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Updated: Wednesday, February 9, 2022

zshmodules (1)


zshmodules - zsh loadable modules


Please see following description for synopsis


ZSHMODULES(1)               General Commands Manual              ZSHMODULES(1)

       zshmodules - zsh loadable modules

       Some  optional  parts  of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of
       the shell.  Each of these modules may be linked  in  to  the  shell  at
       build  time, or can be dynamically linked while the shell is running if
       the installation supports this feature.  Modules are linked at  runtime
       with the zmodload command, see zshbuiltins(1).

       The modules that are bundled with the zsh distribution are:

              Builtins for manipulating extended attributes (xattr).

              Builtins  for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability (privi-
              lege) sets.

              A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.

              The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

              The basic completion code.

              Completion listing extensions.

              A module with utility builtins needed  for  the  shell  function
              based completion system.

              curses windowing commands

              Some date/time commands and parameters.

              Builtins  for managing associative array parameters tied to GDBM

              A ZLE function duplicating EMACS' zap-to-char.

              An example of how to write a module.

              Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

              Interface to locale information.

              Access to external files via a special associative array.

              Standard scientific functions for use  in  mathematical  evalua-

              Map colours to the nearest colour in the available palette.

              Arrange for files for new users to be installed.

              Access to internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

              Interface to the PCRE library.

              Builtins for managing private-scoped parameters in function con-

              Interface to the POSIX regex library.

              A builtin that provides a timed execution  facility  within  the

              Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

              A builtin command interface to the stat system call.

              A builtin interface to various low-level system features.

              Manipulation of TCP sockets

              Interface to the termcap database.

              Interface to the terminfo database.

              A builtin FTP client.

              The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

              Access to internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

              A module allowing profiling for shell functions.

              A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

              Block and return when file descriptors are ready.

              Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration
              via styles.

       The zsh/attr module is used for manipulating extended attributes.   The
       -h  option  causes all commands to operate on symbolic links instead of
       their targets.  The builtins in this module are:

       zgetattr [ -h ] filename attribute [ parameter ]
              Get the extended attribute attribute from  the  specified  file-
              name. If the optional argument parameter is given, the attribute
              is set on that parameter instead of being printed to stdout.

       zsetattr [ -h ] filename attribute value
              Set the extended attribute attribute on the  specified  filename
              to value.

       zdelattr [ -h ] filename attribute
              Remove the extended attribute attribute from the specified file-

       zlistattr [ -h ] filename [ parameter ]
              List the extended attributes  currently  set  on  the  specified
              filename.  If the optional argument parameter is given, the list
              of attributes is set on that parameter instead of being  printed
              to stdout.

       zgetattr  and  zlistattr allocate memory dynamically.  If the attribute
       or list of attributes grows between the allocation and the call to  get
       them,  they return 2.  On all other errors, 1 is returned.  This allows
       the calling function to check for this case and retry.

       The zsh/cap module is used for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capabil-
       ity sets.  If the operating system does not support this interface, the
       builtins defined by this module will do nothing.  The builtins in  this
       module are:

       cap [ capabilities ]
              Change  the  shell's  process  capability  sets to the specified
              capabilities, otherwise display the  shell's  current  capabili-

       getcap filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It displays the capability sets on each specified filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It  sets  the  capability sets on each specified filename to the
              specified capabilities.

       The zsh/clone module makes available one builtin command:

       clone tty
              Creates a forked instance of the current shell, attached to  the
              specified  tty.  In the new shell, the PID, PPID and TTY special
              parameters are changed appropriately.  $! is set to zero in  the
              new shell, and to the new shell's PID in the original shell.

              The  return status of the builtin is zero in both shells if suc-
              cessful, and non-zero on error.

              The target of clone should be an unused  terminal,  such  as  an
              unused virtual console or a virtual terminal created by

                     xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT QUIT TSTP; tty;
                             while :; do sleep 100000000; done'

              Some  words  of  explanation are warranted about this long xterm
              command line: when doing clone on a pseudo-terminal, some  other
              session  ("session"  meant  as  a unix session group, or SID) is
              already owning the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh cannot acquire
              the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty. That means two things:

              o      the    job    control    signals    will    go   to   the
                     sh-started-by-xterm process group (that's why we  disable
                     INT  QUIT  and  TSTP  with trap; otherwise the while loop
                     could get suspended or killed)

              o      the cloned shell will have job control disabled, and  the
                     job  control  keys  (control-C,  control-\ and control-Z)
                     will not work.

              This does not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

              Cloning to a used (and unprepared) terminal will result  in  two
              processes  reading  simultaneously  from the same terminal, with
              input bytes going randomly to either process.

              clone is mostly useful  as  a  shell  built-in  replacement  for

       The  zsh/compctl  module makes available two builtin commands. compctl,
       is the old, deprecated way to control completions for ZLE.  See zshcom-
       pctl(1).    The   other  builtin  command,  compcall  can  be  used  in
       user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

       The zsh/complete module makes available several builtin commands  which
       can be used in user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

       The zsh/complist module offers three extensions to completion listings:
       the ability to highlight matches in such a list, the ability to  scroll
       through long lists and a different style of menu completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS is set and the
       zsh/complist module is loaded or  linked  into  the  shell,  completion
       lists will be colored.  Note, however, that complist will not automati-
       cally be loaded if it is not linked in:  on systems with dynamic  load-
       ing, `zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The  parameters  ZLS_COLORS  and  ZLS_COLOURS  describe how matches are
       highlighted.  To turn on highlighting an empty value suffices, in which
       case  all  the  default values given below will be used.  The format of
       the value of these parameters is the same as used by the GNU version of
       the  ls  command:  a colon-separated list of specifications of the form
       `name=value'.  The name may be one of the following  strings,  most  of
       which specify file types for which the value will be used.  The strings
       and their default values are:

       no 0   for normal text (i.e. when displaying  something  other  than  a
              matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for  symbolic links.  If this has the special value target, sym-
              bolic links are dereferenced and the target file used to  deter-
              mine the display format.

       pi 31  for named pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
              for block devices

       cd 44;37
              for character devices

       or none
              for  a symlink to nonexistent file (default is the value defined
              for ln)

       mi none
              for a non-existent file (default is the value defined  for  fi);
              this code is currently not used

       su 37;41
              for files with setuid bit set

       sg 30;43
              for files with setgid bit set

       tw 30;42
              for world writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
              for world writable directories without sticky bit set

       sa none
              for  files  with an associated suffix alias; this is only tested
              after specific suffixes, as described below

       st 37;44
              for directories with sticky bit set but not world writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc \e[ for the left code (see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for the character indicating the file type  printed after  file-
              names if the LIST_TYPES option is set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the next column

       ec none
              for the end code

       Apart  from  these strings, the name may also be an asterisk (`*') fol-
       lowed by any string. The value given for such a string will be used for
       all  files  whose  name  ends with the string.  The name may also be an
       equals sign (`=') followed by a pattern; the EXTENDED_GLOB option  will
       be  turned  on for evaluation of the pattern.  The value given for this
       pattern will be used for all matches (not just filenames) whose display
       string  are  matched by the pattern.  Definitions for the form with the
       leading equal sign take precedence over the  values  defined  for  file
       types,  which  in  turn  take precedence over the form with the leading
       asterisk (file extensions).

       The leading-equals form also allows different parts  of  the  displayed
       strings  to  be  colored differently.  For this, the pattern has to use
       the `(#b)' globbing flag and pairs of parentheses surrounding the parts
       of  the  strings  that are to be colored differently.  In this case the
       value may consist of more than one color code separated by equal signs.
       The first code will be used for all parts for which no explicit code is
       specified and the following codes will be used for the parts matched by
       the  sub-patterns  in  parentheses.   For  example,  the  specification
       `=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7' will be used for all matches which  are  at  least
       two  characters long and will use the code `3' for the first character,
       `7' for the last character and `0' for the rest.

       All three forms of name may be preceded by a  pattern  in  parentheses.
       If  this  is  given,  the value will be used only for matches in groups
       whose names are matched by the pattern given in the  parentheses.   For
       example,  `(g*)m*=43'  highlights  all  matches  beginning  with `m' in
       groups whose names  begin with `g' using the color code `43'.  In  case
       of the `lc', `rc', and `ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note also that all patterns are tried in the order in which they appear
       in the parameter value until the first one matches which is then  used.
       Patterns  may  be  matched  against completions, descriptions (possibly
       with spaces appended for padding), or lines consisting of a  completion
       followed by a description.  For consistent coloring it may be necessary
       to use more than one pattern or a pattern with backreferences.

       When printing a match, the code prints the value of lc, the  value  for
       the  file-type or the last matching specification with a `*', the value
       of rc, the string to display for the match itself, and then  the  value
       of  ec  if that is defined or the values of lc, no, and rc if ec is not

       The default values are ISO 6429 (ANSI) compliant and  can  be  used  on
       vt100 compatible terminals such as xterms.  On monochrome terminals the
       default values will have no visible effect.  The colors  function  from
       the  contribution  can be used to get associative arrays containing the
       codes for ANSI terminals (see the section `Other Functions' in  zshcon-
       trib(1)).    For   example,   after   loading  colors,  one  could  use
       `$color[red]'  to  get  the  code  for   foreground   color   red   and
       `$color[bg-green]' for the code for background color green.

       If  the completion system invoked by compinit is used, these parameters
       should not be set directly because the  system  controls  them  itself.
       Instead, the list-colors style should be used (see the section `Comple-
       tion System Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in completion listings
       To enable scrolling through a completion list, the LISTPROMPT parameter
       must  be set.  Its value will be used as the prompt; if it is the empty
       string, a default prompt will be used.  The value may  contain  escapes
       of  the  form  `%x'.   It  supports the escapes `%B', `%b', `%S', `%s',
       `%U', `%u', `%F', `%f', `%K', `%k' and `%{...%}'  used  also  in  shell
       prompts  as well as three pairs of additional sequences: a `%l' or `%L'
       is replaced by the number of the last line shown and the  total  number
       of  lines  in  the form `number/total'; a `%m' or `%M' is replaced with
       the number of the last match shown and the total number of matches; and
       `%p'  or  `%P'  is replaced with `Top', `Bottom' or the position of the
       first line shown in percent of the total number of lines, respectively.
       In  each  of  these  cases  the  form with the uppercase letter will be
       replaced with a string of fixed width, padded to the right with spaces,
       while the lowercase form will not be padded.

       If the parameter LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not ask if
       the list should be shown.  Instead it immediately starts displaying the
       list,  stopping  after  the  first screenful, showing the prompt at the
       bottom, waiting for a  keypress  after  temporarily  switching  to  the
       listscroll  keymap.   Some  of the zle functions have a special meaning
       while scrolling lists:

              stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
              scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
              scrolls forward one screenful

              stop listing but take no other action

       Every other character stops listing and immediately processes  the  key
       as  usual.   Any key that is not bound in the listscroll keymap or that
       is bound  to  undefined-key  is  looked  up  in  the  keymap  currently

       As for the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not
       be set directly when using the shell function based completion  system.
       Instead, the list-prompt style should be used.

   Menu selection
       The  zsh/complist  module also offers an alternative style of selecting
       matches from a list, called menu selection, which can be  used  if  the
       shell is set up to return to the last prompt after showing a completion
       list (see the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option in zshoptions(1)).

       Menu selection can  be  invoked  directly  by  the  widget  menu-select
       defined  by  this  module.   This  is a standard ZLE widget that can be
       bound to a key in the usual way as described in zshzle(1).

       Alternatively, the parameter MENUSELECT can be set to an integer, which
       gives  the  minimum  number of matches that must be present before menu
       selection is automatically turned on.  This second method requires that
       menu  completion  be  started,  either  directly  from a widget such as
       menu-complete, or due to one of the options MENU_COMPLETE or  AUTO_MENU
       being  set.  If MENUSELECT is set, but is 0, 1 or empty, menu selection
       will always be started during an ambiguous menu completion.

       When using the completion system based on shell functions, the  MENUSE-
       LECT  parameter should not be used (like the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS
       parameters described above).  Instead, the menu style  should  be  used
       with the select=... keyword.

       After  menu  selection is started, the matches will be listed. If there
       are more matches than fit on the screen, only the  first  screenful  is
       shown.   The  matches  to  insert into the command line can be selected
       from this list.  In the list one match is highlighted using  the  value
       for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The default value
       for this is `7' which forces the selected match to be highlighted using
       standout  mode  on  a vt100-compatible terminal.  If neither ZLS_COLORS
       nor ZLS_COLOURS is set, the same terminal control sequence as  for  the
       `%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If  there  are  more  matches  than fit on the screen and the parameter
       MENUPROMPT is set, its value will be shown below the matches.  It  sup-
       ports  the  same  escape sequences as LISTPROMPT, but the number of the
       match or line shown will be that of the one where the mark  is  placed.
       If its value is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

       The  MENUSCROLL  parameter  can  be  used  to  specify  how the list is
       scrolled.  If the parameter is unset, this is done line by line, if  it
       is  set to `0' (zero), the list will scroll half the number of lines of
       the screen.  If the value is positive, it gives the number of lines  to
       scroll  and  if it is negative, the list will be scrolled the number of
       lines of the screen minus the (absolute) value.

       As for the ZLS_COLORS, ZLS_COLOURS and LISTPROMPT  parameters,  neither
       MENUPROMPT  nor  MENUSCROLL should be set directly when using the shell
       function based  completion  system.   Instead,  the  select-prompt  and
       select-scroll styles should be used.

       The completion code sometimes decides not to show all of the matches in
       the list.  These hidden matches are either matches for which  the  com-
       pletion  function  which  added them explicitly requested that they not
       appear in the list (using the -n option of the compadd builtin command)
       or  they  are  matches  which  duplicate  a  string already in the list
       (because they differ only in things like prefixes or suffixes that  are
       not  displayed).   In  the  list used for menu selection, however, even
       these matches are shown so that it is  possible  to  select  them.   To
       highlight such matches the hi and du capabilities in the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters are supported for hidden matches  of  the  first
       and second kind, respectively.

       Selecting matches is done by moving the mark around using the zle move-
       ment functions.  When not all matches can be shown on the screen at the
       same  time,  the  list will scroll up and down when crossing the top or
       bottom line.  The following zle functions have special  meaning  during
       menu  selection.   Note that the following always perform the same task
       within the menu selection map and cannot be replaced  by  user  defined
       widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
              accept  the  current  match and leave menu selection (but do not
              cause the command line to be accepted)

              leaves menu selection and restores the previous contents of  the
              command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
              execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold, accept-and-menu-complete
              accept  the  currently  inserted  match  and  continue selection
              allowing to select the next match to insert into the line

              accepts the current match and then tries  completion  with  menu
              selection again;  in the case of files this allows one to select
              a directory and immediately attempt to complete files in it;  if
              there are no matches, a message is shown and one can use undo to
              go back to completion on the previous  level,  every  other  key
              leaves  menu  selection (including the other zle functions which
              are otherwise special during menu selection)

       undo   removes matches inserted during the menu selection by one of the
              three functions before

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,  down-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
              moves the mark one column right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
              moves the mark one column left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
              moves the mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word, emacs-backward-word
              moves the mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
              moves the mark to the first line of the next group of matches

              moves the mark to the last line of the previous group of matches

              moves the mark to the first line

              moves the mark to the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
              moves the mark to the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
              moves the mark to the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
              moves the mark to the next match

              moves the mark to the previous match

              this toggles between normal and interactive mode; in interactive
              mode the keys bound to self-insert and self-insert-unmeta insert
              into  the  command  line  as  in normal editing mode but without
              leaving menu selection; after each character completion is tried
              again  and the list changes to contain only the new matches; the
              completion  widgets  make  the  longest  unambiguous  string  be
              inserted  in  the command line and undo and backward-delete-char
              go back to the previous set of matches

              this starts incremental searches in the list of completions dis-
              played;  in  this  mode,  accept-line  only  leaves  incremental
              search, going back to the normal menu selection mode

       All movement functions wrap around at the edges; any other zle function
       not  listed  leaves  menu  selection and executes that function.  It is
       possible to make widgets in the above list do the  same  by  using  the
       form  of  the  widget  with  a  `.'  in front.  For example, the widget
       `.accept-line' has the effect of leaving menu selection  and  accepting
       the entire command line.

       During  this  selection the widget uses the keymap menuselect.  Any key
       that is not defined in this keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is
       looked  up  in  the  keymap currently selected.  This is used to ensure
       that the most important keys used during selection (namely  the  cursor
       keys,  return,  and  TAB) have sensible defaults.  However, keys in the
       menuselect keymap can be modified directly using  the  bindkey  builtin
       command  (see zshmodules(1)). For example, to make the return key leave
       menu selection without accepting the match currently selected one could

              bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.

       The  zsh/computil module adds several builtin commands that are used by
       some of the completion functions in  the  completion  system  based  on
       shell  functions  (see  zshcompsys(1)  ).   Except  for compquote these
       builtin commands are very specialised and  thus  not  very  interesting
       when  writing your own completion functions.  In summary, these builtin
       commands are:

              This is used by the _arguments function to do the  argument  and
              command  line parsing.  Like compdescribe it has an option -i to
              do the parsing and initialize some internal  state  and  various
              options to access the state information to decide what should be

              This is used by the _describe function to build the displays for
              the  matches and to get the strings to add as matches with their
              options.  On the first call one of the options -i or  -I  should
              be  supplied  as the first argument.  In the first case, display
              strings without the descriptions will be generated, in the  sec-
              ond  case,  the  string  used to separate the matches from their
              descriptions must be  given  as  the  second  argument  and  the
              descriptions  (if  any)  will be shown.  All other arguments are
              like the definition arguments to _describe itself.

              Once compdescribe has been called with either the -i or  the  -I
              option,  it  can be repeatedly called with the -g option and the
              names of four parameters  as  its  arguments.   This  will  step
              through  the  different  sets  of matches and store the value of
              compstate[list] in the first scalar, the options for compadd  in
              the  second  array,  the  matches  in  the  third array, and the
              strings to be displayed in the completion listing in the  fourth
              array.  The arrays may then be directly given to compadd to reg-
              ister the matches with the completion code.

              Used by the _path_files function to optimize  complex  recursive
              filename generation (globbing).  It does three things.  With the
              -p and -P options it builds the glob patterns to use,  including
              the  paths  already  handled and trying to optimize the patterns
              with respect to the prefix and suffix  from  the  line  and  the
              match  specification  currently  used.   The  -i option does the
              directory tests for the ignore-parents style and the  -r  option
              tests  if  a  component for some of the matches are equal to the
              string on the line and removes all  other  matches  if  that  is

              Used  by  the  _tags  function to implement the internals of the
              group-order style.  This only takes its arguments  as  names  of
              completion  groups and creates the groups for it (all six types:
              sorted and unsorted,  both  without  removing  duplicates,  with
              removing  all  duplicates  and  with removing consecutive dupli-

       compquote [ -p ] names ...
              There may be reasons to write completion functions that have  to
              add the matches using the -Q option to compadd and perform quot-
              ing themselves.  Instead of interpreting the first character  of
              the  all_quotes  key  of  the  compstate special association and
              using the q flag for parameter  expansions,  one  can  use  this
              builtin command.  The arguments are the names of scalar or array
              parameters and the values of  these  parameters  are  quoted  as
              needed  for  the  innermost  quoting level.  If the -p option is
              given, quoting is done as if there is  some  prefix  before  the
              values  of the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will not
              be quoted.

              The return status is non-zero in case of an error and zero  oth-

              These implement the internals of the tags mechanism.

              Like comparguments, but for the _values function.

       The  zsh/curses  module makes available one builtin command and various

       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw | eol | bot ]
       zcurses position targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin string
       zcurses border targetwin border
       zcurses attr targetwin [ [+|-]attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ [+|-]attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin [ on | off | [+|-]lines ]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam [ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | [+|-]motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
       zcurses resize height width [ endwin | nosave | endwin_nosave ]
              Manipulate curses windows.  All uses of this command  should  be
              bracketed  by  `zcurses  init'  to initialise use of curses, and
              `zcurses end' to end it; omitting `zcurses end'  can  cause  the
              terminal to be in an unwanted state.

              The  subcommand  addwin  creates  a window with nlines lines and
              ncols columns.  Its upper left corner  will  be  placed  at  row
              begin_y and column begin_x of the screen.  targetwin is a string
              and refers to the  name  of  a  window  that  is  not  currently
              assigned.   Note in particular the curses convention that verti-
              cal values appear before horizontal values.

              If addwin is given an existing window as the final argument, the
              new window is created as a subwindow of parentwin.  This differs
              from an ordinary new window in that the  memory  of  the  window
              contents is shared with the parent's memory.  Subwindows must be
              deleted before their parent.  Note that the coordinates of  sub-
              windows  are  relative  to  the  screen, not the parent, as with
              other windows.

              Use the subcommand  delwin  to  delete  a  window  created  with
              addwin.   Note  that end does not implicitly delete windows, and
              that delwin does not erase the screen image of the window.

              The window corresponding to the full visible  screen  is  called
              stdscr;  it  always  exists  after  `zcurses init' and cannot be
              delete with delwin.

              The subcommand refresh will refresh window  targetwin;  this  is
              necessary  to  make  any pending changes (such as characters you
              have prepared for output  with  char)  visible  on  the  screen.
              refresh  without an argument causes the screen to be cleared and
              redrawn.  If multiple windows are given, the screen  is  updated
              once at the end.

              The  subcommand  touch  marks  the targetwins listed as changed.
              This is necessary before refreshing windows if a window that was
              in front of another window (which may be stdscr) is deleted.

              The  subcommand  move  moves the cursor position in targetwin to
              new coordinates new_y  and  new_x.   Note  that  the  subcommand
              string  (but  not the subcommand char) advances the cursor posi-
              tion over the characters added.

              The subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and
              no  more  than one) of three options may be specified.  With the
              option redraw, in addition the next refresh  of  targetwin  will
              cause  the  screen to be cleared and repainted.  With the option
              eol, targetwin is only cleared to the end of the current  cursor
              line.   With  the option bot, targetwin is cleared to the end of
              the window, i.e everything to the right and below the cursor  is

              The subcommand position writes various positions associated with
              targetwin into the array named array.  These are, in order:
              -      The y and x coordinates of the cursor relative to the top
                     left of targetwin
              -      The  y  and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on
                     the screen
              -      The size of targetwin in y and x dimensions.

              Outputting characters and  strings  are  achieved  by  char  and
              string respectively.

              To draw a border around window targetwin, use border.  Note that
              the border is not  subsequently  handled  specially:   in  other
              words,  the  border  is simply a set of characters output at the
              edge of the window.  Hence it can be overwritten, can scroll off
              the window, etc.

              The  subcommand  attr  will  set targetwin's attributes or fore-
              ground/background color pair for any successive  character  out-
              put.   Each  attribute given on the line may be prepended by a +
              to set or a - to unset that attribute; + is assumed  if  absent.
              The  attributes  supported are blink, bold, dim, reverse, stand-
              out, and underline.

              Each fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as `fg_col on  bg_col')
              sets  the  foreground and background color for character output.
              The color default is sometimes available (in particular  if  the
              library  is  ncurses),  specifying  the foreground or background
              color  with  which  the  terminal  started.   The   color   pair
              default/default  is  always  available.  To  use more than the 8
              named colors (red,  green,  etc.)  construct  the  fg_col/bg_col
              pairs where fg_col and bg_col are decimal integers, e.g 128/200.
              The maximum color value is 254 if the terminal supports 256 col-

              bg overrides the color and other attributes of all characters in
              the window.  Its usual use is to set the  background  initially,
              but  it  will  overwrite the attributes of any characters at the
              time when it is called.  In addition to  the  arguments  allowed
              with  attr,  an argument @char specifies a character to be shown
              in otherwise blank areas of the window.  Owing to limitations of
              curses  this cannot be a multibyte character (use of ASCII char-
              acters only is recommended).  As the specified set of attributes
              override  the existing background, turning attributes off in the
              arguments is not useful, though this does not cause an error.

              The subcommand scroll can be used with on or off to  enabled  or
              disable  scrolling  of  a window when the cursor would otherwise
              move below the window due to typing or output.  It can  also  be
              used with a positive or negative integer to scroll the window up
              or down the given number of lines without changing  the  current
              cursor position (which therefore appears to move in the opposite
              direction relative to the  window).   In  the  second  case,  if
              scrolling is off it is temporarily turned on to allow the window
              to be scrolled.

              The subcommand input reads a single character  from  the  window
              without  echoing it back.  If param is supplied the character is
              assigned to the parameter param, else  it  is  assigned  to  the
              parameter REPLY.

              If  both param and kparam are supplied, the key is read in `key-
              pad' mode.  In this mode special keys such as function keys  and
              arrow  keys  return the name of the key in the parameter kparam.
              The key  names  are  the  macros  defined  in  the  curses.h  or
              ncurses.h  with the prefix `KEY_' removed; see also the descrip-
              tion of the parameter zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys  cause
              a  value  to  be set in param as before.  On a successful return
              only one of param or kparam contains  a  non-empty  string;  the
              other is set to an empty string.

              If  mparam  is  also  supplied,  input  attempts to handle mouse
              input.  This is only available with the ncurses  library;  mouse
              handling  can  be  detected  by  checking for the exit status of
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked
              (or  double-  or  triple-clicked,  or pressed or released with a
              configurable delay from being clicked) then kparam is set to the
              string  MOUSE,  and  mparam is set to an array consisting of the
              following elements:
              -      An identifier to discriminate  different  input  devices;
                     this is only rarely useful.
              -      The x, y and z coordinates of the mouse click relative to
                     the full screen, as three elements in  that  order  (i.e.
                     the  y coordinate is, unusually, after the x coordinate).
                     The z coordinate is only  available  for  a  few  unusual
                     input devices and is otherwise set to zero.
              -      Any events that occurred as separate items; usually there
                     will  be  just  one.   An  event  consists  of   PRESSED,
                     lowed immediately (in the same element) by the number  of
                     the button.
              -      If the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
              -      If the control key was pressed, the string CTRL.
              -      If the alt key was pressed, the string ALT.

              Not  all mouse events may be passed through to the terminal win-
              dow; most terminal emulators  handle  some  mouse  events  them-
              selves.   Note  that the ncurses manual implies that using input
              both with and without mouse handling may cause the mouse  cursor
              to appear and disappear.

              The  subcommand  mouse  can  be used to configure the use of the
              mouse.  There is no window argument; mouse options  are  global.
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments returns status 0 if mouse han-
              dling is possible, else status 1.  Otherwise, the possible argu-
              ments  (which  may  be combined on the same command line) are as
              follows.  delay num  sets  the  maximum  delay  in  milliseconds
              between  press  and  release events to be considered as a click;
              the value 0 disables click resolution, and the  default  is  one
              sixth  of  a  second.   motion proceeded by an optional `+' (the
              default) or - turns on or off reporting of mouse motion in addi-
              tion to clicks, presses and releases, which are always reported.
              However, it appears reports for mouse motion are  not  currently

              The  subcommand timeout specifies a timeout value for input from
              targetwin.  If intval is negative, `zcurses input' waits indefi-
              nitely  for  a  character  to be typed; this is the default.  If
              intval is zero, `zcurses input' returns immediately; if there is
              typeahead  it is returned, else no input is done and status 1 is
              returned.  If intval is positive, `zcurses input'  waits  intval
              milliseconds  for  input and if there is none at the end of that
              period returns status 1.

              The subcommand querychar queries the character  at  the  current
              cursor  position.   The  return  values  are stored in the array
              named param if supplied, else in the  array  reply.   The  first
              value  is  the  character (which may be a multibyte character if
              the system supports them); the second is the color pair  in  the
              usual  fg_col/bg_col  notation,  or 0 if color is not supported.
              Any attributes other than color that apply to the character,  as
              set with the subcommand attr, appear as additional elements.

              The  subcommand  resize  resizes stdscr and all windows to given
              dimensions (windows that stick out from the new  dimensions  are
              resized  down).  The  underlying  curses  extension (resize_term
              call) can be unavailable. To verify,  zeroes  can  be  used  for
              height  and  width.  If  the  result  of  the  subcommand  is 0,
              resize_term is available (2 otherwise). Tests show that resizing
              can  be normally accomplished by calling zcurses end and zcurses
              refresh. The resize subcommand is provided for versatility. Mul-
              tiple  system  configurations  have been checked and zcurses end
              and zcurses refresh are still needed for correct terminal  state
              after  resize.  To invoke them with resize, use endwin argument.
              Using nosave argument will cause new terminal state  to  not  be
              saved internally by zcurses. This is also provided for versatil-
              ity and should normally be not needed.

              Readonly integer.  The maximum number  of  colors  the  terminal
              supports.   This  value is initialised by the curses library and
              is not available until the first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly  integer.   The   maximum   number   of   color   pairs
              fg_col/bg_col  that  may  be defined in `zcurses attr' commands;
              note this limit applies to all color pairs that have  been  used
              whether  or  not  they are currently active.  This value is ini-
              tialised by the curses library and is not  available  until  the
              first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly  array.  The attributes supported by zsh/curses; avail-
              able as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly array.  The colors supported by  zsh/curses;  available
              as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly  array.   The values that may be returned in the second
              parameter supplied to `zcurses input' in the order in which they
              are  defined  internally  by  curses.  Not all function keys are
              listed, only F0; curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

              Readonly array.  The current list of windows, i.e.  all  windows
              that  have  been  created  with `zcurses addwin' and not removed
              with `zcurses delwin'.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime [ -s scalar ] format [ epochtime [ nanoseconds ] ]
       strftime -r [ -q ] [ -s scalar ] format timestring
              Output the date in the format specified.  With no epochtime, the
              current  system  date/time is used; optionally, epochtime may be
              used to specify the number  of  seconds  since  the  epoch,  and
              nanoseconds  may  additionally  be used to specify the number of
              nanoseconds past the second (otherwise that number is assumed to
              be  0).   See  strftime(3)  for  details.   The  zsh  extensions
              described in the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES  in  zsh-
              misc(1) are also available.

              -q     Run  quietly;  suppress  printing  of  all error messages
                     described below.  Errors for invalid epochtime values are
                     always printed.

              -r     With  the  option  -r  (reverse), use format to parse the
                     input string timestring and output the number of  seconds
                     since  the epoch at which the time occurred.  The parsing
                     is implemented by the system function strptime; see strp-
                     time(3).   This  means that zsh format extensions are not
                     available, but for reverse lookup they are not required.

                     In most implementations of strftime any timezone  in  the
                     timestring  is ignored and the local timezone declared by
                     the TZ environment variable is used; other parameters are
                     set to zero if not present.

                     If  timestring  does not match format the command returns
                     status 1 and prints  an  error  message.   If  timestring
                     matches  format but not all characters in timestring were
                     used, the conversion succeeds but also  prints  an  error

                     If  either  of the system functions strptime or mktime is
                     not available, status 2 is returned and an error  message
                     is printed.

              -s scalar
                     Assign the date string (or epoch time in seconds if -r is
                     given) to scalar instead of printing it.

              Note that depending on the system's declared integral time type,
              strftime  may  produce incorrect results for epoch times greater
              than 2147483647 which corresponds to 2038-01-19 03:14:07 +0000.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available  several  parameters;  all  are

              A  floating point value representing the number of seconds since
              the epoch.  The notional  accuracy  is  to  nanoseconds  if  the
              clock_gettime  call  is available and to microseconds otherwise,
              but in practice the range of double precision floating point and
              shell scheduling latencies may be significant effects.

              An  integer  value  representing the number of seconds since the

              An array value containing the number of seconds since the  epoch
              in  the  first  element  and the remainder of the time since the
              epoch in nanoseconds in the second element.  To ensure  the  two
              elements  are consistent the array should be copied or otherwise
              referenced as a single substitution before the values are  used.
              The following idiom may be used:

                     for secs nsecs in $epochtime; do

       The zsh/db/gdbm module is used to create "tied" associative arrays that
       interface to database files.  If the GDBM interface is  not  available,
       the  builtins defined by this module will report an error.  This module
       is also intended as a prototype for creating additional database inter-
       faces,  so  the  ztie  builtin may move to a more generic module in the

       The builtins in this module are:

       ztie -d db/gdbm -f filename [ -r ] arrayname
              Open the GDBM database identified by filename and,  if  success-
              ful,  create the associative array arrayname linked to the file.
              To create a local  tied  array,  the  parameter  must  first  be
              declared, so commands similar to the following would be executed
              inside a function scope:

                     local -A sampledb
                     ztie -d db/gdbm -f sample.gdbm sampledb

              The -r option opens the database file for reading only, creating
              a  parameter  with the readonly attribute.  Without this option,
              using `ztie' on a file for which the user does  not  have  write
              permission  is  an  error.   If writable, the database is opened
              synchronously so fields changed  in  arrayname  are  immediately
              written to filename.

              Changes  to  the file modes filename after it has been opened do
              not alter the state of arrayname,  but  `typeset  -r  arrayname'
              works as expected.

       zuntie [ -u ] arrayname ...
              Close  the GDBM database associated with each arrayname and then
              unset the parameter.  The -u option forces an unset  of  parame-
              ters made readonly with `ztie -r'.

              This  happens automatically if the parameter is explicitly unset
              or its local scope (function) ends.  Note that a readonly param-
              eter  may  not  be  explicitly unset, so the only way to unset a
              global parameter created with `ztie -r' is to use `zuntie -u'.

       zgdbmpath parametername
              Put path to database file assigned to parametername  into  REPLY

              Array holding names of all tied parameters.

       The  fields of an associative array tied to GDBM are neither cached nor
       otherwise stored in memory, they are read from or written to the  data-
       base  on  each  reference.  Thus, for example, the values in a readonly
       array may be changed by a second writer of the same database file.

       The zsh/deltochar module makes available two ZLE functions:

              Read a character from the keyboard, and delete from  the  cursor
              position  up to and including the next (or, with repeat count n,
              the nth) instance of that  character.   Negative  repeat  counts
              mean delete backwards.

              This  behaves  like delete-to-char, except that the final occur-
              rence of the character itself is not deleted.

       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags ] [ args ... ]
              Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The purpose of the module is to serve as an example of how to  write  a

       The  zsh/files  module  makes  available  some common commands for file
       manipulation as builtins; these commands are probably  not  needed  for
       many  normal  situations but can be useful in emergency recovery situa-
       tions with constrained resources.  The commands do  not  implement  all
       features now required by relevant standards committees.

       For  all commands, a variant beginning zf_ is also available and loaded
       automatically.  Using the features capability of zmodload will let  you
       load  only  those names you want.  Note that it's possible to load only
       the builtins with zsh-specific names using the following command:

              zmodload -m -F zsh/files b:zf_\*

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
              Changes group of files specified.  This is equivalent  to  chown
              with a user-spec argument of `:group'.

       chmod [ -Rs ] mode filename ...
              Changes mode of files specified.

              The specified mode must be in octal.

              The  -R option causes chmod to recursively descend into directo-
              ries, changing the mode of all  files  in  the  directory  after
              changing the mode of the directory itself.

              The  -s  option  is  a zsh extension to chmod functionality.  It
              enables paranoid behaviour, intended to avoid security  problems
              involving  a chmod being tricked into affecting files other than
              the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow symbolic links,  so
              that  (for example) ``chmod 600 /tmp/foo/passwd'' can't acciden-
              tally chmod /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens  to  be  a  link  to
              /etc.  It will also check where it is after leaving directories,
              so that a recursive chmod of a deep directory tree can't end  up
              recursively chmoding /usr as a result of directories being moved
              up the tree.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec filename ...
              Changes ownership and group of files specified.

              The user-spec can be in four forms:

              user   change owner to user; do not change group
              user:: change owner to user; do not change group
              user:  change owner to user;  change  group  to  user's  primary
                     change owner to user; change group to group
              :group do not change owner; change group to group

              In each case, the `:' may instead be a `.'.  The rule is that if
              there is a `:' then the separator is `:', otherwise if there  is
              a  `.'  then the separator is `.', otherwise there is no separa-

              Each of user and group may be either a username (or group  name,
              as appropriate) or a decimal user ID (group ID).  Interpretation
              as a name takes precedence, if there is an all-numeric  username
              (or group name).

              If  the target is a symbolic link, the -h option causes chown to
              set the ownership of the link instead of its target.

              The -R option causes chown to recursively descend into  directo-
              ries, changing the ownership of all files in the directory after
              changing the ownership of the directory itself.

              The -s option is a zsh extension  to  chown  functionality.   It
              enables  paranoid behaviour, intended to avoid security problems
              involving a chown being tricked into affecting files other  than
              the  ones intended.  It will refuse to follow symbolic links, so
              that (for example) ``chown luser /tmp/foo/passwd''  can't  acci-
              dentally  chown  /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a link to
              /etc.  It will also check where it is after leaving directories,
              so  that a recursive chown of a deep directory tree can't end up
              recursively chowning /usr as a result of directories being moved
              up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
              Creates  hard (or, with -s, symbolic) links.  In the first form,
              the specified destination is created, as a link to the specified
              filename.  In the second form, each of the filenames is taken in
              turn, and linked to a pathname in the specified  directory  that
              has the same last pathname component.

              Normally,  ln  will not attempt to create hard links to directo-
              ries.  This check can be overridden using the -d option.   Typi-
              cally  only the super-user can actually succeed in creating hard
              links to directories.  This does not apply to symbolic links  in
              any case.

              By  default, existing files cannot be replaced by links.  The -i
              option causes the user to be queried  about  replacing  existing
              files.   The  -f  option  causes  existing  files to be silently
              deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

              The -h and -n options are identical and both exist for  compati-
              bility;  either  one  indicates  that if the target is a symlink
              then it should not be dereferenced.  Typically this is  used  in
              combination  with  -sf  so  that if an existing link points to a
              directory then it will be removed, instead of followed.  If this
              option  is used with multiple filenames and the target is a sym-
              bolic link pointing to a directory then the result is an error.

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ] dir ...
              Creates directories.  With the -p  option,  non-existing  parent
              directories are first created if necessary, and there will be no
              complaint if the directory already exists.  The -m option can be
              used  to  specify  (in  octal) a set of file permissions for the
              created directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by the  current
              umask (see umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi ] filename dest
       mv [ -fi ] filename ... dir
              Moves files.  In the first form, the specified filename is moved
              to the specified destination.  In the second form, each  of  the
              filenames is taken in turn, and moved to a pathname in the spec-
              ified directory that has the same last pathname component.

              By default, the user will be queried before replacing  any  file
              that  the  user  cannot  write  to,  but  writable files will be
              silently removed.  The -i option causes the user to  be  queried
              about  replacing  any  existing files.  The -f option causes any
              existing files to be silently  deleted,  without  querying.   -f
              takes precedence.

              Note  that this mv will not move files across devices.  Histori-
              cal versions of mv, when actual  renaming  is  impossible,  fall
              back  on  copying  and  removing  files;  if  this  behaviour is
              desired, use cp and rm manually.  This may change  in  a  future

       rm [ -dfiRrs ] filename ...
              Removes files and directories specified.

              Normally,  rm will not remove directories (except with the -R or
              -r options).  The -d option causes rm to try  removing  directo-
              ries  with  unlink  (see  unlink(2)),  the  same method used for
              files.  Typically only the super-user can  actually  succeed  in
              unlinking  directories in this way.  -d takes precedence over -R
              and -r.

              By default, the user will be queried before  removing  any  file
              that  the  user  cannot  write  to,  but  writable files will be
              silently removed.  The -i option causes the user to  be  queried
              about  removing  any  files.   The  -f option causes files to be
              silently deleted, without querying,  and  suppresses  all  error
              indications.  -f takes precedence.

              The  -R  and  -r  options  cause  rm to recursively descend into
              directories, deleting all files in the directory before removing
              the directory with the rmdir system call (see rmdir(2)).

              The  -s  option  is  a  zsh  extension  to rm functionality.  It
              enables paranoid behaviour, intended to  avoid  common  security
              problems  involving  a  root-run  rm being tricked into removing
              files other than the ones intended.  It will  refuse  to  follow
              symbolic  links,  so  that  (for example) ``rm /tmp/foo/passwd''
              can't accidentally remove /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to  be
              a  link  to  /etc.  It will also check where it is after leaving
              directories, so that a recursive removal  of  a  deep  directory
              tree  can't  end  up  recursively  removing  /usr as a result of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
              Removes empty directories specified.

       sync   Calls the system call of the  same  name  (see  sync(2)),  which
              flushes  dirty  buffers to disk.  It might return before the I/O
              has actually been completed.

       The zsh/langinfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps langinfo elements to  their  val-

              Your implementation may support a number of the following keys:

              NOEXPR,  CRNCYSTR,  ABDAY_{1..7},   DAY_{1..7},   ABMON_{1..12},
              MON_{1..12},   T_FMT_AMPM,   AM_STR,   PM_STR,  ERA,  ERA_D_FMT,
              ERA_D_T_FMT, ERA_T_FMT, ALT_DIGITS

       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter
       of the same name.

              This  associative  array  takes  as keys the names of files; the
              resulting value is the  content  of  the  file.   The  value  is
              treated  identically  to any other text coming from a parameter.
              The value may also be assigned to, in which  case  the  file  in
              question  is  written (whether or not it originally existed); or
              an element may be unset, which will delete the file in question.
              For  example, `vared mapfile[myfile]' works as expected, editing
              the file `myfile'.

              When the array is accessed as a whole, the keys are the names of
              files  in  the  current  directory, and the values are empty (to
              save a huge overhead in memory).   Thus  ${(k)mapfile}  has  the
              same  effect  as  the  glob operator *(D), since files beginning
              with a dot are not special.  Care must be taken with expressions
              such  as  rm  ${(k)mapfile}, which will delete every file in the
              current directory without the usual `rm *' test.

              The parameter mapfile may be made read-only; in that case, files
              referenced may not be written or deleted.

              A  file  may  conveniently be read into an array as one line per
              element with the form `array=("${(f@)mapfile[filename]}")'.  The
              double  quotes  and the `@' are necessary to prevent empty lines
              from being removed.  Note that if the file ends with a  newline,
              the  shell  will split on the final newline, generating an addi-
              tional  empty  field;  this   can   be   suppressed   by   using

       Although  reading  and  writing  of the file in question is efficiently
       handled, zsh's internal memory management may be  arbitrarily  baroque;
       however,  mapfile  is  usually  very  much more efficient than anything
       involving a loop.  Note in particular that the whole  contents  of  the
       file  will  always  reside physically in memory when accessed (possibly
       multiple times, due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In
       particular,  this  means  handling  of sufficiently long files (greater
       than the machine's swap space, or than the range of the  pointer  type)
       will be incorrect.

       No  errors  are  printed  or  flagged  for non-existent, unreadable, or
       unwritable files, as the parameter mechanism is too low  in  the  shell
       execution hierarchy to make this convenient.

       It  is  unfortunate that the mechanism for loading modules does not yet
       allow the user to specify the name of the shell parameter to  be  given
       the special behaviour.

       The  zsh/mathfunc  module  provides standard mathematical functions for
       use when evaluating mathematical formulae.  The syntax agrees with nor-
       mal C and FORTRAN conventions, for example,

              (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine of 0.3 to the parameter f.

       Most  functions  take  floating  point  arguments and return a floating
       point value.  However, any necessary conversions  from  or  to  integer
       type  will  be  performed  automatically by the shell.  Apart from atan
       with a second argument and the abs, int and float functions, all  func-
       tions  behave as noted in the manual page for the corresponding C func-
       tion, except that any arguments out of range for the function in  ques-
       tion will be detected by the shell and an error reported.

       The  following  functions  take a single floating point argument: acos,
       acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, cbrt, ceil, cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp,
       expm1,  fabs,  floor,  gamma,  j0, j1, lgamma, log, log10, log1p, log2,
       logb, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan,  tanh,  y0,  y1.   The  atan  function  can
       optionally  take a second argument, in which case it behaves like the C
       function atan2.  The ilogb function takes a single floating point argu-
       ment, but returns an integer.

       The  function signgam takes no arguments, and returns an integer, which
       is the C variable of the same name, as  described  in  gamma(3).   Note
       that  it  is therefore only useful immediately after a call to gamma or
       lgamma.  Note also that `signgam()' and `signgam' are distinct  expres-

       The  functions  min, max, and sum are defined not in this module but in
       the zmathfunc autoloadable function, described in the  section  `Mathe-
       matical Functions' in zshcontrib(1).

       The  following  functions  take two floating point arguments: copysign,
       fmod, hypot, nextafter.

       The following take an integer first argument and a floating point  sec-
       ond argument: jn, yn.

       The  following take a floating point first argument and an integer sec-
       ond argument: ldexp, scalb.

       The function abs does not convert the type of its single  argument;  it
       returns  the  absolute  value  of  either a floating point number or an
       integer.  The functions float and int convert their  arguments  into  a
       floating point or integer value (by truncation) respectively.

       Note  that  the C pow function is available in ordinary math evaluation
       as the `**' operator and is not provided here.

       The function rand48 is available if your system's mathematical  library
       has the function erand48(3).  It returns a pseudo-random floating point
       number between 0 and 1.  It takes a single string optional argument.

       If the argument is not present, the random number seed  is  initialised
       by  three calls to the rand(3) function --- this produces the same ran-
       dom numbers as the next three values of $RANDOM.

       If the argument is present, it gives the name  of  a  scalar  parameter
       where  the  current  random  number  seed will be stored.  On the first
       call, the value must contain at least twelve  hexadecimal  digits  (the
       remainder of the string is ignored), or the seed will be initialised in
       the same manner as for a call to rand48 with no  argument.   Subsequent
       calls  to  rand48(param)  will  then maintain the seed in the parameter
       param as a string of twelve hexadecimal digits, with no base signifier.
       The  random  number  sequences  for different parameters are completely
       independent, and are also independent from that used by calls to rand48
       with no argument.

       For example, consider

              print $(( rand48(seed) ))
              print $(( rand48() ))
              print $(( rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming  $seed  does  not  exist,  it will be initialised by the first
       call.  In the second call, the default seed is initialised; note,  how-
       ever,  that  because of the properties of rand() there is a correlation
       between the seeds used for the two initialisations, so for more  secure
       uses,  you  should  generate  your  own  12-byte  seed.  The third call
       returns to the same sequence of random numbers used in the first  call,
       unaffected by the intervening rand48().

       The  zsh/nearcolor  module  replaces  colours specified as hex triplets
       with the nearest colour in the 88  or  256  colour  palettes  that  are
       widely  used  by  terminal  emulators.   By default, 24-bit true colour
       escape codes  are  generated  when  colours  are  specified  using  hex
       triplets.   These  are  not supported by all terminals.  The purpose of
       this module is to make it easier to define colour preferences in a form
       that can work across a range of terminal emulators.

       Aside  from  the  default colour, the ANSI standard for terminal escape
       codes provides for eight colours. The bright attribute brings  this  to
       sixteen. These basic colours are commonly used in terminal applications
       due to being widely supported. Expanded 88 and 256 colour palettes  are
       also  common and, while the first sixteen colours vary somewhat between
       terminals and configurations, these add a generally consistent and pre-
       dictable set of colours.

       In  order  to use the zsh/nearcolor module, it only needs to be loaded.
       Thereafter, whenever a colour is specified using a hex triplet, it will
       be  compared against each of the available colours and the closest will
       be selected. The first  sixteen  colours  are  never  matched  in  this
       process due to being unpredictable.

       It  isn't  possible  to  reliably detect support for true colour in the
       terminal emulator. It is therefore recommended to be selective in load-
       ing  the  zsh/nearcolor  module.  For example, the following checks the
       COLORTERM environment variable:

              [[ $COLORTERM = *(24bit|truecolor)* ]] || zmodload zsh/nearcolor

       Note that some terminals accept the true color  escape  codes  but  map
       them  internally  to  a more limited palette in a similar manner to the
       zsh/nearcolor module.

       The zsh/newuser module is loaded at boot if it is  available,  the  RCS
       option is set, and the PRIVILEGED option is not set (all three are true
       by default).  This takes place immediately after commands in the global
       zshenv  file  (typically  /etc/zshenv), if any, have been executed.  If
       the module is not available it is silently ignored by  the  shell;  the
       module  may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator if
       it is not required.

       On loading, the module tests if any  of  the  start-up  files  .zshenv,
       .zprofile,  .zshrc or .zlogin exist in the directory given by the envi-
       ronment variable ZDOTDIR, or the user's home directory if that  is  not
       set.   The test is not performed and the module halts processing if the
       shell was in an emulation mode (i.e. had been  invoked  as  some  other
       shell than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the
       file newuser first in a sitewide directory, usually the  parent  direc-
       tory of the site-functions directory, and if that is not found the mod-
       ule searches in a version-specific directory, usually the parent of the
       functions  directory  containing  version-specific  functions.   (These
       directories  can  be  configured  when   zsh   is   built   using   the
       --enable-site-scriptdir=dir and --enable-scriptdir=dir flags to config-
       ure,  respectively;  the  defaults  are   prefix/share/zsh   and   pre-
       fix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If  the file newuser is found, it is then sourced in the same manner as
       a start-up file.  The file is  expected  to  contain  code  to  install
       start-up  files for the user, however any valid shell code will be exe-

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note that it is possible to achieve exactly  the  same  effect  as  the
       zsh/newuser  module  by  adding code to /etc/zshenv.  The module exists
       simply to allow the shell to make arrangements for  new  users  without
       the need for intervention by package maintainers and system administra-

       The  script  supplied  with  the  module  invokes  the  shell  function
       zsh-newuser-install.   This may be invoked directly by the user even if
       the zsh/newuser module is disabled.  Note, however, that if the  module
       is  not installed the function will not be installed either.  The func-
       tion is documented in the section User Configuration Functions in  zsh-

       The  zsh/parameter  module  gives  access  to some of the internal hash
       tables used by the shell by defining some special parameters.

              The keys for this associative array are the names of the options
              that  can  be  set  and  unset  using  the  setopt  and unsetopt
              builtins. The value of each key is either the string on  if  the
              option  is  currently  set,  or  the string off if the option is
              unset.  Setting a key to one of these strings is like setting or
              unsetting  the  option,  respectively.  Unsetting  a key in this
              array is like setting it to the value off.

              This array gives access to the command hash table. The keys  are
              the  names of external commands, the values are the pathnames of
              the files that would be  executed  when  the  command  would  be
              invoked. Setting a key in this array defines a new entry in this
              table in the same way as with the hash builtin. Unsetting a  key
              as  in  `unset  "commands[foo]"' removes the entry for the given
              key from the command hash table.

              This associative array maps names of enabled functions to  their
              definitions.  Setting  a  key  in it is like defining a function
              with the name given by the key and the body given by the  value.
              Unsetting a key removes the definition for the function named by
              the key.

              Like functions but for disabled functions.

              This readonly associative array maps names of enabled  functions
              to the name of the file containing the source of the function.

              For  an  autoloaded  function  that  has already been loaded, or
              marked for autoload with an absolute path, or that has  had  its
              path  resolved  with  `functions -r', this is the file found for
              autoloading, resolved to an absolute path.

              For a function defined within the body of a  script  or  sourced
              file,  this is the name of that file.  In this case, this is the
              exact path originally used to that file, which may be a relative

              For  any other function, including any defined at an interactive
              prompt or an autoload function  whose  path  has  not  yet  been
              resolved,  this  is the empty string.  However, the hash element
              is reported as defined just so long as the function is  present:
              the keys to this hash are the same as those to $functions.

              Like functions_source but for disabled functions.

              This  associative array gives information about the builtin com-
              mands currently enabled. The keys are the names of  the  builtin
              commands  and the values are either `undefined' for builtin com-
              mands that will automatically be loaded from a module if invoked
              or `defined' for builtin commands that are already loaded.

              Like builtins but for disabled builtin commands.

              This array contains the enabled reserved words.

              Like reswords but for disabled reserved words.

              This array contains the enabled pattern characters.

              Like patchars but for disabled pattern characters.

              This  maps the names of the regular aliases currently enabled to
              their expansions.

              Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

              Like aliases, but for global aliases.

              Like galiases but for disabled global aliases.

              Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

              Like saliases but for disabled suffix aliases.

              The keys in this associative array are the names of the  parame-
              ters  currently  defined.  The values are strings describing the
              type of the parameter, in the same format used by the t  parame-
              ter  flag,  see  zshexpn(1) .  Setting or unsetting keys in this
              array is not possible.

              An associative array giving information about modules. The  keys
              are   the   names  of  the  modules  loaded,  registered  to  be
              autoloaded, or aliased. The value says  which  state  the  named
              module  is  in and is one of the strings `loaded', `autoloaded',
              or `alias:name', where name is the name the  module  is  aliased

              Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

              A normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note
              that the output of the dirs builtin command  includes  one  more
              directory, the current working directory.

              This  associative  array  maps history event numbers to the full
              history lines.  Although  it  is  presented  as  an  associative
              array,  the array of all values (${history[@]}) is guaranteed to
              be returned in order from most recent to oldest  history  event,
              that is, by decreasing history event number.

              A  special  array  containing  the  words stored in the history.
              These also appear in most to least recent order.

              This associative array maps job numbers to the directories  from
              which  the  job was started (which may not be the current direc-
              tory of the job).

              The keys of the associative arrays are usually  valid  job  num-
              bers,  and  these  are  the  values  output  with,  for example,
              ${(k)jobdirs}.  Non-numeric job  references  may  be  used  when
              looking  up  a  value; for example, ${jobdirs[%+]} refers to the
              current job.

              This associative array maps job numbers to the texts of the com-
              mand lines that were used to start the jobs.

              Handling  of  the  keys of the associative array is as described
              for jobdirs above.

              This associative array gives information about the states of the
              jobs  currently known. The keys are the job numbers and the val-
              ues are strings of the form  `job-state:mark:pid=state...'.  The
              job-state  gives the state the whole job is currently in, one of
              `running', `suspended', or `done'. The mark is `+' for the  cur-
              rent  job, `-' for the previous job and empty otherwise. This is
              followed by one `:pid=state' for every process in the  job.  The
              pids are, of course, the process IDs and the state describes the
              state of that process.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array  is  as  described
              for jobdirs above.

              This  associative  array  maps the names of named directories to
              the pathnames they stand for.

              This associative array maps user names to the pathnames of their
              home directories.

              This  associative array maps names of system groups of which the
              current user is a member to the corresponding group identifiers.
              The  contents  are  the same as the groups output by the id com-

              This array contains the absolute line numbers and  corresponding
              file  names  for  the  point where the current function, sourced
              file, or (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval command was  called.   The
              array  is  of  the same length as funcsourcetrace and functrace,
              but differs from funcsourcetrace in that the line and  file  are
              the point of call, not the point of definition, and differs from
              functrace in that all values are absolute line numbers in files,
              rather than relative to the start of a function, if any.

              This  array  contains  the  file  names  and line numbers of the
              points where the functions, sourced files, and  (if  EVAL_LINENO
              is  set)  eval  commands  currently being executed were defined.
              The line number is the line where the `function name'  or  `name
              ()'  started.   In  the case of an autoloaded function  the line
              number is reported as zero.  The format of each element is file-

              For functions autoloaded from a file in native zsh format, where
              only the body of the function occurs in the file, or  for  files
              that have been executed by the source or `.' builtins, the trace
              information is shown as filename:0, since the entire file is the
              definition.   The  source  file  name is resolved to an absolute
              path when the function is loaded or the  path  to  it  otherwise

              Most  users  will  be interested in the information in the func-
              filetrace array instead.

              This array contains the names of the functions,  sourced  files,
              and  (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval commands. currently being exe-
              cuted. The first element is the name of the function  using  the

              The  standard shell array zsh_eval_context can be used to deter-
              mine the type of shell construct being executed at  each  depth:
              note,  however,  that  is  in  the opposite order, with the most
              recent item last, and it is more detailed, for example including
              an entry for toplevel, the main shell code being executed either
              interactively or from a script, which is not present  in  $func-

              This  array  contains  the names and line numbers of the callers
              corresponding to the functions currently  being  executed.   The
              format  of  each element is name:lineno.  Callers are also shown
              for sourced files; the caller is the point where the  source  or
              `.' command was executed.

       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
              Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

              Option -a will force the pattern to be anchored.  Option -i will
              compile a case-insensitive pattern.  Option -m  will  compile  a
              multi-line  pattern; that is, ^ and $ will match newlines within
              the pattern.   Option  -x  will  compile  an  extended  pattern,
              wherein  whitespace and # comments are ignored.  Option -s makes
              the dot metacharacter match all characters, including those that
              indicate newline.

              Studies  the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in faster

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ] [ -n offset ] [ -b ] string
              Returns successfully if string matches  the  previously-compiled

              Upon  successful  match,  if  the expression captures substrings
              within parentheses, pcre_match will set the array match to those
              substrings, unless the -a option is given, in which case it will
              set the array arr.  Similarly, the variable MATCH will be set to
              the  entire  matched portion of the string, unless the -v option
              is given, in which case the variable var will be set.  No  vari-
              ables  are altered if there is no successful match.  A -n option
              starts searching for a match from the byte  offset  position  in
              string.   If  the -b option is given, the variable ZPCRE_OP will
              be set to an offset pair string, representing  the  byte  offset
              positions  of the entire matched portion within the string.  For
              example, a ZPCRE_OP set to "32 45" indicates  that  the  matched
              portion  began  on  byte  offset 32 and ended on byte offset 44.
              Here, byte offset position 45 is the position directly after the
              matched portion.  Keep in mind that the byte position isn't nec-
              essarily the same as the character position when  UTF-8  charac-
              ters  are involved.  Consequently, the byte offset positions are
              only to be relied on in the context of using them for subsequent
              searches  on  string, using an offset position as an argument to
              the -n option.  This is mostly used to implement the  "find  all
              non-overlapping matches" functionality.

              A simple example of "find all non-overlapping matches":

                     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
                     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
                     pcre_match -b -- $string
                     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
                         pcre_match -b -n $b[2] -- $string
                     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:

       expr -pcre-match pcre
              Matches a string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

              For example,

                     [[ "$text" -pcre-match ^d+$ ]] &&
                     print text variable contains only "d's".

              If the REMATCH_PCRE option is set, the =~ operator is equivalent
              to -pcre-match, and the NO_CASE_MATCH option may be used.   Note
              that  NO_CASE_MATCH  never  applies  to  the pcre_match builtin,
              instead use the -i switch of pcre_compile.

       The zsh/param/private module is used to create parameters  whose  scope
       is  limited  to  the  current function body, and not to other functions
       called by the current function.

       This module provides a single autoloaded builtin:

       private [ {+|-}AHUahlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              The private builtin accepts all the same options  and  arguments
              as  local  (zshbuiltins(1))  except  for  the `-T' option.  Tied
              parameters may not be made private.

              If used at the top level (outside  a  function  scope),  private
              creates  a  normal  parameter  in  the same manner as declare or
              typeset.  A warning about this is printed if  WARN_CREATE_GLOBAL
              is  set  (zshoptions(1)).  Used inside a function scope, private
              creates a local parameter similar to one  declared  with  local,
              except having special properties noted below.

              Special  parameters  which  expose  or manipulate internal shell
              state, such as ARGC,  argv,  COLUMNS,  LINES,  UID,  EUID,  IFS,
              PROMPT, RANDOM, SECONDS, etc., cannot be made private unless the
              `-h' option is used to hide the special meaning of  the  parame-
              ter.  This may change in the future.

       As  with  other  typeset  equivalents,  private is both a builtin and a
       reserved word, so arrays may be assigned with parenthesized  word  list
       name=(value...)  syntax.   However,  the reserved word `private' is not
       available until zsh/param/private is loaded, so care must be taken with
       order  of execution and parsing for function definitions which use pri-
       vate.  To compensate for this, the module also adds the option `-P'  to
       the `local' builtin to declare private parameters.

       For  example,  this construction fails if zsh/param/private has not yet
       been loaded when `bad_declaration' is defined:
              bad_declaration() {
                zmodload zsh/param/private
                private array=( one two three )

       This construction works because local is already  a  keyword,  and  the
       module is loaded before the statement is executed:
              good_declaration() {
                zmodload zsh/param/private
                local -P array=( one two three )

       The following is usable in scripts but may have trouble with autoload:
              zmodload zsh/param/private
              iffy_declaration() {
                private array=( one two three )

       The  private builtin may always be used with scalar assignments and for
       declarations without assignments.

       Parameters declared with private have the following properties:

       o      Within the function body where it  is  declared,  the  parameter
              behaves  as  a  local, except as noted above for tied or special

       o      The type of a parameter declared private cannot  be  changed  in
              the scope where it was declared, even if the parameter is unset.
              Thus an array cannot be assigned to a private scalar, etc.

       o      Within any other function called by the declaring function,  the
              private  parameter  does  NOT  hide other parameters of the same
              name, so for example a global parameter of the same name is vis-
              ible  and  may  be  assigned  or  unset.  This includes calls to
              anonymous functions,  although  that  may  also  change  in  the

       o      An  exported  private remains in the environment of inner scopes
              but appears unset for the current shell in those scopes.  Gener-
              ally, exporting private parameters should be avoided.

       Note  that  this differs from the static scope defined by compiled lan-
       guages derived from C, in that the a new call to the same function cre-
       ates a new scope, i.e., the parameter is still associated with the call
       stack rather than with the function definition.  It  differs  from  ksh
       `typeset  -S'  because  the  syntax  used to define the function has no
       bearing on whether the parameter scope is respected.

       The zsh/regex module makes available the following test condition:

       expr -regex-match regex
              Matches a string against a POSIX  extended  regular  expression.
              On successful match, matched portion of the string will normally
              be placed in the MATCH variable.  If  there  are  any  capturing
              parentheses within the regex, then the match array variable will
              contain those.  If the match is not successful, then  the  vari-
              ables will not be altered.

              For example,

                     [[ alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]] &&
                     print -l $MATCH X $match

              If the option REMATCH_PCRE is not set, then the =~ operator will
              automatically load this module as needed  and  will  invoke  the
              -regex-match operator.

              If  BASH_REMATCH is set, then the array BASH_REMATCH will be set
              instead of MATCH and match.

       The zsh/sched module makes available one builtin command and one param-

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss] command ...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
              Make an entry in the scheduled list of commands to execute.  The
              time may be specified in either absolute or relative  time,  and
              either as hours, minutes and (optionally) seconds separated by a
              colon, or seconds alone.  An absolute number  of  seconds  indi-
              cates  the time since the epoch (1970/01/01 00:00); this is use-
              ful in combination with the features in the zsh/datetime module,
              see the zsh/datetime module entry in zshmodules(1).

              With  no  arguments,  prints the list of scheduled commands.  If
              the scheduled command has the -o flag set, this is shown at  the
              start of the command.

              With the argument `-item', removes the given item from the list.
              The numbering of the list is continuous and entries are in  time
              order,  so  the  numbering  can change when entries are added or

              Commands are executed either immediately  before  a  prompt,  or
              while the shell's line editor is waiting for input.  In the lat-
              ter case it is useful to be able to produce output that does not
              interfere  with  the line being edited.  Providing the option -o
              causes the shell to clear the command line before the event  and
              redraw  it  afterwards.   This should be used with any scheduled
              event that produces visible output to the terminal;  it  is  not
              needed,  for example, with output that updates a terminal emula-
              tor's title bar.

              To effect changes to the editor buffer when an  event  executes,
              use the `zle' command with no arguments to test whether the edi-
              tor is active, and if it is, then use `zle widget' to access the
              editor via the named widget.

              The  sched  builtin  is  not  made available by default when the
              shell starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be  made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/sched b:sched'.

              A  readonly  array  corresponding to the events scheduled by the
              sched builtin.  The indices of the array correspond to the  num-
              bers  shown  when  sched is run with no arguments (provided that
              the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set).  The value of the array  con-
              sists  of the scheduled time in seconds since the epoch (see the
              section `The zsh/datetime Module' for facilities for using  this
              number), followed by a colon, followed by any options (which may
              be empty but will be preceded by a `-' otherwise), followed by a
              colon, followed by the command to be executed.

              The  sched  builtin  should be used for manipulating the events.
              Note that this will have an immediate effect on the contents  of
              the array, so that indices may become invalid.

       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              zsocket  is  implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell
              command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              Open a new Unix domain connection to filename.  The shell param-
              eter  REPLY  will  be set to the file descriptor associated with
              that connection.  Currently, only stream  connections  are  sup-

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

              File descriptors can be closed with normal shell syntax when  no
              longer needed, for example:

                     exec {REPLY}>&-

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              zsocket  -l will open a socket listening on filename.  The shell
              parameter REPLY will be set to the  file  descriptor  associated
              with  that  listener.   The file descriptor remains open in sub-
              shells and forked external executables.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              zsocket  -a  will  accept  an  incoming connection to the socket
              associated with listenfd.  The shell parameter REPLY will be set
              to  the  file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.
              The file descriptor remains open in subshells and forked  exter-
              nal executables.

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If -t is specified, zsocket will return if no  incoming  connec-
              tion is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       The  zsh/stat module makes available one builtin command under two pos-
       sible names:

       zstat [ -gnNolLtTrs ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A array ] [ -F fmt ]
             [ +element ] [ file ... ]
       stat ...
              The command acts as a front end to the  stat  system  call  (see
              stat(2)).   The  same command is provided with two names; as the
              name stat is often used by an external command it is recommended
              that  only  the  zstat form of the command is used.  This can be
              arranged by loading the module with  the  command  `zmodload  -F
              zsh/stat b:zstat'.

              If  the  stat  call  fails, the appropriate system error message
              printed and status 1 is returned.  The  fields  of  struct  stat
              give  information  about  the files provided as arguments to the
              command.  In addition to those available from the stat call,  an
              extra element `link' is provided.  These elements are:

              device The number of the device on which the file resides.

              inode  The  unique  number  of  the file on this device (`inode'

              mode   The mode of the file; that is, the file's type and access
                     permissions.   With  the -s option, this will be returned
                     as a string corresponding to the first column in the dis-
                     play of the ls -l command.

              nlink  The number of hard links to the file.

              uid    The  user  ID  of  the  owner  of  the file.  With the -s
                     option, this is displayed as a user name.

              gid    The group ID of the file.  With the -s  option,  this  is
                     displayed as a group name.

              rdev   The  raw  device number.  This is only useful for special

              size   The size of the file in bytes.

              ctime  The last access, modification and inode change  times  of
                     the  file,  respectively,  as the number of seconds since
                     midnight GMT on 1st January, 1970.  With the  -s  option,
                     these are printed as strings for the local time zone; the
                     format can be altered with the -F option, and with the -g
                     option the times are in GMT.

                     The number of bytes in one allocation block on the device
                     on which the file resides.

              block  The number of disk blocks used by the file.

              link   If the file is a link and the -L  option  is  in  effect,
                     this  contains  the name of the file linked to, otherwise
                     it is empty.  Note  that  if  this  element  is  selected
                     (``zstat  +link'')  then  the  -L option is automatically

              A particular element may be selected by including its name  pre-
              ceded  by a `+' in the option list; only one element is allowed.
              The element may be shortened to any unique set of leading  char-
              acters.  Otherwise, all elements will be shown for all files.


              -A array
                     Instead  of  displaying  the  results on standard output,
                     assign them to an array,  one  struct  stat  element  per
                     array  element for each file in order.  In this case nei-
                     ther the name of the element nor the name  of  the  files
                     appears  in array unless the -t or -n options were given,
                     respectively.  If -t is given, the element  name  appears
                     as  a  prefix  to the appropriate array element; if -n is
                     given, the file name appears as a separate array  element
                     preceding  all  the others.  Other formatting options are

              -H hash
                     Similar to -A, but instead assign  the  values  to  hash.
                     The keys are the elements listed above.  If the -n option
                     is provided then the name of the file is included in  the
                     hash with key name.

              -f fd  Use  the  file  on  file  descriptor  fd instead of named
                     files; no list of file names is allowed in this case.

              -F fmt Supplies a strftime (see strftime(3)) string for the for-
                     matting of the time elements.  The format string supports
                     all of the zsh extensions described in the section EXPAN-
                     SION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The -s option is

              -g     Show the time elements in the  GMT  time  zone.   The  -s
                     option is implied.

              -l     List  the  names of the type elements (to standard output
                     or an array as appropriate) and return immediately; argu-
                     ments, and options other than -A, are ignored.

              -L     Perform an lstat (see lstat(2)) rather than a stat system
                     call.  In this case, if the file is a  link,  information
                     about  the  link  itself  rather  than the target file is
                     returned.  This option is required to make the link  ele-
                     ment  useful.   It's  important  to note that this is the
                     exact opposite from ls(1), etc.

              -n     Always show the names of files.  Usually these  are  only
                     shown when output is to standard output and there is more
                     than one file in the list.

              -N     Never show the names of files.

              -o     If a raw file mode is printed, show it in octal, which is
                     more  useful  for  human  consumption than the default of
                     decimal.  A leading zero will be printed  in  this  case.
                     Note that this does not affect whether a raw or formatted
                     file mode is shown, which is controlled by the -r and  -s
                     options, nor whether a mode is shown at all.

              -r     Print raw data (the default format) alongside string data
                     (the -s format); the string data appears  in  parentheses
                     after the raw data.

              -s     Print  mode,  uid,  gid  and  the  three time elements as
                     strings instead of numbers.  In each case the  format  is
                     like that of ls -l.

              -t     Always  show  the  type  names for the elements of struct
                     stat.  Usually these are only shown  when  output  is  to
                     standard  output  and  no  individual  element  has  been

              -T     Never show the type names of the struct stat elements.

       The zsh/system module makes  available  various  builtin  commands  and

       syserror [ -e errvar ] [ -p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
              This command prints out the error message associated with errno,
              a system error number, followed by a newline to standard error.

              Instead of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT,
              may  be  used.   The set of names is the same as the contents of
              the array errnos, see below.

              If the string prefix is given, it is printed  in  front  of  the
              error message, with no intervening space.

              If errvar is supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is
              assigned to the parameter names errvar and nothing is output.

              A return status of 0  indicates  the  message  was  successfully
              printed  (although  it may not be useful if the error number was
              out of the system's range), a return status of  1  indicates  an
              error  in the parameters, and a return status of 2 indicates the
              error name was not recognised (no message is printed for this).

       sysopen [ -arw ] [ -m permissions ] [ -o options ]
               -u fd file
              This command opens a file. The -r,  -w  and  -a  flags  indicate
              whether  the  file  should  be  opened  for reading, writing and
              appending, respectively. The -m option allows the  initial  per-
              missions  to  use  when creating a file to be specified in octal
              form.  The file descriptor  is  specified  with  -u.  Either  an
              explicit file descriptor in the range 0 to 9 can be specified or
              a variable name can be given to which the file descriptor number
              will be assigned.

              The -o option allows various system specific options to be spec-
              ified as a comma-separated list. The following is a list of pos-
              sible  options. Note that, depending on the system, some may not
              be available.
                     mark file to be closed when other programs  are  executed
                     (else  the  file descriptor remains open in subshells and
                     forked external executables)

              creat  create file if it does not exist

              excl   create file, error if it already exists

                     suppress updating of the file atime

                     fail if file is a symbolic link

              sync   request that writes wait until data has  been  physically

              trunc  truncate file to size 0

              To close the file, use one of the following:

                     exec {fd}<&-
                     exec {fd}>&-

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o outfd ]
               [ -s bufsize ] [ -t timeout ] [ param ]
              Perform  a single system read from file descriptor infd, or zero
              if that is not given.  The result of the read is stored in param
              or REPLY if that is not given.  If countvar is given, the number
              of bytes read is assigned to the parameter named by countvar.

              The maximum number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if  that  is
              not  given, however the command returns as soon as any number of
              bytes was successfully read.

              If timeout is given, it specifies a timeout  in  seconds,  which
              may be zero to poll the file descriptor.  This is handled by the
              poll system call if available, otherwise the select system  call
              if available.

              If  outfd  is  given,  an attempt is made to write all the bytes
              just read to the file descriptor outfd.  If this fails,  because
              of a system error other than EINTR or because of an internal zsh
              error during an interrupt, the bytes read but  not  written  are
              stored  in  the parameter named by param if supplied (no default
              is used in this case), and the number  of  bytes  read  but  not
              written  is stored in the parameter named by countvar if that is
              supplied.  If it was successful, countvar contains the full num-
              ber of bytes transferred, as usual, and param is not set.

              The  error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally
              so that shell interrupts are transparent  to  the  caller.   Any
              other error causes a return.

              The possible return statuses are
              0      At  least  one byte of data was successfully read and, if
                     appropriate, written.

              1      There was an error in  the  parameters  to  the  command.
                     This  is the only error for which a message is printed to
                     standard error.

              2      There was an error on the read, or on polling  the  input
                     file descriptor for a timeout.  The parameter ERRNO gives
                     the error.

              3      Data were successfully read, but there was an error writ-
                     ing them to outfd.  The parameter ERRNO gives the error.

              4      The  attempt  to  read timed out.  Note this does not set
                     ERRNO as this is not a system error.

              5      No system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This
                     usually  indicates  end  of file.  The parameters are set
                     according to the  usual  rules;  no  write  to  outfd  is

       sysseek [ -u fd ] [ -w start|end|current ] offset
              The  current file position at which future reads and writes will
              take place is adjusted to the specified byte offset. The  offset
              is evaluated as a math expression. The -u option allows the file
              descriptor to be specified. By default the offset  is  specified
              relative to the start or the file but, with the -w option, it is
              possible to specify that the offset should be  relative  to  the
              current position or the end of the file.

       syswrite [ -c countvar ] [ -o outfd ] data
              The  data  (a  single  string  of bytes) are written to the file
              descriptor outfd, or 1 if that is not  given,  using  the  write
              system call.  Multiple write operations may be used if the first
              does not write all the data.

              If countvar is given, the number of byte written  is  stored  in
              the parameter named by countvar; this may not be the full length
              of data if an error occurred.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled  internally
              by  retrying;  otherwise  an error causes the command to return.
              For example, if the file descriptor is set to non-blocking  out-
              put,  an  error EAGAIN (on some systems, EWOULDBLOCK) may result
              in the command returning early.

              The return status may be 0 for success, 1 for an  error  in  the
              parameters  to  the  command, or 2 for an error on the write; no
              error message is printed in the last  case,  but  the  parameter
              ERRNO will reflect the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u fd_expr
              The  builtin  zsystem's  subcommand flock performs advisory file
              locking (via the fcntl(2) system call) over the entire  contents
              of  the given file.  This form of locking requires the processes
              accessing the file to cooperate; its most obvious use is between
              two instances of the shell itself.

              In  the  first form the named file, which must already exist, is
              locked by opening a file descriptor to the file and  applying  a
              lock to the file descriptor.  The lock terminates when the shell
              process that created the lock exits; it is therefore often  con-
              venient to create file locks within subshells, since the lock is
              automatically released when the subshell exits.  Note  that  use
              of  the print builtin with the -u option will, as a side effect,
              release the lock, as will redirection to the file in  the  shell
              holding  the  lock.   To  work  around this use a subshell, e.g.
              `(print message) >> file'.  Status 0 is  returned  if  the  lock
              succeeds, else status 1.

              In  the  second form the file descriptor given by the arithmetic
              expression fd_expr  is  closed,  releasing  a  lock.   The  file
              descriptor  can be queried by using the `-f var' form during the
              lock; on a successful lock, the shell variable var is set to the
              file  descriptor used for locking.  The lock will be released if
              the file descriptor is closed by any other  means,  for  example
              using `exec {var}>&-'; however, the form described here performs
              a safety check that the file descriptor is in use for file lock-

              By default the shell waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.
              The option -t timeout specifies a timeout for the lock  in  sec-
              onds; currently this must be an integer.  The shell will attempt
              to lock the file once a  second  during  this  period.   If  the
              attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

              If  the  option -e is given, the file descriptor for the lock is
              preserved when the shell uses exec to start a new process;  oth-
              erwise it is closed at that point and the lock released.

              If  the option -r is given, the lock is only for reading, other-
              wise it is for reading and  writing.   The  file  descriptor  is
              opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports subcommand
              The  builtin zsystem's subcommand supports tests whether a given
              subcommand is supported.  It returns status 0 if so, else status
              1.   It  operates silently unless there was a syntax error (i.e.
              the wrong number of arguments), in  which  case  status  255  is
              returned.   Status 1 can indicate one of two things:  subcommand
              is known but not supported by the current operating  system,  or
              subcommand  is not known (possibly because this is an older ver-
              sion of the shell before it was implemented).

   Math Functions
              The systell math function returns the current file position  for
              the file descriptor passed as an argument.

       errnos A  readonly  array of the names of errors defined on the system.
              These are typically macros defined in C by including the  system
              header  file  errno.h.   The  index  of  each name (assuming the
              option KSH_ARRAYS is unset) corresponds  to  the  error  number.
              Error numbers num before the last known error which have no name
              are given the name Enum in the array.

              Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical
              name is used.

              A readonly associative array.  The keys are:

              pid    Returns  the  process  ID of the current process, even in
                     subshells.  Compare $$, which returns the process  ID  of
                     the main shell process.

              ppid   Returns  the  process  ID  of  the  parent of the current
                     process, even in subshells.  Compare $PPID, which returns
                     the process ID of the parent of the main shell process.

                     Returns  the  process  ID of the last process started for
                     process substitution, i.e. the <(...) and  >(...)  expan-

       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              ztcp is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell com-
              mand line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

              If ztcp is run with no options, it will output the  contents  of
              its session table.

              If  it  is  run with only the option -L, it will output the con-
              tents of the session table in a format  suitable  for  automatic
              parsing.   The option is ignored if given with a command to open
              or close a session.  The output consists of a set of lines,  one
              per session, each containing the following elements separated by

              File descriptor
                     The file descriptor in use for the connection.  For  nor-
                     mal  inbound (I) and outbound (O) connections this may be
                     read and written by the usual shell mechanisms.  However,
                     it should only be close with `ztcp -c'.

              Connection type
                     A letter indicating how the session was created:

                     Z      A session created with the zftp command.

                     L      A connection opened for listening with `ztcp -l'.

                     I      An inbound connection accepted with `ztcp -a'.

                     O      An  outbound  connection  created  with `ztcp host

              The local host
                     This is usually set to an  all-zero  IP  address  as  the
                     address of the localhost is irrelevant.

              The local port
                     This  is  likely  to be zero unless the connection is for

              The remote host
                     This is the fully qualified domain name of the  peer,  if
                     available,  else  an  IP  address.   It is an all-zero IP
                     address for a session opened for listening.

              The remote port
                     This is zero for a connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d fd ] host [ port ]
              Open a new TCP connection to host.  If the port is  omitted,  it
              will  default  to  port 23.  The connection will be added to the
              session table and the shell parameter REPLY will be set  to  the
              file descriptor associated with that connection.

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] port
              ztcp -l will open a socket listening on TCP  port.   The  socket
              will be added to the session table and the shell parameter REPLY
              will be set to the file descriptor  associated  with  that  lis-

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              ztcp -a will accept an incoming connection to the  port  associ-
              ated with listenfd.  The connection will be added to the session
              table and the shell parameter REPLY will  be  set  to  the  file
              descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If -t is specified, ztcp will return if no  incoming  connection
              is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf [ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [ fd ]
              ztcp  -c  will  close the socket associated with fd.  The socket
              will be removed from the session table.  If fd is not specified,
              ztcp will close everything in the session table.

              Normally, sockets registered by zftp (see zshmodules(1) ) cannot
              be closed this way.  In order to force such a socket closed, use

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       Here  is  how  to create a TCP connection between two instances of zsh.
       We need to pick an unassigned port; here we  use  the  randomly  chosen

       On host1,
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp -l 5123
              ztcp -a $listenfd
       The  second from last command blocks until there is an incoming connec-

       Now create a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be  the  same
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp host1 5123

       Now  on  each  host,  $fd contains a file descriptor for talking to the
       other.  For example, on host1:
              print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
              read -r line <&$fd; print -r - $line
       prints `This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
              ztcp -c $listenfd
              ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
              ztcp -c $fd

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg ... ]
              Output the termcap value corresponding to  the  capability  cap,
              with optional arguments.

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps termcap capability codes to their

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg ]
              Output the terminfo value corresponding to the  capability  cap,
              instantiated with arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one parameter:

              An  associative  array  that  maps  terminfo capability names to
              their values.

       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
              The zsh/zftp module is a client for FTP  (file  transfer  proto-
              col).  It is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell
              command line editing, file  I/O,  and  job  control  mechanisms.
              Often, users will access it via shell functions providing a more
              powerful interface; a set is provided with the zsh  distribution
              and is described in zshzftpsys(1).  However, the zftp command is
              entirely usable in its own right.

              All commands consist of the command name zftp  followed  by  the
              name  of a subcommand.  These are listed below.  The return sta-
              tus of each subcommand is supposed to  reflect  the  success  or
              failure of the remote operation.  See a description of the vari-
              able ZFTP_VERBOSE for more information on how responses from the
              server may be printed.

       open host[:port] [ user [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Open  a  new  FTP  session  to  host, which may be the name of a
              TCP/IP connected host or an IP number in the standard dot  nota-
              tion.   If the argument is in the form host:port, open a connec-
              tion to TCP port port instead of the standard FTP port 21.  This
              may  be the name of a TCP service or a number:  see the descrip-
              tion of ZFTP_PORT below for more information.

              If IPv6 addresses in colon format are used, the host  should  be
              surrounded  by quoted square brackets to distinguish it from the
              port, for example '[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.  For consistency
              this is allowed with all forms of host.

              Remaining  arguments  are  passed to the login subcommand.  Note
              that if no arguments beyond host are  supplied,  open  will  not
              automatically  call login.  If no arguments at all are supplied,
              open will use the parameters set by the params subcommand.

              After  a  successful  open,  the  shell   variables   ZFTP_HOST,
              ZFTP_PORT,  ZFTP_IP  and  ZFTP_SYSTEM  are available; see `Vari-
              ables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Login the user name with parameters password and  account.   Any
              of the parameters can be omitted, and will be read from standard
              input if needed (name is always needed).  If standard input is a
              terminal,  a  prompt  for  each  one will be printed on standard
              error and password will not be echoed.  If any of the parameters
              are not used, a warning message is printed.

              After   a  successful  login,  the  shell  variables  ZFTP_USER,
              ZFTP_ACCOUNT and ZFTP_PWD are available; see `Variables' below.

              This command may be re-issued when a user is already logged  in,
              and the server will first be reinitialized for a new user.

       params [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
              Store  the  given  parameters  for  a later open command with no
              arguments.  Only those given on the command line will be  remem-
              bered.   If no arguments are given, the parameters currently set
              are printed, although the password will  appear  as  a  line  of
              stars;  the return status is one if no parameters were set, zero

              Any of the parameters may be specified as a `?', which may  need
              to  be quoted to protect it from shell expansion.  In this case,
              the appropriate parameter will be read from stdin  as  with  the
              login  subcommand,  including  special handling of password.  If
              the `?' is followed by a string, that is used as the prompt  for
              reading the parameter instead of the default message (any neces-
              sary punctuation and whitespace should be included at the end of
              the  prompt).   The  first letter of the parameter (only) may be
              quoted with a `\'; hence an argument "\\$word"  guarantees  that
              the string from the shell parameter $word will be treated liter-
              ally, whether or not it begins with a `?'.

              If instead a single `-' is given, the  existing  parameters,  if
              any,  are deleted.  In that case, calling open with no arguments
              will cause an error.

              The list of parameters is not deleted after a close, however  it
              will be deleted if the zsh/zftp module is unloaded.

              For example,

                     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser '?Password for juser: '

              will store the host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user juser and then
              prompt the user for the corresponding password  with  the  given

       test   Test  the  connection;  if  the  server has reported that it has
              closed the connection (maybe due to a timeout), return status 2;
              if  no  connection was open anyway, return status 1; else return
              status 0.  The test subcommand is silent,  apart  from  messages
              printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages if the
              connection closes.  There is no network overhead for this test.

              The test is only supported on systems with either the  select(2)
              or poll(2) system calls; otherwise the message `not supported on
              this system' is printed instead.

              The test subcommand will automatically be called at the start of
              any  other  subcommand for the current session when a connection
              is open.

       cd directory
              Change the remote directory to directory.  Also alters the shell
              variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change  the  remote directory to the one higher in the directory
              tree.  Note that cd .. will also work correctly on non-UNIX sys-

       dir [ arg ... ]
              Give  a (verbose) listing of the remote directory.  The args are
              passed directly to the server. The command's behaviour is imple-
              mentation  dependent, but a UNIX server will typically interpret
              args as arguments to the ls command and with no arguments return
              the  result of `ls -l'. The directory is listed to standard out-

       ls [ arg ... ]
              Give a (short) listing of the remote directory.   With  no  arg,
              produces a raw list of the files in the directory, one per line.
              Otherwise, up to vagaries of the server implementation,  behaves
              similar to dir.

       type [ type ]
              Change  the  type for the transfer to type, or print the current
              type if type is absent.  The allowed values are `A' (ASCII), `I'
              (Image, i.e. binary), or `B' (a synonym for `I').

              The FTP default for a transfer is ASCII.  However, if zftp finds
              that the remote host is a UNIX machine with 8-bit byes, it  will
              automatically  switch  to  using  binary for file transfers upon
              open.  This can subsequently be overridden.

              The transfer type is only passed to the remote host when a  data
              connection  is  established;  this  command  involves no network

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S | B ]
              Set the mode type to stream (S) or block (B).   Stream  mode  is
              the default; block mode is not widely supported.

       remote file ...
       local [ file ... ]
              Print the size and last modification time of the remote or local
              files.  If there is more than one item on the list, the name  of
              the  file  is printed first.  The first number is the file size,
              the second is the last modification time of the file in the for-
              mat  CCYYMMDDhhmmSS  consisting of year, month, date, hour, min-
              utes and seconds in GMT.  Note that this format,  including  the
              length, is guaranteed, so that time strings can be directly com-
              pared via the [[ builtin's < and > operators, even if  they  are
              too long to be represented as integers.

              Not  all servers support the commands for retrieving this infor-
              mation.  In that case, the remote command will print nothing and
              return status 2, compared with status 1 for a file not found.

              The  local  command  (but  not remote) may be used with no argu-
              ments, in which case the information comes from  examining  file
              descriptor zero.  This is the same file as seen by a put command
              with no further redirection.

       get file ...
              Retrieve all files from the server, concatenating them and send-
              ing them to standard output.

       put file ...
              For  each file, read a file from standard input and send that to
              the remote host with the given name.

       append file ...
              As put, but if the remote file already exists, data is  appended
              to it instead of overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat file point
              Versions of get, put and append which will start the transfer at
              the given point in the remote file.  This is useful for  append-
              ing  to an incomplete local file.  However, note that this abil-
              ity is not universally supported by servers (and  is  not  quite
              the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file ...
              Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
              Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
              Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
              Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site arg ...
              Send  a  host-specific command to the server.  You will probably
              only need this if instructed by the server to use it.

       quote arg ...
              Send the raw FTP command sequence to the server.  You should  be
              familiar  with  the  FTP command set as defined in RFC959 before
              doing this.  Useful commands may include STAT  and  HELP.   Note
              also  the  mechanism for returning messages as described for the
              variable ZFTP_VERBOSE below, in  particular  that  all  messages
              from the control connection are sent to standard error.

       quit   Close the current data connection.  This unsets the shell param-

       session [ sessname ]
              Allows  multiple  FTP  sessions to be used at once.  The name of
              the session is an arbitrary string of  characters;  the  default
              session  is called `default'.  If this command is called without
              an argument, it will list all  the  current  sessions;  with  an
              argument,  it  will either switch to the existing session called
              sessname, or create a new session of that name.

              Each session remembers the status of the connection, the set  of
              connection-specific  shell parameters (the same set as are unset
              when a connection closes, as given in the description of close),
              and  any  user  parameters specified with the params subcommand.
              Changing to a previous session restores those  values;  changing
              to a new session initialises them in the same way as if zftp had
              just been loaded.  The name of the current session is  given  by
              the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
              Delete a session; if a name is not given, the current session is
              deleted.  If the current session is deleted, the earliest exist-
              ing  session becomes the new current session, otherwise the cur-
              rent session is not changed.  If the session  being  deleted  is
              the  only  one,  a  new  session called `default' is created and
              becomes the current session; note that this  is  a  new  session
              even  if  the session being deleted is also called `default'. It
              is recommended that sessions not  be  deleted  while  background
              commands which use zftp are still active.

       The  following  shell  parameters  are used by zftp.  Currently none of
       them are special.

              Integer.  The time in seconds to wait for a network operation to
              complete before returning an error.  If this is not set when the
              module is loaded, it will be given  the  default  value  60.   A
              value  of  zero  turns off timeouts.  If a timeout occurs on the
              control connection it will be closed.  Use  a  larger  value  if
              this occurs too frequently.

              Readonly.  The IP address of the current connection in dot nota-

              Readonly.  The hostname of the current remote  server.   If  the
              host  was  opened  as  an  IP  number,  ZFTP_HOST  contains that
              instead; this saves the overhead for a name lookup, as  IP  num-
              bers are most commonly used when a nameserver is unavailable.

              Readonly.   The  number of the remote TCP port to which the con-
              nection is open (even if the port was originally specified as  a
              named service).  Usually this is the standard FTP port, 21.

              In  the unlikely event that your system does not have the appro-
              priate conversion functions, this appears in network byte order.
              If  your  system is little-endian, the port then consists of two
              swapped bytes and the standard port will be  reported  as  5376.
              In  that  case, numeric ports passed to zftp open will also need
              to be in this format.

              Readonly.  The system type string  returned  by  the  server  in
              response to an FTP SYST request.  The most interesting case is a
              string beginning "UNIX Type: L8", which ensures maximum compati-
              bility with a local UNIX host.

              Readonly.   The  type to be used for data transfers , either `A'
              or `I'.   Use the type subcommand to change this.

              Readonly.  The username currently logged in, if any.

              Readonly.  The account name of the current user, if  any.   Most
              servers do not require an account name.

              Readonly.  The current directory on the server.

              Readonly.   The  three digit code of the last FTP reply from the
              server as a string.  This can still be read after the connection
              is closed, and is not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.   The  last line of the last reply sent by the server.
              This can still be read after the connection is  closed,  and  is
              not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.  The name of the current FTP session; see the descrip-
              tion of the session subcommand.

              A string of preferences for altering aspects  of  zftp's  behav-
              iour.  Each preference is a single character.  The following are

              P      Passive:  attempt to make the remote server initiate data
                     transfers.  This is slightly more efficient than sendport
                     mode.  If the letter S occurs later in the  string,  zftp
                     will use sendport mode if passive mode is not available.

              S      Sendport:   initiate  transfers  by the FTP PORT command.
                     If this occurs before any P in the string,  passive  mode
                     will never be attempted.

              D      Dumb:   use  only the bare minimum of FTP commands.  This
                     prevents the  variables  ZFTP_SYSTEM  and  ZFTP_PWD  from
                     being set, and will mean all connections default to ASCII
                     type.  It may prevent ZFTP_SIZE from being set  during  a
                     transfer  if  the  server  does  not send it anyway (many
                     servers do).

              If ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set  to
              a default of `PS', i.e. use passive mode if available, otherwise
              fall back to sendport mode.

              A string of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive,  specifying  which
              responses  from  the server should be printed.  All responses go
              to standard error.  If any of the numbers 1 to 5 appear  in  the
              string, raw responses from the server with reply codes beginning
              with that digit will be printed to standard  error.   The  first
              digit of the three digit reply code is defined by RFC959 to cor-
              respond to:

              1.     A positive preliminary reply.

              2.     A positive completion reply.

              3.     A positive intermediate reply.

              4.     A transient negative completion reply.

              5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

              It should be noted that, for unknown reasons, the reply `Service
              not  available',  which  forces  termination of a connection, is
              classified as 421, i.e.  `transient  negative',  an  interesting
              interpretation of the word `transient'.

              The  code 0 is special:  it indicates that all but the last line
              of multiline replies read from the server  will  be  printed  to
              standard  error  in  a processed format.  By convention, servers
              use this mechanism for sending information for the user to read.
              The  appropriate  reply  code,  if it matches the same response,
              takes priority.

              If ZFTP_VERBOSE is not set when zftp is loaded, it will  be  set
              to  the  default value 450, i.e., messages destined for the user
              and all errors will be printed.  A  null  string  is  valid  and
              specifies that no messages should be printed.

              If this function is set by the user, it is called every time the
              directory changes on the server, including when a user is logged
              in, or when a connection is closed.  In the last case, $ZFTP_PWD
              will be unset; otherwise it will reflect the new directory.

              If this function is set by the user, it will be called during  a
              get,  put or append operation each time sufficient data has been
              received from the host.  During a get, the data is sent to stan-
              dard  output,  so it is vital that this function should write to
              standard error or directly to the terminal, not to standard out-

              When  it  is  called  with a transfer in progress, the following
              additional shell parameters are set:

                     The name of the remote file being transferred from or to.

                     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

                     The total size of the complete  file  being  transferred:
                     the  same  as  the first value provided by the remote and
                     local subcommands for a particular file.  If  the  server
                     cannot   supply  this  value  for  a  remote  file  being
                     retrieved, it will not be set.  If input is from  a  pipe
                     the  value  may  be  incorrect and correspond simply to a
                     full pipe buffer.

                     The amount of data so far transferred; a  number  between
                     zero  and  $ZFTP_SIZE,  if  that  is set.  This number is
                     always available.

              The function is initially called with ZFTP_TRANSFER  set  appro-
              priately and ZFTP_COUNT set to zero.  After the transfer is fin-
              ished,  the  function  will  be  called  one  more   time   with
              ZFTP_TRANSFER set to GF or PF, in case it wishes to tidy up.  It
              is  otherwise  never  called  twice  with  the  same  value   of

              Sometimes  the progress meter may cause disruption.  It is up to
              the user to decide whether the function should be defined and to
              use unfunction when necessary.

       A  connection may not be opened in the left hand side of a pipe as this
       occurs in a subshell and the file information is  not  updated  in  the
       main shell.  In the case of type or mode changes or closing the connec-
       tion in a subshell, the information is returned but variables  are  not
       updated until the next call to zftp.  Other status changes in subshells
       will not be reflected by changes to the variables (but should be other-
       wise harmless).

       Deleting  sessions while a zftp command is active in the background can
       have unexpected effects, even if it does  not  use  the  session  being
       deleted.   This  is because all shell subprocesses share information on
       the state of all connections, and deleting a session changes the order-
       ing of that information.

       On  some operating systems, the control connection is not valid after a
       fork(), so that operations in subshells, on the left  hand  side  of  a
       pipeline,  or  in  the  background are not possible, as they should be.
       This is presumably a bug in the operating system.

       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line Editor.  See zshzle(1).

       The zsh/zleparameter module defines two special parameters that can  be
       used  to  access  internal information of the Zsh Line Editor (see zsh-

              This array contains the names of the keymaps currently defined.

              This associative array contains one entry per widget.  The  name
              of  the  widget is the key and the value gives information about
              the widget. It is either
                the string `builtin' for builtin widgets,
                a string of the form `user:name' for user-defined widgets,
                  where name is the name of the  shell  function  implementing
              the widget,
                a string of the form `completion:type:name'
                  for completion widgets,
                or  a  null  value if the widget is not yet fully defined.  In
              the penultimate case, type is the name of the builtin widget the
              completion  widget imitates in its behavior and name is the name
              of the shell function implementing the completion widget.

       When loaded, the zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.   The
       profiling  results  can be obtained with the zprof builtin command made
       available by this module.  There is no way to turn profiling off  other
       than unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
              Without the -c option, zprof lists profiling results to standard
              output.  The format is  comparable  to  that  of  commands  like

              At  the  top  there is a summary listing all functions that were
              called at least once.  This  summary  is  sorted  in  decreasing
              order  of  the  amount of time spent in each.  The lines contain
              the number of the function in order,  which  is  used  in  other
              parts of the list in suffixes of the form `[num]', then the num-
              ber of calls made to the function.  The next three columns  list
              the  time  in milliseconds spent in the function and its descen-
              dants, the average time in milliseconds spent  in  the  function
              and its descendants per call and the percentage of time spent in
              all shell functions used in this function and  its  descendants.
              The  following  three  columns  give  the  same information, but
              counting only the time spent in the function itself.  The  final
              column shows the name of the function.

              After  the  summary,  detailed  information about every function
              that was invoked is listed, sorted in decreasing  order  of  the
              amount of time spent in each function and its descendants.  Each
              of these entries consists of descriptions for the functions that
              called  the  function  described,  the  function itself, and the
              functions that were called from it.   The  description  for  the
              function itself has the same format as in the summary (and shows
              the same information).  The other lines don't show the number of
              the  function  at  the  beginning  and have their function named
              indented to make it easier to distinguish the line  showing  the
              function described in the section from the surrounding lines.

              The  information shown in this case is almost the same as in the
              summary, but only refers to the call hierarchy being  displayed.
              For example, for a calling function the column showing the total
              running time lists the time spent in the described function  and
              its  descendants only for the times when it was called from that
              particular calling function.  Likewise, for a  called  function,
              this  columns  lists the total time spent in the called function
              and its descendants only for the times when it was  called  from
              the function described.

              Also  in  this case, the column showing the number of calls to a
              function also shows a slash and then the total number of invoca-
              tions made to the called function.

              As  long  as  the  zsh/zprof module is loaded, profiling will be
              done and multiple invocations of the zprof builtin command  will
              show the times and numbers of calls since the module was loaded.
              With the -c option, the zprof builtin  command  will  reset  its
              internal counters and will not show the listing.

       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b ] name [ arg ... ]
              The  arguments  following  name  are  concatenated  with  spaces
              between, then executed as a command, as if passed  to  the  eval
              builtin.   The command runs under a newly assigned pseudo-termi-
              nal; this is useful for running commands non-interactively which
              expect  an interactive environment.  The name is not part of the
              command, but is used to refer to this command in later calls  to

              With  the -e option, the pseudo-terminal is set up so that input
              characters are echoed.

              With the -b option, input to and output from the pseudo-terminal
              are made non-blocking.

              The shell parameter REPLY is set to the file descriptor assigned
              to the master side of the pseudo-terminal.  This allows the ter-
              minal  to  be  monitored  with ZLE descriptor handlers (see zsh-
              zle(1)) or  manipulated  with  sysread  and  syswrite  (see  THE
              ZSH/SYSTEM  MODULE  in  zshmodules(1)).  Warning: Use of sysread
              and syswrite is not recommended; use zpty -r and zpty -w  unless
              you know exactly what you are doing.

       zpty -d [ name ... ]
              The  second form, with the -d option, is used to delete commands
              previously started, by supplying a list of their names.   If  no
              name  is  given,  all  commands are deleted.  Deleting a command
              causes the HUP signal to be sent to the corresponding process.

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ string ... ]
              The -w option can be used to send the to command name the  given
              strings as input (separated by spaces).  If the -n option is not
              given, a newline is added at the end.

              If no string is provided, the standard input is  copied  to  the
              pseudo-terminal;  this may stop before copying the full input if
              the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.  The exact input is  always
              copied: the -n option is not applied.

              Note  that the command under the pseudo-terminal sees this input
              as if it were typed, so beware when sending special  tty  driver
              characters such as word-erase, line-kill, and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ] ]
              The  -r  option  can  be  used to read the output of the command
              name.  With only a name argument, the output read is  copied  to
              the  standard  output.  Unless the pseudo-terminal is non-block-
              ing, copying continues until the command under the pseudo-termi-
              nal  exits; when non-blocking, only as much output as is immedi-
              ately available is copied.  The return status  is  zero  if  any
              output is copied.

              When  also  given a param argument, at most one line is read and
              stored in the parameter named param.  Less than a full line  may
              be read if the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.  The return sta-
              tus is zero if at least one character is stored in param.

              If a pattern is given as well, output is read  until  the  whole
              string  read matches the pattern, even in the non-blocking case.
              The return status is zero if the string read  matches  the  pat-
              tern,  or  if  the command has exited but at least one character
              could still be read.  If the option -m is  present,  the  return
              status is zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing,
              a maximum of one megabyte of output can be consumed this way; if
              a full megabyte is read without matching the pattern, the return
              status is non-zero.

              In all cases, the return status is non-zero if nothing could  be
              read, and is 2 if this is because the command has finished.

              If  the  -r  option  is  combined with the -t option, zpty tests
              whether output is available before trying to read.  If no output
              is  available, zpty immediately returns the status 1.  When used
              with a pattern, the behaviour on a failed  poll  is  similar  to
              when  the  command  has  exited:  the return value is zero if at
              least one character could still be  read  even  if  the  pattern
              failed to match.

       zpty -t name
              The  -t option without the -r option can be used to test whether
              the command name is still running.  It returns a zero status  if
              the command is running and a non-zero value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
              The  last  form, without any arguments, is used to list the com-
              mands currently defined.  If the -L option  is  given,  this  is
              done in the form of calls to the zpty builtin.

       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe ] [ -t timeout ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] [ fd ... ]
              The  zselect builtin is a front-end to the `select' system call,
              which blocks until a file descriptor is  ready  for  reading  or
              writing,  or  has  an error condition, with an optional timeout.
              If this is not available on your system, the command  prints  an
              error  message and returns status 2 (normal errors return status
              1).  For more information, see your  systems  documentation  for
              select(3).   Note  there is no connection with the shell builtin
              of the same name.

              Arguments  and  options  may  be  intermingled  in  any   order.
              Non-option arguments are file descriptors, which must be decimal
              integers.  By default, file descriptors are  to  be  tested  for
              reading,  i.e.  zselect will return when data is available to be
              read from the file descriptor, or more precisely,  when  a  read
              operation  from the file descriptor will not block.  After a -r,
              -w and -e, the given file descriptors are to be tested for read-
              ing,  writing,  or error conditions.  These options and an arbi-
              trary list of file descriptors may be given in any order.

              (The presence of an `error condition' is not well defined in the
              documentation  for  many  implementations  of  the select system
              call.  According to recent versions of the POSIX  specification,
              it  is really an exception condition, of which the only standard
              example is out-of-band data received on a socket.  So zsh  users
              are unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

              The  option  `-t timeout' specifies a timeout in hundredths of a
              second.  This may be zero, in which case  the  file  descriptors
              will  simply  be polled and zselect will return immediately.  It
              is possible to call zselect  with  no  file  descriptors  and  a
              non-zero  timeout  for  use  as  a finer-grained replacement for
              `sleep'; note, however, the return status  is  always  1  for  a

              The  option  `-a  array'  indicates  that array should be set to
              indicate the file descriptor(s) which are ready.  If the  option
              is  not  given,  the  array reply will be used for this purpose.
              The array will contain a string similar  to  the  arguments  for
              zselect.  For example,

                     zselect -t 0 -r 0 -w 1

              might return immediately with status 0 and $reply containing `-r
              0 -w 1' to show that both file descriptors  are  ready  for  the
              requested operations.

              The option `-A assoc' indicates that the associative array assoc
              should be set to  indicate  the  file  descriptor(s)  which  are
              ready.   This  option overrides the option -a, nor will reply be
              modified.  The keys of assoc are the file descriptors,  and  the
              corresponding values are any of the characters `rwe' to indicate
              the condition.

              The command returns status 0 if some file descriptors are  ready
              for  reading.  If the operation timed out, or a timeout of 0 was
              given and no file descriptors were ready, or there was an error,
              it  returns status 1 and the array will not be set (nor modified
              in any way).  If there was an error in the select operation  the
              appropriate error message is printed.

       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [ -L [ metapattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [ -e | - | -- ] pattern style string ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ style ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
       zstyle -{a|b|s} context style name [ sep ]
       zstyle -{T|t} context style [ string ... ]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
              This  builtin  command  is  used  to  define  and lookup styles.
              Styles are pairs of names and values, where the  values  consist
              of  any  number  of strings.  They are stored together with pat-
              terns and lookup is done by giving a string,  called  the  `con-
              text',  which  is  matched against the patterns.  The definition
              stored for the  most  specific  pattern  that  matches  will  be

              A  pattern  is considered to be more specific than another if it
              contains more components (substrings separated by colons) or  if
              the  patterns for the components are more specific, where simple
              strings are considered to be more  specific  than  patterns  and
              complex  patterns  are  considered  to be more specific than the
              pattern `*'.  A `*' in the pattern will match zero or more char-
              acters  in the context; colons are not treated specially in this
              regard.  If two patterns are equally specific, the tie is broken
              in favour of the pattern that was defined first.


              For  example,  to  define  your  preferred form of precipitation
              depending on which city you're in, you might set  the  following
              in your zshrc:

                     zstyle ':weather:europe:*' preferred-precipitation rain
                     zstyle ':weather:europe:germany:* preferred-precipitation none
                     zstyle ':weather:europe:germany:*:munich' preferred-precipitation snow

              Then,  the fictional `weather' plugin might run under the hood a
              command such as

                     zstyle -s ":weather:${continent}:${country}:${county}:${city}" preferred-precipitation REPLY

              in order to retrieve your preference into  the  scalar  variable


              The forms that operate on patterns are the following.

              zstyle [ -L [ metapattern [ style ] ] ]
                     Without  arguments,  lists style definitions.  Styles are
                     shown in alphabetic order and patterns are shown  in  the
                     order zstyle will test them.

                     If the -L option is given, listing is done in the form of
                     calls to zstyle.  The optional first  argument,  metapat-
                     tern,  is  a  pattern  which  will be matched against the
                     string supplied as pattern when the  style  was  defined.
                     Note:  this  means,  for  example,  `zstyle  -L ":comple-
                     tion:*"' will match any supplied pattern beginning `:com-
                     pletion:',   not  just  ":completion:*":   use  ':comple-
                     tion:\*' to match that.   The  optional  second  argument
                     limits  the  output  to a specific style (not a pattern).
                     -L is not compatible with any other options.

              zstyle [ - | -- | -e ] pattern style string ...
                     Defines the given style for the pattern with the  strings
                     as  the  value.   If  the -e option is given, the strings
                     will  be  concatenated  (separated  by  spaces)  and  the
                     resulting string will be evaluated (in the same way as it
                     is done by the eval builtin command) when  the  style  is
                     looked  up.   In  this case the parameter `reply' must be
                     assigned to set the strings returned  after  the  evalua-
                     tion.   Before  evaluating the value, reply is unset, and
                     if it is still unset after the evaluation, the  style  is
                     treated as if it were not set.

              zstyle -d [ pattern [ style ... ] ]
                     Delete  style  definitions. Without arguments all defini-
                     tions are deleted, with a  pattern  all  definitions  for
                     that  pattern  are  deleted  and if any styles are given,
                     then only those styles are deleted for the pattern.

              zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
                     Retrieve a style definition. The name is used as the name
                     of  an array in which the results are stored. Without any
                     further arguments, all  patterns  defined  are  returned.
                     With  a  pattern  the styles defined for that pattern are
                     returned and with both a pattern and a style,  the  value
                     strings of that combination is returned.

              The  other  forms  can  be  used to look up or test styles for a
              given context.

              zstyle -s context style name [ sep ]
                     The parameter name is set  to  the  value  of  the  style
                     interpreted  as  a string.  If the value contains several
                     strings they are concatenated with spaces  (or  with  the
                     sep string if that is given) between them.

                     Return 0 if the style is set, 1 otherwise.

              zstyle -b context style name
                     The  value  is  stored  in name as a boolean, i.e. as the
                     string `yes' if the value has only one  string  and  that
                     string is equal to one of `yes', `true', `on', or `1'. If
                     the value is any  other  string  or  has  more  than  one
                     string, the parameter is set to `no'.

                     Return 0 if name is set to `yes', 1 otherwise.

              zstyle -a context style name
                     The  value  is  stored  in  name  as an array. If name is
                     declared as an associative array,  the first, third, etc.
                     strings  are  used  as the keys and the other strings are
                     used as the values.

                     Return 0 if the style is set, 1 otherwise.

              zstyle -t context style [ string ... ]
              zstyle -T context style [ string ... ]
                     Test the value of  a  style,  i.e.  the  -t  option  only
                     returns  a  status  (sets  $?).   Without  any string the
                     return status is zero if the  style  is  defined  for  at
                     least  one  matching  pattern, has only one string in its
                     value, and that is equal to one of `true', `yes', `on' or
                     `1'.  If  any strings are given the status is zero if and
                     only if at least one of the strings is equal to at  least
                     one  of the strings in the value. If the style is defined
                     but doesn't match, the return status is 1. If  the  style
                     is not defined, the status is 2.

                     The  -T option tests the values of the style like -t, but
                     it returns status zero (rather than 2) if  the  style  is
                     not defined for any matching pattern.

              zstyle -m context style pattern
                     Match a value. Returns status zero if the pattern matches
                     at least one of the strings in the value.

       zformat -f param format spec ...
       zformat -a array sep spec ...
              This builtin provides two different  forms  of  formatting.  The
              first form is selected with the -f option. In this case the for-
              mat string will be modified by replacing sequences starting with
              a  percent  sign  in  it with strings from the specs.  Each spec
              should be of the  form  `char:string'  which  will  cause  every
              appearance  of  the sequence `%char' in format to be replaced by
              the string.  The `%' sequence may also contain optional  minimum
              and  maximum  field width specifications between the `%' and the
              `char' in the form `%min.maxc', i.e. the minimum field width  is
              given first and if the maximum field width is used, it has to be
              preceded by a dot.  Specifying a minimum field width  makes  the
              result  be  padded  with  spaces  to  the right if the string is
              shorter than the requested width.  Padding to the  left  can  be
              achieved by giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum
              field width is specified, the string  will  be  truncated  after
              that  many  characters.   After  all `%' sequences for the given
              specs have been processed, the resulting string is stored in the
              parameter param.

              The  %-escapes  also  understand ternary expressions in the form
              used by prompts.  The % is followed by a `(' and then  an  ordi-
              nary  format  specifier character as described above.  There may
              be a set of digits either before or after the `('; these specify
              a  test  number,  which  defaults to zero.  Negative numbers are
              also allowed.  An arbitrary delimiter character follows the for-
              mat  specifier, which is followed by a piece of `true' text, the
              delimiter character again, a piece of `false' text, and a  clos-
              ing  parenthesis.   The complete expression (without the digits)
              thus looks like `%(X.text1.text2)', except that the `.'  charac-
              ter  is  arbitrary.  The value given for the format specifier in
              the char:string  expressions  is  evaluated  as  a  mathematical
              expression,  and compared with the test number.  If they are the
              same, text1 is output, else text2 is output.  A parenthesis  may
              be escaped in text2 as %).  Either of text1 or text2 may contain
              nested %-escapes.

              For example:

                     zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3(c.yes.no)'." c:3

              outputs "The answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for  the
              format specifier c is 3, agreeing with the digit argument to the
              ternary expression.

              The second form, using the -a option, can be used  for  aligning
              strings.   Here,  the  specs  are of the form `left:right' where
              `left' and `right' are arbitrary  strings.   These  strings  are
              modified  by  replacing the colons by the sep string and padding
              the left strings with spaces  to  the  right  so  that  the  sep
              strings  in  the result (and hence the right strings after them)
              are all aligned if the strings are  printed  below  each  other.
              All  strings  without a colon are left unchanged and all strings
              with an empty right string have the trailing colon removed.   In
              both  cases the lengths of the strings are not used to determine
              how the other strings are to be aligned.  A colon  in  the  left
              string  can  be escaped with a backslash.  The resulting strings
              are stored in the array.

              This implements some internals of the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D -E -F -K -M ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] [ - ] spec ...
              This builtin simplifies the parsing  of  options  in  positional
              parameters,  i.e.  the  set of arguments given by $*.  Each spec
              describes one option and must be of the form `opt[=array]'.   If
              an option described by opt is found in the positional parameters
              it is copied into the array specified with the -a option; if the
              optional  `=array'  is  given,  it  is  instead copied into that
              array, which should be declared as a normal array and  never  as
              an associative array.

              Note  that  it  is an error to give any spec without an `=array'
              unless one of the -a or -A options is used.

              Unless the -E option is given, parsing stops at the first string
              that isn't described by one of the specs.  Even with -E, parsing
              always stops at a positional parameter equal to `-' or `--'. See
              also -F.

              The  opt  description  must be one of the following.  Any of the
              special characters can appear in the option name provided it  is
              preceded by a backslash.

              name+  The  name  is  the name of the option without the leading
                     `-'.  To specify a GNU-style  long  option,  one  of  the
                     usual two leading `-' must be included in name; for exam-
                     ple, a `--file'  option  is  represented  by  a  name  of

                     If  a  `+'  appears after name, the option is appended to
                     array each time it is found in the positional parameters;
                     without the `+' only the last occurrence of the option is

                     If one of these forms is used, the option takes no  argu-
                     ment,  so  parsing stops if the next positional parameter
                     does not also begin with `-' (unless  the  -E  option  is

              name:: If one or two colons are given, the option takes an argu-
                     ment; with one colon, the argument is mandatory and  with
                     two  colons  it is optional.  The argument is appended to
                     the array after the option itself.

                     An optional argument is put into the same  array  element
                     as the option name (note that this makes empty strings as
                     arguments indistinguishable).  A  mandatory  argument  is
                     added as a separate element unless the `:-' form is used,
                     in which case the argument is put into the same element.

                     A `+' as described above may appear between the name  and
                     the first colon.

              In  all  cases,  option-arguments must appear either immediately
              following the option in the same positional parameter or in  the
              next  one.  Even  an  optional  argument  may appear in the next
              parameter, unless it begins with a `-'.   There  is  no  special
              handling  of  `='  as with GNU-style argument parsers; given the
              spec `-foo:', the positional parameter `--foo=bar' is parsed  as
              `--foo' with an argument of `=bar'.

              When  the  names  of two options that take no arguments overlap,
              the longest one wins, so that parsing for the specs `-foo  -foo-
              bar' (for example) is unambiguous. However, due to the aforemen-
              tioned handling of option-arguments, ambiguities may arise  when
              at  least  one  overlapping spec takes an argument, as in `-foo:
              -foobar'. In that case, the last matching spec wins.

              The options of zparseopts itself cannot be stacked because,  for
              example,  the  stack `-DEK' is indistinguishable from a spec for
              the GNU-style long option `--DEK'.  The  options  of  zparseopts
              itself are:

              -a array
                     As described above, this names the default array in which
                     to store the recognised options.

              -A assoc
                     If this is given, the options and their values  are  also
                     put  into  an  associative array with the option names as
                     keys and the arguments (if any) as the values.

              -D     If this option is given, all options  found  are  removed
                     from  the  positional  parameters of the calling shell or
                     shell function, up to but not including any not described
                     by  the  specs.   If  the  first such parameter is `-' or
                     `--', it is removed as well.  This is  similar  to  using
                     the shift builtin.

              -E     This  changes  the parsing rules to not stop at the first
                     string that isn't described by one of the specs.  It  can
                     be used to test for or (if used together with -D) extract
                     options and their arguments, ignoring all  other  options
                     and  arguments  that may be in the positional parameters.
                     As indicated above, parsing still stops at the first  `-'
                     or  `--'  not  described by a spec, but it is not removed
                     when used with -D.

              -F     If this option is given, zparseopts immediately stops  at
                     the  first  option-like parameter not described by one of
                     the specs, prints an error message, and returns status 1.
                     Removal  (-D)  and extraction (-E) are not performed, and
                     option arrays are not updated.  This provides basic vali-
                     dation for the given options.

                     Note  that the appearance in the positional parameters of
                     an option without its  required  argument  always  aborts
                     parsing  and  returns an error as described above regard-
                     less of whether this option is used.

              -K     With this option, the arrays specified with the -a option
                     and  with the `=array' forms are kept unchanged when none
                     of the specs for them  is  used.   Otherwise  the  entire
                     array  is  replaced when any of the specs is used.  Indi-
                     vidual elements of associative arrays specified with  the
                     -A option are preserved by -K.  This allows assignment of
                     default values to arrays before calling zparseopts.

              -M     This changes the assignment  rules  to  implement  a  map
                     among  equivalent  option  names.   If  any spec uses the
                     `=array' form, the string array  is  interpreted  as  the
                     name  of  another  spec, which is used to choose where to
                     store the values.  If no other spec is found, the  values
                     are  stored as usual.  This changes only the way the val-
                     ues are stored, not the way $* is parsed, so results  may
                     be  unpredictable if the `name+' specifier is used incon-

              For example,

                     set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
                     zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

              will have the effect of

                     bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

              The arguments from `baz' on will not be used.

              As an example for the -E option, consider:

                     set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
                     zparseopts -E -D b:=bar

              will have the effect of

                     bar=(-b y)
                     set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

              I.e., the option -b and its arguments are taken from  the  posi-
              tional parameters and put into the array bar.

              The -M option can be used like this:

                     set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
                     zparseopts -A bar -M a=foo b+: c:=b

              to have the effect of

                     bar=(-a '' -b xyz)

zsh 5.8                        February 14, 2020                 ZSHMODULES(1)