... } >~/logfile }

              can be compiled but

                     fn1() { ... } >~/logfile

              cannot.   It  is  possible  to use the first form of zcompile to
              compile autoloadable functions that include  the  full  function
              definition instead of just the body of the function.

              The  third  form,  with the -t option, examines an existing com-
              piled file.  Without further arguments, the names of the  origi-
              nal files compiled into it are listed.  The first line of output
              shows the version of the shell which compiled the file  and  how
              the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by mapping
              it into memory).  With arguments,  nothing  is  output  and  the
              return  status  is set to zero if definitions for all names were
              found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the  definition  for
              at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When  the  compiled file is read, its contents are copied
                     into the shell's memory, rather than  memory-mapped  (see
                     -M).   This  happens automatically on systems that do not
                     support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
                     it  is  often desirable to use this option; otherwise the
                     whole file, including the code to define functions  which
                     have  already  been  defined,  will remain mapped, conse-
                     quently wasting memory.

              -M     The compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory  when
                     read.  This is done in such a way that multiple instances
                     of the shell running on the same  host  will  share  this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin decides what to do based on the size of the  com-
                     piled file.

              -k
              -z     These  options  are  used when the compiled file contains
                     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
                     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option
                     is not set, even if it is set at the  time  the  compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will
                     be loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options  also
                     take  precedence  over  any -k or -z options specified to
                     the autoload builtin. If  neither  of  these  options  is
                     given,  the  function will be loaded as determined by the
                     setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time  the  com-
                     piled file is read.

                     These  options may also appear as many times as necessary
                     between the listed names to specify the loading style  of
                     all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file always contains two versions of the com-
                     piled format, one for big-endian  machines  and  one  for
                     small-endian  machines.   The  upshot of this is that the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped,  only  one half of the file is actually used (and
                     mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ -s ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -alLme -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading
              of  modules  while the shell is running (`dynamical loading') is
              not available on all operating systems, or on all  installations
              on  a particular operating system, although the zmodload command
              itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built  into  versions  of the shell executable without dynamical
              loading.

              Without arguments the names of all currently loaded binary  mod-
              ules  are  printed.  The -L option causes this list to be in the
              form of a series of zmodload  commands.   Forms  with  arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -is ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In  the  simplest  case,  zmodload loads a binary module.
                     The module must be in a file with a  name  consisting  of
                     the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually
                     `.so' (`.sl' on HPUX).  If the module  to  be  loaded  is
                     already loaded the duplicate module is ignored.  If zmod-
                     load detects an inconsistency, such as an invalid  module
                     name  or circular dependency list, the current code block
                     is aborted.  If it is available, the module is loaded  if
                     necessary,  while if it is not available, non-zero status
                     is silently returned.  The option -i is accepted for com-
                     patibility but has no effect.

                     The  named  module is searched for in the same way a com-
                     mand is, using $module_path instead of  $path.   However,
                     the  path  search  is performed even when the module name
                     contains a `/', which it usually does.  There is  no  way
                     to prevent the path search.

                     If  the  module  supports  features (see below), zmodload
                     tries to enable all features when loading a  module.   If
                     the  module  was successfully loaded but not all features
                     could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

                     If the option -s is given, no error  is  printed  if  the
                     module  was not available (though other errors indicating
                     a problem with the module are printed).  The return  sta-
                     tus  indicates  if the module was loaded.  This is appro-
                     priate if the caller considers the module optional.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be
                     given  that  was given when the module was loaded, but it
                     is not necessary for the module to exist in the file sys-
                     tem.  The -i option suppresses the error if the module is
                     already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each module has a boot and a cleanup function.  The  mod-
                     ule will not be loaded if its boot function fails.  Simi-
                     larly a module can only be unloaded if its cleanup  func-
                     tion runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
                     zmodload  -F  allows more selective control over the fea-
                     tures provided by modules.  With no  options  apart  from
                     -F,  the  module  named  module  is loaded, if it was not
                     already loaded, and the list of features is  set  to  the
                     required state.  If no features are specified, the module
                     is loaded, if it was not already loaded, but the state of
                     features is unchanged.  Each feature may be preceded by a
                     + to turn the feature on, or - to turn it off; the  +  is
                     assumed if neither character is present.  Any feature not
                     explicitly mentioned is left in its current state; if the
                     module was not previously loaded this means any such fea-
                     tures will remain disabled.  The return status is zero if
                     all  features  were  set, 1 if the module failed to load,
                     and 2 if some features could not be set (for  example,  a
                     parameter couldn't be added because there was a different
                     parameter of the same name) but the module was loaded.

                     The standard features are builtins,  conditions,  parame-
                     ters  and math functions; these are indicated by the pre-
                     fix `b:', `c:' (`C:' for an infix  condition),  `p:'  and
                     `f:',  respectively, followed by the name that the corre-
                     sponding feature would have in the shell.   For  example,
                     `b:strftime'  indicates  a  builtin  named  strftime  and
                     p:EPOCHSECONDS indicates a parameter named  EPOCHSECONDS.
                     The module may provide other (`abstract') features of its
                     own as indicated by its documentation; these have no pre-
                     fix.

                     With  -l  or  -L,  features  provided  by  the module are
                     listed.  With -l alone, a list of features together  with
                     their  states  is  shown,  one feature per line.  With -L
                     alone, a zmodload -F command  that  would  cause  enabled
                     features  of  the  module to be turned on is shown.  With
                     -lL, a zmodload -F command that would cause all the  fea-
                     tures  to be set to their current state is shown.  If one
                     of these combinations is given with the option  -P  param
                     then  the parameter param is set to an array of features,
                     either features together with their state or (if -L alone
                     is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may be omitted; then a
                     list of all enabled features for  all  modules  providing
                     features  is printed in the form of zmodload -F commands.
                     If -l is also given, the state of both enabled  and  dis-
                     abled features is output in that form.

                     A  set of features may be provided together with -l or -L
                     and a module name; in that case only the state  of  those
                     features  is considered.  Each feature may be preceded by
                     + or - but the character has no effect.   If  no  set  of
                     features is provided, all features are considered.

                     With  -e,  the  command  first  tests  that the module is
                     loaded; if it is not, status 1 is returned.  If the  mod-
                     ule  is loaded, the list of features given as an argument
                     is examined.  Any feature given with no prefix is  simply
                     tested  to  see  if  the  module provides it; any feature
                     given with a prefix + or - is tested to see  if  is  pro-
                     vided  and  in the given state.  If the tests on all fea-
                     tures in the list succeed, status  0  is  returned,  else
                     status 1.

                     With  -m,  each  entry  in  the given list of features is
                     taken as a pattern to be matched against the list of fea-
                     tures  provided by the module.  An initial + or - must be
                     given explicitly.  This may not be combined with  the  -a
                     option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

                     With  -a,  the  given  list  of  features  is  marked for
                     autoload from the specified module, which may not yet  be
                     loaded.   An  optional  +  may  appear before the feature
                     name.  If the feature is prefixed with  -,  any  existing
                     autoload  is  removed.  The options -l and -L may be used
                     to list autoloads.  Autoloading is specific to individual
                     features;  when  the  module is loaded only the requested
                     feature is enabled.  Autoload requests are  preserved  if
                     the  module  is  subsequently  unloaded until an explicit
                     `zmodload -Fa module -feature' is issued.  It is  not  an
                     error  to  request  an autoload for a feature of a module
                     that is already loaded.

                     When the  module  is  loaded  each  autoload  is  checked
                     against  the features actually provided by the module; if
                     the feature is  not  provided  the  autoload  request  is
                     deleted.   A  warning message is output; if the module is
                     being loaded to provide a  different  feature,  and  that
                     autoload  is successful, there is no effect on the status
                     of the current command.  If the module is already  loaded
                     at the time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is
                     printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload -Fa can be used with  the  -l,  -L,  -e  and  -P
                     options   for   listing  and  testing  the  existence  of
                     autoloadable features.  In this case -l is ignored if  -L
                     is  specified.   zmodload  -FaL with no module name lists
                     autoloads for all modules.

                     Note that only standard features as described  above  can
                     be  autoloaded;  other  features require the module to be
                     loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
                     The  modules named in the second and subsequent arguments
                     will be loaded before the module named in the first argu-
                     ment.

                     With  -d and one argument, all dependencies for that mod-
                     ule are listed.  With -d and  no  arguments,  all  module
                     dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a
                     Makefile-like format.  The -L option changes this  format
                     to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
                     only one argument is given,  all  dependencies  for  that
                     module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The  -ab  option defines autoloaded builtins.  It defines
                     the specified builtins.  When any of  those  builtins  is
                     called,  the  module  specified  in the first argument is
                     loaded and all its features are  enabled  (for  selective
                     control  of  features  use  `zmodload -F -a' as described
                     above).  If only  the  name  is  given,  one  builtin  is
                     defined, with the same name as the module.  -i suppresses
                     the  error  if  the  builtin  is   already   defined   or
                     autoloaded,  but  not if another builtin of the same name
                     is already defined.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all  autoloaded  builtins  are
                     listed,  with  the  module  name  (if different) shown in
                     parentheses  after  the  builtin  name.   The  -L  option
                     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If  -b  is  used  together with the -u option, it removes
                     builtins previously defined with -ab.  This is only  pos-
                     sible  if  the  builtin is not yet loaded.  -i suppresses
                     the error if the builtin is  already  removed  (or  never
                     existed).

                     Autoload  requests  are  retained if the module is subse-
                     quently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload -ub builtin'
                     is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The  -ac  option  is  used to define autoloaded condition
                     codes. The cond strings give the names of the  conditions
                     defined  by the module. The optional -I option is used to
                     define infix condition names. Without this option  prefix
                     condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed
                     (as a series of zmodload commands if  the  -L  option  is
                     given).

                     The  -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded condi-
                     tions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c  options,  but  makes
                     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The  -f  option  is  like the -b, -p, and -c options, but
                     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
                     if  the  -A  option  is also given, module aliases corre-
                     sponding to loaded modules are also shown.  If  arguments
                     are  provided,  nothing  is printed; the return status is
                     set to zero if all strings given as arguments  are  names
                     of loaded modules and to one if at least on string is not
                     the name of a loaded module.  This can be  used  to  test
                     for  the  availability  of things implemented by modules.
                     In this case, any aliases are automatically resolved  and
                     the -A flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,
                     define modalias to be an alias for the module module.  If
                     the  module  modalias  is  ever  subsequently  requested,
                     either via a call to zmodload or  implicitly,  the  shell
                     will  attempt  to  load module instead.  If module is not
                     given, show the definition of modalias.  If no  arguments
                     are  given,  list all defined module aliases.  When list-
                     ing, if the -L flag was also given, list  the  definition
                     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The  existence of aliases for modules is completely inde-
                     pendent of whether the name resolved is  actually  loaded
                     as  a module: while the alias exists, loading and unload-
                     ing the module under  any  alias  has  exactly  the  same
                     effect  as  using  the resolved name, and does not affect
                     the connection between the alias and  the  resolved  name
                     which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by redefin-
                     ing the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where  the  first
                     resolved  name  is  itself an alias) are valid so long as
                     these are not circular.  As the  aliases  take  the  same
                     format as module names, they may include path separators:
                     in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the
                     path  named to exist as the alias will be resolved first.
                     For example, `any/old/alias' is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies added to aliased modules are actually  added
                     to  the  resolved  module;  these  remain if the alias is
                     removed.  It is valid to create an alias  whose  name  is
                     one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to a
                     different module.  However, if a module has dependencies,
                     it  will  not  be  possible  to use the module name as an
                     alias as the module will already be marked as a  loadable
                     module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
                     command anywhere module  names  are  required.   However,
                     aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with
                     a bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as
                     a module alias via zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any
                     was not defined, an error is caused and the remainder  of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note  that  zsh  makes  no distinction between modules that were
              linked into the shell and modules that are  loaded  dynamically.
              In both cases this builtin command has to be used to make avail-
              able the builtins and other things defined  by  modules  (unless
              the  module  is  autoloaded  on these definitions). This is true
              even for systems that don't support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).



ZSHZLE(1)                   General Commands Manual                  ZSHZLE(1)



NAME
       zshzle - zsh command line editor

DESCRIPTION
       If the ZLE option is set (which it is by default in interactive shells)
       and  the  shell  input is attached to the terminal, the user is able to
       edit command lines.

       There are two  display  modes.   The  first,  multiline  mode,  is  the
       default.   It only works if the TERM parameter is set to a valid termi-
       nal type that can move the cursor up.  The second, single line mode, is
       used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up, or if the
       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE option is set.  This mode is similar to ksh,  and  uses
       no termcap sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will be unset
       by default.

       The parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line  edi-
       tor. See Parameters Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       The  parameter zle_highlight is also used by the line editor; see Char-
       acter Highlighting below.  Highlighting of special characters  and  the
       region between the cursor and the mark (as set with set-mark-command in
       Emacs mode, or by visual-mode in Vi mode) is enabled by  default;  con-
       sult this reference for more information.  Irascible conservatives will
       wish to know that all highlighting may be  disabled  by  the  following
       setting:

              zle_highlight=(none)

       In  many places, references are made to the numeric argument.  This can
       by default be entered in emacs mode by holding the alt key and typing a
       number, or pressing escape before each digit, and in vi command mode by
       typing the number before entering a  command.   Generally  the  numeric
       argument  causes  the next command entered to be repeated the specified
       number of times, unless otherwise noted below. See also  the  Arguments
       subsection of the Widgets section for some other ways the numeric argu-
       ment can be modified. The  default  bindings  mentioned  here  use  the
       digit-argument widget.

KEYMAPS
       A  keymap  in  ZLE contains a set of bindings between key sequences and
       ZLE commands.  The empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one
       or  more names.  If all of a keymap's names are deleted, it disappears.
       bindkey can be used to manipulate keymap names.

       Initially, there are eight keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       viopp  vi emulation - operator pending
       visual vi emulation - selection active
       isearch
              incremental search mode
       command
              read a command name
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The `.safe' keymap is special.  It can never be altered, and  the  name
       can  never be removed.  However, it can be linked to other names, which
       can be removed.  In the future other  special  keymaps  may  be  added;
       users  should  avoid  using  names  beginning  with  `.'  for their own
       keymaps.

       In addition to these names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also linked to
       the  name `main'.  If one of the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables
       contain the string `vi' when the  shell  starts  up  then  it  will  be
       `viins',  otherwise  it  will  be `emacs'.  bindkey's -e and -v options
       provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When the editor starts up, it will select the `main' keymap.   If  that
       keymap doesn't exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In  the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert, except
       for ^J (line feed) and ^M (return)  which  are  bound  to  accept-line.
       This is deliberately not pleasant to use; if you are using it, it means
       you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When ZLE is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence
       that  is  bound  to some command and is also a prefix of a longer bound
       string.  In this case ZLE will wait a certain time to see if more char-
       acters are typed, and if not (or they don't match any longer string) it
       will execute the binding.  This timeout is defined  by  the  KEYTIMEOUT
       parameter;  its  default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if the prefix
       string is not itself bound to a command.

       The key timeout is also applied when ZLE is reading the  bytes  from  a
       multibyte  character  string when it is in the appropriate mode.  (This
       requires that the shell was compiled with multibyte mode enabled; typi-
       cally  also the locale has characters with the UTF-8 encoding, although
       any multibyte encoding known to the operating system is supported.)  If
       the  second or a subsequent byte is not read within the timeout period,
       the shell acts as if ? were typed and resets the input state.

       As well as ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to  other  strings,
       by  using  `bindkey -s'.  When such a sequence is read, the replacement
       string is pushed back as input, and the command reading process  starts
       again  using  these fake keystrokes.  This input can itself invoke fur-
       ther replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the process will
       be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real command
       being read.

       A key sequence typed by the user can be turned into a command name  for
       use  in user-defined widgets with the read-command widget, described in
       the subsection `Miscellaneous' of the section `Standard Widgets' below.

   Local Keymaps
       While for normal editing a single keymap is used exclusively,  in  many
       modes  a  local keymap allows for some keys to be customised. For exam-
       ple, in an incremental search mode, a binding  in  the  isearch  keymap
       will  override  a  binding in the main keymap but all keys that are not
       overridden can still be used.

       If a key sequence is defined in a local keymap,  it  will  hide  a  key
       sequence  in  the  global  keymap that is a prefix of that sequence. An
       example of this occurs with the binding of iw in viopp  as  this  hides
       the  binding  of  i  in vicmd. However, a longer sequence in the global
       keymap that shares the same prefix can still apply so for  example  the
       binding  of  ^Xa in the global keymap will be unaffected by the binding
       of ^Xb in the local keymap.

ZLE BUILTINS
       The ZLE module contains three related  builtin  commands.  The  bindkey
       command manipulates keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes
       ZLE on the value of a shell parameter; and the zle command  manipulates
       editing  widgets  and  allows  command line access to ZLE commands from
       within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l [ -L ] [ keymap ... ]
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
              bindkey's options can be divided into three  categories:  keymap
              selection for the current command, operation selection, and oth-
              ers.  The keymap selection options are:

              -e     Selects keymap `emacs' for any operations by the  current
                     command,  and  also links `emacs' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -v     Selects keymap `viins' for any operations by the  current
                     command,  and  also links `viins' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -a     Selects keymap `vicmd' for any operations by the  current
                     command.

              -M keymap
                     The  keymap  specifies a keymap name that is selected for
                     any operations by the current command.

              If a keymap selection is required and none of the options  above
              are  used,  the  `main'  keymap is used.  Some operations do not
              permit a keymap to be selected, namely:

              -l     List all existing keymap  names;  if  any  arguments  are
                     given, list just those keymaps.

                     If  the -L option is also used, list in the form of bind-
                     key commands to create or link the keymaps.  `bindkey -lL
                     main' shows which keymap is linked to `main', if any, and
                     hence if the standard emacs or vi emulation is in effect.
                     This  option  does  not  show the .safe keymap because it
                     cannot be created in that fashion;  however,  neither  is
                     `bindkey  -lL .safe' reported as an error, it simply out-
                     puts nothing.

              -d     Delete all existing keymaps  and  reset  to  the  default
                     state.

              -D keymap ...
                     Delete the named keymaps.

              -A old-keymap new-keymap
                     Make the new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that
                     both names refer to the  same  keymap.   The  names  have
                     equal  standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a keymap with the new-keymap name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
                     Create  a  new  keymap,  named  new-keymap.   If a keymap
                     already has that name, it is deleted.  If  an  old-keymap
                     name  is  given,  the  new  keymap is initialized to be a
                     duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be empty.

              To use a newly created keymap, it  should  be  linked  to  main.
              Hence  the  sequence  of commands to create and use a new keymap
              `mymap'  initialized  from  the  emacs  keymap  (which   remains
              unchanged) is:

                     bindkey -N mymap emacs
                     bindkey -A mymap main

              Note  that  while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work when newmap
              is emacs or viins, it will not work for vicmd, as switching from
              vi insert to command mode becomes impossible.

              The  following  operations act on the `main' keymap if no keymap
              selection option was given:

              -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected
                     keymap.    Only   keys  that  are  unbound  or  bound  to
                     self-insert are affected.

              -r in-string ...
                     Unbind the specified in-strings in the  selected  keymap.
                     This  is  exactly  equivalent  to  binding the strings to
                     undefined-key.

                     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     When -p is also used, the  in-strings  specify  prefixes.
                     Any binding that has the given in-string as a prefix, not
                     including the binding for the in-string itself,  if  any,
                     will be removed.  For example,

                            bindkey -rpM viins '^['

                     will  remove  all bindings in the vi-insert keymap begin-
                     ning with an escape character (probably cursor keys), but
                     leave the binding for the escape character itself (proba-
                     bly vi-cmd-mode).  This is incompatible with  the  option
                     -R.

              -s in-string out-string ...
                     Bind  each  in-string to each out-string.  When in-string
                     is typed, out-string will be pushed back and  treated  as
                     input  to  the line editor.  When -R is also used, inter-
                     pret the in-strings as ranges.

                     Note that both in-string and out-string  are  subject  to
                     the same form of interpretation, as described below.

              in-string command ...
                     Bind  each  in-string  to each command.  When -R is used,
                     interpret the in-strings as ranges.

              [ in-string ]
                     List key bindings.  If an  in-string  is  specified,  the
                     binding  of  that  string  in the selected keymap is dis-
                     played.  Otherwise, all  key  bindings  in  the  selected
                     keymap  are  displayed.  (As a special case, if the -e or
                     -v option is used alone, the keymap is  not  displayed  -
                     the  implicit  linking  of keymaps is the only thing that
                     happens.)

                     When the  option  -p  is  used,  the  in-string  must  be
                     present.   The  listing shows all bindings which have the
                     given key sequence as a prefix, not including  any  bind-
                     ings for the key sequence itself.

                     When  the  -L  option is used, the list is in the form of
                     bindkey commands to create the key bindings.

              When the -R option is used as noted above, a  valid  range  con-
              sists of two characters, with an optional `-' between them.  All
              characters between the two specified, inclusive,  are  bound  as
              specified.

              For   either  in-string  or  out-string,  the  following  escape
              sequences are recognised:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \e, \E escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \NNN   character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \M[-]X character with meta bit set
              \C[-]X control character
              ^X     control character

              In all other cases, `\' escapes the following character.  Delete
              is  written  as  `^?'.   Note that `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the
              same, and that (unlike emacs), the bindings `\M-X' and `\eX' are
              entirely  distinct,  although  they  are initialized to the same
              bindings by `bindkey -m'.


       vared [ -Aacghe ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ]
             [ -M main-keymap ] [ -m vicmd-keymap ]
             [ -i init-widget ] [ -f finish-widget ]
             [ -t tty ] name
              The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit  buffer,
              and  the line editor is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is
              set to the string value returned by the  editor.   When  the  -c
              flag  is  given,  the parameter is created if it doesn't already
              exist.  The -a flag may be given with  -c  to  create  an  array
              parameter,  or  the  -A flag to create an associative array.  If
              the type of an existing parameter does not match the type to  be
              created,  the parameter is unset and recreated.  The -g flag may
              be given to suppress warnings from  the  WARN_CREATE_GLOBAL  and
              WARN_NESTED_VAR options.

              If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters
              as defined in $IFS will be shown quoted  with  a  backslash,  as
              will  backslashes  themselves.  Conversely, when the edited text
              is split into an array, a backslash quotes an  immediately  fol-
              lowing  separator  character or backslash; no other special han-
              dling of backslashes, or any handling of quotes, is performed.

              Individual elements  of  existing  array  or  associative  array
              parameters may be edited by using subscript syntax on name.  New
              elements are created automatically, even without -c.

              If the -p flag is given, the following string will be  taken  as
              the prompt to display at the left.  If the -r flag is given, the
              following string gives the prompt to display at the  right.   If
              the  -h flag is specified, the history can be accessed from ZLE.
              If the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an empty  line
              causes vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

              The  -M  option gives a keymap to link to the main keymap during
              editing, and the -m option gives a keymap to link to  the  vicmd
              keymap during editing.  For vi-style editing, this allows a pair
              of keymaps to override viins and vicmd.  For  emacs-style  edit-
              ing,  only  -M is normally needed but the -m option may still be
              used.  On exit, the previous keymaps will be restored.

              Vared calls  the  usual  `zle-line-init'  and  `zle-line-finish'
              hooks  before  and  after  it takes control. Using the -i and -f
              options, it is possible to replace these with other custom  wid-
              gets.

              If `-t tty' is given, tty is the name of a terminal device to be
              used instead of the default /dev/tty.  If tty does not refer  to
              a terminal an error is reported.

       zle
       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -f flag [ flag... ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -K keymap
       zle -F [ -L | -w ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
       zle -I
       zle -T [ tc function | -r tc | -L ]
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
              The  zle builtin performs a number of different actions concern-
              ing ZLE.

              With no options and no arguments, only the return status will be
              set.  It is zero if ZLE is currently active and widgets could be
              invoked using this builtin command and non-zero otherwise.  Note
              that  even  if  non-zero  status  is  returned, zle may still be
              active as part of the completion system;  this  does  not  allow
              direct calls to ZLE widgets.

              Otherwise, which operation it performs depends on its options:

              -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ]
                     List all existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option
                     is used, list in the form of zle commands to  create  the
                     widgets.

                     When  combined  with  the -a option, all widget names are
                     listed, including the builtin ones. In this case  the  -L
                     option is ignored.

                     If  at least one string is given, and -a is present or -L
                     is not used, nothing will be printed.  The return  status
                     will be zero if all strings are names of existing widgets
                     and non-zero if at least one string is not a  name  of  a
                     defined  widget.  If -a is also present, all widget names
                     are used for the comparison  including  builtin  widgets,
                     else only user-defined widgets are used.

                     If  at  least  one string is present and the -L option is
                     used, user-defined widgets matching any string are listed
                     in the form of zle commands to create the widgets.

              -D widget ...
                     Delete the named widgets.

              -A old-widget new-widget
                     Make the new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that
                     both names refer to the  same  widget.   The  names  have
                     equal  standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a widget with the new-widget name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N widget [ function ]
                     Create a user-defined widget.  If there is already a wid-
                     get with the specified name, it is overwritten.  When the
                     new  widget is invoked from within the editor, the speci-
                     fied shell function is called.  If no  function  name  is
                     specified,  it  defaults  to the same name as the widget.
                     For further information, see the section `Widgets' below.

              -f flag [ flag... ]
                     Set various flags on the running widget.  Possible values
                     for flag are:

                     yank  for indicating that the widget has yanked text into
                     the buffer.  If the widget is wrapping an existing inter-
                     nal widget, no further action is necessary, but if it has
                     inserted the text manually, then it should also take care
                     to  set  YANK_START  and  YANK_END correctly.  yankbefore
                     does the same but is used when the  yanked  text  appears
                     after the cursor.

                     kill  for  indicating  that text has been killed into the
                     cutbuffer.  When repeatedly invoking a kill widget,  text
                     is appended to the cutbuffer instead of replacing it, but
                     when wrapping such widgets, it is necessary to call  `zle
                     -f kill' to retain this effect.

                     vichange  for  indicating that the widget represents a vi
                     change  that  can   be   repeated   as   a   whole   with
                     `vi-repeat-change'.  The  flag should be set early in the
                     function before inspecting the value of NUMERIC or invok-
                     ing  other  widgets.  This  has  no  effect  for a widget
                     invoked from insert mode. If insert mode is  active  when
                     the  widget  finishes,  the  change  extends  until  next
                     returning to command mode.

              -C widget completion-widget function
                     Create a user-defined completion widget named widget. The
                     completion  widget  will behave like the built-in comple-
                     tion-widget whose name is given as completion-widget.  To
                     generate  the  completions,  the  shell function function
                     will be called.  For further  information,  see  zshcomp-
                     wid(1).

              -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
                     Redisplay  the  command  line;  this is to be called from
                     within a user-defined widget to allow changes  to  become
                     visible.   If  a  display-string  is given and not empty,
                     this is shown in the status line (immediately  below  the
                     line being edited).

                     If  the  optional strings are given they are listed below
                     the prompt in  the  same  way  as  completion  lists  are
                     printed.  If  no  strings  are given but the -c option is
                     used such a list is cleared.

                     Note that this option is only useful for widgets that  do
                     not  exit  immediately after using it because the strings
                     displayed will be erased immediately  after  return  from
                     the widget.

                     This  command  can  safely be called outside user defined
                     widgets; if zle is active, the display will be refreshed,
                     while  if  zle  is not active, the command has no effect.
                     In this case there will usually be no other arguments.

                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              -M string
                     As with the -R option, the string will be displayed below
                     the  command  line; unlike the -R option, the string will
                     not be put into the  status  line  but  will  instead  be
                     printed  normally  below the prompt.  This means that the
                     string will still be displayed after the  widget  returns
                     (until it is overwritten by subsequent commands).

              -U string
                     This  pushes  the characters in the string onto the input
                     stack of ZLE.  After the widget currently  executed  fin-
                     ishes  ZLE will behave as if the characters in the string
                     were typed by the user.

                     As ZLE uses a stack, if this option  is  used  repeatedly
                     the  last  string pushed onto the stack will be processed
                     first.  However, the characters in each  string  will  be
                     processed  in  the  order  in  which  they  appear in the
                     string.

              -K keymap
                     Selects the keymap named keymap.  An error  message  will
                     be displayed if there is no such keymap.

                     This  keymap selection affects the interpretation of fol-
                     lowing keystrokes within this  invocation  of  ZLE.   Any
                     following  invocation  (e.g., the next command line) will
                     start as usual with the `main' keymap selected.

              -F [ -L | -w ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
                     Only available if your system supports one of the  `poll'
                     or `select' system calls; most modern systems do.

                     Installs handler (the name of a shell function) to handle
                     input from file descriptor fd.  Installing a handler  for
                     an  fd  which is already handled causes the existing han-
                     dler to be replaced.  Any number of handlers for any num-
                     ber  of readable file descriptors may be installed.  Note
                     that zle makes no attempt to check  whether  this  fd  is
                     actually  readable when installing the handler.  The user
                     must make their own arrangements for  handling  the  file
                     descriptor when zle is not active.

                     When zle is attempting to read data, it will examine both
                     the terminal and the  list  of  handled  fd's.   If  data
                     becomes available on a handled fd, zle calls handler with
                     the fd which is ready for reading as the first  argument.
                     Under normal circumstances this is the only argument, but
                     if an error was  detected,  a  second  argument  provides
                     details:  `hup'  for a disconnect, `nval' for a closed or
                     otherwise invalid descriptor, or `err' for any other con-
                     dition.   Systems  that  support only the `select' system
                     call always use `err'.

                     If the option -w is also given, the handler is instead  a
                     line  editor widget, typically a shell function made into
                     a widget using `zle -N'.  In that case  handler  can  use
                     all  the  facilities of zle to update the current editing
                     line.  Note, however, that as handling fd takes place  at
                     a low level changes to the display will not automatically
                     appear; the widget should call `zle -R' to  force  redis-
                     play.  As of this writing, widget handlers only support a
                     single argument and thus are never passed  a  string  for
                     error  state,  so  widgets  must  be prepared to test the
                     descriptor themselves.

                     If either type of handler produces output to  the  termi-
                     nal, it should call `zle -I' before doing so (see below).
                     Handlers should not attempt to read from the terminal.

                     If no handler is given, but an fd is present, any handler
                     for  that fd is removed.  If there is none, an error mes-
                     sage is printed and status 1 is returned.

                     If no arguments are given, or the -L option is  supplied,
                     a  list  of  handlers  is  printed in a form which can be
                     stored for later execution.

                     An fd (but not a handler) may optionally  be  given  with
                     the  -L  option; in this case, the function will list the
                     handler if any, else silently return status 1.

                     Note that this feature should be used with care.   Activ-
                     ity  on one of the fd's which is not properly handled can
                     cause the terminal to become unusable.   Removing  an  fd
                     handler from within a signal trap may cause unpredictable
                     behavior.

                     Here is a simple example of using this feature.   A  con-
                     nection  to  a  remote TCP port is created using the ztcp
                     command; see the description of the zsh/net/tcp module in
                     zshmodules(1).   Then a handler is installed which simply
                     prints out any data which  arrives  on  this  connection.
                     Note that `select' will indicate that the file descriptor
                     needs handling if the remote side has closed the  connec-
                     tion; we handle that by testing for a failed read.

                            if ztcp pwspc 2811; then
                              tcpfd=$REPLY
                              handler() {
                                zle -I
                                local line
                                if ! read -r line <&$1; then
                                  # select marks this fd if we reach EOF,
                                  # so handle this specially.
                                  print "[Read on fd $1 failed, removing.]" >&2
                                  zle -F $1
                                  return 1
                                fi
                                print -r - $line
                              }
                              zle -F $tcpfd handler
                            fi

              -I     Unusually,  this  option  is most useful outside ordinary
                     widget functions, though it may be used within if  normal
                     output  to  the terminal is required.  It invalidates the
                     current zle display in preparation for output;  typically
                     this  will  be from a trap function.  It has no effect if
                     zle is not active.  When a trap exits, the  shell  checks
                     to  see if the display needs restoring, hence the follow-
                     ing will print output in such a way as not to disturb the
                     line being edited:

                            TRAPUSR1() {
                              # Invalidate zle display
                              [[ -o zle ]] && zle -I
                              # Show output
                              print Hello
                            }

                     In  general,  the  trap function may need to test whether
                     zle is active before using this method (as shown  in  the
                     example),  since  the  zsh/zle  module  may  not  even be
                     loaded; if it is not, the command can be skipped.

                     It is possible to call `zle -I' several times before con-
                     trol  is returned to the editor; the display will only be
                     invalidated the first time to minimise disruption.

                     Note that there are normally better ways of  manipulating
                     the  display  from  within zle widgets; see, for example,
                     `zle -R' above.

                     The returned status is zero if zle was invalidated,  even
                     though  this may have been by a previous call to `zle -I'
                     or by a system notification.  To test if a zle widget may
                     be  called  at  this point, execute zle with no arguments
                     and examine the return status.

              -T     This is used to add, list or remove internal  transforma-
                     tions on the processing performed by the line editor.  It
                     is typically used only for debugging or  testing  and  is
                     therefore of little interest to the general user.

                     `zle  -T  transformation  func'  specifies that the given
                     transformation (see below) is effected by shell  function
                     func.

                     `zle -Tr transformation' removes the given transformation
                     if it was present (it is not an error if none was).

                     `zle -TL' can be used to list  all  transformations  cur-
                     rently in operation.

                     Currently  the  only  transformation is tc.  This is used
                     instead of outputting  termcap  codes  to  the  terminal.
                     When  the  transformation is in operation the shell func-
                     tion is passed the termcap code that would be  output  as
                     its  first  argument; if the operation required a numeric
                     argument, that is passed as a second argument.  The func-
                     tion  should  set  the shell variable REPLY to the trans-
                     formed termcap code.  Typically this is used  to  produce
                     some  simply  formatted  version of the code and optional
                     argument for debugging or testing.  Note that this trans-
                     formation is not applied to other non-printing characters
                     such as carriage returns and newlines.

              widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
                     Invoke the specified widget.  This can only be done  when
                     ZLE   is   active;   normally   this  will  be  within  a
                     user-defined widget.

                     With the options -n and -N, the current numeric  argument
                     will be saved and then restored after the call to widget;
                     `-n num' sets the numeric argument  temporarily  to  num,
                     while  `-N' sets it to the default, i.e. as if there were
                     none.

                     With the option -K, keymap will be used  as  the  current
                     keymap  during the execution of the widget.  The previous
                     keymap will be restored when the widget exits.

                     Normally, calling a widget in this way does not  set  the
                     special  parameter WIDGET and related parameters, so that
                     the environment appears as if the top-level widget called
                     by  the user were still active.  With the option -w, WID-
                     GET and related parameters are set to reflect the  widget
                     being executed by the zle call.

                     Any  further arguments will be passed to the widget; note
                     that as standard argument handling is performed, any gen-
                     eral  argument list should be preceded by --.  If it is a
                     shell function,  these  are  passed  down  as  positional
                     parameters; for builtin widgets it is up to the widget in
                     question what it does with them.  Currently arguments are
                     only handled by the incremental-search commands, the his-
                     tory-search-forward and -backward and  the  corresponding
                     functions prefixed by vi-, and by universal-argument.  No
                     error is flagged if the command does not  use  the  argu-
                     ments, or only uses some of them.

                     The  return status reflects the success or failure of the
                     operation carried out by  the  widget,  or  if  it  is  a
                     user-defined  widget the return status of the shell func-
                     tion.

                     A non-zero return status causes the shell  to  beep  when
                     the  widget  exits,  unless the BEEP options was unset or
                     the widget was called via the zle  command.   Thus  if  a
                     user defined widget requires an immediate beep, it should
                     call the beep widget directly.

WIDGETS
       All actions in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A  widget's  job
       is  simply  to  perform  some  small action.  The ZLE commands that key
       sequences in keymaps are bound to are in fact widgets.  Widgets can  be
       user-defined or built in.

       The  standard  widgets  built  into  ZLE are listed in Standard Widgets
       below.  Other built-in widgets can be defined  by  other  modules  (see
       zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two names: its normal canoni-
       cal name, and the same name preceded by a `.'.  The `.'  name  is  spe-
       cial: it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the widget
       available even when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using `zle  -N',  and  implemented  as
       shell  functions.  When the widget is executed, the corresponding shell
       function is executed, and can perform editing (or other)  actions.   It
       is recommended that user-defined widgets should not have names starting
       with `.'.

USER-DEFINED WIDGETS
       User-defined widgets, being implemented as shell functions, can execute
       any  normal  shell  command.   They can also run other widgets (whether
       built-in or user-defined) using the zle builtin command.  The  standard
       input  of the function is redirected from /dev/null to prevent external
       commands from unintentionally blocking ZLE by reading from  the  termi-
       nal,  but  read -k or read -q can be used to read characters.  Finally,
       they can examine and edit the ZLE buffer being edited  by  reading  and
       setting the special parameters described below.

       These  special parameters are always available in widget functions, but
       are not in any way special outside ZLE.  If they have some normal value
       outside  ZLE,  that  value is temporarily inaccessible, but will return
       when the widget function exits.  These special parameters in fact  have
       local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside  completion  widgets and traps called while ZLE is active, these
       parameters are available read-only.

       Note that the parameters appear as local to any  ZLE  widget  in  which
       they  appear.  Hence if it is desired to override them this needs to be
       done within a nested function:

              widget-function() {
                # $WIDGET here refers to the special variable
                # that is local inside widget-function
                () {
                   # This anonymous nested function allows WIDGET
                   # to be used as a local variable.  The -h
                   # removes the special status of the variable.
                   local -h WIDGET
                }
              }

       BUFFER (scalar)
              The entire contents of the edit buffer.  If it  is  written  to,
              the  cursor remains at the same offset, unless that would put it
              outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES (integer)
              The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer  currently
              displayed  on  screen (i.e. without any changes to the preceding
              parameters done after the last redisplay); read-only.

       CONTEXT (scalar)
              The context in which zle was called to read a  line;  read-only.
              One of the values:

              start  The start of a command line (at prompt PS1).

              cont   A continuation to a command line (at prompt PS2).

              select In a select loop (at prompt PS3).

              vared  Editing a variable in vared.

       CURSOR (integer)
              The  offset  of  the cursor, within the edit buffer.  This is in
              the  range  0  to  $#BUFFER,  and  is  by  definition  equal  to
              $#LBUFFER.   Attempts to move the cursor outside the buffer will
              result in the cursor being moved to the appropriate end  of  the
              buffer.

       CUTBUFFER (scalar)
              The  last item cut using one of the `kill-' commands; the string
              which the next yank would insert in the line.  Later entries  in
              the  kill ring are in the array killring.  Note that the command
              `zle copy-region-as-kill string' can be used to set the text  of
              the  cut buffer from a shell function and cycle the kill ring in
              the same way as interactively killing text.

       HISTNO (integer)
              The current history number.  Setting this has the same effect as
              moving  up  or  down in the history to the corresponding history
              line.  An attempt to set it is ignored if the line is not stored
              in  the  history.   Note  this  is not the same as the parameter
              HISTCMD, which always gives the number of the history line being
              added  to  the  main shell's history.  HISTNO refers to the line
              being retrieved within zle.

       ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE (integer)
       ISEARCHMATCH_START (integer)
       ISEARCHMATCH_END (integer)
              ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE indicates whether a part of  the  BUFFER  is
              currently  matched  by  an  incremental search pattern. ISEARCH-
              MATCH_START  and  ISEARCHMATCH_END  give  the  location  of  the
              matched  part and are in the same units as CURSOR. They are only
              valid for reading when ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE is non-zero.

              All parameters are read-only.

       KEYMAP (scalar)
              The name of the currently selected keymap; read-only.

       KEYS (scalar)
              The keys typed to invoke  this  widget,  as  a  literal  string;
              read-only.

       KEYS_QUEUED_COUNT (integer)
              The number of bytes pushed back to the input queue and therefore
              available for  reading  immediately  before  any  I/O  is  done;
              read-only.  See also PENDING; the two values are distinct.

       killring (array)
              The  array  of  previously  killed items, with the most recently
              killed first.  This gives the items that would be retrieved by a
              yank-pop  in  the  same  order.   Note,  however,  that the most
              recently killed item is in $CUTBUFFER; $killring shows the array
              of previous entries.

              The  default size for the kill ring is eight, however the length
              may be changed by normal array operations.  Any empty string  in
              the kill ring is ignored by the yank-pop command, hence the size
              of the array effectively sets the maximum  length  of  the  kill
              ring,  while  the  number  of non-zero strings gives the current
              length, both as seen by the user at the command line.

       LASTABORTEDSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive  search  that  was
              aborted by the user (status 3 returned by the search widget).

       LASTSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive search; read-only.
              This is set even if the search failed (status 0, 1 or 2 returned
              by the search widget), but not if it was aborted by the user.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the last widget that was executed; read-only.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the left of the cursor posi-
              tion.  If it is assigned to, only that part  of  the  buffer  is
              replaced,  and  the  cursor remains between the new $LBUFFER and
              the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
              Like CURSOR, but for the mark. With vi-mode operators that  wait
              for  a movement command to select a region of text, setting MARK
              allows the selection to extend in both directions from the  ini-
              tial cursor position.

       NUMERIC (integer)
              The  numeric  argument.  If  no numeric argument was given, this
              parameter is unset. When this is set inside a  widget  function,
              builtin widgets called with the zle builtin command will use the
              value assigned. If it is unset inside a widget function, builtin
              widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
              The  number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of bytes
              which have already been typed and can immediately  be  read.  On
              systems  where  the  shell  is not able to get this information,
              this parameter will always have a  value  of  zero.   Read-only.
              See also KEYS_QUEUED_COUNT; the two values are distinct.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
              In  a  multi-line  input at the secondary prompt, this read-only
              parameter contains the contents of the lines before the one  the
              cursor is currently in.

       PREDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to be displayed before the start of the editable text buf-
              fer.  This does not have to be a complete  line;  to  display  a
              complete  line, a newline must be appended explicitly.  The text
              is reset on each new invocation (but not  recursive  invocation)
              of zle.

       POSTDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to be displayed after the end of the editable text buffer.
              This does not have to be a complete line; to display a  complete
              line, a newline must be prepended explicitly.  The text is reset
              on each new invocation (but not recursive invocation) of zle.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to  the  right  of  the  cursor
              position.  If it is assigned to, only that part of the buffer is
              replaced, and the cursor remains between the  old  $LBUFFER  and
              the new $RBUFFER.

       REGION_ACTIVE (integer)
              Indicates if the region is currently active.  It can be assigned
              0 or 1 to deactivate and activate  the  region  respectively.  A
              value of 2 activates the region in line-wise mode with the high-
              lighted text extending for whole lines only; see Character High-
              lighting below.

       region_highlight (array)
              Each element of this array may be set to a string that describes
              highlighting for an arbitrary region of the  command  line  that
              will  take effect the next time the command line is redisplayed.
              Highlighting of the non-editable parts of the  command  line  in
              PREDISPLAY  and  POSTDISPLAY  are  possible, but note that the P
              flag is needed for character indexing to include PREDISPLAY.

              Each string consists of the following parts:

              o      Optionally, a `P' to signify that the start and end  off-
                     set  that follow include any string set by the PREDISPLAY
                     special parameter;  this  is  needed  if  the  predisplay
                     string  itself is to be highlighted.  Whitespace may fol-
                     low the `P'.

              o      A start offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.

              o      An  end offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.

              o      A highlight specification in the same format as used  for
                     contexts  in the parameter zle_highlight, see the section
                     `Character Highlighting' below; for example, standout  or
                     fg=red,bold

              For example,

                     region_highlight=("P0 20 bold")

              specifies that the first twenty characters of the text including
              any predisplay string should be highlighted in bold.

              Note that the effect of region_highlight is not saved and disap-
              pears as soon as the line is accepted.

              The  final  highlighting  on  the  command  line depends on both
              region_highlight and zle_highlight; see  the  section  CHARACTER
              HIGHLIGHTING below for details.

       registers (associative array)
              The contents of each of the vi register buffers. These are typi-
              cally set using vi-set-buffer followed by a  delete,  change  or
              yank command.

       SUFFIX_ACTIVE (integer)
       SUFFIX_START (integer)
       SUFFIX_END (integer)
              SUFFIX_ACTIVE  indicates  whether  an  auto-removable completion
              suffix is currently active. SUFFIX_START and SUFFIX_END give the
              location of the suffix and are in the same units as CURSOR. They
              are only valid for reading when SUFFIX_ACTIVE is non-zero.

              All parameters are read-only.

       UNDO_CHANGE_NO (integer)
              A number representing the state of the undo history.   The  only
              use  of  this  is  passing  as an argument to the undo widget in
              order to undo back to the recorded point.  Read-only.

       UNDO_LIMIT_NO (integer)
              A number corresponding to an existing change in  the  undo  his-
              tory; compare UNDO_CHANGE_NO.  If this is set to a value greater
              than zero, the undo command will not allow the line to be undone
              beyond  the  given  change  number.  It is still possible to use
              `zle undo change' in a widget to undo beyond that point; in that
              case, it will not be possible to undo at all until UNDO_LIMIT_NO
              is reduced.  Set to 0 to disable the limit.

              A typical use of this variable in a widget function is  as  fol-
              lows (note the additional function scope is required):

                     () {
                       local UNDO_LIMIT_NO=$UNDO_CHANGE_NO
                       # Perform some form of recursive edit.
                     }

       WIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the widget currently being executed; read-only.

       WIDGETFUNC (scalar)
              The  name of the shell function that implements a widget defined
              with either zle -N or zle -C.  In the former case, this  is  the
              second  argument  to the zle -N command that defined the widget,
              or the first argument if there was no second argument.   In  the
              latter  case  this  is  the third argument to the zle -C command
              that defined the widget.  Read-only.

       WIDGETSTYLE (scalar)
              Describes the implementation behind the completion  widget  cur-
              rently  being executed; the second argument that followed zle -C
              when the widget was defined.  This is the name of a builtin com-
              pletion  widget.  For widgets defined with zle -N this is set to
              the empty string.  Read-only.

       YANK_ACTIVE (integer)
       YANK_START (integer)
       YANK_END (integer)
              YANK_ACTIVE indicates whether text has just been yanked (pasted)
              into  the  buffer.  YANK_START and YANK_END give the location of
              the pasted text and are in the same units as CURSOR.   They  are
              only  valid  for reading when YANK_ACTIVE is non-zero.  They can
              also be assigned by widgets that  insert  text  in  a  yank-like
              fashion,  for example wrappers of bracketed-paste.  See also zle
              -f.

              YANK_ACTIVE is read-only.

       ZLE_RECURSIVE (integer)
              Usually zero, but incremented  inside  any  instance  of  recur-
              sive-edit.  Hence indicates the current recursion level.

              ZLE_RECURSIVE is read-only.

       ZLE_STATE (scalar)
              Contains  a  set of space-separated words that describe the cur-
              rent zle state.

              Currently, the states shown are the insert mode as  set  by  the
              overwrite-mode  or  vi-replace  widgets and whether history com-
              mands  will  visit  imported  entries  as  controlled   by   the
              set-local-history widget.  The string contains `insert' if char-
              acters to be inserted on the command line move existing  charac-
              ters  to  the  right or `overwrite' if characters to be inserted
              overwrite existing characters.  It  contains  `localhistory'  if
              only  local  history commands will be visited or `globalhistory'
              if imported history commands will also be visited.

              The substrings are sorted in alphabetical order so that  if  you
              want  to test for two specific substrings in a future-proof way,
              you can do match by doing:

                     if [[ $ZLE_STATE == *globalhistory*insert* ]]; then ...; fi

   Special Widgets
       There are a few user-defined widgets which are special  to  the  shell.
       If they do not exist, no special action is taken.  The environment pro-
       vided is identical to that for any other editing widget.

       zle-isearch-exit
              Executed at the end of incremental search at the point where the
              isearch    prompt    is   removed   from   the   display.    See
              zle-isearch-update for an example.

       zle-isearch-update
              Executed within incremental search when the display is about  to
              be  redrawn.   Additional  output  below  the incremental search
              prompt can be generated by using `zle  -M'  within  the  widget.
              For example,

                     zle-isearch-update() { zle -M "Line $HISTNO"; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-update

              Note  the  line  output  by `zle -M' is not deleted on exit from
              incremental search.  This can be done  from  a  zle-isearch-exit
              widget:

                     zle-isearch-exit() { zle -M ""; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-exit

       zle-line-pre-redraw
              Executed whenever the input line is about to be redrawn, provid-
              ing an opportunity to update the region_highlight array.

       zle-line-init
              Executed every time the line editor is started  to  read  a  new
              line  of input.  The following example puts the line editor into
              vi command mode when it starts up.

                     zle-line-init() { zle -K vicmd; }
                     zle -N zle-line-init

              (The command inside the function sets the keymap directly; it is
              equivalent to zle vi-cmd-mode.)

       zle-line-finish
              This  is similar to zle-line-init but is executed every time the
              line editor has finished reading a line of input.

       zle-history-line-set
              Executed when the history line changes.

       zle-keymap-select
              Executed every time the keymap changes, i.e. the special parame-
              ter KEYMAP is set to a different value, while the line editor is
              active.  Initialising the keymap when  the  line  editor  starts
              does not cause the widget to be called.

              The  value  $KEYMAP within the function reflects the new keymap.
              The old keymap is passed as the sole argument.

              This can be used for detecting switches between the  vi  command
              (vicmd) and insert (usually main) keymaps.

STANDARD WIDGETS
       The  following is a list of all the standard widgets, and their default
       bindings in emacs mode,  vi  command  mode  and  vi  insert  mode  (the
       `emacs', `vicmd' and `viins' keymaps, respectively).

       Note  that cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three keymaps;
       the shell assumes that the cursor keys send the key sequences  reported
       by  the  terminal-handling  library  (termcap  or  terminfo).   The key
       sequences shown in the list are those based on  the  VT100,  common  on
       many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In
       the case of the viins keymap,  the  initial  escape  character  of  the
       sequences  serves also to return to the vicmd keymap: whether this hap-
       pens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter, see zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
              Move backward one word, where a word is defined as a  series  of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-backward-blank-word-end (unbound) (gE) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the previous word, where a word is defined as
              a series of non-blank characters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
              Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       vi-backward-word-end (unbound) (ge) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the  beginning
              of the line, move to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
              Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       down-line (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line,
              move to the end of the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If an argument is  given  to  this
              command,  the cursor will be moved to the end of the line (argu-
              ment - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, where a word is defined as  a  series  of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  end of the current word, or, if at the end of the
              current word, to the end of the  next  word,  where  a  word  is
              defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
              Read  a character from the keyboard, and move to the next occur-
              rence of it in the line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and  move  to  the  position
              just before the next occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from  the keyboard, and move to the previous
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and  move  to  the  position
              just after the previous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of a
              word is specified with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
              Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
              Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

       up-line (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move up a line in the buffer.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (gg) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the buffer, or if already  there,  move
              to the first event in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
              Move  to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning
              of the buffer, move to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
              Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or  if  already  at  the  bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
              Move  down  a  line  in  the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.  Then move  to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
              Move  down  a  line  in  the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, search forward in the history for a  line  beginning  with
              the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
              Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
              Search  backward  in  the  history for a line beginning with the
              current line up to the cursor.  This leaves the  cursor  in  its
              original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to the
              last event in the history list.

       end-of-line-hist
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the  buf-
              fer, move to the next history line.

       end-of-history
              Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
              Fetch  the history line specified by the numeric argument.  This
              defaults to the current history line (i.e. the  one  that  isn't
              history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  backward  incrementally  for  a  specified  string.  The
              search is case-insensitive if the search string  does  not  have
              uppercase letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string
              may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of  the
              line.  When called from a user-defined function returns the fol-
              lowing statuses: 0, if the search succeeded; 1,  if  the  search
              failed;  2,  if  the  search  term  was a bad pattern; 3, if the
              search was aborted by the send-break command.

              A restricted set  of  editing  functions  is  available  in  the
              mini-buffer.   Keys are looked up in the special isearch keymap,
              and if not found there in the main keymap (note that by  default
              the  isearch  keymap is empty).  An interrupt signal, as defined
              by the stty setting, will stop the search and  go  back  to  the
              original  line.   An  undefined  key  will have the same effect.
              Note that the following always  perform  the  same  task  within
              incremental searches and cannot be replaced by user defined wid-
              gets, nor can the set of functions be extended.   The  supported
              functions are:

              accept-and-hold
              accept-and-infer-next-history
              accept-line
              accept-line-and-down-history
                     Perform  the  usual  function  after  exiting incremental
                     search.  The command line displayed is executed.

              backward-delete-char
              vi-backward-delete-char
                     Back up one place in the search history.  If  the  search
                     has been repeated this does not immediately erase a char-
                     acter in the minibuffer.

              accept-search
                     Exit incremental search, retaining the command  line  but
                     performing no further action.  Note that this function is
                     not bound by default and has no effect outside  incremen-
                     tal search.

              backward-delete-word
              backward-kill-word
              vi-backward-kill-word
                     Back  up  one  character  in  the minibuffer; if multiple
                     searches have been  performed  since  the  character  was
                     inserted  the search history is rewound to the point just
                     before the character was entered.   Hence  this  has  the
                     effect of repeating backward-delete-char.

              clear-screen
                     Clear the screen, remaining in incremental search mode.

              history-incremental-search-backward
                     Find the next occurrence of the contents of the mini-buf-
                     fer. If the mini-buffer is empty, the most recent  previ-
                     ously used search string is reinstated.

              history-incremental-search-forward
                     Invert the sense of the search.

              magic-space
                     Inserts a non-magical space.

              quoted-insert
              vi-quoted-insert
                     Quote the character to insert into the minibuffer.

              redisplay
                     Redisplay  the  command  line,  remaining  in incremental
                     search mode.

              vi-cmd-mode
                     Select the `vicmd'  keymap;  the  `main'  keymap  (insert
                     mode) will be selected initially.

                     In addition, the modifications that were made while in vi
                     insert mode are merged to form a single undo event.

              vi-repeat-search
              vi-rev-repeat-search
                     Repeat the search.  The direction of the search is  indi-
                     cated in the mini-buffer.

              Any  character  that is not bound to one of the above functions,
              or self-insert or self-insert-unmeta, will cause the mode to  be
              exited.   The  character  is  then looked up and executed in the
              keymap in effect at that point.

              When called from a widget  function  by  the  zle  command,  the
              incremental  search  commands  can take a string argument.  This
              will be treated as a string of keys, as  for  arguments  to  the
              bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.  Any
              characters in the string which are  unused  by  the  incremental
              search will be silently ignored.  For example,

                     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

              will  search  backwards for forceps, leaving the minibuffer con-
              taining the string `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward incrementally for a specified string.  The search
              is case-insensitive if the search string does not have uppercase
              letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string may begin
              with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.  The
              functions available in the mini-buffer are the same as for  his-
              tory-incremental-search-backward.

       history-incremental-pattern-search-backward
       history-incremental-pattern-search-forward
              These widgets behave similarly to the corresponding widgets with
              no -pattern, but the search string typed by the user is  treated
              as  a  pattern,  respecting  the current settings of the various
              options affecting pattern matching.  See FILENAME GENERATION  in
              zshexpn(1)  for  a description of patterns.  If no numeric argu-
              ment was given lowercase letters in the search string may  match
              uppercase letters in the history.  The string may begin with `^'
              to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

              The prompt changes to indicate an invalid pattern; this may sim-
              ply indicate the pattern is not yet complete.

              Note  that  only  non-overlapping  matches  are  reported, so an
              expression with wildcards may return fewer  matches  on  a  line
              than are visible by inspection.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  backward  in  the  history for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history  for  a  specified  string.   The
              string  may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning
              of the line.

              A restricted set  of  editing  functions  is  available  in  the
              mini-buffer.   An  interrupt signal, as defined by the stty set-
              ting,  will stop the search.  The  functions  available  in  the
              mini-buffer  are:  accept-line,  backward-delete-char,  vi-back-
              ward-delete-char,   backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,
              clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert and vi-quoted-insert.

              vi-cmd-mode  is treated the same as accept-line, and magic-space
              is treated as a space.  Any other character that is not bound to
              self-insert  or  self-insert-unmeta will beep and be ignored. If
              the function is called from vi command mode, the bindings of the
              current insert mode will be used.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  forward  in  the  history  for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
              Search forward in the  history  for  a  specified  string.   The
              string  may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning
              of the line. The functions available in the mini-buffer are  the
              same  as  for  vi-history-search-backward.  Argument handling is
              also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search in the history list for a line matching the  current  one
              and fetch the event following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the last word from the previous history event at the cur-
              sor position.  If a positive numeric argument is  given,  insert
              that  word  from  the end of the previous history event.  If the
              argument is zero or negative insert  that  word  from  the  left
              (zero  inserts  the previous command word).  Repeating this com-
              mand replaces the word just inserted with the last word from the
              history  event prior to the one just used; numeric arguments can
              be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

              When called from a shell function invoked  from  a  user-defined
              widget,  the command can take one to three arguments.  The first
              argument specifies a history offset which applies to  successive
              calls  to  this  widget:  if  it is -1, the default behaviour is
              used, while if it is 1,  successive  calls  will  move  forwards
              through  the  history.  The value 0 can be used to indicate that
              the history line examined by the previous execution of the  com-
              mand  will  be reexamined.  Note that negative numbers should be
              preceded by  a  `--'  argument  to  avoid  confusing  them  with
              options.

              If two arguments are given, the second specifies the word on the
              command line in normal array index notation (as a  more  natural
              alternative  to  the  numeric  argument).   Hence 1 is the first
              word, and -1 (the default) is the last word.

              If a third argument is given, its value is ignored,  but  it  is
              used  to signify that the history offset is relative to the cur-
              rent history line, rather than the one remembered after the pre-
              vious invocations of insert-last-word.

              For example, the default behaviour of the command corresponds to

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 -1

              while the command

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 1 -

              always  copies the first word of the line in the history immedi-
              ately before the line being edited.  This has  the  side  effect
              that  later  invocations  of the widget will be relative to that
              line.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already  at  the  top  line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
              Move  up  a  line  in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.   Then  move  to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
              Move  up  a  line  in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              search backward in the history for a  line  beginning  with  the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
              Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the cur-
              rent line up to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its orig-
              inal position.

       set-local-history
              By  default,  history movement commands visit the imported lines
              as well as the local lines. This widget lets you toggle this  on
              and  off,  or  set  it  with the numeric argument. Zero for both
              local and imported lines and nonzero for only local lines.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode after the  current  cursor  position,  without
              changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
              Delete  the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.
              If in insert mode, this won't delete past the point where insert
              mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
              Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
              Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
              Kill  the  word  behind the cursor, without going past the point
              where insert mode was last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
              Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard,  and  kill  from  the
              cursor  position  to  the  endpoint of the movement.  Then enter
              insert mode.  If the command is vi-change,  change  the  current
              line.

              For  compatibility with vi, if the command is vi-forward-word or
              vi-forward-blank-word, the whitespace  after  the  word  is  not
              included.  If  you prefer the more consistent behaviour with the
              whitespace included use the following key binding:

                     bindkey -a -s cw dwi

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
              Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
              Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
              Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

              If  called  from  a  ZLE  widget  function  in  the  form   `zle
              copy-region-as-kill  string'  then  string  will be taken as the
              text to copy to the kill buffer.  The cursor, the mark  and  the
              text on the command line are not used in this case.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word
              Like  copy-prev-word, but the word is found by using shell pars-
              ing, whereas copy-prev-word looks for blanks. This makes a  dif-
              ference when the word is quoted and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
              Read  a  movement  command  from the keyboard, and kill from the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  If the command
              is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
              Delete  the  character  under the cursor, without going past the
              end of the line.

       delete-word
              Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       vi-down-case (unbound) (gu) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and convert all char-
              acters  from the cursor position to the endpoint of the movement
              to lowercase.  If the movement command is vi-down-case, swap the
              case of all characters on the current line.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
              Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
              Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  first  non-blank  character on the line and enter
              insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
              Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.  If already on  the
              end of the line, kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
              Kill  from  the  cursor  back  to  wherever insert mode was last
              entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
              Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
              Move to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches
              the  one  under  the  cursor.  If the cursor is not on a bracket
              character, move forward without going past the end of  the  line
              to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
              Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
              Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case (unbound) (g~) (unbound)
              Read  a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case of
              all characters from the cursor position to the endpoint  of  the
              movement.   If  the  movement command is vi-oper-swap-case, swap
              the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer before  the  cursor.   If
              the  kill  buffer  contains  a  sequence of lines (as opposed to
              characters), paste it above the current line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer after the cursor.  If the
              kill  buffer contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to charac-
              ters), paste it below the current line.

       put-replace-selection (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Replace the contents of the current region or selection with the
              contents  of  the  kill  buffer.  If  the kill buffer contains a
              sequence of lines (as opposed to characters), the  current  line
              will be split by the pasted lines.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert  the  next character typed into the buffer literally.  An
              interrupt character will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
              Display a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next  char-
              acter  typed  into the buffer literally.  An interrupt character
              will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the current line; that is, put  a  `''  character  at  the
              beginning and the end, and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
              Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
              Repeat  the last vi mode text modification.  If a count was used
              with the modification, it is remembered.  If a count is given to
              this  command,  it overrides the remembered count, and is remem-
              bered for future uses of this command.  The cut buffer  specifi-
              cation is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
              Replace  the  character  under  the cursor with a character read
              from the keyboard.

       self-insert (printable characters) (unbound) (printable characters  and
       some control characters)
              Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert  a character into the buffer after stripping the meta bit
              and converting ^M to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
              Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
              Swap the case of the character under the cursor  and  move  past
              it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange  the two characters to the left of the cursor if at end
              of line, else exchange the character under the cursor  with  the
              character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the current word with the one before it.

              With  a positive numeric argument N, the word around the cursor,
              or following it if the cursor is between  words,  is  transposed
              with the preceding N words.  The cursor is put at the end of the
              resulting group of words.

              With a negative numeric argument -N, the effect is the  same  as
              using  a  positive  argument  N  except that the original cursor
              position is retained, regardless of  how  the  words  are  rear-
              ranged.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
              Unindent a number of lines.

       vi-up-case (unbound) (gU) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and convert all char-
              acters from the cursor position to the endpoint of the  movement
              to  lowercase.   If the movement command is vi-up-case, swap the
              case of all characters on the current line.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Remove the text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring  (the  history
              of  previously  killed  text)  and yank the new top.  Only works
              following yank, vi-put-before, vi-put-after or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and copy  the  region
              from  the  cursor  position to the endpoint of the movement into
              the kill buffer.  If the command is vi-yank,  copy  the  current
              line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
              Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
              Copy  the region from the cursor position to the end of the line
              into the kill buffer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi,
              but it isn't what it actually does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
              Start  a  new  numeric argument, or add to the current one.  See
              also vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.  This only works if bound to
              a key sequence ending in a decimal digit.

              Inside  a  widget  function,  a call to this function treats the
              last key of the key sequence which  called  the  widget  as  the
              digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
              Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
              Multiply  the argument of the next command by 4.  Alternatively,
              if this command is followed by an  integer  (positive  or  nega-
              tive), use that as the argument for the next command.  Thus dig-
              its cannot be repeated using this command.  For example, if this
              command occurs twice, followed immediately by forward-char, move
              forward sixteen spaces; if instead it is followed  by  -2,  then
              forward-char, move backward two spaces.

              Inside  a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle uni-
              versal-argument num', the numeric argument will be set  to  num;
              this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

       argument-base
              Use  the existing numeric argument as a numeric base, which must
              be  in  the  range  2  to  36  inclusive.   Subsequent  use   of
              digit-argument  and  universal-argument will input a new numeric
              argument in the given base.  The usual hexadecimal convention is
              used: the letter a or A corresponds to 10, and so on.  Arguments
              in bases requiring digits from 10 upwards are more  conveniently
              input  with universal-argument, since ESC-a etc. are not usually
              bound to digit-argument.

              The function can be  used  with  a  command  argument  inside  a
              user-defined widget.  The following code sets the base to 16 and
              lets the user input a hexadecimal argument until a  key  out  of
              the digit range is typed:

                     zle argument-base 16
                     zle universal-argument

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
              In  a  menu  completion,  insert the current completion into the
              buffer, and advance to the next possible completion.

       complete-word
              Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at  the
              end of the line, list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
              Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
              Attempt  shell  expansion  on  the current word.  If that fails,
              attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
              Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
              List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
              List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
              Perform history expansion and insert a space  into  the  buffer.
              This is intended to be bound to space.

       menu-complete
              Like  complete-word,  except  that menu completion is used.  See
              the MENU_COMPLETE option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
              Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
              Perform menu completion, like menu-complete, except  that  if  a
              menu  completion  is  already  in progress, move to the previous
              completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
              When a previous completion displayed a list  below  the  prompt,
              this widget can be used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push  the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and execute
              it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
              Execute the contents of the buffer.   Then  search  the  history
              list for a line matching the current one and push the event fol-
              lowing onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
              Finish editing the buffer.  Normally this causes the  buffer  to
              be executed as a shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the
              buffer stack.

       auto-suffix-remove
              If the previous action added a suffix (space,  slash,  etc.)  to
              the  word on the command line, remove it.  Otherwise do nothing.
              Removing the suffix ends any  active  menu  completion  or  menu
              selection.

              This  widget  is intended to be called from user-defined widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-removal behavior.

       auto-suffix-retain
              If the previous action added a suffix (space,  slash,  etc.)  to
              the  word on the command line, force it to be preserved.  Other-
              wise do nothing.  Retaining the suffix ends any active menu com-
              pletion or menu selection.

              This  widget  is intended to be called from user-defined widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-preservation behavior.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       bracketed-paste
              This widget is invoked when text is pasted to the terminal  emu-
              lator. It is not intended to be bound to actual keys but instead
              to the special sequence generated by the terminal emulator  when
              text is pasted.

              When  invoked  interactively, the pasted text is inserted to the
              buffer and placed in the cutbuffer.  If a  numeric  argument  is
              given,  shell  quoting will be applied to the pasted text before
              it is inserted.

              When a named buffer is specified with  vi-set-buffer  ("x),  the
              pasted text is stored in that named buffer but not inserted.

              When  called  from  a widget function as `bracketed-paste name`,
              the pasted text is assigned to the variable name  and  no  other
              processing is done.

              See also the zle_bracketed_paste parameter.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
              Enter  command  mode;  that is, select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes,
              this is bound by default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
              Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.  This is for  vi  users
              without the mental capacity to keep track of their caps lock key
              (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
              Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       deactivate-region
              Make the current region inactive. This disables vim-style visual
              selection mode if it is active.

       describe-key-briefly
              Reads  a  key  sequence,  then prints the function bound to that
              sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the cursor position (point) with the  position  of  the
              mark.   Unless  a negative numeric argument is given, the region
              between point and mark is activated so  that  it  can  be  high-
              lighted.   If  a  zero  numeric argument is given, the region is
              activated but point and mark are not swapped.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (:) (unbound)
              Read the name of an editor command  and  execute  it.   Aliasing
              this  widget  with `zle -A' or replacing it with `zle -N' has no
              effect  when  interpreting   key   bindings,   but   `zle   exe-
              cute-named-cmd' will invoke such an alias or replacement.

              A  restricted  set  of  editing  functions  is  available in the
              mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special command  keymap,
              and if not found there in the main keymap.  An interrupt signal,
              as defined by the stty setting, will abort the  function.   Note
              that  the following always perform the same task within the exe-
              cuted-named-cmd environment  and  cannot  be  replaced  by  user
              defined  widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The
              allowed   functions    are:    backward-delete-char,    vi-back-
              ward-delete-char,    clear-screen,   redisplay,   quoted-insert,
              vi-quoted-insert,   backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,
              kill-whole-line, vi-kill-line, backward-kill-line, list-choices,
              delete-char-or-list, complete-word, accept-line,  expand-or-com-
              plete and expand-or-complete-prefix.

              kill-region  kills the last word, and vi-cmd-mode is treated the
              same as accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound
              to  one of these functions, will complete the name and then list
              the possibilities if the AUTO_LIST option  is  set.   Any  other
              character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
              will beep and be ignored.  The bindings of  the  current  insert
              mode will be used.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
              Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

              Like  execute-named-cmd,  this command may not be redefined, but
              it may be called by name.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
              Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the  cur-
              sor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
              If  there  is no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add
              one to the beginning of each line.  If there is one, remove a  #
              from each line that has one.  In either case, accept the current
              line.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for  this  to
              have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line,
              add one.  If there is one, remove it.  The  INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS
              option must be set for this to have any usefulness.

       push-input
              Push  the  entire  current  multiline  construct onto the buffer
              stack and return to the top-level (PS1) prompt.  If the  current
              parser  construct  is  only  a single line, this is exactly like
              push-line.  Next time the editor starts up  or  is  popped  with
              get-line, the construct will be popped off the top of the buffer
              stack and loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the current buffer onto the buffer stack and clear the buf-
              fer.   Next time the editor starts up, the buffer will be popped
              off the top of the buffer stack and loaded into the editing buf-
              fer.

       push-line-or-edit
              At  the  top-level  (PS1) prompt, equivalent to push-line.  At a
              secondary (PS2) prompt, move the entire current  multiline  con-
              struct  into  the  editor  buffer.   The latter is equivalent to
              push-input followed by get-line.

       read-command
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.   A  keystroke  is  read
              just  as  in  normal operation, but instead of the command being
              executed the name of the  command  that  would  be  executed  is
              stored  in  the  shell parameter REPLY.  This can be used as the
              argument of a future zle command.  If the key  sequence  is  not
              bound, status 1 is returned; typically, however, REPLY is set to
              undefined-key to indicate a useless key sequence.

       recursive-edit
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.  At this  point  in  the
              function,  the  editor regains control until one of the standard
              widgets which would normally cause zle  to  exit  (typically  an
              accept-line  caused  by  hitting  the  return  key) is executed.
              Instead, control returns to the user-defined widget.  The status
              returned  is  non-zero if the return was caused by an error, but
              the function still continues executing and hence  may  tidy  up.
              This makes it safe for the user-defined widget to alter the com-
              mand line or key bindings temporarily.

              The following widget, caps-lock, serves as an example.

                     self-insert-ucase() {
                       LBUFFER+=${(U)KEYS[-1]}
                     }

                     integer stat

                     zle -N self-insert self-insert-ucase
                     zle -A caps-lock save-caps-lock
                     zle -A accept-line caps-lock

                     zle recursive-edit
                     stat=$?

                     zle -A .self-insert self-insert
                     zle -A save-caps-lock caps-lock
                     zle -D save-caps-lock

                     (( stat )) && zle send-break

                     return $stat

              This causes typed  letters  to  be  inserted  capitalised  until
              either  accept-line  (i.e. typically the return key) is typed or
              the caps-lock widget is invoked again; the later is  handled  by
              saving  the  old  definition  of caps-lock as save-caps-lock and
              then rebinding it to invoke accept-line.   Note  that  an  error
              from  the recursive edit is detected as a non-zero return status
              and propagated by using the send-break widget.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
              Redisplays the edit buffer.

       reset-prompt (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Force the prompts on both the left and right of the screen to be
              re-expanded,  then  redisplay  the  edit  buffer.  This reflects
              changes both to the prompt variables themselves and  changes  in
              the  expansion  of  the  values (for example, changes in time or
              directory, or changes to the value of variables referred  to  by
              the prompt).

              Otherwise, the prompt is only expanded each time zle starts, and
              when the display as been interrupted by output from another part
              of  the shell (such as a job notification) which causes the com-
              mand line to be reprinted.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
              Abort the current editor function,  e.g.  execute-named-command,
              or  the editor itself, e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise abort
              the parsing of the current line; in this case the  aborted  line
              is  available  in  the  shell variable ZLE_LINE_ABORTED.  If the
              editor   is   aborted   from   within   vared,   the    variable
              ZLE_VARED_ABORTED is set.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push  the  buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command
              `run-help cmd', where cmd is the current command.   run-help  is
              normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
              Specify a buffer to be used in the following command.  There are
              37 buffers that can be specified: the 26 `named' buffers  "a  to
              "z, the `yank' buffer "0, the nine `queued' buffers "1 to "9 and
              the `black hole' buffer "_.  The named buffers can also be spec-
              ified as "A to "Z.

              When  a  buffer  is specified for a cut, change or yank command,
              the text concerned replaces the previous contents of the  speci-
              fied buffer. If a named buffer is specified using a capital, the
              newly cut text is appended to the buffer instead of  overwriting
              it.  When using the "_ buffer, nothing happens. This can be use-
              ful for deleting text without affecting any buffers.

              If no buffer is specified for a cut or  change  command,  "1  is
              used,  and  the  contents of "1 to "8 are each shifted along one
              buffer; the contents of "9 is lost. If no  buffer  is  specified
              for a yank command, "0 is used. Finally, a paste command without
              a specified buffer will paste the text from the most recent com-
              mand  regardless  of  any  buffer that might have been used with
              that command.

              When called from a widget function by the zle command, the  buf-
              fer can optionally be specified with an argument. For example,

                     zle vi-set-buffer A

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
              Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
              Set  the mark at the cursor position.  If called with a negative
              numeric argument, do not set the mark but deactivate the  region
              so  that  it  is  no  longer highlighted (it is still usable for
              other purposes).  Otherwise the region is marked as active.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       split-undo
              Breaks the undo sequence at the current change.  This is  useful
              in  vi  mode  as  changes  made  in insert mode are coalesced on
              entering command mode.  Similarly, undo will normally revert  as
              one all the changes made by a user-defined widget.

       undefined-key
              This  command  is executed when a key sequence that is not bound
              to any command is typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (u) (unbound)
              Incrementally undo the last text modification.  When called from
              a  user-defined  widget, takes an optional argument indicating a
              previous  state  of  the  undo  history  as  returned   by   the
              UNDO_CHANGE_NO  variable;  modifications  are  undone until that
              state  is  reached,  subject  to  any  limit  imposed   by   the
              UNDO_LIMIT_NO variable.

              Note  that  when  invoked  from  vi command mode, the full prior
              change made in insert mode is reverted, the changes having  been
              merged when command mode was selected.

       redo (unbound) (^R) (unbound)
              Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Undo  the last text modification.  If repeated, redo the modifi-
              cation.

       visual-mode (unbound) (v) (unbound)
              Toggle vim-style visual selection mode. If line-wise visual mode
              is currently enabled then it is changed to being character-wise.
              If used following an operator, it forces the subsequent movement
              command to be treated as a character-wise movement.

       visual-line-mode (unbound) (V) (unbound)
              Toggle  vim-style  line-wise  visual  selection mode. If charac-
              ter-wise visual mode is currently enabled then it is changed  to
              being  line-wise.  If  used following an operator, it forces the
              subsequent movement command to be treated as a  line-wise  move-
              ment.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (ga) (unbound)
              Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal, dec-
              imal and hexadecimal number, the current cursor position  within
              the buffer and the column of the cursor in the current line.

       where-is
              Read  the name of an editor command and print the listing of key
              sequences that invoke the specified command.  A  restricted  set
              of  editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys are
              looked up in the special command keymap, and if not found  there
              in the main keymap.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push  the  buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command
              `which-command  cmd'.  where  cmd  is   the   current   command.
              which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
              If the last command executed was a digit as part of an argument,
              continue the argument.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.

   Text Objects
       Text objects are commands that can be used to select a  block  of  text
       according  to  some criteria. They are a feature of the vim text editor
       and so are primarily intended for use with vi operators or from  visual
       selection  mode. However, they can also be used from vi-insert or emacs
       mode. Key bindings listed below apply to the viopp and visual keymaps.

       select-a-blank-word (aW)
              Select a word including adjacent blanks, where a word is defined
              as  a  series  of non-blank characters. With a numeric argument,
              multiple words will be selected.

       select-a-shell-word (aa)
              Select the current command argument applying  the  normal  rules
              for quoting.

       select-a-word (aw)
              Select  a  word  including  adjacent  blanks,  using  the normal
              vi-style word definition.  With  a  numeric  argument,  multiple
              words will be selected.

       select-in-blank-word (iW)
              Select  a word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank
              characters. With a numeric  argument,  multiple  words  will  be
              selected.

       select-in-shell-word (ia)
              Select  the  current  command argument applying the normal rules
              for quoting. If the argument begins and ends with matching quote
              characters, these are not included in the selection.

       select-in-word (iw)
              Select a word, using the normal vi-style word definition. With a
              numeric argument, multiple words will be selected.

CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING
       The line editor has the ability to highlight characters or  regions  of
       the  line  that  have a particular significance.  This is controlled by
       the array parameter zle_highlight, if it has been set by the user.

       If the parameter contains the single entry  none  all  highlighting  is
       turned off.  Note the parameter is still expected to be an array.

       Otherwise each entry of the array should consist of a word indicating a
       context for highlighting, then a colon, then a comma-separated list  of
       the types of highlighting to apply in that context.

       The contexts available for highlighting are the following:

       default
              Any text within the command line not affected by any other high-
              lighting.  Text outside the editable area of the command line is
              not affected.

       isearch
              When  one  of  the incremental history search widgets is active,
              the area of the command line matched by  the  search  string  or
              pattern.

       region The  currently  selected  text.  In  emacs  terminology, this is
              referred to as the region and is bounded by the  cursor  (point)
              and  the  mark.  The region is only highlighted if it is active,
              which is the case after the mark is modified with  set-mark-com-
              mand  or  exchange-point-and-mark.  Note that whether or not the
              region is active has no effect on its  use  within  emacs  style
              widgets,  it  simply determines whether it is highlighted. In vi
              mode, the region corresponds to selected text in visual mode.

       special
              Individual characters that have no direct printable  representa-
              tion  but  are  shown  in  a  special manner by the line editor.
              These characters are described below.

       suffix This context is used  in  completion  for  characters  that  are
              marked  as  suffixes that will be removed if the completion ends
              at that point, the most obvious example being a slash (/)  after
              a directory name.  Note that suffix removal is configurable; the
              circumstances under which the suffix will be removed may  differ
              for different completions.

       paste  Following  a  command  to  paste  text, the characters that were
              inserted.

       When region_highlight is set, the contexts that describe  a  region  --
       isearch,   region,  suffix,  and  paste  --  are  applied  first,  then
       region_highlight is applied, then the remaining zle_highlight  contexts
       are  applied.  If a particular character is affected by multiple speci-
       fications, the last specification wins.

       zle_highlight may contain additional fields for controlling how  termi-
       nal  sequences  to change colours are output.  Each of the following is
       followed by a colon and a string in the same form as for key  bindings.
       This  will  not  be necessary for the vast majority of terminals as the
       defaults shown in parentheses are widely used.

       fg_start_code (\e[3)
              The start of the escape  sequence  for  the  foreground  colour.
              This is followed by an ASCII digit representing the colour.

       fg_default_code (9)
              The  number  to  use  instead of the colour to reset the default
              foreground colour.

       fg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.

       bg_start_code (\e[4)
              The start of the escape  sequence  for  the  background  colour.
              This is followed by an ASCII digit representing the colour.

       bg_default_code (9)
              The  number  to  use  instead of the colour to reset the default
              background colour.

       bg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the background colour.

       The available types of highlighting are the following.  Note  that  not
       all types of highlighting are available on all terminals:

       none   No highlighting is applied to the given context.  It is not use-
              ful for this to appear with other types of highlighting;  it  is
              used to override a default.

       fg=colour
              The foreground colour should be set to colour, a decimal integer
              or the name of one of the eight most widely-supported colours.

              Not all terminals support this and, of those that  do,  not  all
              provide  facilities  to  test the support, hence the user should
              decide based on the terminal type.  Most terminals  support  the
              colours  black,  red,  green,  yellow,  blue,  magenta, cyan and
              white, which can be set by name.  In addition.  default  may  be
              used to set the terminal's default foreground colour.  Abbrevia-
              tions are allowed; b or bl selects black.   Some  terminals  may
              generate  additional  colours  if  the  bold  attribute  is also
              present.

              On recent terminals and on systems with an  up-to-date  terminal
              database  the  number  of colours supported may be tested by the
              command `echotc Co'; if this succeeds, it indicates a  limit  on
              the number of colours which will be enforced by the line editor.
              The number of colours is in any case limited to  256  (i.e.  the
              range 0 to 255).

              Colour is also known as color.

       bg=colour
              The background colour should be set to colour.  This works simi-
              larly to the foreground colour, except  the  background  is  not
              usually affected by the bold attribute.

       bold   The  characters  in  the given context are shown in a bold font.
              Not all terminals distinguish bold fonts.

       standout
              The characters in the given context are shown in the  terminal's
              standout  mode.   The actual effect is specific to the terminal;
              on many terminals it is inverse video.  On some such  terminals,
              where  the  cursor  does not blink it appears with standout mode
              negated, making it less than clear where the cursor actually is.
              On such terminals one of the other effects may be preferable for
              highlighting the region and matched search string.

       underline
              The characters in the given context are shown underlined.   Some
              terminals  show the foreground in a different colour instead; in
              this case whitespace will not be highlighted.

       The characters described above as `special' are as follows.   The  for-
       matting  described  here is used irrespective of whether the characters
       are highlighted:

       ASCII control characters
              Control characters in the ASCII range are shown as `^'  followed
              by the base character.

       Unprintable multibyte characters
              This  item applies to control characters not in the ASCII range,
              plus other characters as follows.  If the MULTIBYTE option is in
              effect, multibyte characters not in the ASCII character set that
              are reported as having zero width are treated as combining char-
              acters  when the option COMBINING_CHARS is on.  If the option is
              off, or if a character appears where a  combining  character  is
              not valid, the character is treated as unprintable.

              Unprintable multibyte characters are shown as a hexadecimal num-
              ber between angle brackets.  The number is the code point of the
              character in the wide character set; this may or may not be Uni-
              code, depending on the operating system.

       Invalid multibyte characters
              If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, any  sequence  of  one  or
              more  bytes  that does not form a valid character in the current
              character set is treated as a series of bytes each  shown  as  a
              special  character.   This  case can be distinguished from other
              unprintable characters as the bytes are represented as two hexa-
              decimal digits between angle brackets, as distinct from the four
              or eight digits that are used for  unprintable  characters  that
              are nonetheless valid in the current character set.

              Not  all systems support this: for it to work, the system's rep-
              resentation of wide characters must be code values from the Uni-
              versal  Character  Set,  as  defined by IS0 10646 (also known as
              Unicode).

       Wrapped double-width characters
              When a double-width character appears in the final column  of  a
              line, it is instead shown on the next line. The empty space left
              in the original position is highlighted as a special character.

       If zle_highlight is not set or no value applies to  a  particular  con-
       text, the defaults applied are equivalent to

              zle_highlight=(region:standout special:standout
              suffix:bold isearch:underline paste:standout)

       i.e. both the region and special characters are shown in standout mode.

       Within  widgets,  arbitrary  regions  may be highlighted by setting the
       special array parameter region_highlight; see above.

ZSHCOMPWID(1)               General Commands Manual              ZSHCOMPWID(1)



NAME
       zshcompwid - zsh completion widgets

DESCRIPTION
       The shell's programmable completion mechanism can be manipulated in two
       ways;  here the low-level features supporting the newer, function-based
       mechanism are defined.  A complete set  of  shell  functions  based  on
       these  features is described in zshcompsys(1), and users with no inter-
       est in adding to that system (or, potentially, writing their own -- see
       dictionary  entry  for  `hubris') should skip the current section.  The
       older system based on the compctl builtin command is described in  zsh-
       compctl(1).

       Completion widgets are defined by the -C option to the zle builtin com-
       mand provided by the zsh/zle module (see zshzle(1)). For example,

              zle -C complete expand-or-complete completer

       defines a widget named `complete'.  The second argument is the name  of
       any  of  the  builtin  widgets  that handle completions: complete-word,
       expand-or-complete,      expand-or-complete-prefix,      menu-complete,
       menu-expand-or-complete,    reverse-menu-complete,   list-choices,   or
       delete-char-or-list.  Note that this will still work even if the widget
       in question has been re-bound.

       When  this  newly  defined  widget  is bound to a key using the bindkey
       builtin command defined in the zsh/zle module (see  zshzle(1)),  typing
       that  key  will  call  the shell function `completer'. This function is
       responsible for generating the  possible  matches  using  the  builtins
       described  below.   As  with  other ZLE widgets, the function is called
       with its standard input closed.

       Once the function returns, the completion code takes over control again
       and treats the matches in the same manner as the specified builtin wid-
       get, in this case expand-or-complete.

COMPLETION SPECIAL PARAMETERS
       The parameters ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS and  ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS  are
       used  by  the completion mechanism, but are not special. See Parameters
       Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       Inside completion widgets, and any functions  called  from  them,  some
       parameters  have  special meaning; outside these functions they are not
       special to the shell in any way.  These parameters  are  used  to  pass
       information between the completion code and the completion widget. Some
       of the builtin commands and the condition codes use or change the  cur-
       rent  values  of  these parameters.  Any existing values will be hidden
       during execution of  completion  widgets;  except  for  compstate,  the
       parameters  are  reset on each function exit (including nested function
       calls from within the completion widget) to the values  they  had  when
       the function was entered.

       CURRENT
              This is the number of the current word, i.e. the word the cursor
              is currently on in the words array.  Note  that  this  value  is
              only correct if the ksharrays option is not set.

       IPREFIX
              Initially  this will be set to the empty string.  This parameter
              functions like PREFIX; it contains a string which  precedes  the
              one in PREFIX and is not considered part of the list of matches.
              Typically, a string is transferred from the beginning of  PREFIX
              to the end of IPREFIX, for example:

                     IPREFIX=${PREFIX%%\=*}=
                     PREFIX=${PREFIX#*=}

              causes  the  part  of  the  prefix up to and including the first
              equal sign not to be treated as part of a matched string.   This
              can be done automatically by the compset builtin, see below.

       ISUFFIX
              As  IPREFIX, but for a suffix that should not be considered part
              of the matches; note that the ISUFFIX string follows the  SUFFIX
              string.

       PREFIX Initially  this will be set to the part of the current word from
              the beginning of the word up to the position of the  cursor;  it
              may be altered to give a common prefix for all matches.

       QIPREFIX
              This parameter is read-only and contains the quoted string up to
              the word being completed.  E.g.  when  completing  `"foo',  this
              parameter contains the double quote. If the -q option of compset
              is used (see below), and the original string was `"foo bar' with
              the cursor on the `bar', this parameter contains `"foo '.

       QISUFFIX
              Like QIPREFIX, but containing the suffix.

       SUFFIX Initially  this will be set to the part of the current word from
              the cursor position to the end; it may be altered to give a com-
              mon  suffix  for all matches.  It is most useful when the option
              COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set, as otherwise the whole word on the com-
              mand line is treated as a prefix.

       compstate
              This  is  an associative array with various keys and values that
              the completion code uses to exchange information with  the  com-
              pletion widget.  The keys are:

              all_quotes
                     The  -q option of the compset builtin command (see below)
                     allows a quoted string to be broken into separate  words;
                     if the cursor is on one of those words, that word will be
                     completed, possibly invoking  `compset  -q'  recursively.
                     With  this key it is possible to test the types of quoted
                     strings which are currently broken  into  parts  in  this
                     fashion.  Its value contains one character for each quot-
                     ing level.  The characters are a single quote or a double
                     quote for strings quoted with these characters, a dollars
                     sign for strings quoted with $'...' and a  backslash  for
                     strings  not  starting with a quote character.  The first
                     character in the value always corresponds to  the  inner-
                     most quoting level.

              context
                     This  will  be  set by the completion code to the overall
                     context in which completion is attempted. Possible values
                     are:

                     array_value
                            when  completing  inside  the  value  of  an array
                            parameter assignment; in this case the words array
                            contains the words inside the parentheses.

                     brace_parameter
                            when  completing  the  name  of  a  parameter in a
                            parameter expansion beginning with ${.  This  con-
                            text  will  also  be set when completing parameter
                            flags following ${(; the full command  line  argu-
                            ment  is  presented  and the handler must test the
                            value to be completed to ascertain  that  this  is
                            the case.

                     assign_parameter
                            when  completing  the  name  of  a  parameter in a
                            parameter assignment.

                     command
                            when completing for a normal  command  (either  in
                            command  position  or  for an argument of the com-
                            mand).

                     condition
                            when completing  inside  a  `[[...]]'  conditional
                            expression;  in this case the words array contains
                            only the words inside the conditional expression.

                     math   when completing in a mathematical environment such
                            as a `((...))' construct.

                     parameter
                            when  completing  the  name  of  a  parameter in a
                            parameter expansion beginning with $ but not ${.

                     redirect
                            when completing after a redirection operator.

                     subscript
                            when completing inside a parameter subscript.

                     value  when completing the value of a  parameter  assign-
                            ment.

              exact  Controls  the behaviour when the REC_EXACT option is set.
                     It will be set to accept  if  an  exact  match  would  be
                     accepted, and will be unset otherwise.

                     If it was set when at least one match equal to the string
                     on the line was generated, the match is accepted.

              exact_string
                     The string of an exact match if one was found,  otherwise
                     unset.

              ignored
                     The  number  of  words  that  were  ignored  because they
                     matched one of the patterns given with the -F  option  to
                     the compadd builtin command.

              insert This  controls  the  manner  in which a match is inserted
                     into the command line.  On entry to the widget  function,
                     if  it is unset the command line is not to be changed; if
                     set to unambiguous, any prefix common to all  matches  is
                     to  be inserted; if set to automenu-unambiguous, the com-
                     mon prefix is to be inserted and the next  invocation  of
                     the completion code may start menu completion (due to the
                     AUTO_MENU option being set); if set to menu  or  automenu
                     menu completion will be started for the matches currently
                     generated (in the latter case this  will  happen  because
                     the  AUTO_MENU  is  set).  The value may also contain the
                     string `tab' when the completion code would normally  not
                     really do completion, but only insert the TAB character.

                     On  exit  it may be set to any of the values above (where
                     setting it to the empty string is the same  as  unsetting
                     it), or to a number, in which case the match whose number
                     is given will be inserted into the command  line.   Nega-
                     tive  numbers  count  backward  from the last match (with
                     `-1' selecting the last match)  and  out-of-range  values
                     are  wrapped  around, so that a value of zero selects the
                     last match and a value one more than the maximum  selects
                     the  first. Unless the value of this key ends in a space,
                     the match is inserted as in a menu completion, i.e. with-
                     out automatically appending a space.

                     Both menu and automenu may also specify the number of the
                     match to insert,  given  after  a  colon.   For  example,
                     `menu:2'  says  to  start menu completion, beginning with
                     the second match.

                     Note that a value containing the  substring  `tab'  makes
                     the  matches  generated  be  ignored  and only the TAB be
                     inserted.

                     Finally, it may also be  set  to  all,  which  makes  all
                     matches generated be inserted into the line.

              insert_positions
                     When  the completion system inserts an unambiguous string
                     into the line, there may be multiple places where charac-
                     ters  are missing or where the character inserted differs
                     from at least one match.  The value of this key  contains
                     a colon separated list of all these positions, as indexes
                     into the command line.

              last_prompt
                     If this is set to a  non-empty  string  for  every  match
                     added,  the  completion code will move the cursor back to
                     the previous prompt after the  list  of  completions  has
                     been displayed.  Initially this is set or unset according
                     to the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option.

              list   This controls whether or how the list of matches will  be
                     displayed.   If  it  is unset or empty they will never be
                     listed; if its value begins with list, they  will  always
                     be  listed; if it begins with autolist or ambiguous, they
                     will be  listed  when  the  AUTO_LIST  or  LIST_AMBIGUOUS
                     options respectively would normally cause them to be.

                     If  the  substring force appears in the value, this makes
                     the list be shown even if there is only one  match.  Nor-
                     mally, the list would be shown only if there are at least
                     two matches.

                     The  value  contains  the   substring   packed   if   the
                     LIST_PACKED option is set. If this substring is given for
                     all matches added to a group, this group  will  show  the
                     LIST_PACKED   behavior.   The   same   is  done  for  the
                     LIST_ROWS_FIRST option with the substring rows.

                     Finally, if the value contains the  string  explanations,
                     only  the explanation strings, if any, will be listed and
                     if it contains messages, only the  messages  (added  with
                     the -x option of compadd) will be listed.  If it contains
                     both explanations and messages both kinds of  explanation
                     strings  will be listed.  It will be set appropriately on
                     entry to a completion widget and may be changed there.

              list_lines
                     This gives the number of lines that are needed to display
                     the full list of completions.  Note that to calculate the
                     total number of lines to display you need to add the num-
                     ber  of  lines needed for the command line to this value,
                     this is available as the value of the BUFFERLINES special
                     parameter.

              list_max
                     Initially this is set to the value of the LISTMAX parame-
                     ter.  It may be set to any other value; when  the  widget
                     exits  this  value  will  be  used in the same way as the
                     value of LISTMAX.

              nmatches
                     The number of matches generated and accepted by the  com-
                     pletion code so far.

              old_insert