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man pages section 1: User Commands

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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019

screen (1)


screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation


screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]


SCREEN(1)                   General Commands Manual                  SCREEN(1)

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).   Each
       virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell  in  it
       (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run  their  programs completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained  it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
       display switches to the previous  window;  if  none  are  left,  screen
       exits.  Shells  usually  distinguish  between running as login-shell or
       sub-shell.  Screen runs them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise  (See
       "shell" .screenrc command).

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate  a  command  to  the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen  does  not  understand the prefix "C-" to mean control, although
       this notation is used in this manual for readability.  Please  use  the
       caret  notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as arguments to e.g. the escape
       command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out  control  charac-
       ters in caret notation.

       The  standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This cre-
       ates a new window running a shell and switches to that  window  immedi-
       ately,  regardless  of  the state of the process running in the current
       window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with a  custom  command
       in  it  by  first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc
       file or at the "C-a :" command line) and then using it  just  like  the
       "C-a  c" command.  In addition, new windows can be created by running a
       command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will  not
       run  another  copy  of screen, but will instead supply the command name
       and its arguments to the window manager (specified in the $STY environ-
       ment  variable)  who  will  use it to create the new window.  The above
       example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its
       window. - Note that you cannot transport environment variables from the
       invoking shell to the application (emacs in this case), because  it  is
       forked from the parent screen process, not from the invoking shell.

       If  "/etc/utmp"  is  writable  by screen, an appropriate record will be
       written to this file for each window, and removed when  the  window  is
       terminated.   This  is useful for working with "talk", "script", "shut-
       down", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs  that  use  the  utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your ter-
       minal, the terminal's own record is removed from  the  utmp  file.  See
       also "C-a L".

       Before  you  begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have cor-
       rectly selected your terminal type, just as you  would  for  any  other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If  you're  impatient  and want to get started without doing a lot more
       reading, you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing  these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS".  The  manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider using a version of your terminal's termcap that has  automatic
       margins  turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update of
       the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays  have  "magic"
       margins  (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100
       style type and perfectly suited for screen.  If all  you've  got  is  a
       "true"  auto-margin  terminal  screen  will  be  content to use it, but
       updating a character put into the last position on the screen  may  not
       be  possible  until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a
       safe position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal with insert-character capability.

       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win-
            dow's termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display  in
            order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the  sizes of all windows to the size of the current termi-
            nal.  By default, screen tries to restore  its  old  window  sizes
            when  attaching  to  resizable  terminals  (those with "WS" in its
            description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc"  to

       -d|-D [pid.tty.host]
            does  not  start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen
            session. It has the same effect as typing "C-a  d"  from  screen's
            controlling  terminal.  -D  is  the equivalent to the power detach
            key.  If no session can be detached, this option  is  ignored.  In
            combination  with  the  -r/-R  option more powerful effects can be

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or  even  create  it

       -d -RR  Reattach  a  session  and if necessary detach or create it. Use
               the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary  detach  and  logout  remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
               ning, then reattach. If necessary detach  and  logout  remotely
               first.   If  it  was not running create it and notify the user.
               This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note: It is always a good idea to check the status  of  your  ses-
            sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the character generat-
            ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
            character).   The default is "C-a" and `a', which can be specified
            as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option sets  the
            default  command character. In a multiuser session all users added
            will start off with this command character. But when attaching  to
            an  already  running session, this option changes only the command
            character of the attaching user.  This  option  is  equivalent  to
            either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns  flow-control  on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This
            can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt  the  dis-
            play  immediately  when  flow-control  is  on.   See the "defflow"
            .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour-

       -l and -ln
            turns  login  mode  on  or off (for /etc/utmp updating).  This can
            also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but prints a list of  pid.tty.host  strings
            identifying  your screen sessions.  Sessions marked `detached' can
            be resumed with "screen -r". Those marked `attached'  are  running
            and  have a controlling terminal. If the session runs in multiuser
            mode, it is  marked  `multi'.  Sessions  marked  as  `unreachable'
            either  live  on  a  different host or are `dead'.  An unreachable
            session is considered dead, when its name matches either the  name
            of the local host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r
            flag for a description how to construct matches.  Sessions  marked
            as `dead' should be thoroughly checked and removed.  Ask your sys-
            tem administrator if you are not sure. Remove  sessions  with  the
            -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -Logfile file
            By  default logfile name is "screenlog.0". You can set new logfile
            name with the "-Logfile" option.

       -m   causes screen  to  ignore  the  $STY  environment  variable.  With
            "screen  -m"  creation  of  a  new session is enforced, regardless
            whether screen is called from within  another  screen  session  or
            not.  This  flag has a special meaning in connection with the `-d'

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but
               doesn't  attach  to  it.  This  is  useful  for  system startup

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork  a
               new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  a  more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
            true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin  terminals  without
            `LP').   This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying `OP'
            in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to  a
            specific  window or you want to send a command via the "-X" option
            to a specific window. As with screen's select command, "-" selects
            the  blank  window.  As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
            the windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a  new
            window.  The  command will not be executed if the specified window
            could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
            exit  value  is  as  follows: 9 indicates a directory without ses-
            sions. 10 indicates a directory with running  but  not  attachable
            sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
            combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows:  10  indicates
            that  there  is  no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
            there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
            which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands now can be queried from a remote session using this
            flag, e.g.  "screen  -Q  windows".  The  commands  will  send  the
            response  to  the  stdout of the querying process. If there was an
            error in the command, then the querying process will exit  with  a
            non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r [pid.tty.host]
       -r sessionowner/[pid.tty.host]
            resumes  a detached screen session.  No other options (except com-
            binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional  prefix
            of  [pid.]tty.host  may  be needed to distinguish between multiple
            detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to
            another  user's  screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This
            indicates that screen should look for sessions in  another  user's
            directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes  screen  only  when  it's unambiguous which one to attach,
            usually when only one screen is detached. Otherwise  lists  avail-
            able  sessions.   -RR attempts to resume the first detached screen
            session it finds.  If successful, all other  command-line  options
            are  ignored.  If no detached session exists, starts a new session
            using the specified options, just as if -R had not been specified.
            The  option  is  set  by default if screen is run as a login-shell
            (actually screen uses "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with
            the -d/-D option see there.

       -s program
            sets  the  default  shell to the program specified, instead of the
            value in the environment variable  $SHELL  (or  "/bin/sh"  if  not
            defined).   This can also be defined through the "shell" .screenrc
            command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify  a
            meaningful  name for the session. This name identifies the session
            for "screen -list" and "screen -r"  actions.  It  substitutes  the
            default [tty.host] suffix.

       -t name
            sets  the  title  (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified pro-
            gram.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment variable using  the  specified  term  as
            opposed to the default setting of screen.

       -U   Run  screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your ter-
            minal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
            the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does  the  same  as  "screen  -ls", but removes destroyed sessions
            instead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable session is con-
            sidered  dead,  when its name matches either the name of the local
            host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r  flag
            for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to  a  not  detached screen session. (Multi display mode).
            Screen refuses to attach from within itself.  But  when  cascading
            multiple screens, loops are not detected; take care.

       -X   Send  the  specified  command to a running screen session. You may
            use the -S option to specify the screen session if you  have  sev-
            eral  screen  sessions running. You can use the -d or -r option to
            tell screen to look only for attached or detached screen sessions.
            Note  that  this  command  doesn't work if the session is password

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.

       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one
       other  character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound to
       lower-case letters are also bound to their control  character  counter-
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window.  See  section  "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION" for a description of the command.

       The  following table shows the default key bindings. The trailiing com-
       mas in boxes with multiple keystroke entries are separators,  not  part
       of the bindings.

       |C-a '            | (select)        | Prompt for a window |
       |                 |                 | name or  number  to |
       |                 |                 | switch to.          |
       |C-a "            | (windowlist -b) | Present  a  list of |
       |                 |                 | all   windows   for |
       |                 |                 | selection.          |
       |C-a digit        | (select 0-9)    | Switch   to  window |
       |                 |                 | number 0 - 9        |
       |C-a -            | (select -)      | Switch  to   window |
       |                 |                 | number 0 - 9, or to |
       |                 |                 | the blank window.   |
       |C-a tab          | (focus)         | Switch  the   input |
       |                 |                 | focus  to  the next |
       |                 |                 | region.   See  also |
       |                 |                 | split,      remove, |
       |                 |                 | only.               |
       |C-a C-a          | (other)         | Toggle to the  win- |
       |                 |                 | dow  displayed pre- |
       |                 |                 | viously.  Note that |
       |                 |                 | this        binding |
       |                 |                 | defaults   to   the |
       |                 |                 | command   character |
       |                 |                 | typed twice, unless |
       |                 |                 | overridden.     For |
       |                 |                 | instance,  if   you |
       |                 |                 | use    the   option |
       |                 |                 | "-e]x",  this  com- |
       |                 |                 | mand becomes "]]".  |
       |C-a a            | (meta)          | Send   the  command |
       |                 |                 | character (C-a)  to |
       |                 |                 | window.  See escape |
       |                 |                 | command.            |
       |C-a A            | (title)         | Allow the  user  to |
       |                 |                 | enter  a  name  for |
       |                 |                 | the current window. |
       |C-a b,           | (break)         | Send  a  break   to |
       |C-a C-b          |                 | window.             |
       |C-a B            | (pow_break)     | Reopen the terminal |
       |                 |                 | line  and  send   a |
       |                 |                 | break.              |
       |C-a c,           | (screen)        | Create a new window |
       |C-a C-c          |                 | with  a  shell  and |
       |                 |                 | switch to that win- |
       |                 |                 | dow.                |
       |C-a C            | (clear)         | Clear the screen.   |
       |C-a d,           | (detach)        | Detach screen  from |
       |C-a C-d          |                 | this terminal.      |
       |C-a D D          | (pow_detach)    | Detach and logout.  |
       |C-a f,           | (flow)          | Toggle flow on, off |
       |C-a C-f          |                 | or auto.            |
       |C-a F            | (fit)           | Resize  the  window |
       |                 |                 | to    the   current |
       |                 |                 | region size.        |
       |C-a C-g          | (vbell)         | Toggles    screen's |
       |                 |                 | visual bell mode.   |
       |C-a h            | (hardcopy)      | Write a hardcopy of |
       |                 |                 | the current  window |
       |                 |                 | to  the file "hard- |
       |                 |                 | copy.n".            |
       |C-a H            | (log)           | Begins/ends logging |
       |                 |                 | of the current win- |
       |                 |                 | dow  to  the   file |
       |                 |                 | "screenlog.n".      |
       |C-a i,           | (info)          | Show   info   about |
       |C-a C-i          |                 | this window.        |
       |C-a k,           | (kill)          | Destroy     current |
       |C-a C-k          |                 | window.             |
       |C-a l,           | (redisplay)     | Fully  refresh cur- |
       |C-a C-l          |                 | rent window.        |
       |C-a L            | (login)         | Toggle this windows |
       |                 |                 | login  slot. Avail- |
       |                 |                 | able only if screen |
       |                 |                 | is   configured  to |
       |                 |                 | update   the   utmp |
       |                 |                 | database.   T{  C-a |
       |                 |                 | m,                  |
       |                 |                 | C-a C-m             |
       |C-a M            | (monitor)       | Toggles  monitoring |
       |                 |                 | of the current win- |
       |                 |                 | dow.                |
       |C-a space,       | (next)          | Switch to the  next |
       |C-a n,           |                 | window.             |
       |C-a C-n          |                 |                     |
       |C-a N            | (number)        | Show   the   number |
       |                 |                 | (and title) of  the |
       |                 |                 | current window.     |
       |C-a backspace,   | (prev)          | Switch  to the pre- |
       |C-a C-h,         |                 | vious window (oppo- |
       |C-a p,           |                 | site of C-a n).     |
       |C-a C-p          |                 |                     |
       |C-a q,           | (xon)           | Send a control-q to |
       |C-a C-q          |                 | the current window. |
       |C-a Q            | (only)          | Delete all  regions |
       |                 |                 | but   the   current |
       |                 |                 | one.    See    also |
       |                 |                 | split,      remove, |
       |                 |                 | focus.              |
       |C-a r,           | (wrap)          | Toggle the  current |
       |C-a C-r          |                 | window's  line-wrap |
       |                 |                 | setting  (turn  the |
       |                 |                 | current    window's |
       |                 |                 | automatic   margins |
       |                 |                 | on and off).        |
       |C-a s,           | (xoff)          | Send a control-s to |
       |C-a C-s;         |                 | the current window. |
       |C-a S            | (split)         | Split  the  current |
       |                 |                 | region horizontally |
       |                 |                 | into two new  ones. |
       |                 |                 | See    also   only, |
       |                 |                 | remove, focus.      |
       |C-a t,           | (time)          | Show system  infor- |
       |C-a C-t          |                 | mation.             |
       |C-a v            | (version)       | Display the version |
       |                 |                 | and     compilation |
       |                 |                 | date.               |
       |C-a C-v          | (digraph)       | Enter digraph.      |
       |C-a w,           | (windows)       | Show a list of win- |
       |C-a C-w          |                 | dow.                |
       |C-a W            | (width)         | Toggle 80/132  col- |
       |                 |                 | umns.               |
       |C-a x or C-a C-x | (lockscreen)    | Lock this terminal. |
       |C-a X            | (remove)        | Kill   the  current |
       |                 |                 | region.   See  also |
       |                 |                 | split, only, focus. |
       |C-a z,           | (suspend)       | Suspend     screen. |
       |C-a C-z          |                 | Your  system   must |
       |                 |                 | support   BSD-style |
       |                 |                 | job-control.        |
       |C-a Z            | (reset)         | Reset  the  virtual |
       |                 |                 | terminal   to   its |
       |                 |                 | "power-on" values.  |
       |C-a .            | (dumptermcap)   | Write out a ".term- |
       |                 |                 | cap" file.          |
       |C-a ?            | (help)          | Show key bindings.  |
       |C-a \            | (quit)          | Kill   all  windows |
       |                 |                 | and       terminate |
       |                 |                 | screen.             |
       |C-a :            | (colon)         | Enter  command line |
       |                 |                 | mode.               |
       |C-a [,           | (copy)          | Enter  copy/scroll- |
       |C-a C-[,         |                 | back mode.          |
       |C-a esc          |                 |                     |
       |C-a C-],         | (paste .)       | Write  the contents |
       |C-a ]            |                 | of the paste buffer |
       |                 |                 | to  the stdin queue |
       |                 |                 | of the current win- |
       |                 |                 | dow.                |
       |C-a {,           | (history)       | Copy  and  paste  a |
       |C-a }            |                 | previous  (command) |
       |                 |                 | line.               |
       |C-a >            | (writebuf)      | Write  paste buffer |
       |                 |                 | to a file.          |
       |C-a <            | (readbuf)       | Reads  the  screen- |
       |                 |                 | exchange  file into |
       |                 |                 | the paste buffer.   |
       |C-a =            | (removebuf)     | Removes  the   file |
       |                 |                 | used  by  C-a < and |
       |                 |                 | C-a >.              |
       |C-a ,            | (license)       | Shows where  screen |
       |                 |                 | comes  from,  where |
       |                 |                 | it went to and  why |
       |                 |                 | you can use it.     |
       |C-a _            | (silence)       | Start/stop monitor- |
       |                 |                 | ing   the   current |
       |                 |                 | window for inactiv- |
       |                 |                 | ity.                |
       |C-a |            | (split -v)      | Split  the  current |
       |                 |                 | region   vertically |
       |                 |                 | into two new ones.  |
       |C-a *            | (displays)      | Show a  listing  of |
       |                 |                 | all       currently |
       |                 |                 | attached displays.  |

       The "socket directory" defaults either to $HOME/.screen  or  simply  to
       /tmp/screens  or  preferably  to  /usr/local/screens chosen at compile-
       time. If screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator should
       compile  screen with an adequate (not NFS mounted) socket directory. If
       screen is not running setuid-root, the user can specify  any  mode  700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When  screen  is  invoked, it executes initialization commands from the
       files "/usr/local/etc/screenrc" and  ".screenrc"  in  the  user's  home
       directory. These are the "programmer's defaults" that can be overridden
       in the following ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches for
       the  environment  variable  $SYSSCREENRC  (this override feature may be
       disabled at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is  searched
       in  $SCREENRC,  then $HOME/.screenrc.  The command line option -c takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands in these files are used to  set  options,  bind  functions  to
       keys,  and to automatically establish one or more windows at the begin-
       ning of your screen session.  Commands are listed one  per  line,  with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or  double  quotes.   A  `#'
       turns  the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.  Unintel-
       ligible lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain  ref-
       erences  to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions,  as  now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\' if no
       variable substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes  is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two  configuration  files are shipped as examples with your screen dis-
       tribution: "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a  number
       of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization  can  also  be  done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode
       type `C-a :'. Note that commands starting  with  "def"  change  default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable  users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to  the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg usernames
       +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user with restricted  access,  use  the
       `aclchg'  command  below.  If an optional second parameter is supplied,
       it should be a crypted password for the named user(s).  `Addacl'  is  a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
       are represented as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants  the  permis-
       sion,  `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list of
       commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
       cial  list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if usernames
       consists of a single `*', all known users are affected.

       A command can be executed when the user has the `x' bit  for  it.   The
       user  can  type  input  to  a window when he has its `w' bit set and no
       other user obtains a writelock for this window.  Other  bits  are  cur-
       rently  ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in window
       2: `aclchg username -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the session:
       `aclchg  username  -w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known to screen
       he can attach to the session and (per default) has full permissions for
       all  command  and  windows.  Execution permission for the acl commands,
       `at' and others should also be removed or  the  user  may  be  able  to
       regain  write permission.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot
       be changed (see the "su" command).  `Chacl' is a synonym  to  `aclchg'.
       Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates  groups  of  users that share common access rights. The name of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits  the  permissions  that  are granted to the group leader. That
       means, if a user fails an access check, another check is made  for  the
       group  leader.   A  user  is  removed from all groups the special value
       "none" is used for groupname.  If the second parameter is  omitted  all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre-
       ated by the caller of the command.  Users may be no,  one  or  a  comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a list of
       all currently known users is  assumed.   Bits  is  any  combination  of
       access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The spe-
       cial username "?" predefines the access that not yet known  users  will
       be  granted  to any window initially.  The special username "??" prede-
       fines the access that not yet known users are granted to  any  command.
       Rights  of  the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su"
       command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window  that  is  being  moni-
       tored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The notifi-
       cation message can be re-defined by means of  the  "activity"  command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the win-
       dow in which activity has occurred, and  each  occurrence  of  `^G'  is
       replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

                        'Activity in window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows  by  default,  but  can  be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If  set  to  on,  only  the  current cursor line is refreshed on window
       change.  This affects all windows  and  is  useful  for  slow  terminal
       lines.  The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window is
       restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that immediately
       takes  effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in  virtual  termi-
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args  ]

       Execute  a  command  at  other  displays  or  windows as if it had been
       entered there.  "At" changes the context (the `current window' or `cur-
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple  times.  If
       the  first  parameter  is  of the form `identifier*' then identifier is
       matched against user names.  The command is executed once for each dis-
       play  of  the  selected  user(s). If the first parameter is of the form
       `identifier%' identifier is  matched  against  displays.  Displays  are
       named  after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty' may
       be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has  a  `#'  or  nothing
       appended  it  is matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all users,
       displays  or  windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note that on
       the affected display(s) a short message will  describe  what  happened.
       Permission  is  checked  for initiator of the "at" command, not for the
       owners of the affected display(s).  Note that the '#'  character  works
       as  a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).

       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of  win-
       dows  (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the command
       will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle
       commands  like  "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require that a
       display is associated with the target windows.  These commands may  not
       work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This  command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color
       of the  text.  If  the  attribute  attrib  is  in  use,  the  specified
       attribute/color  modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given, the
       current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax
       of  the  modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes, "i" stands
       for high-intensity foreground color and "I"  for  high-intensity  back-
       ground color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use  bright  colors  for  bold  text.  Most  terminal emulators do this

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which  saves
       all  your running programs until they are resumed with a screen -r com-
       mand.  When turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen  and  all
       the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets  whether  a  clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args

       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The  output  of
       such  a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape. The
       specified lifespan is the number of seconds the  output  is  considered
       valid.  After  this  time,  the command is run again if a corresponding
       string escape is encountered.  The autorefresh  parameter  triggers  an
       automatic  refresh  for caption and hardstatus strings after the speci-
       fied number of seconds. Only the last line of output is used  for  sub-

       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back-
       tick program is expected to stay in the background and generate  output
       once  in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right away and
       screen stores the last line of output.  If  a  new  line  gets  printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.

       The  second  form  of the command deletes the backtick command with the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char-
       acters  cleared  by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will be dis-
       played in the current background color.  Otherwise  the  default  back-
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays a
       notification in the message line.  The notification message can be  re-
       defined by this command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced
       by the number of the window to which a bell has  been  sent,  and  each
       occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your term-
       cap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                               'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to  suppress
       output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided  by
       screen  are  bound to one or more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS" section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound  to
       "C-c"  and  "c".   The  "bind"  command can be used to redefine the key
       bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a sin-
       gle  character,  a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-
       x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code
       of  the character), or a backslash followed by a second character, such
       as "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If  no
       further  argument is given, any previously established binding for this
       key is removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this

       If  a  command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound
       for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.
       Command  classes  can be used to create multiple command keys or multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

                        bind ' ' windows
                        bind ^k
                        bind k
                        bind K kill
                        bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                        bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so  that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be avail-
       able as "C-a space"). The next three  lines  remove  the  default  kill
       binding  from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the kill
       command. Then it binds "C-f" to the command "create  a  window  with  a
       TELNET  connection  to  foobar",  and bind "escape" to the command that
       creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                        bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                        bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                        bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                        bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                        bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                        bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                        bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                        bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This  command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry in
       one of the tables tells screen how to react if a  certain  sequence  of
       characters is encountered. There are three tables: one that should con-
       tain actions programmed by the user, one for the default  actions  used
       for  terminal  emulation  and  one  for screen's copy mode to do cursor
       movement. See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a  list  of  default  key

       If  the  -d  option  is  given,  bindkey modifies the default table, -m
       changes the copy mode table and with neither option the user  table  is
       selected.   The  argument string is the sequence of characters to which
       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key-
       board capability name (selectable with the -k option).

       Some  keys  on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if applica-
       tion mode is turned on (e.g the  cursor  keys).   Such  keys  have  two
       entries  in  the translation table. You can select the application mode
       entry by specifying the -a option.

       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.

       Cmd  can  be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.

       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries  are
       marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This key-binding makes "^T" an escape character  for  key-bindings.  If
       you  did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word "foo"
       by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to  press  the
       key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).


       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix systems the time interval may be  rounded  up  to  full  seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started  and  it's output is written to the screen.  The screen blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.

       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker  program  if  an  empty
       argument  is given. Shows the currently set blanker program if no argu-
       ments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal  devices.  This command should affect the current window only.
       But it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be  changed
       in  the  future.   Calling  "breaktype"  with no parameter displays the
       break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
       If  the  optional  argument to the "bufferfile" command is omitted, the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following
       example  will  paste  the system's password file into the screen window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                        C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                        C-a < C-a ]
                        C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells  screen  to  treat  the  input
       characters  between  128  and  159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit
       code is normally the same as ESC followed by  the  corresponding  7-bit
       code.  The  default  setting  is to process c1 codes and can be changed
       with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ] always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This  command  controls  the display of the window captions. Normally a
       caption is only used if more than one window is shown  on  the  display
       (split  screen  mode).  But if the type is set to always screen shows a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use  all
       escapes  from  the  "STRING  ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       You can have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom  of  the
       window.  The default is bottom.

       charset set

       Change  the current character set slot designation and charset mapping.
       The first four character of set  are  treated  as  charset  designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate  that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed (set
       is padded to six characters internally by appending  '.'   chars).  New
       windows  have  "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a "encoding" command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified  directory  or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
       environment variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means  of
       the  "screen"  command  from  within  ".screenrc" or by means of "C-a :
       screen " or "C-a c" use this as their  default  directory.   Without  a
       chdir  command,  this  would  be  the  directory  from which screen was

       Hardcopy and log files are  always  written  to  the  window's  default
       directory, not the current directory of the process running in the win-
       dow.  You can use this command multiple  times  in  your  .screenrc  to
       start  various  windows  in different default directories, but the last
       chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines.  Useful  for  on-the-fly
       modification  of  key  bindings,  specific window creation and changing
       settings. Note that the "set" keyword no longer  exists!  Usually  com-
       mands affect the current window rather than default settings for future
       windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This  command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character
       (^A). It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c"  option
       is  given,  select  the  specified  command class.  See also "bind" and

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells  screen  whether  to  suppress  trailing  blank  lines  when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note: Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the cur-
       rent window and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode  a  vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       |h, C-h,      | move the cursor left.                            |
       |left arrow   |                                                  |
       |j, C-n,      | move the cursor down.                            |
       |down arrow   |                                                  |
       |k, C-p,      | move the cursor up.                              |
       |up arrow     |                                                  |
       |l ('el'),    | move the cursor right.                           |
       |right arrow  |                                                  |
       |0 (zero) C-a | move to the leftmost column.                     |
       |+ and -      | positions one line up and down.                  |
       |H, M and L   | move  the  cursor  to the leftmost column of the |
       |             | top, center or bottom line of the window.        |
       ||            | moves to the specified absolute column.          |
       |g or home    | moves to the beginning of the buffer.            |
       |G or end     | moves to the specified absolute  line  (default: |
       |             | end of buffer).                                  |
       |%            | jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer. |
       |^ or $       | move  to  the  leftmost  column, to the first or |
       |             | last non-whitespace character on the line.       |
       |w, b, and e  | move the cursor word by word.                    |
       |B, E         | move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).         |
       |f/F, t/T     | move the cursor  forward/backward  to  the  next |
       |             | occurence  of  the  target. (eg, '3fy' will move |
       |             | the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)         |
       |; and ,      | Repeat  the  last   f/F/t/T   command   in   the |
       |             | same/opposite direction.                         |
       |C-e and C-y  | scroll  the  display  up/down  by one line while |
       |             | preserving the cursor position.                  |
       |C-u and C-d  | scroll the  display  up/down  by  the  specified |
       |             | amount  of  lines  while  preserving  the cursor |
       |             | position. (Default: half screen-full).           |
       |C-b and C-f  | scroll the display up/down a full screen.        |

       Note: Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a  .screenrc  com-
       mand.  (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple method for a
       full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

       Some keys are defined to do mark and replace operations.

       The copy range is specified by setting  two  marks.  The  text  between
       these marks will be highlighted. Press:

              space  or enter to set the first or second mark respectively. If
              mousetrack is set to `on', marks can  also  be  set  using  left
              mouse click.

              Y  and  y  used  to mark one whole line or to mark from start of

              W marks exactly one word.

       Any of these commands can be prefixed with a  repeat  count  number  by
       pressing digits

              0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example:  "C-a  C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste

       The folllowing search keys are defined:

              / Vi-like search forward.

              ? Vi-like search backward.

              C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.

              C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.

              n Find next search pattern.

              N Find previous search pattern.

       There are however some keys that act differently than in vi.   Vi  does
       not  allow  one  to  yank  rectangular blocks of text, but screen does.
       Press: c or C to set the left  or  right  margin  respectively.  If  no
       repeat count is given, both default to the current cursor position.

       Example: Try this on a rather full text screen:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

       This  moves  one  to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 columns
       left, marks the beginning of the paste buffer, sets  the  left  column,
       moves  5 columns down, sets the right column, and then marks the end of
       the paste buffer. Now try:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

       and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.

       J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline
       character  (012),  lines  glued  seamless,  lines separated by a single
       whitespace and comma separated lines. Note that  you  can  prepend  the
       newline  character with a carriage return character, by issuing a "crlf

       v or V is for all the vi users with ":set numbers"  -  it  toggles  the
       left margin between column 9 and 1. Press

       a  before  the  final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the con-
       tents of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.

       A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.

       > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste buffer to
       the  screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once copy-
       mode is finished.

       This example demonstrates how to dump the whole  scrollback  buffer  to
       that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".

       C-g gives information about the current line and column.

       x  or  o  exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position. You
       can use this to adjust an already placed mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.

       All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This affects the copying of text regions with the `C-a ['  command.  If
       it  is  set  to  `on',  lines  will  be  separated by the two character
       sequence `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When  no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns  runtime  debugging  on  or off. If screen has been compiled with
       option -DDEBUG debugging available and is turned on per  default.  Note
       that  this command only affects debugging output from the main "SCREEN"
       process correctly. Debug output from attacher  processes  can  only  be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same  as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same as the autonuke command except that the default  setting  for  new
       displays  is  changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you can use
       the special `AN' terminal capability if you want to have  a  dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal  devices.  The preferred methods are tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.
       The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the  duration
       of  the  break,  but  it  may  be the only way to generate long breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
       (e.g.  4 per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also dif-
       fers between serial board  drivers.   Calling  "defbreaktype"  with  no
       parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like  the  charset command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defdynamictitle on|off

       Set default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should change
       window title when seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (nam-
       ing windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the  "escape"
       except  that  it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a multiuser ses-
       sion "escape" changes the command character of the calling user,  where
       "defescape"  changes the default command characters for users that will
       be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same as the flow command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows  is  changed. Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying "defflow auto
       interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The  hardstatus  line  that  all new windows will get is set to status.
       This command is useful to make the hardstatus of every  window  display
       the  window  number  or title or the like.  Status may contain the same
       directives as in the window messages, but the directive escape  charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make a misin-
       terpretation of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If  the
       parameter  status  is omitted, the current default string is displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same  as the login command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same  as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default setting  for  dis-
       plays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same  as  the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that  you  can
       use  the  special 'OL' terminal capability if you want to have a depen-
       dency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same  as  the  silence  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same  as  the utf8 command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Initial setting is `on' if  screen  was  started  with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same  as  the wrap command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with  the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same  as  the writelock command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.   See

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and put it
       into the background).  This returns you to the shell where you  invoked
       screen.   A  detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen with the
       -r option (see also section  "COMMAND-LINE  OPTIONS").  The  -h  option
       tells  screen  to  immediately  close  the  connection  to the terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows  a  tabular  listing  of  all currently connected user front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following
       keys can be used in displays list:

       |k, C-p, or up         | Move up one line.              |
       |j, C-n, or down       | Move down one line.            |
       |C-a or home           | Move to the first line.        |
       |C-e or end            | Move to the last line.         |
       |C-u or C-d            | Move one half page up or down. |
       |C-b or C-f            | Move one full page up or down. |
       |mouseclick            | Move  to  the  selected  line. |
       |                      | Available when "mousetrack" is |
       |                      | set to on.                     |
       |space                 | Refresh the list               |
       |d                     | Detach that display            |
       |D                     | Power detach that display      |
       |C-g, enter, or escape | Exit the list                  |
       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:
              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:

              (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.

       (B) Displays geometry as width x height.

       (C) Username who is logged in at the display.

       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device

       (E)  Display  is  in blocking or nonblocking mode.  The available modes
       are "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".

       (F) Number of the window

       (G) Name/title of window

       (H) Whether the window is shared

       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters:

                    (1st character)
                       `-' : no read
                       `r' : read
                       `R' : read only due to foreign wlock
                    (2nd character)
                       `-' : no write
                       `.' : write suppressed by foreign wlock
                       `w' : write
                       `W' : own wlock
                    (3rd character)
                       `-' : no execute
                       `x' : execute
                     "Displays" needs a region size of at least 10  characters
                     wide and 5 characters high in order to display.

              digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

              This  command  prompts the user for a digraph sequence. The next
              two characters typed are looked up in a builtin  table  and  the
              resulting  character  is inserted in the input stream. For exam-
              ple, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be  inserted.  If
              the first character entered is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the
              following characters (up to three) as an octal  number  instead.
              The  optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one
              can create an "umlaut" key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K
              digraph  '"'" enables the user to generate an a-umlaut by typing
              CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value  is  specified,  a  new
              digraph  is  created  with  the specified preset. The digraph is
              unset if a zero value is provided for the unicode-value.


              Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal  optimized  for
              the currently active window to the file ".termcap" in the user's
              "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores  its  sock-
              ets.  See  the  "FILES"  section  below).  This termcap entry is
              identical to the value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that
              is  set up by screen for each window. For terminfo based systems
              you will need to run a converter like captoinfo and then compile
              the entry with tic.

              dynamictitle on|off

              Change  behaviour  for windows regarding if screen should change
              window title  when  seeing  proper  escape  sequence.  See  also
              "TITLES (naming windows)" section.

              echo [-n] message

              The  echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'mes-
              sage  of   the   day'.   Typically   installed   in   a   global
              /local/etc/screenrc.   The  option  "-n" may be used to suppress
              the line feed.  See also  "sleep".   Echo  is  also  useful  for
              online checking of environment variables.

              encoding enc [enc]

              Tell  screen  how to interpret the input/output. The first argu-
              ment sets the encoding of the current window.  Each  window  can
              emulate  a  different  encoding.  The  optional second parameter
              overwrites the encoding of the  connected  terminal.  It  should
              never  be needed as screen uses the locale setting to detect the
              encoding.  There is also a way to  select  a  terminal  encoding
              depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap entry.

              Supported  encodings  are  eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5, GBK,
              KOI8-R, KOI8-U, CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3,  ISO8859-4,
              ISO8859-5,    ISO8859-6,    ISO8859-7,   ISO8859-8,   ISO8859-9,
              ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

              See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting  of  a
              new window.

              escape xy

              Set  the  command  character to x and the character generating a
              literal command character (by triggering the "meta" command)  to
              y  (similar to the -e option).  Each argument is either a single
              character, a two-character sequence of the  form  "^x"  (meaning
              "C-x"),  a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the
              ASCII code of the character), or a backslash followed by a  sec-
              ond character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

              eval command1[command2 ]

              Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

              exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ]]

              Run  a  unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcom-
              mand and its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow
              of  data  between  newcommands  stdin/stdout/stderr, the process
              originally started in the window (let us call  it  "application-
              process")  and  screen itself (window) is controlled by the file
              descriptor pattern fdpat.  This pattern  is  basically  a  three
              character sequence representing stdin, stdout and stderr of new-
              command. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to  screen.   An
              exclamation  mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be connected
              to the application-process. A colon  (:)  combines  both.   User
              input  will  go  to  newcommand  unless  newcommand receives the
              application-process' output (fdpats first character  is  `!'  or
              `:')  or  a  pipe symbol (|) is added (as a fourth character) to
              the end of fdpat.

              Invoking `exec' without arguments shows name  and  arguments  of
              the  currently  running subprocess in this window. Only one sub-
              process a time can be running in each window.

              When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will  affect  it
              instead of the windows process.

              Refer  to  the  postscript  file  `doc/fdpat.ps' for a confusing
              illustration of all 21 possible combinations. Each drawing shows
              the digits 2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of new-
              command. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the appli-
              cation-process  on  its  slave  side.  The box marked `P' is the
              secondary pty that now has screen at its master side.

              Abbreviations: Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat  and
              the command can be omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting
              only of dots can be omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for  the
              pattern `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always
              be replaced by `!'.


                     exec  /bin/sh

                     exec /bin/sh


                            Creates another shell in the  same  window,  while
                            the  original  shell  is  still running. Output of
                            both shells is displayed and user input is sent to
                            the new /bin/sh.

                     exec !.. stty 19200

                     exec ! stty 19200

                     !!stty 19200

                            Set  the  speed  of the window's tty. If your stty
                            command operates on stdout, then add another `!'.

                     exec !..| less


                            This adds a pager to the window output.  The  spe-
                            cial character `|' is needed to give the user con-
                            trol over the pager although  it  gets  its  input
                            from  the  window's  process.  This works, because
                            less listens on stderr  (a  behavior  that  screen
                            would  not  expect without the `|') when its stdin
                            is not a tty.  Less versions newer than  177  fail
                            miserably here; good old pg still works.

                     !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

                            Sends  window output to both, the user and the sed
                            command. The sed inserts an additional bell  char-
                            acter  (oct.  007)  to  the  window output seen by
                            screen.  This will cause "Bell in window  x"  mes-
                            sages,  whenever the string "Error" appears in the


              Change the window size to the size of the current  region.  This
              command  is  needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size
              automatically if the window is displayed more than once.

              flow   [on|off|auto]

              Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without  parameters
              it  cycles the current window's flow-control setting from "auto-
              matic" to "on" to "off".  See the discussion  on  "FLOW-CONTROL"
              later  on  in this document for full details and note, that this
              is subject to change in future  releases.   Default  is  set  by

              focus [up|down|top|bottom]

              Move  the  input  focus  to  the  next region. This is done in a
              cyclic way so that the top region is selected after  the  bottom
              one.  If  no  subcommand  is  given  it defaults to `down'. `up'
              cycles in the opposite order, `top' and `bottom' go to  the  top
              and  bottom region respectively. Useful bindings are (j and k as
              in vi)
                  bind j focus down
                  bind k focus up
                  bind t focus top
                  bind b focus bottom
              Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

              focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

              This forces any currently selected region  to  be  automatically
              resized at least a certain width and height. All other surround-
              ing regions will be resized in order to accommodate.  This  con-
              straint  follows  everytime  the  "focus"  command  is used. The
              "resize" command can be used to increase either dimension  of  a
              region,  but  never  below  what is set with "focusminsize". The
              underscore `_' is a synonym for max. Setting a width and  height
              of  `0  0'  (zero  zero) will undo any constraints and allow for
              manual resizing.  Without any parameters, the minimum width  and
              height is shown.

              gr [on|off]

              Turn  GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input
              character with the 8th bit set, it will use the  charset  stored
              in  the  GR  slot  and  print  the  character  with  the 8th bit
              stripped. The default (see also "defgr") is not  to  process  GR
              switching because otherwise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

              group [grouptitle]

              Change  or show the group the current window belongs to. Windows
              can be moved around between different groups by  specifying  the
              name  of  the destination group. Without specifying a group, the
              title of the current group is displayed.

              hardcopy [-h] [file]

              Writes out the currently displayed image to the file  file,  or,
              if no filename is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default direc-
              tory, where n is the number of the current window.  This  either
              appends  or overwrites the file if it exists. See below.  If the
              option -h is specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback

              hardcopy_append on|off

              If  set  to  "on",  screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files
              created by the command "C-a h", otherwise these files are  over-
              written each time.  Default is `off'.

              hardcopydir directory

              Defines  a  directory  where  hardcopy  files will be placed. If
              unset, hardcopys are dumped in screen's current  working  direc-

              hardstatus [on|off]

              hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore[string]

              hardstatus string[string]

              This  command configures the use and emulation of the terminal's
              hardstatus line. The first form toggles whether screen will  use
              the hardware status line to display messages. If the flag is set
              to `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video  mode  at
              the display line. The default setting is `on'.

              The  second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't
              have a hardstatus line (i.e. the  termcap/terminfo  capabilities
              "hs",  "ts",  "fs" and "ds" are not set).  When "firstline/last-
              line" is used, screen will reserve the first/last  line  of  the
              display  for  the  hardstatus.  "message"  uses screen's message
              mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never to display  the  hard-
              status.   If  you  prepend  the word "always" to the type (e.g.,
              "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the terminal
              supports a hardstatus.

              The  third  form  specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.
              '%h' is used as default string, i.e., the stored  hardstatus  of
              the   current   window   (settable   via  "ESC]0;<string>^G"  or
              "ESC_<string>ESC\") is displayed.  You can customize this to any
              string  you like including the escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES"
              chapter. If you leave  out  the  argument  string,  the  current
              string is displayed.

              You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as
              additional argument.

              height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

              Set the display height to a specified number of lines.  When  no
              argument  is  given  it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display.
              You can also specify a width if you want to change both  values.
              The  -w  option tells screen to leave the display size unchanged
              and just set the window size, -d vice versa.


              Not really a online help, but displays a help screen showing you
              all  the  key  bindings.   The first pages list all the internal
              commands followed by their current bindings.   Subsequent  pages
              will  display  the  custom commands, one command per key.  Press
              space when you're done reading each  page,  or  return  to  exit
              early.   All other characters are ignored. If the "-c" option is
              given, display all bound  commands  for  the  specified  command
              class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


              Usually  users work with a shell that allows easy access to pre-
              vious commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to  repeat
              the  last  command executed.  Screen allows you to have a primi-
              tive way of re-calling "the command that  started  ":  You  just
              type  the  first  letter  of  that command, then hit `C-a {' and
              screen tries to find a  previous  line  that  matches  with  the
              `prompt  character'  to  the  left  of  the cursor. This line is
              pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus you  have  a  crude
              command  history  (made up by the visible window and its scroll-
              back buffer).

              hstatus status

              Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

              idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

              Sets a command that is run after the specified number of seconds
              inactivity  is  reached.  This  command  will  normally  be  the
              "blanker" command to create a screen blanker, but it can be  any
              screen command.  If no command is specified, only the timeout is
              set. A timeout of zero (or the special timeout off) disables the
              timer.  If no arguments are given, the current settings are dis-

              ignorecase [on|off]

              Tell screen to  ignore  the  case  of  characters  in  searches.
              Default  is  `off'. Without any options, the state of ignorecase
              is toggled.


              Uses the message line to display some information about the cur-
              rent  window:  the  cursor  position  in the form "(column,row)"
              starting with "(1,1)", the terminal width and  height  plus  the
              size  of  the  scrollback buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50",
              the current state of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown  like
              this (See also section FLOW CONTROL):

                +flow     automatic flow control, currently on.
                -flow     automatic flow control, currently off.
                +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
                -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
                +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
                -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

              The  current  line  wrap  setting  (`+wrap'  indicates  enabled,
              `-wrap' not) is also  shown.  The  flags  `ins',  `org',  `app',
              `log',  `mon'  or  `nored'  are  displayed when the window is in
              insert mode, origin mode, application-keypad  mode,  has  output
              logging, activity monitoring or partial redraw enabled.

              The  currently  active  character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in
              square brackets the terminal character sets that  are  currently
              designated  as G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is in UTF-8
              mode, the string "UTF-8" is shown instead.

              Additional modes depending on the type of the  window  are  dis-
              played  at  the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW

              If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator  is  in  a  non-
              default  state, the info line is started with a string identify-
              ing the current state.

              For system information use the "time" command.

              ins_reg [key]

              No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


              Kill current window.

              If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed.  Other-
              wise the process (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP
              condition, the window structure is removed and screen (your dis-
              play)  switches  to  another  window.   When  the last window is
              destroyed, screen exits.  After a kill screen  switches  to  the
              previously displayed window.

              Note: Emacs users should keep this command in mind, when killing
              a line.  It is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape
              key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


              Redisplay  the last contents of the message/status line.  Useful
              if you're typing when a message appears,  because   the  message
              goes away when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hard-
              ware status line).  Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgmin-
              wait" for fine tuning.

              layout new [title]

              Create  a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region
              and be switched to the blank window. From here,  you  build  the
              regions  and the windows they show as you desire. The new layout
              will be numbered with the smallest available  integer,  starting
              with  zero.  You can optionally give a title to your new layout.
              Otherwise, it will have a default title  of  "layout".  You  can
              always change the title later by using the command layout title.

              layout remove [n|title]

              Remove,  or  in other words, delete the specified layout. Either
              the number or the title can be specified. Without either  speci-
              fication, screen will remove the current layout.

              Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

              layout next

              Switch to the next layout available

              layout prev

              Switch to the previous layout available

              layout select [n|title]

              Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be
              specified. Without either specification, screen will prompt  and
              ask which screen is desired. To see which layouts are available,
              use the layout show command.

              layout show

              List on the message line  the  number(s)  and  title(s)  of  the
              available layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

              layout title [title]

              Change  or  display  the  title  of the current layout. A string
              given will be used to name the layout. Without any options,  the
              current title and number is displayed on the message line.

              layout number [n]

              Change  or  display the number of the current layout. An integer
              given will be used to number the layout.  Without  any  options,
              the current number and title is displayed on the message line.

              layout attach [title|:last]

              Change  or display which layout to reattach back to. The default
              is :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the  last  used
              layout  just  before  detachment.  By supplying a title, You can
              instruct screen to reattach to a  particular  layout  regardless
              which  one  was  used  at  the  time  of detachment. Without any
              options, the layout to reattach to will be shown in the  message

              layout save [n|title]

              Remember  the  current arrangement of regions. When used, screen
              will remember the arrangement  of  vertically  and  horizontally
              split  regions.  This arrangement is restored when a screen ses-
              sion is reattached or switched back from a different layout.  If
              the session ends or the screen process dies, the layout arrange-
              ments are lost. The layout dump command should help in this siu-
              tation.  If  a number or title is supplied, screen will remember
              the arrangement of that particular layout. Without any  options,
              screen will remember the current layout.

              Saving  your regions can be done automatically by using the lay-
              out autosave command.

              layout autosave [on|off]

              Change or display the status of automatcally saving layouts. The
              default  is  on, meaning when screen is detached or changed to a
              different layout, the arrangement of regions and windows will be
              remembered  at  the time of change and restored upon return.  If
              autosave is set to off, that arrangement will only  be  restored
              to either to the last manual save, using layout save, or to when
              the layout was first created, to a single region with  a  single
              window.  Without either an on or off, the current status is dis-
              played on the message line.

              layout dump [filename]

              Write to a file the order of splits made in the current  layout.
              This  is  useful  to  recreate the order of your regions used in
              your current layout. Only the current layout is recorded.  While
              the  order  of  the  regions  are  recorded,  the sizes of those
              regions and which windows correspond to which regions  are  not.
              If  no  filename is specified, the default is layout-dump, saved
              in the directory that the screen process was started in. If  the
              file already exists, layout dump will append to that file. As an

                                    C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

              will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


              Display the disclaimer page. This is  done  whenever  screen  is
              started  without options, which should be often enough. See also
              the "startup_message" command.


              Lock this display.  Call a screenlock program (/local/bin/lck or
              /usr/bin/lock  or  a  builtin  if no other is available). Screen
              does not accept any command keys until this program  terminates.
              Meanwhile  processes in the windows may continue, as the windows
              are in the `detached'  state.  The  screenlock  program  may  be
              changed through the environment variable $LOCKPRG (which must be
              set in the shell from which screen is started) and  is  executed
              with the user's uid and gid.

              Warning:  When  you  leave other shells unlocked and you have no
              password set on screen, the lock is void: One could  easily  re-
              attach  from  an  unlocked  shell. This feature should rather be
              called `lockterminal'.

              log [on|off]

              Start/stop writing output  of  the  current  window  to  a  file
              "screenlog.n"  in the window's default directory, where n is the
              number of the current window. This filename can be changed  with
              the  `logfile'  command.  If no parameter is given, the state of
              logging is toggled. The session log is appended to the  previous
              contents  of the file if it already exists. The current contents
              and the contents of the scrollback history are not  included  in
              the session log.  Default is `off'.

              logfile filename

              logfile flush secs

              Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screen-
              log.%n". The second form changes the number  of  seconds  screen
              will wait before flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system.
              The default value is 10 seconds.

              login [on|off]

              Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the cur-
              rent  window.  This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When
              no parameter is given, the login state of the window is toggled.
              Additionally  to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in'
              and a `log out' key. E.g. `bind I login on' and  `bind  O  login
              off'  will  map  these  keys to be C-a I and C-a O.  The default
              setting (in config.h.in) should be "on" for a screen  that  runs
              under  suid-root.   Use  the  "deflogin"  command  to change the
              default login state for new  windows.  Both  commands  are  only
              present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

              logtstamp [on|off]

              logtstamp after [secs]

              logtstamp string

              This  command  controls  logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.
              If time-stamps are turned "on", screen adds a string  containing
              the current time to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.
              When output continues and more than  another  two  minutes  have
              passed,  a second time-stamp is added to document the restart of
              the output. You can change this timeout with the second form  of
              the  command.  The  third form is used for customizing the time-
              stamp string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by


              Tell  screen that the next input character should only be looked
              up in the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


              Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey  ta-

              maptimeout [timeout]

              Set  the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a
              timeout of timeout ms. The default timeout is 300ms.  Maptimeout
              with  no  arguments  shows the current setting.  See also "bind-

              markkeys string

              This is a method of changing the keymap  used  for  copy/history
              mode.   The string is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are
              separated by `:'. Example: The string  "B=^B:F=^F"  will  change
              the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down
              fill page).  This happens to be the default binding for `B'  and
              `F'.   The  command "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode
              for an emacs-style binding.  If your terminal sends  characters,
              that cause you to abort copy mode, then this command may help by
              binding these characters to do nothing.  The no-op character  is
              `@'  and  is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not want
              to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.   As  shown  in  this
              example, multiple keys can be assigned to one function in a sin-
              gle statement.

              maxwin num

              Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect
              already  existing windows. The number can be increased only when
              there are no existing windows.


              Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input

              monitor [on|off]

              Toggles  activity  monitoring  of  windows.   When monitoring is
              turned on and an affected window  is  switched  into  the  back-
              ground,  you  will  receive the activity notification message in
              the status line at the first sign of output and the window  will
              also  be marked with an `@' in the window-status display.  Moni-
              toring is initially off for all windows.

              mousetrack [on|off]

              This command determines whether  screen  will  watch  for  mouse
              clicks.  When  this  command  is enabled, regions that have been
              split in various ways can be selected by pointing to them with a
              mouse  and left-clicking them. Without specifying on or off, the
              current state is displayed. The default state is  determined  by
              the "defmousetrack" command.

              msgminwait sec

              Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is
              currently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

              msgwait sec

              Defines the time a message is displayed if screen  is  not  dis-
              turbed by other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

              multiuser on|off

              Switch  between  singleuser  and multiuser mode. Standard screen
              operation  is  singleuser.  In  multiuser  mode   the   commands
              `acladd',  `aclchg', `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to enable
              (and disable) other users accessing this screen session.

              nethack on|off

              Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are
              familiar  with  the  game  "nethack", you may enjoy the nethack-
              style messages which will often blur the facts a little, but are
              much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be
              unclear as well.
              This option is only available if screen was  compiled  with  the
              NETHACK  flag defined. The default setting is then determined by
              the presence of the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the
              file ~/.nethackrc - if either one is present, the default is on.


              Switch  to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly
              to cycle through the list of windows.


              Tell screen how to deal with  user  interfaces  (displays)  that
              cease  to accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or
              a TCP/modem connection gets cut but no hangup  is  received.  If
              nonblock  is  off  (this  is the default) screen waits until the
              display restarts to accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen
              waits until the timeout is reached (on is treated as 1s). If the
              display still doesn't receive characters, screen  will  consider
              it  "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If at some time
              it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock  the  dis-
              play and redisplay the updated window contents.

              number [[+|-]n]

              Change  the  current  window's  number. If the given number n is
              already used by another window, both windows exchange their num-
              bers.  If  no  argument  is specified, the current window number
              (and title) is shown. Using `+' or `-' will change the  window's
              number by the relative amount specified.

              obuflimit [limit]

              If  the  output  buffer  contains  more bytes than the specified
              limit, no more data will be read from the windows.  The  default
              value  is  256. If you have a fast display (like xterm), you can
              set it to some higher value. If no argument  is  specified,  the
              current setting is displayed.


              Kill all regions but the current one.


              Switch  to  the window displayed previously. If this window does
              no longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

              partial on|off

              Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with  redis-
              play)  after  switching to the current window. This command only
              affects the current window.  To immediately affect  all  windows
              use  the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.  This
              default is fixed, as there is currently no defpartial command.

              password [crypted_pw]

              Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file  and  screen
              will ask for it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached.
              This is useful if you have  privileged  programs  running  under
              screen  and  you  want  to  protect  your  session from reattach
              attempts by another user masquerading  as  your  uid  (i.e.  any
              superuser.)  If no crypted password is specified, screen prompts
              twice for typing a password and places  its  encryption  in  the
              paste  buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password check-

              paste [registers [dest_reg]]

              Write the (concatenated) contents of the specified registers  to
              the  stdin  queue  of  the  current  window. The register '.' is
              treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is given  the  user
              is  prompted  for  a single register to paste.  The paste buffer
              can be filled with  the  copy,  history  and  readbuf  commands.
              Other  registers  can  be  filled with the register, readreg and
              paste commands.  If paste is called with a second argument,  the
              contents  of  the  specified  registers is pasted into the named
              destination register rather than the window. If '.' is  used  as
              the  second  argument, the displays paste buffer is the destina-
              tion.  Note, that "paste" uses  a  wide  variety  of  resources:
              Whenever  a  second  argument  is specified no current window is
              needed. When the source specification  only  contains  registers
              (not  the paste buffer) then there need not be a current display
              (terminal attached), as the registers are a global resource. The
              paste buffer exists once for every user.

              pastefont [on|off]

              Tell screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The
              default is not to do so. This command is especially  useful  for
              multi character fonts like kanji.


              Reopen  the  window's  terminal line and send a break condition.
              See `break'.


              Power detach.  Mainly the same  as  detach,  but  also  sends  a
              HANGUP  signal  to  the parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This
              will result in a logout,  when  screen  was  started  from  your

              pow_detach_msg [message]

              The  message  specified here is output whenever a `Power detach'
              was performed. It may be used as a replacement for a logout mes-
              sage or to reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current
              message is shown.


              Switch to the window with the next lower number.   This  command
              can be used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

              printcmd [cmd]

              If  cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal
              capabilities "po/pf" if it detects an ansi print sequence ESC  [
              5  i,  but  pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a
              command like "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without
              a command displays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \
              ends printing and closes the pipe.

              Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have  write
              access  to  your  terminal,  they will be able to fire off print

              process [key]

              Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input
              queue.  If  no argument is given you are prompted for a register
              name. The text is parsed as if it had been  typed  in  from  the
              user's  keyboard.  This  command  can  be  used to bind multiple
              actions to a single key.


              Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style
              terminals  the  keys  C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the
              default bindings dangerous: Be careful not to type C-a C-4  when
              selecting window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind
              '^\'") to remove a key binding.

              readbuf [encoding] [filename]

              Reads the contents of the specified file into the paste  buffer.
              You  can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.
              If no file is specified, the screen-exchange filename  is  used.
              See also "bufferfile" command.

              readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

              Does  one  of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with
              zero or one arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer contents
              into  the  register specified or entered at the prompt. With two
              arguments it reads the contents of the named file into the  reg-
              ister,  just  as readbuf reads the screen-exchange file into the
              paste buffer.  You can tell screen the encoding of the file  via
              the  -e  option.   The following example will paste the system's
              password file into the screen window (using register p, where  a
              copy remains):

                                    C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
              C-a : paste p


              Redisplay  the  current  window.  Needed to get a full redisplay
              when in partial redraw mode.

              register [-eencoding]key-string

              Save the specified string to the register key.  The encoding  of
              the  string  can  be  specified via the -e option.  See also the
              "paste" command.


              Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there  is  only  one


              Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf"
              and "readbuf".

              rendition bell | monitor | silence | so  attr  [ color ]

              Change the way screen renders the titles of  windows  that  have
              monitor  or  bell  flags  set  in  caption or hardstatus or win-
              dowlist. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of  the
              modifiers.   The  default  for monitor is currently "=b " (bold,
              active colors), for bell "=ub " (underline, bold and active col-
              ors), and "=u " for silence.


              Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when
              strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics character set)
              are left over from an application.


              Resize  the  current  region.  The space will be removed from or
              added to the region below or if there's not  enough  space  from
              the region above.

                     resize +N
                            increase current region height by N

                     resize -N
                            decrease current region height by N

                     resize  N
                            set current region height to N

                     resize  =
                            make all windows equally high

                     resize  max
                            maximize current region height

                     resize  min
                            minimize current region height

              screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

              Establish  a  new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and
              -fa), title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and  -ln)  ,
              terminal  type  option (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a)
              and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be specified with each com-
              mand.  The option (-M) turns monitoring on for this window.  The
              option (-L) turns output logging on  for  this  window.   If  an
              optional  number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is given, the window
              number n is assigned to the newly created window  (or,  if  this
              number is already in-use, the next available number).  If a com-
              mand is specified after "screen", this command (with  the  given
              arguments)  is started in the window; otherwise, a shell is cre-
              ated.  If //group is supplied, a container-type window  is  cre-
              ated in which other windows may be created inside it.

              Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                                    # example for .screenrc:
                                    screen 1
                                    screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

              screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a
              TELNET connection to the machine foobar  (with  no  flow-control
              using  the title "foobar" in window #2) and will write a logfile
              ("screenlog.2") of the telnet session.  Note, that unlike previ-
              ous  versions  of screen no additional default window is created
              when "screen" commands are included in  your  ".screenrc"  file.
              When  the  initialization  is  completed, screen switches to the
              last window specified in your .screenrc file or, if none,  opens
              a default window #0.

              Screen  has  built  in  some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".
              See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

              scrollback num

              Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to
              num  lines.  The  default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the
              "defscrollback" command and use "info" to view the current  set-
              ting.  To  access and use the contents in the scrollback buffer,
              use the "copy" command.

              select [WindowID]

              Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a pre-
              fix  of  a  window  title (alphanumeric window name) or a window
              number.  The parameter is  optional  and  if  omitted,  you  get
              prompted  for  an identifier.  When a new window is established,
              the first available number is assigned to  this  window.   Thus,
              the  first window can be activated by "select 0".  The number of
              windows is limited at compile-time by the  MAXWIN  configuration
              parameter  (which  defaults  to 40).  There are two special Win-
              dowIDs, "-" selects the internal blank window  and  "."  selects
              the  current  window. The latter is useful if used with screen's
              "-X" option.

              sessionname [name]

              Rename the current session. Note, that for  "screen  -list"  the
              name  shows  up  with  the process-id prepended. If the argument
              "name" is omitted, the name of this session is  displayed.  Cau-
              tion:  The $STY environment variables will still reflect the old
              name in pre-existing shells. This may result in  confusion.  Use
              of  this command is generally discouraged. Use the "-S" command-
              line option if you want to name a new session.  The  default  is
              constructed from the tty and host names.

              setenv [var [string]]

              Set  the  environment variable var to value string.  If only var
              is specified, the user will be prompted to enter a value.  If no
              parameters  are  specified,  the  user will be prompted for both
              variable and value. The environment is inherited by  all  subse-
              quently forked shells.

              setsid [on|off]

              Normally  screen  uses different sessions and process groups for
              the windows. If setsid is turned off, this is not  done  anymore
              and  all windows will be in the same process group as the screen
              backend process. This also breaks job-control,  so  be  careful.
              The  default  is  on, of course. This command is probably useful
              only in rare circumstances.

              shell command

              Set the command to be used to create a new  shell.   This  over-
              rides  the  value  of  the environment variable $SHELL.  This is
              useful if you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to
              execute  the program specified in $SHELL.  If the command begins
              with a '-' character, the shell will  be  started  as  a  login-
              shell.  Typical  shells  do only minimal initialization when not
              started  as  a  login-shell.   E.g.  Bash  will  not  read  your
              "~/.bashrc" unless it is a login-shell.

              shelltitle title

              Set the title for all shells created during startup or by the C-
              A C-c command.  For details about what a title is, see the  dis-
              cussion entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

              silence [on|off|sec]

              Toggles  silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned
              on and an affected window is switched into the  background,  you
              will receive the silence notification message in the status line
              after a specified period of inactivity  (silence).  The  default
              timeout  can  be  changed  with  the `silencewait' command or by
              specifying a  number  of  seconds  instead  of  `on'  or  `off'.
              Silence is initially off for all windows.

              silencewait sec

              Define  the  time  that all windows monitored for silence should
              wait before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

              sleep num

              This command will pause the execution of a  .screenrc  file  for
              num  seconds.   Keyboard activity will end the sleep.  It may be
              used to give users a chance  to  read  the  messages  output  by

              slowpaste msec

              Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current win-
              dow by the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste  value  is
              nonzero  text  is  written  character by character.  screen will
              make a pause of msec milliseconds after  each  single  character
              write  to  allow  the application to process its input. Only use
              slowpaste if your underlying system exposes flow  control  prob-
              lems while pasting large amounts of text.


              Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

              source file

              Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be
              nested to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file  is  not  an
              absolute path and screen is already processing a source command,
              the parent directory of the running source command file is  used
              to  search  for  the  new  command  file before screen's current

              Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo  commands  only  work  at
              startup  and  reattach  time,  so  they  must be reached via the
              default screenrc files to have an effect.

              sorendition [attr[color]]

              This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.


              Split the current region into two new ones. All regions  on  the
              display  are  resized to make room for the new region. The blank
              window is displayed on the new region. Splits are made  horizon-
              tally  unless -v is used. Use the "remove" or the "only" command
              to delete regions. Use "focus" to toggle between regions.

              startup_message on|off

              Select whether you want  to  see  the  copyright  notice  during
              startup.  Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

              status [top|up|down|bottom]

              The status window by default is in bottom-left corner. This com-
              mand can move status messages to any corner of the  screen.  top
              is the same as up, down is the same as bottom.

              stuff [string]

              Stuff  the string string in the input buffer of the current win-
              dow.  This is like the "paste" command but with much less  over-
              head.   Without  a parameter, screen will prompt for a string to
              stuff.  You cannot paste large buffers with the "stuff" command.
              It is most useful for key bindings. See also "bindkey".

              su [username [password [password2]]]

              Substitute  the  user  of a display. The command prompts for all
              parameters that are  omitted.  If  passwords  are  specified  as
              parameters,  they  have  to  be  specified un-crypted. The first
              password is matched against the  systems  passwd  database,  the
              second  password  is  matched against the screen password as set
              with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su"  may  be  useful
              for the screen administrator to test multiuser setups.  When the
              identification fails, the user has access to the commands avail-
              able for user nobody.  These are "detach", "license", "version",
              "help" and "displays".


              Suspend screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state,  while
              screen is suspended. This feature relies on the shell being able
              to do job control.

              term term

              In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is
              set  to  "screen"  by  default.   But  when  no  description for
              "screen" is installed in the  local  termcap  or  terminfo  data
              base, you set $TERM to - say - "vt100". This won't do much harm,
              as screen is VT100/ANSI compatible.  The use of the "term"  com-
              mand  is  discouraged for non-default purpose.  That is, one may
              want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for the next
              "screen rlogin othermachine" command. Use the command "screen -T
              vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting the

              termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

              terminfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

              termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

              Use this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without
              going through all the hassles  involved  in  creating  a  custom
              termcap  entry.   Plus, you can optionally customize the termcap
              generated for the windows.  You have to place these commands  in
              one  of the screenrc startup files, as they are meaningless once
              the terminal emulator is booted.

              If your system works uses  the  terminfo  database  rather  than
              termcap,  screen  will  understand the `terminfo' command, which
              has the same effects as the  `termcap'  command.   Two  separate
              commands  are  provided,  as  there are subtle syntactic differ-
              ences,  e.g.  when  parameter  interpolation  (using   `%')   is
              required. Note that termcap names of the capabilities have to be
              used with the `terminfo' command.

              In many cases, where the arguments are valid  in  both  terminfo
              and termcap syntax, you can use the command `termcapinfo', which
              is just a shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo'  com-
              mands with identical arguments.

              The   first  argument  specifies  which  terminal(s)  should  be
              affected by this definition.  You can specify multiple  terminal
              names by separating them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all termi-
              nals and `vt*' to match all terminals that begin with "vt".

              Each tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines  (sepa-
              rated  by  `:'s)  to be inserted at the start of the appropriate
              termcap entry, enhancing it or overriding existing values.   The
              first tweak modifies your terminal's termcap, and contains defi-
              nitions that your terminal uses to  perform  certain  functions.
              Specify  a  null  string to leave this unchanged (e.g. '').  The
              second (optional) tweak modifies all the  window  termcaps,  and
              should  contain  definitions  that  screen  understands (see the
              "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

              Some examples:

                     termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

              Informs screen that all terminals that begin with  `xterm'  have
              firm  auto-margins that allow the last position on the screen to
              be updated (LP), but they don't really have a  status  line  (no
              'hs'  -  append  `@'  to turn entries off).  Note that we assume
              `LP' for all terminal names that start with "vt",  but  only  if
              you don't specify a termcap command for that terminal.
                     termcap vt*  LP

              termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

              Specifies  the  firm-margined  `LP' capability for all terminals
              that begin with `vt', and the second  line  will  also  add  the
              escape-sequences  to  switch  into  (Z0)  and  back  out of (Z1)
              132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or  VT220.   (You
              must specify Z0 and Z1 in your termcap to use the width-changing

                     termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

              This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the  function  key
              labels to each window's termcap entry.

                     termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

              Takes  a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and
              enables the insert mode (im) and  end-insert  (ei)  capabilities
              (the  `@'  in the `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of
              the string).  Having the `im' and `ei' definitions put into your
              terminal's  termcap will cause screen to automatically advertise
              the character-insert capability in each window's termcap.   Each
              window  will also get the delete-character capability (dc) added
              to its termcap, which screen will translate into  a  line-update
              for  the terminal (we're pretending it doesn't support character

              If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap  entry,
              you  should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable prior to running
              screen.  See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL  TERMINAL"  in  this
              manual,  and  the  termcap(5)  man  page for more information on
              termcap definitions.

              time   [string]

              Uses the message line to display the time of day, the host name,
              and  the  load  averages  over  1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is
              available on your system).  For window specific information, use

              If  a  string  is  specified,  it changes the format of the time
              report like it is described in  the  "STRING  ESCAPES"  chapter.
              Screen uses a default of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

              title [windowtitle]

              Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is
              specified, screen prompts for one. This  command  was  known  as
              `aka' in previous releases.

              truecolor [on|off]

              Enables  truecolor support. Currently autodetection of truecolor
              support cannot be done reliably, as such it's left  to  user  to
              enable.  Default  is  off.   Known terminals that may support it
              are: iTerm2, Konsole, st.  Xterm includes support for  truecolor
              escapes but converts them back to indexed 256 color space.


              Unbind  all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used
              solely for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a  con-
              sole  application  run  as  a daemon. If, for some reason, it is
              necessary to bind commands after this, use 'screen -X'.

              unsetenv var

              Unset an environment variable.

              utf8 [on|off[on|off]]

              Change the encoding used in  the  current  window.  If  utf8  is
              enabled,  the  strings  sent to the window will be UTF-8 encoded
              and vice versa. Omitting the parameter toggles the setting. If a
              second  parameter  is  given,  the  display's  encoding  is also
              changed (this should rather be done with screen's "-U"  option).
              See  also  "defutf8", which changes the default setting of a new

              vbell [on|off]

              Sets the visual bell  setting  for  this  window.  Omitting  the
              parameter toggles the setting. If vbell is switched on, but your
              terminal does not support a visual bell,  a  `vbell-message'  is
              displayed  in  the  status  line when the bell character (^G) is
              received.  Visual bell support of a terminal is defined  by  the
              termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').

              Per  default,  vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See
              also `bell_msg'.

              vbell_msg [message]

              Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to  the  status
              line  if the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell is set
              to "on", but the terminal does not support a visual  bell.   The
              default  message  is  "Wuff,  Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the
              current message is shown.

              vbellwait sec

              Define a delay in seconds after each display of screen's  visual
              bell message. The default is 1 second.

              verbose [on|off]

              If  verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever
              a window is created (or resurrected from zombie state).  Default
              is off.  Without a parameter, the current setting is shown.


              Print  the  current  version  and the compile date in the status

              wall message

              Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in  the
              terminal's status line.

              width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

              Toggle  the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to
              cols columns if an argument is specified.  This requires a capa-
              ble  terminal  and  the  termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the
              "termcap" command for more information. You can also  specify  a
              new  height  if  you  want to change both values.  The -w option
              tells screen to leave the display size unchanged  and  just  set
              the window size, -d vice versa.

              windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]

              windowlist string [string]

              windowlist title [title]

              Display  all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If
              screen was in a window group, screen will back out of the  group
              and then display the windows in that group.  If the -b option is
              given, screen will switch to the blank window before  presenting
              the list, so that the current window is also selectable.  The -m
              option changes the order of the windows, instead of  sorting  by
              window numbers screen uses its internal most-recently-used list.
              The -g option will show the windows inside any  groups  in  that
              level and downwards.

              The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":

              |k, C-p, or up    | Move up one line.                                 |
              |j, C-n, or down  | Move down one line.                               |
              |C-g or escape    | Exit windowlist.                                  |
              |C-a or home      | Move to the first line.                           |
              |C-e or end       | Move to the last line.                            |
              |C-u or C-d       | Move one half page up or down.                    |
              |C-b or C-f       | Move one full page up or down.                    |
              |0..9             | Using the number keys, move to the selected line. |
              |mouseclick       | Move to the selected line. Available when "mouse- |
              |                 | track" is set to "on"                             |
              |/                | Search.                                           |
              |n                | Repeat search in the forward direction.           |
              |N                | Repeat search in the backward direction.          |
              |m                | Toggle MRU.                                       |
              |g                | Toggle group nesting.                             |
              |a                | All window view.                                  |
              |C-h or backspace | Back out the group.                               |
              |,                | Switch numbers with the previous window.          |
              |.                | Switch numbers with the next window.              |
              |K                | Kill that window.                                 |
              |space or enter   | Select that window.                               |
              The table format can  be  changed  with  the  string  and  title
              option, the title is displayed as table heading, while the lines
              are made by using the string setting.  The  default  setting  is
              "Num  Name%=Flags" for the title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.
              See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for more codes (e.g. color set-

              "Windowlist"  needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide
              and 6 characters high in order to display.

              windows [ string ]

              Uses the message line to display a  list  of  all  the  windows.
              Each  window  is  listed by number with the name of process that
              has been started in the window (or its title); the current  win-
              dow  is  marked with a `*'; the previous window is marked with a
              `-'; all the windows that are "logged in" are marked with a `$';
              a  background  window  that has received a bell is marked with a
              `!'; a background window that is being  monitored  and  has  had
              activity  occur is marked with an `@'; a window which has output
              logging turned on is marked  with  `(L)';  windows  occupied  by
              other users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie state are
              marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the  termi-
              nal's  status line only the portion around the current window is
              displayed.  The optional string parameter  follows  the  "STRING
              ESCAPES" format.  If string parameter is passed, the output size
              is unlimited.  The default command without any parameter is lim-
              ited to a size of 1024 bytes.

              wrap [on|off]

              Sets  the  line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-
              wrap is on, the second consecutive printable character output at
              the  last column of a line will wrap to the start of the follow-
              ing line.  As an added feature, backspace (^H)  will  also  wrap
              through  the left margin to the previous line.  Default is `on'.
              Without any options, the state of wrap is toggled.

              writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

              Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the  specified  file,
              or  the public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is
              given. This is thought of as a primitive means of  communication
              between  screen users on the same host. If an encoding is speci-
              fied the paste buffer is recoded on the fly to match the  encod-
              ing.   The  filename  can be set with the bufferfile command and
              defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

              writelock [on|off|auto]

              In addition to access control lists, not all users may  be  able
              to  write  to the same window at once. Per default, writelock is
              in `auto' mode and grants exclusive input permission to the user
              who  is  the  first  to switch to the particular window. When he
              leaves the window, other users may obtain the  writelock  (auto-
              matically).  The  writelock of the current window is disabled by
              the command "writelock off". If  the  user  issues  the  command
              "writelock  on"  he  keeps  the exclusive write permission while
              switching to other windows.



              Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the  stdin  queue  of  the
              current window.

              zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]

              zmodem sendcmd [string]

              zmodem recvcmd [string]

              Define zmodem support for screen. Screen understands two differ-
              ent modes when it detects a zmodem request: "pass" and  "catch".
              If  the mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the
              attacher until the end  of  the  transmission  is  reached.   In
              "catch"  mode  screen  acts  as a zmodem endpoint and starts the
              corresponding rz/sz commands. If the  mode  is  set  to  "auto",
              screen  will  use  "catch" if the window is a tty (e.g. a serial
              line), otherwise it will use "pass".

              You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the
              second and the third form.

              Note also that this is an experimental feature.

              zombie [keys[onerror]]

              defzombie [keys]

              Per  default  screen windows are removed from the window list as
              soon as the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of
              two keys is specified to the zombie command, `dead' windows will
              remain in the list.  The kill command may be used to remove such
              a window. Pressing the first key in the dead window has the same
              effect. When pressing the second key,  screen  will  attempt  to
              resurrect  the window. The process that was initially running in
              the window will be launched again. Calling zombie without param-
              eters  will clear the zombie setting, thus making windows disap-
              pear when their process exits.

              As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally for  all  windows,
              this command should only be called defzombie. Until we need this
              as a per window setting, the commands zombie and  defzombie  are

              Optionally  you  can put the word "onerror" after the keys. This
              will cause screen to monitor exit status of the process  running
              in  the  window.  If  it exits normally ('0'), the window disap-
              pears. Any other exit value causes the window to become  a  zom-


              Per  default  screen windows are removed from the window list as
              soon as the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. If  zombie  keys
              are  defined (compare with above zombie command), it is possible
              to also set a timeout when screen tries to automatically  recon-
              nect a dead screen window.

       Screen  displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a mes-
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
       compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in  its  term-
       cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily  interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on  termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application running in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
       window  is created. The different window types are all special cases of
       the normal type. They have been added in order to allow  screen  to  be
       used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       o  The  normal  window  contains  a  shell (default, if no parameter is
          given) or any other system command that could  be  executed  from  a
          shell (e.g.  slogin, etc)

       o  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec-
          ified as the first parameter, then the window is directly  connected
          to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
          /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the  device  node,
          an  exclusive  open  is attempted on the node to mark the connection
          line as busy.  An optional parameter  is  allowed  consisting  of  a
          comma separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This  affects  transmission
                 as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables  (or  disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
                 for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables)  software  flow-control  for  receiving

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You  may  want  to  specify  as many of these options as applicable.
          Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parame-
          ter values of the connection.  These values are system dependent and
          may be in defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

          For tty windows, the info command shows some of  the  modem  control
          lines  in  the  status  line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR',
          `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the available  ioctl()'s  and
          system  header  files as well as the on the physical capabilities of
          the serial board.  Signals that  are  logical  low  (inactive)  have
          their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
          is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
          available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When  the  CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem signals
          is placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or  TIOC-
          SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthe-
          sis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line
          (TxD)  to go low for a specified period of time. This is expected to
          be interpreted as break signal on the other side.  No data  is  sent
          and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       o  If  the  first  parameter  is  "//telnet",  the  second parameter is
          expected to be a host name, and  an  optional  third  parameter  may
          specify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect
          to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol
          to communicate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connection
       in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

              b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

              e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

              c      SGA. The connection  is  in  `character  mode'  (default:
                     `line mode').

              t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been requested by the remote
                     host.  Screen sends the name "screen"  unless  instructed
                     otherwise (see also the command `term').

              w      NAWS.  The  remote  site  is  notified  about window size

              f      LFLOW. The remote host will send  flow  control  informa-
                     tion.  (Ignored at the moment.)

              Additional  flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED
              and NEWENV).

              For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code  IAC
              BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

              This  window  type is only available if screen was compiled with
              the ENABLE_TELNET option defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one exception: inside of a window's  hardstatus  '^%'  ('^E')  is  used

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags  of  the window, see "windows" for meanings of the various

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the cur-
              rent  window; with '+' qualifier: starting with the window after
              the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed  only  if  a  '%'  escape
              inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad  the  string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a
              number is specified, pad  to  the  percentage  of  the  window's
              width.   A  '0'  qualifier  tells  screen to treat the number as
              absolute position.  You can specify to pad relative to the  last
              absolute  pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad rela-
              tive to the right margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the
              string  if  the specified position lies before the current posi-
              tion. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for  the  next  truncation.  When
              screen  needs  to do truncation, it tries to do it in a way that
              the marked position gets moved to the  specified  percentage  of
              the  output  area.  (The  area starts from the last absolute pad
              position and ends with the position specified by the  truncation
              operator.)  The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated
              parts with ''.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command.  The  length
              qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'  and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use
       zero instead of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier  also  makes
       the  '='  escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes under-
       stand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L'  to  generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or  the
       color  settings.  Its  format  is "[attribute modifier] [color descrip-
       tion]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type  indi-
       cator  if  it  can  be confused with a color description. The following
       change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify-
       ing the desired background and foreground color (in  that  order).  The
       following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The  capitalized  versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can
       also use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave  the
       color unchanged.
       A  one digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or back-
       ground color dependent on the current attributes: if  reverse  mode  is
       set,  the  background color is changed instead of the foreground color.
       If you don't like this, prefix the color with a ".". If  you  want  the
       same  behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with
       a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that  were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-
       change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default  color  on  yellow  back-

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The  available  windows centered at the current window and trun-
              cated to the available width. The current  window  is  displayed
              white  on  blue.   This can be used with "hardstatus alwayslast-

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if  one
              is  set.  Also use a red background if this is the active focus.
              Useful for "caption string".

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF  char-
       acters,  which  allows  the user to send them to the current program by
       simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor,  for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that it will take longer for output from a "normal" pro-
       gram to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON
       and  XOFF  characters  are  used to immediately pause the output of the
       current window.  You can still send these  characters  to  the  current
       program, but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).   The  xon/xoff  commands
       are  also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts
       these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
       option  or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows are
       set to automatic flow-switching.  It can then be  toggled  between  the
       three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with  flow  control  using  the
       TIOCPKT  mode  (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support
       TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode based on  the  current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still  manipulate  flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing the
       interrupt key (usually  C-c)  does  not  interrupt  the  display  until
       another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the "inter-
       rupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow"  command  in  your
       .screenrc,  or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output
       that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.
       One  disadvantage  is  that  the virtual terminal's memory contains the
       non-flushed version of the output, which in rare cases can cause  minor
       inaccuracies  in  the  output.   For example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version  of
       the  output  you would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.  Also,
       you might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to  turn
       it  off  automatically) when running a program that expects you to type
       the interrupt character as input, as it is possible  to  interrupt  the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-con-
       trol is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen  with
       "C-a  l" will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode
       you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com-
       mands.  Normally the name displayed is the actual command name  of  the
       program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to dis-
       tinguish various programs of the same name or to change  the  name  on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with the -t option.
       Interactively,    there    is    the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and the "title" command (C-a A).  The former can be
       output from an application to control the window's name under  software
       control,  and  the  latter  will prompt for a name when typed.  You can
       also bind pre-defined names to keys with the  "title"  command  to  set
       things quickly without prompting. Changing title bythis escape sequence
       can be controlled by defdynamictitle and dynamictitle commands.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by  set-
       ting  the  window's  name to "search|name" and arranging to have a null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion  specifies  an end-of-prompt search string, while the name portion
       specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a
       `:'  screen will add what it believes to be the current command running
       in the window to the end of the window's shell name (e.g.  "name:cmd").
       Otherwise  the  current command name supersedes the shell name while it
       is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell  prompt  to  output  a
       null  title-escape-sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as  a part of your prompt.
       The last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you  speci-
       fied  for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up, screen
       will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous  command  name
       and  get  ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received
       from the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If  found,
       it  will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as the
       command name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or  '^'
       screen  will  use  the  first  word on the following line (if found) in
       preference to the just-found name.  This helps  csh  users  get  better
       command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the
       "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                        shelltitle '> |csh'
                        screen 1

       These commands would start a shell  with  the  given  shelltitle.   The
       title  specified  is an auto-title that would expect the prompt and the
       typed command to look something like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the  command  name).   The  window  status
       would  show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert to
       "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence  "C-a
       R"  to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".  For
       this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

                        % !em
                        emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the  previ-
       ously   entered   "emacs"   command.   The  window  status  would  show
       "root:emacs" during the execution of the command, and revert to  simply
       "root:" at its completion.

                        bind o title
                        bind E title ""
                        bind u title (unknown)

       The  first  binding  doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you
       for a title. when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear  an
       auto-title's  current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set the
       current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null  title-escape-sequence  to
       your  prompt  is that some shells (like the csh) count all the non-con-
       trol characters as part of the prompt's  length.   If  these  invisible
       characters  aren't  a  multiple  of  8 then backspacing over a tab will
       result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The  escape-sequence  "<esc>[0000m"  not  only normalizes the character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac-
       ters  up  to  8.   Bash  users  will  probably  want to echo the escape
       sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "\134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each window in a screen session emulates a VT100  terminal,  with  some
       extra  functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI  standard  as
       possible.  But  if your terminal lacks certain capabilities, the emula-
       tion may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the  appli-
       cations  that  some  of the features are missing. This is no problem on
       machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo this method fails. Because of this, screen  offers  a  way  to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When  screen  tries  to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first
       looks for an entry named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the  contents
       of your $TERM variable.  If no such entry exists, screen tries "screen"
       (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols or  more)).   If  even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an impor-
       tant feature (e.g. delete char or clear to EOS) you  can  build  a  new
       termcap/terminfo  entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in which
       this capability has been disabled. If this entry is installed  on  your
       machines  you  are able to do a rlogin and still keep the correct term-
       cap/terminfo entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable  of
       all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win-

       The  actual  set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the virtual terminal
       depends on the capabilities supported by the  physical  terminal.   If,
       for  instance,  the physical terminal does not support underscore mode,
       screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities  into  the  window's
       $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabili-
       ties must be supported by a terminal in order  to  run  screen;  namely
       scrolling,  clear  screen,  and  direct cursor addressing (in addition,
       screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on  terminals  that  over-

       Also,  you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the
       "termcap" .screenrc command, or by  defining  the  variable  $SCREENCAP
       prior to startup.  When the is latter defined, its value will be copied
       verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be  the
       full  terminal  definition,  or  a filename where the terminal "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the  system
       uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When  the  boolean  `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an application to
       make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are sup-
       ported: lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO),  lock  shift  G2,  lock
       shift  G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.  When a virtual termi-
       nal is created or reset, the ASCII character set is  designated  as  G0
       through  G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence  the
       terminal  uses  to  enable  and start the graphics character set rather
       than SI.  `E0' is the corresponding replacement for SO.  `C0'  gives  a
       character  by  character  translation  string that is used during semi-
       graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc'  terminfo  capabil-

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap entry, applications running in a screen window can send  output  to
       the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to have an appli-
       cation in one window sending output to a printer connected to the  ter-
       minal,  while  all  other windows are still active (the printer port is
       enabled and disabled again for each  chunk  of  output).   As  a  side-
       effect,  programs  running  in different windows can send output to the
       printer simultaneously.  Data sent to the printer is not  displayed  in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If a  window  gets
       selected,  the  display's  hardstatus will be updated to match the win-
       dow's hardstatus line. If the display has no hardstatus the  line  will
       be  displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can be
       changed   with   the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command    (APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\".  As  a  convenience  for  xterm  users the sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of  the  vir-
       tual  terminal  if  they can be efficiently implemented by the physical
       terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line) is only put into the $TERM-
       CAP  variable  if  the  terminal  supports either delete line itself or
       scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the  ses-
       sion  is  reattached  on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.   Set  the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The  following  is  a  list  of control sequences recognized by screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func-
       tions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

                                  Pn = 6                     Invisible

                                  Pn = 7                     Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device  Control  String.   Outputs  a string
                                  directly to the host terminal without inter-

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating  System Command (Hardstatus, xterm
                                  title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only  works  if
                                  multi-user  support is compiled into screen.
                                  The pseudo-user ":window:" is used to  check
                                  the  access  control list. Use "addacl :win-
                                  dow: -rwx #?"  to  create  a  user  with  no
                                  rights and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

                                  Pn = None or 0             From   Cursor  to
                                                             End of Screen

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of
                                                             Screen to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

                                  Pn = None or 0             From   Cursor  to
                                                             End of Line

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of
                                                             Line to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps m           Select Graphic Rendition

                                  Ps = None or 0             Default Rendition

                                  Ps = 1                     Bold

                                  Ps = 2                (A)  Faint

                                  Ps = 3                (A)  Standout     Mode
                                                             (ANSI:     Itali-

                                  Ps = 4                     Underlined

                                  Ps = 5                     Blinking

                                  Ps = 7                     Negative Image

                                  Ps = 22               (A)  Normal Intensity

                                  Ps = 23               (A)  Standout Mode off
                                                             (ANSI: Italicized

                                  Ps = 24               (A)  Not Underlined

                                  Ps = 25               (A)  Not Blinking

                                  Ps = 27               (A)  Positive Image

                                  Ps = 30               (A)  Foreground Black

                                  Ps = 31               (A)  Foreground Red

                                  Ps = 32               (A)  Foreground Green

                                  Ps = 33               (A)  Foreground Yellow

                                  Ps = 34               (A)  Foreground Blue

                                  Ps = 35               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 36               (A)  Foreground Cyan

                                  Ps = 37               (A)  Foreground White

                                  Ps = 39               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 40               (A)  Background Black

                                  Ps =

                                  Ps = 49               (A)  Background

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

                                  Pn = None or 0             Clear Tab at Cur-
                                                             rent Position

                                  Pn = 3                     Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps h           Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps l           Reset Mode

                                  Ps = 4                (A)  Insert Mode

                                  Ps = 20               (A)  Automatic   Line-
                                                             feed Mode

                                  Ps = 34                    Normal     Cursor

                                  Ps = ?1               (V)  Application  Cur-
                                                             sor Keys

                                  Ps = ?3               (V)  Change   Terminal
                                                             Width to 132 col-

                                  Ps = ?5               (V)  Reverse Video

                                  Ps = ?6               (V)  Origin Mode

                                  Ps = ?7               (V)  Wrap Mode

                                  Ps = ?9                    X10 mouse  track-

                                  Ps = ?25              (V)  Visible Cursor

                                  Ps = ?47                   Alternate  Screen
                                                             (old xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1000            (V)  VT200       mouse

                                  Ps = ?1047                 Alternate  Screen
                                                             (new xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1049                 Alternate  Screen
                                                             (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize  the  window  to  `Ph' lines and `Pw'
                                  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send  VT220  Secondary   Device   Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report

       In  order  to  do  a  full  VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a
       sequence of characters in the input stream was generated by a  keypress
       on  the  user's  keyboard  and  insert the VT100 style escape sequence.
       Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it  possible  to
       map  arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of characters. For stan-
       dard VT100 emulation the command will always insert  a  string  in  the
       input  buffer  of the window (see also command stuff in the command ta-
       ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change after a
       reattach  from  a  different terminal type, it is possible to bind com-
       mands to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the  correct
       binding  after  each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command for further
       details on the syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. The fourth is what  com-
       mand is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       |Key name        | Termcap name | Command  | App mode |
       |Cursor up       | ku           | \033[A   | \033OA   |
       |Cursor down     | kd           | \033[B   | \033OB   |
       |Cursor right    | kr           | \033[C   | \033OC   |
       |Cursor left     | kl           | \033[D   | \033OD   |
       |Function key 0  | k0           | \033[10~ |          |
       |Function key 1  | k1           | \033OP   |          |
       |Function key 2  | k2           | \033OQ   |          |
       |Function key 3  | k3           | \033OR   |          |
       |Function key 4  | k4           | \033OS   |          |
       |Function key 5  | k5           | \033[15~ |          |
       |Function key 6  | k6           | \033[17~ |          |
       |Function key 7  | k7           | \033[18~ |          |
       |Function key 8  | k8           | \033[19~ |          |
       |Function key 9  | k9           | \033[20~ |          |
       |Function key 10 | k;           | \033[21~ |          |
       |Function key 11 | F1           | \033[23~ |          |
       |Function key 12 | F2           | \033[24~ |          |
       |Home            | kh           | \033[1~  |          |
       |End             | kH           | \033[4~  |          |
       |Insert          | kI           | \033[2~  |          |
       |Delete          | kD           | \033[3~  |          |
       |Page up         | kP           | \033[5~  |          |
       |Page down       | kN           | \033[6~  |          |
       |Keypad 0        | f0           | 0        | \033Op   |
       |Keypad 1        | f1           | 1        | \033Oq   |
       |Keypad 2        | f2           | 2        | \033Or   |
       |Keypad 3        | f3           | 3        | \033Os   |
       |Keypad 4        | f4           | 4        | \033Ot   |
       |Keypad 5        | f5           | 5        | \033Ou   |
       |Keypad 6        | f6           | 6        | \033Ov   |
       |Keypad 7        | f7           | 7        | \033Ow   |
       |Keypad 8        | f8           | 8        | \033Ox   |
       |Keypad 9        | f9           | 9        | \033Oy   |
       |Keypad +        | f+           | +        | \033Ok   |
       |Keypad -        | f-           | -        | \033Om   |
       |Keypad *        | f*           | *        | \033Oj   |
       |Keypad /        | f/           | /        | \033Oo   |
       |Keypad =        | fq           +----------+ \033OX   |
       |Keypad .        | f.           | .        | \033On   |
       |Keypad ,        | f,           | ,        | \033Ol   |
       |Keypad enter    | fe           | \015     | \033OM   |

       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recog-
       nized by screen and are not in the termcap(5) manual.   You  can  place
       these  capabilities  in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use
       them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in  your
       screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic  margins').  Note
                    that  this  capability is obsolete because screen uses the
                    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize display. This capability has the desired width  and
                    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal  doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct
                    to the application. Same as 'flow off'.  The  opposite  of
                    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' to the specified charset. Default is

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset.  Default  is

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
                    'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See  the  'autonuke'  command  for  more

       OL   (num)   Set  the  output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command
                    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding'  com-
                    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
                    This capability will almost always  be  set  to  '\E[3%dm'
                    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does  understand  ANSI  set  default fg/bg color (\E[39m /

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings  depending
                    on  the current font. More details follow in the next sec-

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences  (OSC,  mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info  entry.  (Set
                    by default).

       Screen  has  a  powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary
       strings depending on the current font and terminal type.  Use this fea-
       ture  if  you  want  to  work with a common standard character set (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
       ters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A  <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font <desig-
       nator> ('B': Ascii, 'A': UK, 'K':  German,  etc.)   to  strings.  Every
       <mapping>  describes  to  what string a single character will be trans-
       lated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes have
       a  lot  in  common  (for  example strings to switch to and from another
       charset). Each occurrence of '%' in <template>  gets  substituted  with
       the  <template-arg>  specified  together  with  the  character. If your
       strings are not similar at all, then use '%' as a  template  and  place
       the  full  string  in  <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
       make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes  the  spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This  tells  screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304'
       gets  translated  to  '\E(K[\E(B'  and so on.  Note that this line gets
       parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is built,  there-
       fore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another  extension  was  added  to  allow  more emulation: If a mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this special
       case the template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset  switch
       sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here,  a  part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
       screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will  be  sent  to  the
       terminal,  i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is just
       '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'  to  '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.

       COLUMNS        Number  of  columns  on  the terminal (overrides termcap
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of  lines  on  the  terminal  (overrides  termcap
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
                      "/bin/sh").  See also "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).

       /screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc    Examples in the  screen  distribution
                                         package  for  private and global ini-
                                         tialization files.
       /usr/local/etc/screenrc           screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /usr/local/etc/screenrc
       /local/screens/S-<login>          Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output func-
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen   `interprocess  communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output  log  files created by the log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | terminal/screen  |
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
SEE ALSO---------------+------------------+
       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

       Originally created by Oliver Laumann. For a long  time  maintained  and
       developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul
       Habib Chowdhury. This latest version was produced by Amadeusz Slawinski
       <amade@asmblr.net>   and   Alexander   Naumov   <alexander_naumov@open-

       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
                      Juergen Weigert <jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de>
                      Alexander Naumov <alexander_naumov@opensuse.org>
                      Amadeusz Slawinski <amade@asmblr.net>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
                      Juergen Weigert <jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de>
                      Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <sadrul@users.sourceforge.net>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
                      Juergen Weigert <jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de>
                      Michael Schroeder <mlschroe@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de>
                      Micah Cowan <micah@cowan.name>
                      Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <sadrul@users.sourceforge.net>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
                      Juergen Weigert <jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de>
                      Michael Schroeder <mlschroe@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under  the  terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
       Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or  (at  your  option)  any
       later version.
       This  program  is  distributed  in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;  without  even  the  implied  warranty  of  MER-
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with  this  program  (see  the file COPYING); if not, write to the Free
       Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place  -  Suite  330,  Boston,  MA
       02111-1307, USA

       Eric S. Raymond <esr@thyrsus.com>,
       Thomas Renninger <treen@suse.com>,
       Axel Beckert <abe@deuxchevaux.org>,
       Ken Beal <kbeal@amber.ssd.csd.harris.com>,
       Rudolf Koenig <rfkoenig@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de>,
       Toerless Eckert <eckert@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de>,
       Wayne Davison <davison@borland.com>,
       Patrick Wolfe <pat@kai.com, kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <schaefer@cse.ogi.edu>,
       Nathan Glasser <nathan@brokaw.lcs.mit.edu>,
       Larry W. Virden <lvirden@cas.org>,
       Howard Chu <hyc@hanauma.jpl.nasa.gov>,
       Tim MacKenzie <tym@dibbler.cs.monash.edu.au>,
       Markku Jarvinen <mta@{cc,cs,ee}.tut.fi>,
       Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>,
       Doug Siebert <dsiebert@isca.uiowa.edu>,
       Ken Stillson <stillson@tsfsrv.mitre.org>,
       Ian Frechett <frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU>,
       Brian Koehmstedt <bpk@gnu.ai.mit.edu>,
       Don Smith <djs6015@ultb.isc.rit.edu>,
       Frank van der Linden <vdlinden@fwi.uva.nl>,
       Martin Schweikert <schweik@cpp.ob.open.de>,
       David Vrona <dave@sashimi.lcu.com>,
       E. Tye McQueen <tye%spillman.UUCP@uunet.uu.net>,
       Matthew Green <mrg@eterna.com.au>,
       Christopher Williams <cgw@pobox.com>,
       Matt Mosley <mattm@access.digex.net>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU>,
       Johannes Zellner <johannes@zellner.org>,
       Pablo Averbuj <pablo@averbuj.com>.

       The  latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp from
       ftp.gnu.org/gnu/screen/ or any other GNU distribution  site.  The  home
       site  of  screen  is  savannah.gnu.org/projects/screen/. If you want to
       help, send a note to screen-devel@gnu.org.

       o  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are  not  handled  correctly  (they  are
          ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
          this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       o  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP  when
          reattaching under a different terminal type.

       o  The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding extra
          capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       o  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       o  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most  systems
          in  order to be able to correctly change the owner of the tty device
          file for each window.  Special permission may also  be  required  to
          write the file "/etc/utmp".

       o  Entries  in  "/etc/utmp"  are not removed when screen is killed with
          SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs  (like  "w"  or  "rwho")  to
          advertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
          (or quit) unless the device driver is configured to  send  a  HANGUP
          signal.   To  detach  a screen session use the -D or -d command line

       o  If a password is set, the command  line  options  -d  and  -D  still
          detach a session without asking.

       o  Both  "breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating
          method used by all terminal devices. The first should change a  win-
          dow  specific  setting,  where  the  latter  should  change only the
          default for new windows.

       o  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file  is
          not  sourced.  Each  user's personal settings have to be included in
          the .screenrc file from which the session is booted, or have  to  be
          changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the

       o  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza
          to screen-devel@gnu.org.

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source                was                downloaded                from

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.gnu.org/software/screen.

4th Berkeley Distribution          Jul 2017                          SCREEN(1)