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man pages section 1: User Commands

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Updated: Wednesday, July 27, 2022

cargo-tree (1)


cargo-tree - Display a tree visualization of a dependency graph


cargo tree [options]


CARGO-TREE(1)               General Commands Manual              CARGO-TREE(1)

       cargo-tree - Display a tree visualization of a dependency graph

       cargo tree [options]

       This command will display a tree of dependencies to the terminal. An
       example of a simple project that depends on the "rand" package:

           myproject v0.1.0 (/myproject)
           `-- rand v0.7.3
               |-- getrandom v0.1.14
               |   |-- cfg-if v0.1.10
               |   `-- libc v0.2.68
               |-- libc v0.2.68 (*)
               |-- rand_chacha v0.2.2
               |   |-- ppv-lite86 v0.2.6
               |   `-- rand_core v0.5.1
               |       `-- getrandom v0.1.14 (*)
               `-- rand_core v0.5.1 (*)
           `-- cc v1.0.50

       Packages marked with (*) have been "de-duplicated". The dependencies
       for the package have already been shown elsewhere in the graph, and so
       are not repeated. Use the --no-dedupe option to repeat the duplicates.

       The -e flag can be used to select the dependency kinds to display. The
       "features" kind changes the output to display the features enabled by
       each dependency. For example, cargo tree -e features:

           myproject v0.1.0 (/myproject)
           `-- log feature "serde"
               `-- log v0.4.8
                   |-- serde v1.0.106
                   `-- cfg-if feature "default"
                       `-- cfg-if v0.1.10

       In this tree, myproject depends on log with the serde feature. log in
       turn depends on cfg-if with "default" features. When using -e features
       it can be helpful to use -i flag to show how the features flow into a
       package. See the examples below for more detail.

   Tree Options
       -i spec, --invert spec
           Show the reverse dependencies for the given package. This flag will
           invert the tree and display the packages that depend on the given

           Note that in a workspace, by default it will only display the
           package's reverse dependencies inside the tree of the workspace
           member in the current directory. The --workspace flag can be used
           to extend it so that it will show the package's reverse
           dependencies across the entire workspace. The -p flag can be used
           to display the package's reverse dependencies only with the subtree
           of the package given to -p.

           Do not de-duplicate repeated dependencies. Usually, when a package
           has already displayed its dependencies, further occurrences will
           not re-display its dependencies, and will include a (*) to indicate
           it has already been shown. This flag will cause those duplicates to
           be repeated.

       -d, --duplicates
           Show only dependencies which come in multiple versions (implies
           --invert). When used with the -p flag, only shows duplicates within
           the subtree of the given package.

           It can be beneficial for build times and executable sizes to avoid
           building that same package multiple times. This flag can help
           identify the offending packages. You can then investigate if the
           package that depends on the duplicate with the older version can be
           updated to the newer version so that only one instance is built.

       -e kinds, --edges kinds
           The dependency kinds to display. Takes a comma separated list of

           o  all -- Show all edge kinds.

           o  normal -- Show normal dependencies.

           o  build -- Show build dependencies.

           o  dev -- Show development dependencies.

           o  features -- Show features enabled by each dependency. If this is
               the only kind given, then it will automatically include the
               other dependency kinds.

           o  no-normal -- Do not include normal dependencies.

           o  no-build -- Do not include build dependencies.

           o  no-dev -- Do not include development dependencies.

           The no- prefixed options cannot be mixed with the other dependency

           The default is normal,build,dev.

       --target triple
           Filter dependencies matching the given target-triple. The default
           is the host platform. Use the value all to include all targets.

   Tree Formatting Options
       --charset charset
           Chooses the character set to use for the tree. Valid values are
           "utf8" or "ascii". Default is "utf8".

       -f format, --format format
           Set the format string for each package. The default is "{p}".

           This is an arbitrary string which will be used to display each
           package. The following strings will be replaced with the
           corresponding value:

           o  {p} -- The package name.

           o  {l} -- The package license.

           o  {r} -- The package repository URL.

           o  {f} -- Comma-separated list of package features that are

       --prefix prefix
           Sets how each line is displayed. The prefix value can be one of:

           o  indent (default) -- Shows each line indented as a tree.

           o  depth -- Show as a list, with the numeric depth printed before
               each entry.

           o  none -- Show as a flat list.

   Package Selection
       By default, when no package selection options are given, the packages
       selected depend on the selected manifest file (based on the current
       working directory if --manifest-path is not given). If the manifest is
       the root of a workspace then the workspaces default members are
       selected, otherwise only the package defined by the manifest will be

       The default members of a workspace can be set explicitly with the
       workspace.default-members key in the root manifest. If this is not set,
       a virtual workspace will include all workspace members (equivalent to
       passing --workspace), and a non-virtual workspace will include only the
       root crate itself.

       -p spec..., --package spec...
           Display only the specified packages. See cargo-pkgid(1) for the
           SPEC format. This flag may be specified multiple times and supports
           common Unix glob patterns like *, ? and []. However, to avoid your
           shell accidentally expanding glob patterns before Cargo handles
           them, you must use single quotes or double quotes around each

           Display all members in the workspace.

       --exclude SPEC...
           Exclude the specified packages. Must be used in conjunction with
           the --workspace flag. This flag may be specified multiple times and
           supports common Unix glob patterns like *, ? and []. However, to
           avoid your shell accidentally expanding glob patterns before Cargo
           handles them, you must use single quotes or double quotes around
           each pattern.

   Manifest Options
       --manifest-path path
           Path to the Cargo.toml file. By default, Cargo searches for the
           Cargo.toml file in the current directory or any parent directory.

       --frozen, --locked
           Either of these flags requires that the Cargo.lock file is
           up-to-date. If the lock file is missing, or it needs to be updated,
           Cargo will exit with an error. The --frozen flag also prevents
           Cargo from attempting to access the network to determine if it is

           These may be used in environments where you want to assert that the
           Cargo.lock file is up-to-date (such as a CI build) or want to avoid
           network access.

           Prevents Cargo from accessing the network for any reason. Without
           this flag, Cargo will stop with an error if it needs to access the
           network and the network is not available. With this flag, Cargo
           will attempt to proceed without the network if possible.

           Beware that this may result in different dependency resolution than
           online mode. Cargo will restrict itself to crates that are
           downloaded locally, even if there might be a newer version as
           indicated in the local copy of the index. See the cargo-fetch(1)
           command to download dependencies before going offline.

           May also be specified with the net.offline config value

   Feature Selection
       The feature flags allow you to control which features are enabled. When
       no feature options are given, the default feature is activated for
       every selected package.

       See the features documentation
       for more details.

       --features features
           Space or comma separated list of features to activate. Features of
           workspace members may be enabled with package-name/feature-name
           syntax. This flag may be specified multiple times, which enables
           all specified features.

           Activate all available features of all selected packages.

           Do not activate the default feature of the selected packages.

   Display Options
       -v, --verbose
           Use verbose output. May be specified twice for "very verbose"
           output which includes extra output such as dependency warnings and
           build script output. May also be specified with the term.verbose
           config value

       -q, --quiet
           No output printed to stdout.

       --color when
           Control when colored output is used. Valid values:

           o  auto (default): Automatically detect if color support is
               available on the terminal.

           o  always: Always display colors.

           o  never: Never display colors.

           May also be specified with the term.color config value

   Common Options
           If Cargo has been installed with rustup, and the first argument to
           cargo begins with +, it will be interpreted as a rustup toolchain
           name (such as +stable or +nightly). See the rustup documentation
           <https://rust-lang.github.io/rustup/overrides.html> for more
           information about how toolchain overrides work.

       -h, --help
           Prints help information.

       -Z flag
           Unstable (nightly-only) flags to Cargo. Run cargo -Z help for

       See the reference
       for details on environment variables that Cargo reads.

       o  0: Cargo succeeded.

       o  101: Cargo failed to complete.

        1. Display the tree for the package in the current directory:

               cargo tree

        2. Display all the packages that depend on the syn package:

               cargo tree -i syn

        3. Show the features enabled on each package:

               cargo tree --format "{p} {f}"

        4. Show all packages that are built multiple times. This can happen if
           multiple semver-incompatible versions appear in the tree (like
           1.0.0 and 2.0.0).

               cargo tree -d

        5. Explain why features are enabled for the syn package:

               cargo tree -e features -i syn

           The -e features flag is used to show features. The -i flag is used
           to invert the graph so that it displays the packages that depend on
           syn. An example of what this would display:

               syn v1.0.17
               |-- syn feature "clone-impls"
               |   `-- syn feature "default"
               |       `-- rustversion v1.0.2
               |           `-- rustversion feature "default"
               |               `-- myproject v0.1.0 (/myproject)
               |                   `-- myproject feature "default" (command-line)
               |-- syn feature "default" (*)
               |-- syn feature "derive"
               |   `-- syn feature "default" (*)
               |-- syn feature "full"
               |   `-- rustversion v1.0.2 (*)
               |-- syn feature "parsing"
               |   `-- syn feature "default" (*)
               |-- syn feature "printing"
               |   `-- syn feature "default" (*)
               |-- syn feature "proc-macro"
               |   `-- syn feature "default" (*)
               `-- syn feature "quote"
                   |-- syn feature "printing" (*)
                   `-- syn feature "proc-macro" (*)

           To read this graph, you can follow the chain for each feature from
           the root to see why it is included. For example, the "full" feature
           is added by the rustversion crate which is included from myproject
           (with the default features), and myproject is the package selected
           on the command-line. All of the other syn features are added by the
           "default" feature ("quote" is added by "printing" and "proc-macro",
           both of which are default features).

           If you're having difficulty cross-referencing the de-duplicated (*)
           entries, try with the --no-dedupe flag to get the full output.

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | developer/rust/cargo |
       |Stability      | Volatile             |

       cargo(1), cargo-metadata(1)

       Source code for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-

       This software was built from source available at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland. The original community
       source was downloaded from  https://static.rust-

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://www.rust-lang.org/.