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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

cdrecord (1)

Name

cdrecord - record audio or data CD, DVD or BluRay

Synopsis

cdrecord   [   general   options  ][  dev=device  ][  track  options  ]
track1...trackn

Description

CDRECORD(1)                 Schily's USER COMMANDS                 CDRECORD(1)



NAME
       cdrecord - record audio or data CD, DVD or BluRay

SYNOPSIS
       cdrecord   [   general   options  ][  dev=device  ][  track  options  ]
       track1...trackn


DESCRIPTION
       Cdrecord is used to record data or audio Compact  Discs  on  an  Orange
       Book CD-recorder, to write DVD media on a DVD-recorder or to write Blu-
       Ray media on a BluRay-recorder.

   Device naming
       Most users do not need to care about device naming at all.  If no  dev=
       option  was  specified,  cdrecord  implements  auto  target support and
       automagically finds the drive in case  that  exactly  one  CD-ROM  type
       drive  is  available  in the system.  In case that more than one CD-ROM
       type drive exists on the system, a list of possible device name parame-
       ters may be retrieved with cdrecord -scanbus or from the target example
       from the output of cdrecord dev=help, then the dev=  parameter  may  be
       set based on the device listing.

       The device parameter to the dev= option explained below refers to scsi-
       bus/target/lun   of   the   CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.     If    a    file
       /etc/default/cdrecord exists, the parameter to the dev= option may also
       be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).


   Constraints for running cdrecord
       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses the real-time class to get the
       highest  scheduling  priority  that is possible (higher than all kernel
       processes).  On systems with POSIX real-time scheduling  cdrecord  uses
       real-time  scheduling  too, but may not be able to gain a priority that
       is higher than all kernel processes.

       In order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS,  run
       at  highest priority and lock itself into core cdrecord either needs to
       be run as root, needs to be installed suid root or must be  called  via
       RBACs pfexec mechanism.


   File to track mapping
       In  Track  At  Once  mode, each track corresponds to a single file that
       contains the prepared data for that track.  If  the  argument  is  `-',
       standard  input  is  used  for that track.  Only one track may be taken
       from stdin.  In the other write modes, the direct file to  track  rela-
       tion  may  not  be implemented.  In -clone mode, a single file contains
       all data for the whole disk.  To allow DVD writing on platforms that do
       not  implement large file support, cdrecord concatenates all file argu-
       ments to a single track when writing to DVD media.


GENERAL OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

   Informative options
       -help  display version information for cdrecord on standard output.

       -version
              Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment the level of general verbosity by one.  This  is  used
              e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

   Media write mode options
       -dummy The  -dummy  option  modifies  the  current write strategy.  The
              CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder will go through all steps of the  record-
              ing  process, but the laser is turned off during this procedure.
              It is recommended to run several tests before  actually  writing
              to  a  Compact Disk or Digital Versatile Disk, if the timing and
              load response of the current system is not yet known.

              The -dummy option does not work with all media and write  modes.
              DVD+  media  and  BluRay media does not support dummy writes and
              most CD-recorders do not support dummy writes in raw mode.

       -multi Allow multi-session CDs or multi-border DVDs to be  made.   This
              flag  needs  to be present on all sessions of a multi-session or
              multi-border disk, except you want to create a session on  a  CD
              that will be the last session on the CD-media.

              For CD-media, the fixation will be done in a way that allows the
              CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder to append additional sessions later. This
              is  done  by  generating  a  TOC with a link to the next program
              area. The so generated media is not 100% compatible to  manufac-
              tured CDs (except for CDplus).  Use only for recording of multi-
              session CDs.  If this option is present, the default track  type
              is  CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1 and the sector size is 2048 bytes.
              The XA sector subheaders will be created by the drive.  The Sony
              drives  have  no  hardware  support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1.
              You have to specify the -data option in order to  create  multi-
              session  disks  on these drives.  If you like to record a multi-
              session disk in SAO mode, you need to force  CD-ROM  sectors  by
              including  the -data option.  Not all drives allow multi-session
              CDs in SAO mode.

              For DVD media, -multi switches the  write  mode  to  incremental
              packet  recording.   There  is  currently  no way to prevent the
              ability to append further sessions and there is  currently  only
              support for DVD-R/DVD-RW media.  To reuse a DVD-RW that has pre-
              viously been written in incremental packet  recording  mode  for
              different  write  modes,  you  need  to  blank  the entire media
              before.

       -dao

       -sao   Set SAO (Session At Once) mode which is usually called  Disk  At
              Once  mode.  This currently only works with MMC drives that sup-
              port Session At Once mode.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the
              size  of  each  track  in advance for this mode (see the mkisofs
              -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section  for  more  informa-
              tion).

              There  are  several  CD writers with bad firmware that result in
              broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  If you  find  any
              problems  with  the  layout of a disk or with subchannel content
              (e.g. wrong times on the display when playing the CD)  and  your
              drive  supports  to  write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should
              give it a try.

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
              mode  in  previous  cdrecord  versions.   With most drives, this
              write mode is required for multi-session recording.

              There are several CD writers with bad firmware  that  result  in
              broken  disks  when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  If you find any
              problems with the layout of a disk or  with  subchannel  content
              (e.g.  wrong  times on the display when playing the CD) and your
              drive supports to write in -raw96r or -raw16  mode,  you  should
              give it a try.

       -raw   Set  RAW  writing  mode.  Using this option defaults to -raw96r.
              Note that cdrecord needs to know  the  size  of  each  track  in
              advance  for  this  mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and
              the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
              Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of raw
              P-W  sub-channel  data resulting in a sector size of 2448 bytes.
              This is the preferred raw writing mode as it gives best  control
              over  the  CD-writing  process.   Writing data disks in raw mode
              needs significantly more CPU time than  other  write  modes.  If
              your CPU is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.  Note
              that cdrecord needs to know the size of each  track  in  advance
              for  this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and the EXAM-
              PLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
              Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors  plus  96  bytes  of
              packed  P-W  sub-channel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
              bytes.  This is the less preferred raw writing mode  as  only  a
              few  recorders  support it and some of these recorders have bugs
              in the firmware implementation.  Don't use  this  mode  if  your
              recorder  supports -raw96r or -raw16.  Writing data disks in raw
              mode needs significantly more CPU time than other  write  modes.
              If  your  CPU  is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.
              Note that cdrecord needs to know  the  size  of  each  track  in
              advance  for  this  mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and
              the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw16 Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes of P-Q
              sub-channel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.  If a
              recorder does not support -raw96r, this  is  the  preferred  raw
              writing mode.  It does not allow to write CD-Text or CD+Graphics
              but it is the only raw writing  mode  in  cheap  CD-writers,  as
              these  cheap  writers  in  most  cases do not support -dao mode.
              Don't use this mode if your recorder supports -raw96r.   Writing
              data  disks  in  raw mode needs significantly more CPU time than
              other write modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may  result  in
              buffer  underruns.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the size of
              each track in advance for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size
              option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

   Cdrecord functional options
       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If you use cdrecord
              only, this should never be needed; but other software may  leave
              a  drive  in an unusable condition.  Calling cdrecord -reset may
              be needed if a previous write has been interrupted and the soft-
              ware did not tell the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -atip  Retrieve  and  print  out the ATIP (Absolute Time In Pre-groove)
              info of a CD/DVD/BluRay recordable or CD/DVD/BluRay  re-writable
              media.  With this option, cdrecord will try to retrieve the ATIP
              info. If the actual drive does not  support  to  read  the  ATIP
              info,  it  may be that only a reduced set of information records
              or even nothing is displayed. Only a limited number of  MMC-com-
              pliant drives support to read the ATIP info.

              If  cdrecord  is able to retrieve the lead-in start time for the
              first session, it will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
              info  from  the media.  DVD media does not have ATIP information
              but there is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
              and printed.

       blank=type
              Blank  a  CD-RW  and  exit  or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
              blanking type may be one of:

              help        Display a list of possible blanking types.

              all         Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

              fast        Minimally blank the disk. This  results  in  erasing
                          the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

              track       Blank the last track.

              unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

              trtail      Blank the tail of a track.

              unclose     Unclose last session.

              session     Blank the last session.

              Not  all  drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary
              to use blank=all if a drive reports a specified command as being
              invalid.  If used together with the -force flag, this option may
              be used to blank CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot  be  blanked.
              Note  that you may need to specify blank=all because some drives
              will not continue with certain types of bad  CD-RW  disks.  Note
              also  that cdrecord does its best if the -force flag is used but
              it finally depends on the drive's firmware whether the  blanking
              operation will succeed or not.

       -checkdrive
              Checks  if  a  driver for the current drive is present and exit.
              If the drive is a known drive, cdrecord uses exit code 0.

       -clone Tells cdrecord to handle images created by readcd  -clone.   The
              -clone  write  mode  may  only  be  used in conjunction with the
              -raw96r or -raw16 option.  Using -clone together with -raw96r is
              preferred  as  it  allows  to  write  all sub-channel data.  The
              -raw16 option should only be used with drives that do  not  sup-
              port to write in -raw96r mode.

              Note that copying in clone mode disables certain levels of error
              correction and thus always results  in  a  quality  degradation.
              Avoid copying audio CDs in clone mode for this reason.

       cuefile=filename
              Take  all  recording-related information from a CDRWIN-compliant
              CUE sheet file.  No track-file arguments to cdrecord are allowed
              when  this  option  is present and one of the following options:
              -dao, -sao, -raw, -raw16, -raw96r is needed in addition.

       defpregap=#
              Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track  number
              1.   This  option currently only makes sense with the TEAC drive
              when creating track-at-once disks without the  2-second  silence
              before each track.
              This option may go away in the future.

       driver=name
              Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
              reason for the existence of the driver=name option is  to  allow
              users  to use cdrecord with drives that are similar to supported
              drives but not known directly  by  cdrecord.   All  drives  made
              after  1997  should be MMC-standard-compliant and thus supported
              by one of the MMC drivers.  It is most unlikely that cdrecord is
              unable  to find the right driver automatically.  Use this option
              with extreme care. If a wrong driver is used for a  device,  the
              possibility  of  creating  corrupted disks is high.  The minimum
              problem related to a wrong driver is that the -speed  or  -dummy
              will not work.

              The following driver names are supported:

              help   To  get  a list of possible drivers together with a short
                     description.

              mmc_bd The generic SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is  auto-selected
                     whenever  cdrecord finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
                     support to write BluRay media or a multi system that con-
                     tains  a  BluRay disk as the current medium.  This driver
                     tries to close the tray, checks the medium found  in  the
                     tray  and  then  branches  to the driver that matches the
                     current medium.

              mmc_bdr
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is  auto-selected
                     whenever  cdrecord finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
                     support to write BluRay BD-R media or a multi system that
                     contains a BluRay BD-R disk as the current medium.

              mmc_bdre
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver is auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord finds an MMC-compliant drive that  does
                     support  to  write  BluRay  BD-RE media or a multi system
                     that contains a BluRay BD-RE disk as the current medium.

              mmc_cd The generic SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver  is  auto-selected
                     whenever  cdrecord finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
                     not identify itself to support writing at  all,  or  that
                     only  identifies  to  support  media  or  write modes not
                     implemented in cdrecord.

              mmc_cd_dvd
                     The generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD/DVD/BluRay  driver  is  auto-
                     selected  whenever  cdrecord finds an MMC-2 or MMC-3-com-
                     pliant drive that seems to support more than  one  medium
                     type  and the tray is open or no medium could be found to
                     select the right driver.  This driver tries to close  the
                     tray,  checks  the  medium  found  in  the  tray and then
                     branches to the driver that matches the current medium.

              mmc_cdr
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever  cdrecord finds an MMC-compliant drive that only
                     supports to write CDs or a multi system drive  that  con-
                     tains a CD as the current medium.

              mmc_cdr_sony
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord  would  otherwise  select  the  mmc_cdr
                     driver  but  the  device  seems  to be made by Sony.  The
                     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely needed for the Sony CDU 928 as
                     this drive does not completely implement the MMC standard
                     and some of the MMC SCSI commands have to be replaced  by
                     Sony  proprietary commands. It seems that all Sony drives
                     (even newer ones) still implement  the  Sony  proprietary
                     SCSI  commands  so it has not yet become a problem to use
                     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
                     drive that does not work with this driver, please report.

              mmc_dvd
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-2  DVD-R/DVD-RW  driver is auto-
                     selected whenever cdrecord finds an MMC-2  or  MMC-3-com-
                     pliant drive that supports to write DVDs and an appropri-
                     ate medium is loaded.  There is no Track At Once mode for
                     DVD writers.

              mmc_dvdplus
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+R/DVD+RW  driver is auto-
                     selected whenever one of the DVD+ media  types  that  are
                     incompatible to each other is found.  It checks media and
                     then branches to the  driver  that  matches  the  current
                     medium.

              mmc_dvdplusr
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+R driver is auto-selected
                     whenever a  DVD+R  medium  is  found  in  an  appropriate
                     writer.    Note  that  for  unknown  reason,  the  DVD+RW
                     Alliance does not like that there is  a  simulation  mode
                     for  DVD+R  media.   The author of cdrecord tries to con-
                     vince manufacturers to implement a  simulation  mode  for
                     DVD+R  and  implement  support.   DVD+R only supports one
                     write mode that is somewhere between Track  At  Once  and
                     Packet writing; this mode is selected in cdrecord via the
                     -dao/-sao option.

              mmc_dvdplusrw
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver  is  auto-selected
                     whenever  a  DVD+RW  medium  is  found  in an appropriate
                     writer.  As DVD+RW media  need  to  be  formatted  before
                     their  first use, cdrecord auto-detects this medium state
                     and performs a format before it starts  to  write.   Note
                     that  for  unknown  reason,  the DVD+RW Alliance does not
                     like that there is a simulation mode nor a way  to  erase
                     DVD+RW  media.   DVD+RW only supports one write mode that
                     is close to Packet writing;  this  mode  is  selected  in
                     cdrecord via the -dao/-sao option.

              cw_7501
                     The  driver  for  Matsushita/Panasonic  CW-7501  is auto-
                     selected when cdrecord  finds  this  old  pre-MMC  drive.
                     Cdrecord supports all write modes for this drive type.

              kodak_pcd_600
                     The  driver  for  Kodak  PCD-600  is  auto-selected  when
                     cdrecord finds this old pre-MMC drive which has been  the
                     first  high  speed  (6x)  CD-writer for a long time. This
                     drive behaves similarly to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

              philips_cdd521
                     The driver for  Philips  CDD-521  is  auto-selected  when
                     cdrecord  finds  a  Philips  CDD-521  drive (which is the
                     first CD-writer ever made) or one  of  the  other  drives
                     that  are  known  to behave similarly to this drive.  All
                     Philips CDD-521 or similar drives (see other  drivers  in
                     this list) do not support Session At Once recording.

              philips_cdd521_old
                     The  driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-521 with very  old  firmware
                     which has some known limitations.

              philips_cdd522
                     The  driver  for  Philips  CDD-522  is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-522 which is  the  successor
                     of  the  521  or  one  of  its variants with Kodak label.
                     Cdrecord does not support Session At Once recording  with
                     these drives.

              philips_dumb
                     The  driver  for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assump-
                     tions is never auto-selected.  It may  be  used  by  hand
                     with drives that behave similarly to the Philips CDD-521.

              pioneer_dws114x
                     The  driver  for  Pioneer  DW-S114X is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds one of the  old  non-MMC  CD-writers  from
                     Pioneer.

              plasmon_rf4100
                     The  driver  for  Plasmon  RF  4100 is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds  this  specific  variant  of  the  Philips
                     CDD-521.

              ricoh_ro1060c
                     The  driver  for  Ricoh  RO-1060C  is  auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds this drive. There is no real  support  for
                     this drive yet.

              ricoh_ro1420c
                     The  driver  for  Ricoh  RO-1420C  is  auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds a drive with this specific variant of  the
                     Philips CDD-521 command set.

              scsi2_cd
                     The  generic  SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver is auto-selected when-
                     ever cdrecord finds a pre-MMC drive that does not support
                     writing  or  a  pre-MMC  writer  that is not supported by
                     cdrecord.

              sony_cdu924
                     The driver for Sony CDU-924 /  CDU-948  is  auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord finds one of the old pre-MMC CD-writers
                     from Sony.

              teac_cdr50
                     The driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC  XR-W2010,
                     Pinnacle  RCD-5020  is  auto-selected whenever one of the
                     drives is found that is known to use the non-MMC  command
                     set used by TEAC and JVC.  Note that many drives from JVC
                     will not work because they do not correctly implement the
                     documented  command set and JVC has been unwilling to fix
                     or document the bugs.  There is no support for  the  Ses-
                     sion At Once write mode yet.

              tyuden_ew50
                     The  driver  for  Taiyo Yuden EW-50 is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds a drive with this specific variant of  the
                     Philips CDD-521 command set.

              yamaha_cdr100
                     The  driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is auto-selected
                     when cdrecord finds one of  the  old  pre-MMC  CD-writers
                     from Yamaha.  There is no support for the Session At Once
                     write mode yet.

              bd_simul
                     The simulation BluRay driver allows  to  run  timing  and
                     speed  tests  with  parameters that match the behavior of
                     BluRay writers.

              cdr_simul
                     The simulation CD-R driver allows to run timing and speed
                     tests with parameters that match the behavior of CD-writ-
                     ers.

              dvd_simul
                     The simulation DVD-R driver  allows  to  run  timing  and
                     speed  tests  with  parameters that match the behavior of
                     DVD writers.

              There are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul  and
              dvd_simul.   These  driver  entries  are designed to make timing
              tests at any speed or timing tests for drives that do  not  sup-
              port  the  -dummy  option.   The  simulation drivers implement a
              drive with a buffer size of 1 MB that can  be  changed  via  the
              CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE  environment  variable.  The simulation driver
              correctly simulates even a buffer underrun  condition.   If  the
              -dummy  option is present, the simulation is not aborted in case
              of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
              Set driver specific options. The  options  are  specified  as  a
              comma  separated  list.   To  get  a  list  of valid options use
              driveropts=help together with the -checkdrive  option.   If  you
              like  to  set  driver options without running a typical cdrecord
              task, you need to use the -setdropts option in addition,  other-
              wise  the  command  line parser in cdrecord will complain.  Cur-
              rently implemented driver options are:

              burnfree
                     Turn the support for Buffer  Underrun  Free  writing  on.
                     This  only  works for drives that support Buffer Underrun
                     Free technology.  This may be called:  Sanyo  BURN-Proof,
                     Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

                     The  default  is to turn BURN-Free off, regardless of the
                     defaults of the drive.

              noburnfree
                     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

              varirec=value
                     Turn on the Plextor VariRec writing mode.  The  mandatory
                     parameter  value  is the laser power offset and currently
                     may be selected from -2, -1, 0, 1, 2.  In  addition,  you
                     need  to  set  the  write  speed  to  4 in order to allow
                     VariRec to work.

              gigarec=value
                     Manage the Plextor GigaRec writing  mode.  The  mandatory
                     parameter  value  is  the disk capacity ratio compared to
                     normal recording and currently may be selected from  0.6,
                     0.7,  0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1,1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values < 1.0
                     are used, then the effect is similar to the Yamaha  Audio
                     Master Q. R.  feature. If values > 1.0 are used, then the
                     disk capacity is increased.

                     Not all drives support all GigaRec values.  When a  drive
                     uses  the  GigaRec feature, the write speed is limited to
                     8x.

              audiomaster
                     Turn on the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  feature which usu-
                     ally  should  result  in  high quality CDs that have less
                     reading problems in Hi-Fi players.   As  this  is  imple-
                     mented as a variant of the Session At Once write mode, it
                     will only work if you select SAO write mode and there  is
                     no  need to turn it off.  The Audio Master mode will work
                     with a limited speed but may also be used with data  CDs.
                     In  Audio Master mode, the pits on the CD will be written
                     larger than usual  so  the  capacity  of  the  medium  is
                     reduced  when  turning  this  feature on.  A 74-minute CD
                     will only have a capacity of 63 minutes if  Audio  Master
                     is  active  and  the  capacity  of a 80-minute CD will be
                     reduced to 68 minutes, the capacity in will be reduced to
                     85%  of  the original capacity.  On newer Plextor drives,
                     this feature is also present but  the  capacity  will  be
                     reduced  to  86.66%  of  the original capacity. For other
                     factors on Plextor drives, see the gigarec option above.

              forcespeed
                     Normally, modern drives know the highest  possible  speed
                     for  different media and may reduce the speed in order to
                     grant best write quality.  This technology may be called:
                     Plextor  PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum Write
                     Speed Control or similar.   Some  drives  (e.g.  Plextor,
                     Ricoh  and  Yamaha)  allow  to force the drive to use the
                     selected speed even if the medium  is  so  bad  that  the
                     write  quality  would  be  poor. This option tells such a
                     drive to force to use the selected  speed  regardless  of
                     the medium quality.

                     Use this option with extreme care and note that the drive
                     should know better which medium will work at full  speed.
                     The  default is to turn forcespeed off, regardless of the
                     defaults of the drive.

              noforcespeed
                     Turn off the force speed feature.

              speedread
                     Some ultra high speed  drives  such  as  48x  and  faster
                     drives  from  Plextor  limit  the  read speed for unknown
                     media to e.g. 40x in order to  avoid  damaged  disks  and
                     drives.   Using  this  option tells the drive to read any
                     media as fast as possible.  Be very careful as  this  may
                     cause  the  media  to  break  in the drive while reading,
                     resulting in damaged media and drive!

              nospeedread
                     Turn off unlimited read speed.

              singlesession
                     Turn the drive into a single-session  only  drive.   This
                     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
                     with extremely non-standard  additional  (broken/illegal)
                     TOC entries in the TOC from the second or higher session.
                     Some of these disks become usable if only the information
                     from  the first session is used.  You need to enable Sin-
                     gle Session mode before you insert the defective disk!

              nosinglesession
                     Turn off single-session mode. The drive will again behave
                     as usual.

              hidecdr
                     Hide the fact that a medium might be a recordable medium.
                     This allows to make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and  applica-
                     tions believe that the media in the drive is not a CD-R.

              nohidecdr
                     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

              tattooinfo
                     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
                     image size information for the  Yamaha  DiskT@2  feature.
                     The  images  always  have  a  line length of 3744 pixels.
                     Line number 0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center  of  the
                     disk.   If you know the inner and outer radii you will be
                     able to create a  pre  distorted  image  that  later  may
                     appear undistorted on the disk.

              tattoofile=name
                     Use  this  option  together  with -checkdrive to write an
                     image prepared for the  Yamaha  DiskT@2  feature  to  the
                     medium.   The file must be a file with raw image B&W data
                     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
                     call  to tattooinfo.  If the size of the image equals the
                     maximum possible size (3744 x 320 pixels), cdrecord  will
                     use the first part of the file. This first part then will
                     be written to the leftover space on the CD.

                     Note that the image must be mirrored to be readable  from
                     the pick up side of the CD.

              layerbreak
                     Switch  a  drive  with  DVD-R/DL  medium  into layer jump
                     recording recording mode and  use  automatic  layer-break
                     position setup.

                     By  default,  DVD-R/DL  media  is  written  in sequential
                     recording mode that completely fills up both layers.

              layerbreak=value
                     Set up  a  manual  layer-break  value  for  DVD-R/DL  and
                     DVD+R/DL.   The  specified  layer-break value must not be
                     set to less than half of the recorded data size and  must
                     not be set to more than the remaining Layer 0 size of the
                     medium.  The manual layer-break value needs to be a  mul-
                     tiple  of  the  ECC  sector size which is 16 logical 2048
                     byte sectors in case of DVD media  and  32  logical  2048
                     byte sectors in case of HD-DVD or BD media.

                     Cdrecord  does  not  allow to write DL media in case that
                     the total amount of data is less then the Layer 0 size of
                     the  medium  except  when  a  manual layer-break has been
                     specified by using the layerbreak=value option.

       -eject Eject disk after doing the work.  Some  devices  (e.g.  Philips)
              need  to  eject  the  medium before creating a new disk. Doing a
              -dummy test and immediately creating a real disk would not  work
              on these devices.

       -fix   The  disk  will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-reader will
              be written).  This may be used, if for some reason the disk  has
              been  written  but  not  fixated. This option currently does not
              work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -force Force to continue on some errors. Be  careful  when  using  this
              option.   Cdrecord  implements  several  checks that prevent you
              from doing unwanted things like damaging CD-RW media by improper
              drives.  Many  of the sanity checks are disabled when the -force
              option is used.

              This option also implements some tricks that will allow  you  to
              blank bad CD-RW disks.

       -format
              Format  a  CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW/BD-RE  disc.   Formatting is cur-
              rently only implemented for DVD+RW and BD-RE media.  A  'maiden'
              DVD+RW  or  BD-RE  medium  needs  to be formatted before you may
              write to it.  However, as cdrecord autodetects the need for for-
              matting  in  this  case  and  auto  formats the medium before it
              starts writing, the -format option is only needed if you like to
              forcibly reformat a DVD+RW or BD-RE medium.

       fs=#   Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syn-
              tax as in dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the
              size  is taken in bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a number
              is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m',  `s'  or  `f',
              the  size  is  multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.
              If the size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*',  multi-
              plication  of the two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k will
              specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

              The size specified by the fs= argument includes the shared  mem-
              ory that is needed for administration. This is at least one page
              of memory.  If no fs= option is present, cdrecord  will  try  to
              get  the FIFO size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.  The
              default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

              The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real-time writing
              process.   It  allows  to  run a pipe from mkisofs directly into
              cdrecord.  If the FIFO is active and a pipe  from  mkisofs  into
              cdrecord is used to create a CD, cdrecord will abort prior to do
              any modifications on the disk if  mkisofs  dies  before  writing
              starts.   The recommended FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes.
              As a rule of thumb, the FIFO size should be at  least  equal  to
              the  size  of  the internal buffer of the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder
              and no more than half of the physical amount of RAM available in
              the  machine.   If the FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO statis-
              tics will print a FIFO empty count of zero and a FIFO  min  fill
              not  below  20%.   It  is not wise to use too much space for the
              FIFO. If you need more than 8 MB to write a CD at a  speed  less
              than  20x  from  an  image  on  a  local  file system on an idle
              machine, your machine is either underpowered, has hardware prob-
              lems  or  is  mis-configured.   If  you like to write DVDs or to
              write CDs at higher speed, it makes sense to use at least  16 MB
              for the FIFO.

              On  old and small machines, you need to be more careful with the
              FIFO size.  If your machine has less  than  256 MB  of  physical
              RAM,  you should not set up a FIFO size that is more than 32 MB.
              The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
              table  entries  for  16 MBytes  per  process.  Using  more  than
              14 MBytes for the FIFO may cause the operating  system  in  this
              case  to  spend  much  time to constantly reload the MMU tables.
              Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU  hardware  problem.
              The  author  has  no  information on PC hardware reflecting this
              problem.

              Old Linux systems for non-x86 platforms have broken  definitions
              for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
              kernel or manually tell cdrecord to use a smaller FIFO.

              If you have buffer underruns or similar problems  (like  a  con-
              stantly empty drive-buffer) and observe a zero fifo empty count,
              you have hardware problems that prevent the  data  from  flowing
              fast  enough  from the kernel memory to the drive. The FIFO size
              in this case is sufficient, but you should check for  a  working
              DMA setup.

       gracetime=#
              Set  the grace time before starting to write to # seconds.  Val-
              ues below 3 seconds are not allowed in order to prevent the vol-
              ume management from interrupting the write process.

       -ignsize
              Ignore  the known size of the medium. This option should be used
              with extreme care, it exists only for debugging purposes  so  do
              not  use  it for other reasons.  It is not needed to write disks
              with more than the nominal capacity.  This option implies -over-
              burn.

       -immed Tell  cdrecord  to  set  the SCSI IMMED flag in certain commands
              (load, eject, blank, close_track, close_session).  This  can  be
              useful  on broken systems with ATAPI hard-disk and CD/DVD/BluRay
              writer on the same bus or with SCSI systems that do not use dis-
              connect/reconnect.   These systems will freeze while blanking or
              fixating a CD/DVD/BluRay or while a DVD writer is filling  up  a
              session  to  the  minimum  amount (approx. 800 MB).  Setting the
              -immed flag will request the command to return immediately while
              the  operation proceeds in background, making the bus usable for
              the other devices and avoiding the system freeze.   This  is  an
              experimental  feature  which  may  work or not, depending on the
              model of the CD/DVD/BluRay writer.  A correct solution would  be
              to  set  up  a  correct  cabling  but there seem to be notebooks
              around that have been set up the wrong way by the  manufacturer.
              As it is impossible to fix this problem in notebooks, the -immed
              option has been added.

              A second experimental feature of the  -immed  flag  is  to  tell
              cdrecord  to try to wait short times while writing to the media.
              This is expected to free the IDE bus if the CD/DVD/BluRay writer
              and the data source are connected to the same IDE cable. In this
              case, the CD/DVD/BluRay writer would otherwise usually block the
              IDE  bus  for  nearly all the time making it impossible to fetch
              data from the source drive. See also the minbuf= and -v options.

              Use both features at your own risk.  If it  turns  out  that  it
              would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
              write to the author and convince him.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print  the  inquiry  info  for  the
              drive and exit.

       -load  Load  the  media  and  exit. This only works with a tray-loading
              mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the  Kodak  disk
              transporter.

       -lock  Load  the  media, lock the door and exit. This only works with a
              tray-loading mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the
              Kodak disk transporter.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
              Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       minbuf=value
              The  minbuf=  option  allows  to define the minimum drive-buffer
              fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
              to  free the IDE bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD/BluRay writer
              to be on the same IDE cable.  As the wait  mode  currently  only
              works  when  the  verbose option -v has been specified, cdrecord
              implies the verbose option in case the -immed or minbuf=  option
              has been specified.  Valid values for minbuf= are between 25 and
              95 for 25%...95% minimum drive-buffer fill ratio.

       -media-info

       -minfo Retrieve and print information about the state  of  the  medium.
              This option currently only works for MMC-compliant drives.

       -msinfo
              Retrieve  multi-session info in a form suitable for mkisofs-1.10
              or later.

              This option makes only sense with a CD that  contains  at  least
              one  closed  session and is appendable (not finally closed yet).
              Some drives create error messages if you try to get  the  multi-
              session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -noclose
              Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ-
              ing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the  tracks.  This  may  be
              used  to  create  an audio disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can
              usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive but there  are
              audio CD-players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -overburn
              Allow cdrecord to write more than the official size of a medium.
              This feature is usually called overburning and  depends  on  the
              fact that most blank media may hold more space than the official
              size. As the official size of the lead-out area on the  disk  is
              90  seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if there are
              at least 150 sectors of lead out, all media may be overburned by
              at  least  88 seconds (6600 sectors).  Most CD-recorders only do
              overburning in SAO or RAW mode. Known exceptions  are  TEAC  CD-
              R50S,  TEAC  CD-R55S  and the Panasonic CW-7502.  Some drives do
              not allow to overburn as much as you might like  and  limit  the
              size  of  a  CD  to e.g. 76 minutes. This problem may be circum-
              vented by writing the CD in RAW mode because this way the  drive
              has  no  chance to find the size before starting to burn.  There
              is no guarantee that your drive  supports  overburning  at  all.
              Make a test to check if your drive implements the feature.

       -packet
              Set Packet writing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       pktsize=#
              Set  the packet size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This is an
              experimental interface.

       -prcap Print the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc-compliant drives  as
              obtained  from  mode  page  0x2A. Values marked with kB use 1000
              bytes as kilo-byte, values marked with  KB  use  1024  bytes  as
              Kilo-byte.

       -setdropts
              Set  the  driveropts  specified  by  driveropts=option list, the
              speed of the drive and the dummy flag  and  exit.   This  allows
              cdrecord  to set drive specific parameters that are not directly
              used by cdrecord like e.g.  single session mode,  hide  cdr  and
              similar.   It  is  needed  in  case  that driveropts=option list
              should be called without planning  to  run  a  typical  cdrecord
              task.

       speed=#
              Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.  # is an inte-
              ger, representing a multiple of what has been defined as  single
              speed for the medium.

              For CD-media, single speed is the audio playback speed.  This is
              about 150 KB/s for CD-ROM and about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio.  Sin-
              gle  speed  is about 1385 kB/s for DVD media and about 4496 kB/s
              for BluRay media.

              If no speed option is present, cdrecord will try to get a  drive
              specific  speed value from the file /etc/default/cdrecord and if
              it cannot find one, it will try to get the speed value from  the
              CDR_SPEED  environment  and  later  from the CDR_SPEED= entry in
              /etc/default/cdrecord.   If  no  speed  value  could  be  found,
              cdrecord  uses  a drive specific default speed.  The default for
              all new (MMC-compliant) drives is to use the  maximum  supported
              by  the  drive.   If you use speed=0 with a MMC-compliant drive,
              cdrecord will switch to the lowest possible speed for drive  and
              medium.   If you are using an old (non-MMC) drive that has prob-
              lems with speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.

       -text  Write CD-Text information based on information taken from a file
              that  contains ascii information for the text strings.  Cdrecord
              supports CD-Text information based on the content of  the  *.inf
              files  created  by cdda2wav and CD-Text information based on the
              content from a CUE sheet file.  If a  CUE  sheet  file  contains
              both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
              the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

              You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
              cdrecord to read the *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to
              tell cdrecord to read a CUE sheet file in addition.  If you like
              to  write  your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf files or
              the CUE sheet file with a text editor and change the fields that
              are relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
              Write  CD-Text  based  on  information  found in the binary file
              filename.  This file must contain information in a  data  format
              defined  in  the  SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the Red Book. The
              four-byte-sized header that is defined in the SCSI  standard  is
              optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
              ambiguous.  This is the best option to be used to  copy  CD-Text
              data  from  existing CDs that already carry CD-Text information.
              To get data in a format suitable for this  option  use  cdrecord
              -vv  -toc  to  extract  the  information  from  disk.   If both,
              textfile=filename and CD-Text information from  *.inf  or  *.cue
              files  are  present,  textfile=filename will overwrite the other
              information.

       -toc   Retrieve and print out the table of contents or  PMA  of  a  CD.
              With  this  option, cdrecord will work with CD-R drives and with
              CD-ROM drives.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before try-
              ing  to  open  the SCSI driver. This allows cdrecord to read its
              input from a pipe even when writing  additional  sessions  to  a
              multi-session  disk.   When  writing another session to a multi-
              session disk, mkisofs needs to read the  old  session  from  the
              device  before  writing output.  This cannot be done if cdrecord
              opens the SCSI driver at the same time.

       -useinfo
              Use *.inf files to overwrite audio options.  If this  option  is
              used,  the  pregap  size information, the index information, the
              pre-emphasis information and the  CD-Text  information  is  read
              from  the  *.inf file that is associated with the file that con-
              tains the audio data for a track.

              If used together with the -audio option, cdrecord may be used to
              write  audio  CDs from a pipe from cdda2wav if you call cdrecord
              with the *.inf files as track parameter list  instead  of  using
              audio  files.   The  audio data is read from stdin in this case.
              See EXAMPLES section below.  Cdrecord first verifies that  stdin
              is  not  connected to a terminal and runs some heuristic consis-
              tency checks on the *.inf files and then sets the track  lengths
              from the information in the *.inf files.

              If  you  like  to  write  from stdin, make sure that cdrecord is
              called with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the write speed  to
              a  value below the read speed of the source drive and switch the
              burn-free option for the recording drive on.


   SCSI options
       dev=target
              Set the SCSI target for the  CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder,  see  notes
              above.  A typical target device specification is dev=1,6,0 .  If
              a filename must be provided together with the  numerical  target
              specification,  the  filename  is  implementation specific.  The
              correct filename in this case can be found in  the  system  spe-
              cific manuals of the target operating system.  On a FreeBSD sys-
              tem without CAM support, you need  to  use  the  control  device
              (e.g.   /dev/rcd0.ctl).   A correct device specification in this
              case may be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

            General SCSI addressing
              The target device to the  dev=  option  refers  to  scsibus/tar-
              get/lun of the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder. Communication on SunOS is
              done with the SCSI general driver scg.  Other operating  systems
              are  using a library simulation of this driver.  Possible syntax
              is: dev= scsibus,target,lun or dev= target,lun.  In  the  latter
              case,  the  CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder  has  to  be connected to the
              default SCSI bus of the machine.  Scsibus, target  and  lun  are
              integer  numbers.   Some  operating  systems  or  SCSI transport
              implementations may require to specify a filename  in  addition.
              In  this case the correct syntax for the device is: dev= device-
              name:scsibus,target,lun or dev= devicename:target,lun.   If  the
              name of the device node that has been specified on such a system
              refers to exactly one SCSI device, a shorthand in the form  dev=
              devicename:@  or  dev=  devicename:@,lun  may be used instead of
              dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun.

            Remote SCSI addressing
              To access remote SCSI devices, you  need  to  prepend  the  SCSI
              device  name  by  a  remote  device indicator. The remote device
              indicator is either REMOTE:user@host: or  REMOTE:host:  A  valid
              remote  SCSI  device  name  may  be:  REMOTE:user@host: to allow
              remote SCSI bus scanning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the
              SCSI  device  at host connected to SCSI bus # 1,target 0, lun 0.
              In order to allow remote access to a specific host, the rscsi(1)
              program needs to be present and configured on the host.

            Alternate SCSI transports
              Cdrecord  is  completely  based  on SCSI commands but this is no
              problem as all CD/DVD/BluRay writers ever made use SCSI commands
              for  the  communication.  Even ATAPI drives are just SCSI drives
              that inherently use the ATA packet  interface  as  SCSI  command
              transport  layer  build  into  the IDE (ATA) transport.  You may
              need to specify an alternate  transport  layer  on  the  command
              line  if  your  OS  does not implement a fully integrated kernel
              driver subsystem that allows to access any drive using SCSI com-
              mands via a single unique user interface.

              To  access SCSI devices via alternate transport layers, you need
              to prepend the SCSI device name by a transport layer  indicator.
              The  transport  layer  indicator may be something like USCSI: or
              ATAPI:.  To get a list of supported transport  layers  for  your
              platform, use dev= HELP:

            Portability Background
              To make cdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev=
              devicename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as it hides  OS  spe-
              cific knowledge about device names from the user.  A specific OS
              may not necessarily support a way to specify a real device  file
              name nor a way to specify scsibus,target,lun.

              Scsibus 0 is the default SCSI bus on the machine. Watch the boot
              messages for more information or look into /var/adm/messages for
              more  information  about the SCSI configuration of your machine.
              If you have problems to figure out what values for  scsibus,tar-
              get,lun  should  be  used,  try  the -scanbus option of cdrecord
              described below.

            Using logical names for devices
              If no dev option is present, cdrecord will try to get the device
              from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

              If  a  file /etc/default/cdrecord exists, and if the argument to
              the dev= option or the CDR_DEVICE environment does  not  contain
              the  characters  ',',  '/',  '@'  or ':', it is interpreted as a
              device   label   name   that   was   defined   in    the    file
              /etc/default/cdrecord (see FILES section).

            Autotarget Mode
              If  no  dev= option and no CDR_DEVICE environment is present, or
              if it only contains a transport specifier but no  address  nota-
              tion,  cdrecord  tries to scan the SCSI address space for CD-ROM
              drives.  If exactly one is found, this is used by default.

       debug=#, -d
              Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#)  or  increment  the
              misc  debug  level  by  one  (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
              equals to debug=2.  This may help to find problems while opening
              a  driver  for  libscg  as  well as with sector sizes and sector
              types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may be the  rea-
              son for a buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
              Tell  the scg-driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI
              commands are running.

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD-recorder is located. This
              does not work on all operating systems.

       -scanbus
              Scan  all  SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry
              strings. This option may be used to find  SCSI  address  of  the
              CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder  on a system.  The numbers printed out as
              labels are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       -silent, -s
              Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       timeout=#
              Set the default SCSI command timeout value to  #  seconds.   The
              default  SCSI  command  timeout  is the minimum timeout used for
              sending SCSI commands.  If a SCSI command fails due to  a  time-
              out, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout above
              the timeout value of the failed command.  If  the  command  runs
              correctly  with a raised command timeout, please report the bet-
              ter timeout value and the corresponding command to the author of
              the  program.  If no timeout= option is present, a default time-
              out of 40 seconds is used.

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for a single SCSI  command  to  #.
              The  syntax  for the ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=#
              or sdd bs=#.

              If no ts= option has been  specified,  cdrecord  defaults  to  a
              transfer  size  of  63 kB.  If libscg gets lower values from the
              operating system, the value is reduced to the maximum value that
              is  possible  with  the current operating system.  Sometimes, it
              may help to further reduce the transfer size or to  enhance  it,
              but  note that it may take a long time to find a better value by
              experimenting with the ts= option.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI command transport
              by  one.   This  helps  to  debug  problems  during  the writing
              process, that occur in the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.  If  you  get
              incomprehensible  error messages you should use this flag to get
              more detailed output.  -VV will  show  data  buffer  content  in
              addition.  Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be the
              reason for a buffer underrun.


TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-DA  (similar  to  Red Book) audio format.  The file with data
              for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
              44100  samples/s.   The  byte order should be the following: MSB
              left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and  so  on.  The
              track  should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to
              put the master image of an audio track on  a  raw  disk  because
              data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
              process.

              If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a
              structured  audio  data file.  Cdrecord assumes that the file in
              this case is a Sun audio file  or  a  Microsoft  .WAV  file  and
              extracts the audio data from the files by skipping over the non-
              audio header information.  In all  other  cases,  cdrecord  will
              only  work  correctly if the audio data stream does not have any
              header.  Because many structured audio  files  do  not  have  an
              integral  number of blocks (1/75th second each) in length, it is
              often necessary to specify the -pad option  as  well.   cdrecord
              recognizes  that  audio  data  in a .WAV file is stored in Intel
              (little-endian) byte order, and will automatically byte-swap the
              data if the CD-recorder requires big-endian data.  Cdrecord will
              reject any audio file that does not match the Red Book  require-
              ments  of  16-bit  stereo  samples  in  PCM coding at 44100 sam-
              ples/second.

              Using other structured audio data formats as input  to  cdrecord
              will  usually work if the structure of the data is the structure
              described above (raw pcm data in big-endian byte  order).   How-
              ever,  if  the  data  format  includes a header, you will hear a
              click at the start of the track.

              If neither  -data  nor  -audio  have  been  specified,  cdrecord
              defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and
              to -data for all other files.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, the TOC type for the  disk  is  set  to
              CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -copy  If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission  to  be  copied  without  limit.   This option has no
              effect on data tracks.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size is a multiple
              of 2048 bytes.  The file  with  track  data  should  contain  an
              ISO-9660  or  Rock  Ridge filesystem image (see mkisofs for more
              details). If the track data is an ufs filesystem image, fragment
              size  should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives with 2 KB
              sector size to be used for reading.

              -data is the default, if no other flag is present and  the  file
              does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file types.

              If  neither  -data  nor  -audio  have  been  specified, cdrecord
              defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and
              to -data for all other files.

       index=list
              Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
              separated list of numbers that are counting from  index  1.  The
              first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
              must be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75  seconds)
              that  represent  the  start of the indices. An index list in the
              form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
              2  100  seconds from the start of the track and index 3 200 sec-
              onds from the start of the track.

       -isosize
              Use the ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the next track.
              This  option is needed if you want cdrecord to directly read the
              image of a track from a raw disk partition or from a TAO  master
              CD. In the first case the option -isosize is needed to limit the
              size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second
              case  the  option  -isosize  is  needed to prevent cdrecord from
              reading the two run-out blocks that are  appended  by  each  CD-
              recorder  in track-at-once mode. These two run-out blocks cannot
              be read and would cause a buffer underrun  that  would  cause  a
              defective copy.

              Note  that  if  this option is used on files created by mkisofs,
              the padding data that was added by mkisofs is lost and  replaced
              by  padding  added by cdrecord.  This may also change the amount
              of padding.

              In case cdrecord reads the track data from stdin, only the first
              track may be used with the -isosize option.

              If -isosize is used for a track, cdrecord will automatically add
              padding for this track as if the -pad option had been  used  but
              the  amount  of  padding may be less than the padding written by
              mkisofs.  Note that if you use -isosize on a track that contains
              Sparc boot information, the boot information will be lost.

              Note  also that this option cannot be used to determine the size
              of a file system if the -multi option is present.

       isrc=ISRC_number
              Set the International Standard Recording  Number  for  the  next
              track to ISRC_number.

       -mode2 If  this  flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data size is a multiple of 2336 bytes.

       -nocopy
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries  for  subsequent  audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission to be copied only once for personal use - this is the
              default.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

       -nopreemp
              If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks will indicate that the audio data has been mastered  with
              linear data - this is the default.

       -noshorttrack
              Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
              least 4 seconds.

       -pad   If the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will  be
              added  to  the  end  of this and each subsequent data track.  In
              this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
              It  will  remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.  If the
              -pad option refers to an audio  track,  cdrecord  will  pad  the
              audio  data to be a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data pad-
              ding is done with binary  zeroes  which  is  equal  to  absolute
              silence.

              -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

       padsize=#
              Set  the  amount  of  data to be appended as padding to the next
              track to #.  Opposed to the behavior of  the  -pad  option,  the
              value  for  padsize=  is  reset  to  zero  for  each  new track.
              Cdrecord assumes a sector size of 2048 bytes  for  the  padsize=
              option,  independent  from  the real sector size and independent
              from the write mode.  The megabytes  mentioned  in  the  verbose
              mode output however are counting the output sector size which is
              e.g. 2448 bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96  mode.   See  the  fs=
              option for possible arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 min-
              utes on a CD, you may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this  option
              if your CD-drive is not able to read the last sectors of a track
              or if you want to be able to read the CD on a Linux system  with
              the  ISO-9660  filesystem  read-ahead  bug.  If an empty file is
              used for track data, this option may be used to  create  a  disk
              that is entirely made of padding.  This may e.g. be used to find
              out how much overburning is possible with a specific medium.

       -preemp
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries  for  subsequent  audio
              tracks  will  indicate that the audio data has been sampled with
              50/15 microsec pre-emphasis.  The data however is  not  modified
              during  the  process  of  transferring  from file to disk.  This
              option has no effect on data tracks.

       pregap=#
              Set the  pre-gap size for the next track.  This option currently
              only makes sense with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once
              disks without the 2-second silence before each track.
              This option may go away in the future.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries  for  subsequent  audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              no permission to be copied anymore.

       -shorttrack
              Allow all subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track length
              standard  which  requires  a  minimum track length of 4 seconds.
              This option is only useful when used in SAO or  RAW  mode.   Not
              all  drives  support  this  feature.  The  drive must accept the
              resulting CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is assumed to  be  in  byte-
              swapped  (little-endian)  order.   Some types of CD-writers e.g.
              Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
              be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
              audio data to be presented  in  the  big-endian  (network)  byte
              order  normally  used by the SCSI protocol.  Cdrecord knows if a
              CD-recorder needs audio data in big- or little-endian order, and
              corrects the byte order of the data stream to match the needs of
              the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data  stream
              is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

              Note  that the verbose output of cdrecord will show you if swap-
              ping is necessary to make the byte order of the input  data  fit
              the required byte order of the recorder.  Cdrecord will not show
              you if the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       tsize=#
              If the master image for the next track has been stored on a  raw
              disk,  use  this  option  to specify the valid amount of data on
              this disk. If the image of the next track is stored in a regular
              file,  the size of that file is taken to determine the length of
              this track.  If the track contains an ISO-9660 filesystem  image
              use the -isosize option to determine the length of that filesys-
              tem image.
              In Disk At Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC pro-
              gramming  interface,  even in Track At Once mode, cdrecord needs
              to know the size of each track  before  starting  to  write  the
              disk.   Cdrecord  now  checks this and aborts before starting to
              write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs -print-size
              before  and use the output (with `s' appended) as an argument to
              the tsize= option of cdrecord (e.g. tsize=250000s).
              See fs= option for possible arguments.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a multiple of
              2048 bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers will be  created  by  the
              drive.  With this option, the write mode is the same as with the
              -multi option.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a multiple of
              2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers are part of the user data
              and  have  to  be  supplied by the application that prepares the
              data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 2 format. The data is a multiple of 2324
              bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers will be created by the drive.

       -xamix If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in  a
              way  that  allows a mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1/2 format. The
              data size is a multiple of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector  sub-head-
              ers  are  part  of  the user data and have to be supplied by the
              application that prepares the data to be written.  The  CRC  and
              the  P/Q  parity  ECC/EDC  information  (depending on the sector
              type) have to be supplied by the application that  prepares  the
              data to be written.


EXAMPLES
       For  all  examples  below, it will be assumed that the machine includes
       two drives.  The reader is assumed to be target 1 on the  primary  SCSI
       bus.   The CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder is assumed to be target 2 on the pri-
       mary SCSI bus of the machine.

       If there is only one drive in the machine, the dev= option may be omit-
       ted  in  the examples below, but in this case the examples for replica-
       tion without intermediate files do not apply.


   Replicating an Audio CD
       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

           cdda2wav dev=1,0 paraopts=proof -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then run

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This will try to copy track indices and  to  read  CD-Text  information
       from  disk.   If  there is no CD-Text information, cdda2wav will try to
       get the information from freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio CD from a pipe (without intermediate files), first run

           cdda2wav dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then run

           cdda2wav dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
           cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This will get all information (including  track  size  info)  from  the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data from stdin.

       If you like to write from stdin, make sure that cdrecord is called with
       a large enough FIFO size (e.g.  fs=128m), reduce the write speed  to  a
       value  below  the  read speed of the source drive (e.g.  speed=12), and
       switch the burn-free option  for  the  recording  drive  on  by  adding
       driveropts=burnfree.   For  the  same  reason, it is not recommended to
       extract the audio data in paranoia mode in this case.


   Replicating a simple CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
       To copy a simple disk, first read the master using:

           readcd dev=1,0 f=somefile

       Then write the disk using:

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -v somefile


   Replicating a CD-ROM in clone mode
       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

           readcd dev=1,0 -clone f=somefile

       or (in case the CD contains many sectors that are unreadable by  inten-
       tion) by calling:

           readcd dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       This  will  create the files somefile and somefile.toc.  Then write the
       CD using:

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile


   Creating an Audio CD
       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with  each  track  con-
       tained in files named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc.:

           cdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -dao -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check  if  it will be OK to use double speed for the example above,
       use the dummy write option:

           cdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -dao -audio track*.cdaudio

   Creating a mixed Audio-Data CD
       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO-9660 filesystem from  cdimage.raw
       on  the first track, the other tracks being audio tracks from the files
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc.:

           cdrecord -v dev=2,0 -dao cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

   Creating a CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
       To record a pure disk at double speed, using data from the  file  cdim-
       age.raw:

           cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 -dao cdimage.raw

       To  create  an  image for an ISO-9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge exten-
       sions:

           mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to disk on Solaris:

           mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       The fbk driver first appeared in 1988.

       Solaris 9 or newer comes with a variant of the original fbk idea called
       lofi.  The command for the lofi variant is:

            mount -r -F hsfs ` lofiadm -a /tmp/cdimage.raw ` /mnt

       Note that lofiadm needs absolute path names.

       On Linux:

           mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
           ls -lR /mnt
           umount /mnt

       If  the  overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of
       the filesystem is not too complex, cdrecord will run  without  creating
       an image of the ISO-9660 filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

           mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord -v -dao fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The  recommended  minimum  FIFO  size  for  running  this pipeline is 4
       MBytes.  As the default FIFO size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs  to  be
       present  only if you want to use a different FIFO size.  If your system
       is loaded, you should run mkisofs in the real-time class too.  To raise
       the priority of mkisofs replace the command

           mkisofs -R /master/tree
       by
           priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

           nice --18 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on  systems  that  do  not  have UNIX International-compliant real-time
       scheduling.

       Cdrecord runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run mkisofs  at  no
       more  than  priority 58. On other systems, you should run mkisofs at no
       less than nice --18.

       Creating a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested  on
       a  Sparcstation-2  with  a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed
       when the machine was not loaded.  A faster machine may be able to  han-
       dle quad speed also in the loaded case.


       To  handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting
       to write, first run

           mkisofs -R -quiet -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

           mkisofs  -R  /master/tree  |  cdrecord  -v  -dao  speed=2   dev=2,0
       tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of mkisofs.


   Setting drive options
       To  set drive options without writing a disk (e.g. to switch a drive to
       single-session mode), run

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no disk is in the drive, call

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession


ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
              This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the
              open  call  of the SCSI transport library or a label in the file
              /etc/default/cdrecord.

       CDR_SPEED
              Sets the default  speed  value  for  writing  (see  also  -speed
              option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
              Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
              If  this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you to
              write at the full RAW encoding  speed  a  single  CPU  supports.
              This  will  create  high potential of buffer underruns. Use with
              care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
              If this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you  to
              write  at  the  full DMA speed the system supports.  There is no
              DMA reserve for reading the data that  is  to  be  written  from
              disk.   This will create high potential of buffer underruns. Use
              with care.

              If this environment variable is set to the value  any,  cdrecord
              allows  to write at any speed even though it may fail later with
              a buffer underrun.

       RSH    If the RSH environment is present, the  remote  connection  will
              not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the program pointed to
              by RSH.  Use e.g.  RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to  create  a  secure  shell
              connection.

              Note  that  this  forces cdrecord to create a pipe to the rsh(1)
              program and disallows cdrecord to directly  access  the  network
              socket to the remote server.  This makes it impossible to set up
              performance parameters and slows down the connection compared to
              a root-initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
              not  be  the  program  /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the  program
              pointed  to  by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server program
              name will be ignored if you log in using  an  account  that  has
              been created with a remote SCSI server program as login shell.


FILES
       /etc/default/cdrecord
              Default   values  can  be  set  for  the  following  options  in
              /etc/default/cdrecord.    For   example:   CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m    or
              CDR_SPEED=2

              CDR_DEVICE
                     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
                     to the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
                     in the file /etc/default/cdrecord that allows to identify
                     a specific drive on the system.

              CDR_SPEED
                     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed
                     option).

              CDR_FIFOSIZE
                     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
                     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              Any other label
                     is  an  identifier  for  a  specific drive on the system.
                     Such an identifier may not contain  the  characters  ',',
                     '/', '@' or ':'.

                     Each  line  that follows a label contains a TAB separated
                     list of items.  Currently, four items are recognized: the
                     SCSI  ID  of  the drive, the default speed that should be
                     used for this drive, the default FIFO size that should be
                     used  for this drive and drive specific options. The val-
                     ues for speed and fifosize may  be  set  to  -1  to  tell
                     cdrecord  to  use  the  global  defaults.   The value for
                     driveropts may be set to "" if no driveropts are used.  A
                     typical line may look this way:

                     teac1= 0,5,0   4    8m   ""

                     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1   -1   burnfree

                     This  tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at scsi-
                     bus 0, target 5, lun 0 and should be used  with  speed  4
                     and  a FIFO size of 8 MB.  A second drive may be found at
                     scsibus 1, target 6, lun 0 and uses the default speed and
                     the default FIFO size.


       *.inf  The  *.inf  files are created by cdda2wav where * is replaced by
              the actual audio  file  prefix.   They  are  read  and  used  by
              cdrecord in case cdrecord was called with the -useinfo option.

              There are three general types of parameters:

              numerical parameters
                     A  numerical  parameter  is a number and directly follows
                     the tag label without any quoting.

              unquoted string type parameters
                     An unquoted parameter is make from one or more words that
                     directly  follow  the tag label.  How many words from the
                     parameter list are used by cdrecord depends  on  the  tag
                     label.

              quoted string type parameters
                     A string type parameter is enclosed in single quotes. The
                     string starts after the first single quote character that
                     follows  the  tag  label  and ends before the last single
                     quote on the same line.  It needs no escape sequences  in
                     case  that a single quote appears inside the string.  Any
                     text to the right of the rightmost single quote character
                     is ignored.

              The order of the tag labels in the file is not important.

              The following tag labels may appear in a *.inf file:

              CDINDEX_DISCID=
                     The  cdindex  disk ID is used by the musicbrainz CD-data-
                     base.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

                     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord.

              CDDB_DISCID=
                     The cddb disk ID is used by the cddb and the  freedb  CD-
                     database.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord.

              MCN=   The  Media Catalog Number (MCN) is a 13 digit number that
                     follows UPC/EAN-13 rules.

                     The data is used by cdrecord to create sub-channel data.

              ISRC=  The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is a  12
                     byte string that is created from two uppercase characters
                     for the country code, followed by three uppercase charac-
                     ters  for  the owner, followed by two digits for the year
                     of recording followed by five digits  for  the  recording
                     serial number.

                     To increase the readability of the ISRC tag, there may be
                     a minus sign between every two fields of the ISRC string.

                     The data is used by cdrecord to create sub-channel data.

              Albumtitle=
                     The Album Title is the name of the disk  in  the  CD-Text
                     information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Tracktitle=
                     The  Track  Title is the name of the current track in the
                     CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albumperformer=
                     The Album Performer is the global name of the of the per-
                     former of the disk in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Performer=
                     The  Performer is the name of the of the performer of the
                     current track in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albumsongwriter=
                     The Album Songwriter is the global name  of  the  of  the
                     songwriter of the disk in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Songwriter=
                     The  Songwriter  is  the name of the of the songwriter of
                     the current track in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albumcomposer=
                     The Album Composer is the global name of the of the  com-
                     poser of the disk in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Composer=
                     The  Composer  is  the name of the of the composer of the
                     current track in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albumarranger=
                     The Album Arranger is the  global  name  of  the  of  the
                     arranger of the disk in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Arranger=
                     The  Arranger  is  the name of the of the arranger of the
                     current track in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albummessage=
                     The Album Message is the global message text of the  disk
                     in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Message=
                     The  Message  is the message text of the current track in
                     the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albumclosed_info=
                     The Album Closed_info is the global closed info  text  of
                     the disk in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Closed_info=
                     The  Closed_info  is  the closed info text of the current
                     track in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Track= The parameter contains the relative number of the current
                     track  on  the original disk.  The first track always has
                     the track number 1, a hidden track uses track number 0.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord except when  check-
                     ing the the Trackstart for track #1.

              Tracknumber=
                     The parameter contains the absolute number of the current
                     track, taken from the TOC  on  the  original  disk.   The
                     first  track  on  the  original  disk  may  have a number
                     greater than 1, a hidden track always uses  track  number
                     0.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This  tag  label  is  currently  ignored  by  cdrecord as
                     cdrecord assigns track numbers when  compiling  the  disk
                     information.

              Trackstart=
                     The  parameter contains the track start offset in sectors
                     on the original disk.  If the current track  becomes  the
                     first  track  on  the  new  disk and if the track was the
                     first track on the original  disk.   cdrecord  uses  this
                     number to set up the offset for index 1 on the new disk.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

              Tracklength=
                     The  parameter  is used by cdrecord to set up the size of
                     the track on the new disk.

                     This tag label uses an unquoted string type parameter  in
                     the form "sectors, samples".

                     This label is mandatory for cdrecord.

              Pre-emphasis=
                     The  pre-emphasis  parameter controls whether the related
                     pre-emphasis bit  in  the  sub-channel  data  is  set  by
                     cdrecord.   Permitted  values  for this parameter are yes
                     and no.

                     This tag label uses an unquoted  string  type  parameter.
                     Valid values are yes and no.

              Channels=
                     The  parameter  of  this tag is the number of channels on
                     the disk.  All CD-audio disks use  stereo  recording  and
                     thus a 2 is the correct parameter.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This label is currently ignored by cdrecord.

              Copy_permitted=
                     The  parameter  for  this  tag label contains information
                     about the copyright state of  a  track  on  the  original
                     disk.

                     This  tag  label  uses an unquoted string type parameter.
                     Valid values are:

                     yes    The digital copy permitted bit is set in  the  TOC
                            and  in the sub-channel data.  If this bit is set,
                            the related track is not copyright  protected  and
                            may be copied infinitely.

                     no     The  digital  copy permitted bit is not set in the
                            TOC.  The digital copy permitted bit in  the  sub-
                            channel data alters with 9.375 Hz.  This is called
                            Serial Copy Management System (SCMS).   The  sense
                            of this track state is to flag that the creator of
                            the CD does not have the copyright  permission  to
                            create  copies  of  the related track. The related
                            track is copyright protected and  the  creator  of
                            the CD thus is just given the permission to create
                            one single copy from fair use rights and  no  fur-
                            ther copies are permitted from this source.

                     once   The  digital  copy permitted bit is not set in the
                            TOC and in the sub-channel  data.   The  sense  of
                            this track state is to flag that the related track
                            is copyright protected and thus may not  be  coped
                            infinitely.   One single copy from fair use rights
                            is permitted.

                     Note that many CDs sold by the music industry  have  SCMS
                     flagged  for  one  or  more  tracks,  signalling that the
                     related content company does not  own  the  copyright  to
                     make copies from this track.

              Endianess=
                     The  parameter for this tag is the byte order used in the
                     audio data file that was created for this track.

                     This tag label uses an unquoted  string  type  parameter.
                     Valid values are little and big.

                     This  label  is  ignored  by cdrecord as the endianess is
                     retrieved from the audio file format.

              Index= The parameter list for this tag is a list of numbers that
                     are  sector  numbers  counting  relatively to the logical
                     beginning of the track (which always is at index #1).  As
                     any  track needs to have an entry for index #1, the first
                     entry in the list is  always  0.   If  more  entries  are
                     present  for  this tag, there are more offset values that
                     correspond to index values greater than 1.

                     This tag label uses an  unquoted  string  type  parameter
                     that contains a list of space separated index offset num-
                     bers.

              Index0=
                     The parameter for this tag is a  number  that  represents
                     the  number of sectors relatively to the beginning (index
                     #1) of this track.  This number identifies where index #0
                     of  the next track begins. It the parameter is set to -1,
                     the next track has no index #0, resulting in pregap  size
                     0 for the next track.

                     Note  that cdrecord strictly follows the CD-standard that
                     defines that the logical beginning of a track is  at  the
                     location  where  index #1 starts in this track.  If index
                     #0 for track n contains audio  data,  the  related  audio
                     data is a logical part of track n-1.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

              MD5-offset=
                     The  parameter  for this tag is the byte offset where the
                     raw audio data begins in the related audio file.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This label is ignored by cdrecord.

              MD5-size=
                     The parameter for this tag is the number of bytes of  raw
                     audio data in the related audio file.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This label is ignored by cdrecord.

              MD5-sum=
                     The  parameter  for  this  tag is the md5 sum for the raw
                     audio data in the related audio file.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This label is ignored by cdrecord.


       *.cue  The *.cue files are CD-structure description files introduced by
              CDRWIN.  They are read and used by cdrecord in case cdrecord was
              called with the cuefile=name.cue option.

              The following commands are supported in CUE files:

              ARRANGER arranger-string
                     This command is used to specify the name  of  a  arranger
                     for a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The  parameter  is  the name of a arranger. If the string
                     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed  in  quotation
                     marks.

                     If the ARRANGER command appears before any TRACK command,
                     the string parameter will be encoded as the  arranger  of
                     the entire disk.  If the ARRANGER command appears after a
                     TRACK command, the string parameter will be  encoded  the
                     the arranger of the current track.

                     This  command  is  only accepted if the cdrecord specific
                     CUE extensions are permitted.

              CATALOG media-catalog-number
                     This command is used to specify the disc's Media  Catalog
                     Number.   The  media-catalog-number  is a 13 digit number
                     that follows UPC/EAN-13 rules.

                     This command can appear only once in the CUE SHEET  file.
                     It must appear before any TRACK command.

              CDTEXTFILE filename
                     This  command  is used to specify the name of a file that
                     contains binary encoded CD-Text information.  CDRWIN only
                     accepts  headerless  binary  encoded CD-Text information,
                     but cdrecord also accepts binary encoded CD-Text informa-
                     tion  with an MMC-compliant header.  The CD-Text informa-
                     tion is ignored by cdrecord unless the  -text  option  is
                     used.

                     If  the  filename contains spaces, it must be enclosed in
                     quotation marks.

              COMPOSER composer-string
                     This command is used to specify the name  of  a  composer
                     for a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The  parameter  is  the name of a composer. If the string
                     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed  in  quotation
                     marks.

                     If the COMPOSER command appears before any TRACK command,
                     the string parameter will be encoded as the  composer  of
                     the entire disk.  If the COMPOSER command appears after a
                     TRACK command, the string parameter will be  encoded  the
                     the composer of the current track.

                     This  command  is  only accepted if the cdrecord specific
                     CUE extensions are permitted.

              FILE filename filetype
                     This command is used to specify a data or audio file that
                     contains data to be written to the medium.

                     If  the  filename contains spaces, it must be enclosed in
                     quotation marks.

                     The following values are allowed for the file type param-
                     eter:

                     BINARY      Intel binary file (LSB first)

                     MOTOTOLA    Motorola binary file (MSB first)

                     AIFF        Audio AIFF file

                     WAVE        Audio WAVE file

                     MP3         Audio MP3 file

                     AU          Audio AU file (only permitted if cdrecord CUE
                                 extensions are enabled)

                     OGG         Audio OGG file (only  permitted  if  cdrecord
                                 CUE extensions are enabled)

                     All  audio files (WAVE, AIFF, MP3, AU and OGG) must be in
                     44100 Hz 16 bit stereo format.  MP3 and OGG is  currently
                     unsupported.

                     If an audio file is not an exact multiple of a CDROM sec-
                     tor (2352 bytes), then is is padded with zeroes  to  fill
                     up to the needed size.

                     All  FILE commands need to be before a related TRACK com-
                     mand and after the last INDEX command or POSTGAP  command
                     for the previous track.

                     If the cdrecord specific CUE extensions are enabled, then
                     a FILE command may also appear between an INDEX 00 and an
                     INDEX 01 command.  This allows to let the create one file
                     per track where the file starts at INDEX 01 of the  track
                     and  enda after INDEX 00 of the following track.  In this
                     case, no FILE command is allowed before the related TRACK
                     command.

              FLAGS flags
                     This  command is used to set special subcode flags within
                     a track.

                     The following flags are supported:

                     DCP         Digital copy permitted

                     4CH         Four channel audio

                     PRE         Pre-emphasis enabled (audio tracks only)

                     SCMS        Serial copy management system (not  supported
                                 by all recorders)

                     More  than  one  flag  type argument may appear after the
                     FLAGS command (e.g FLAGS DCP PRE).

                     The FLAGS command must appear after a TRACK  command  but
                     before  any  INDEX  command.   Only  one FLAGS command is
                     allower per TRACK command.

                     The fourth subcode flag that marks  data  tracks  is  set
                     automatically for data tracks.

              INDEX number mm:ss:ff
                     This command is used to specify indexes within a track.

                     The  first  parameter  is  the  index number in the range
                     0-99.

                     The second parameter is a relative time in minutes,  sec-
                     onds and frames (there are 75 frames/second).

                     All  index  numbers  must  be between 0 and 99 inclusive.
                     The first index for a track must be either 0  or  1  with
                     all indexes being sequential to the first one.  The first
                     index for a file must start at 00:00.00.

                     INDEX 00  specifies the starting time of  the  pregap  of
                               the track.

                     INDEX 01  specifies the starting time of the track.  This
                               is the index that is stored  in  the  table  of
                               content for the disk as the track start.

                     INDEX > 1 specifies a subindex within a track.

              ISRC recording code
                     This  command  is used to specify the International Stan-
                     dard Recording Code (ISRC) of a track.  This  is  a  code
                     that should exist for all commercial audio tracks.

                     The ISRC code must be 12 characters in length.  The first
                     two characters are characters that are from the two char-
                     acter  country  code.   The  next  three  characters  are
                     alphanumeric and describe the studio code.  The next  two
                     characters  are  the  last  two digits from the recording
                     year.  The last 5  characters  are  digits  that  form  a
                     serial  number  that  is  unique  for the same studio and
                     year.

                     If cdrecord specific CUE extensions  are  permitted,  the
                     four fields of the ISRC may be separated by a minus sign.

                     If the ISRC command is used, it must appear after a TRACK
                     command but before any INDEX command.

              MESSAGE message-string
                     This command is used to specify the test of a message for
                     a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The  parameter  is  the  test of a message. If the string
                     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed  in  quotation
                     marks.

                     If  the MESSAGE command appears before any TRACK command,
                     the string parameter will be encoded as  the  message  of
                     the  entire disk.  If the MESSAGE command appears after a
                     TRACK command, the string parameter will be  encoded  the
                     the message of the current track.

                     This  command  is  only accepted if the cdrecord specific
                     CUE extensions are permitted.

              PERFORMER performer-string
                     This command is used to specify the name of  a  performer
                     for a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The parameter is the name of the performer. If the string
                     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed  in  quotation
                     marks.

                     If  the  PERFORMER  command appears before any TRACK com-
                     mand, the string parameter will be encoded  as  the  per-
                     former  of  the  entire  disk.   If the PERFORMER command
                     appears after a TRACK command, the string parameter  will
                     be encoded the the performer of the current track.

              POSTGAP mm:ss:ff
                     This  command  is used to specify the length of a postgap
                     at the end of a track.  The  postgap  data  is  generated
                     internally  by  cdrecord.   No  data is consumed from the
                     current data file.

                     The parameter specifies the postgap  length  in  minutes,
                     seconds and frames.

                     The  POSTGAP command must appear after all INDEX commands
                     for the current  track.   Only  one  POSTGAP  command  is
                     allowed per track.

              PREGAP mm:ss:ff
                     This command is used to specify the length of a pregap at
                     the beginning of a track.  The pregap data  is  generated
                     internally  by  cdrecord.   No  data is consumed from the
                     current data file.

                     The parameter specifies the postgap  length  in  minutes,
                     seconds and frames.

                     The  PREGAP command must appear after a TRACK command but
                     before any INDEX command.  Only  one  PREGAP  command  is
                     allowed per track.

              REM comment
                     This command is used to put comments into a CUE file.

                     The  text that appears in the line after a REM command is
                     usually ignored. There is an exception: The special  com-
                     ment REM CDRTOOLS is used to enable cdrecord specific CUE
                     extensions in the parser.

              SONGWRITER songwriter-string
                     This command is used to specify the name of a  songwriter
                     for a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The  parameter is the name of a songwriter. If the string
                     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed  in  quotation
                     marks.

                     If  the  SONGWRITER command appears before any TRACK com-
                     mand, the string parameter will be encoded as  the  song-
                     writer  of  the  entire  disk.  If the SONGWRITER command
                     appears after a TRACK command, the string parameter  will
                     be encoded the the songwriter of the current track.

              TITLE title-string
                     This  command  is used to specify a title for a disk that
                     includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The parameter is the title for a track or for  the  disk.
                     If the string contains any spaces, it must be enclosed in
                     quotation marks.

                     If the TITLE command appears before  any  TRACK  command,
                     the  string parameter will be encoded as the title of the
                     entire disk.  If the TITLE command appears after a  TRACK
                     command,  the  string  parameter  will be encoded the the
                     title of the current track.

              TRACK number datatype
                     This command is used to start a new TRACK.

                     The first parameter is a track number in the range 1-99.

                     The second parameter specifies the track data type.

                     The following datatypes are permitted:

                     AUDIO       Audio/Music (2352)

                     CDG         Karaoke CD+G (2448)

                     MODE1/2048  CDROM Mode1 Data (cooked)

                     MODE1/2352  CDROM Mode1 Data (raw)

                     MODE2/2336  CDROM-XA Mode2 Data

                     MODE2/2352  CDROM-XA Mode2 Data

                     CDI/2336    CDI Mode2 Data

                     CDI/2352    CDI Mode2 Data

                     All track numbers must be between  1  and  99  inclusive.
                     The  first  track number can be greater than one, but all
                     track numbers after the first must be sequential.   There
                     must be at least one track per file.



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Availability   | media/cdrtools   |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
       +---------------+------------------+
SEE ALSO
       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), scg(7), fbk(7), mkisofs(8), rcmd(3), ssh(1).


NOTES
       Not  all options described in this manual may be supported by the Open-
       Source variant of cdrecord. Cdrecord issues a warning if an attempt  is
       made to use an option that has been disabled in the OpenSource variant.

       On Solaris before Solaris 10 Update 1, you need to stop the volume man-
       agement if you like to use the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even
       things like cdrecord -scanbus will not work if the volume management is
       running.

       Disks made in Track At Once mode are  not  suitable  as  a  master  for
       direct  mass production by CD-manufacturers.  You will need the disk at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At  Once  will  normally  be read in all CD-players. Some old audio CD-
       players however may produce  a  two  second  click  between  two  audio
       tracks.

       The  minimal  size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write
       smaller tracks, the CD-recorder will add dummy blocks. This is  not  an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       Cdrecord  has  been  tested  on an upgraded Philips CDD-521 recorder at
       single and double speed on a  SparcStation  20/502  with  no  problems,
       slower  computer  systems should work also.  The newer Philips/HP/Plas-
       mon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and CDR-102 work also. The
       Plasmon  RF-4100  works,  but  has not been tested in multi-session.  A
       Philips CDD-521 that has not been upgraded will  not  work.   The  Sony
       CDU-924  has  been  tested,  but does not support XA-mode2 in hardware.
       The Sony therefore cannot create conforming multi-session  disks.   The
       Ricoh RO-1420C works, but some people seem to have problems to use them
       with speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming  drives  are  sup-
       ported in single and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the -dummy option turned on if you are using  cdrecord  on  an  unknown
       system.  Writing  a  CD  is  a  real-time process.  NFS will not always
       deliver constantly the needed data rates.  If you want to use  cdrecord
       with  CD-images  that  are located on a NFS mounted filesystem, be sure
       that the FIFO size is big enough.  The author used cdrecord with medium
       load on a SS20/502 and even at quad speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was
       heavily loaded, but it is recommended to leave the  system  as  lightly
       loaded  as  possible while writing a CD.  If you want to make sure that
       buffer underruns are not caused by your source disk, you  may  use  the
       command

           cdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to  create  a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.  Cdrecord needs
       to run as root to get access to the /dev/scg?  device nodes and  to  be
       able to lock itself into memory.

       If  you  don't  want  to  allow  users  to  become root on your system,
       cdrecord may safely be installed suid root. This allows all users or  a
       group  of  users  with no root privileges to use cdrecord.  Cdrecord in
       this case checks if the real user would have  been  able  to  read  the
       specified files.  To give all users access to use cdrecord, enter:

                      chown root /opt/schily/bin/cdrecord
                      chmod 4711 /opt/schily/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to cdrecord enter:

                      chown root /opt/schily/bin/cdrecord
                      chgrp cdburners /opt/schily/bin/cdrecord
                      chmod 4710 /opt/schily/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never  give  write  permissions  for  non  root  users to the /dev/scg?
       devices unless you would allow anybody to  read/write/format  all  your
       disks.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/recon-
       nect to either the SCSI bus that is connected to the CD-recorder or the
       source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When  creating  a disc with both audio and data tracks, the data should
       be on track 1 otherwise you should create a  CDplus  disk  which  is  a
       multi-session  disk  with the first session containing the audio tracks
       and the following session containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more  than  a  single  data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       More  information  on  the  SCSI command set of a HP CD-recorder can be
       found at:

                      http://www.hp.com/isgsupport/cdr/index.html

       If you have more information or  SCSI  command  manuals  for  currently
       unsupported CD/DVD/BluRay-recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-recorder (even in the upgraded version) has sev-
       eral firmware bugs. Some of them will force  you  to  power  cycle  the
       device or to reboot the machine.

       When using cdrecord with the Linux SCSI generic driver, you should note
       that cdrecord uses a layer, that tries to emulate the functionality  of
       the  scg  driver  on  top  of the drives of the local operating system.
       Unfortunately, the sg driver on Linux has several flaws:

       o      It cannot see if a SCSI command could not be sent at all.

       o      It cannot get the SCSI status byte.  Cdrecord  for  that  reason
              cannot report failing SCSI commands in some situations.

       o      It  cannot get real DMA count of transfer.  Cdrecord cannot tell
              you if there is a DMA residual count.

       o      It cannot  get  number  of  bytes  valid  in  auto  sense  data.
              Cdrecord  cannot  tell  you if device transfers no sense data at
              all.

       o      It fetches too few data in auto request sense (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3
              needs >= 18).

       The FIFO percent output is computed just after a block of data has been
       written to the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.  For  this  reason,  there  will
       never be 100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.


DIAGNOSTICS
       You  have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort cdrecord after you see the mes-
       sage:

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

              cdrecord: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The first line gives information about the transport  of  the  command.
       The text after the first colon gives the error text for the system call
       from the view of the kernel. It usually  is:  I/O  error  unless  other
       problems  happen.  The  next  words contain a short description for the
       SCSI command that fails. The rest of the line tells you if  there  were
       any problems for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.  fatal
       error means that it was not possible to transport the command (i.e.  no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed
       command.

       The third line gives information on the SCSI status  code  returned  by
       the  command,  if the transport of the command succeeds.  This is error
       information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The  fifth  line is the error text for the sense key if available, fol-
       lowed by the segment number which is only valid if the  command  was  a
       copy  command. If the error message is not directly related to the cur-
       rent command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense qual-
       ifier if available.  If the type of the device is known, the sense data
       is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .  The text  is  followed  by  the
       error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The  seventh line prints the block number that is related to the failed
       command and text for several error flags. The block number may  not  be
       valid.

       The  eighth  line  reports  the timeout set up for this command and the
       time that the command really needed to complete.

       The following message is not an error:

              Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
              cdrecord: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It simply notifies that a track that is smaller than the  minimum  size
       has been expanded to 300 sectors.

BUGS
       Cdrecord has even more options than ls.

       There  should  be a recover option to make disks usable, that have been
       written during a power failure.


CREDITS
       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
                      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
                      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
                      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
                      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad                (finnag@guardian.no)
                      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
                      For creating the experimental  packet  writing  support,
                      the  first implementation of CD-RW blanking support, the
                      first .wav file decoder and  many  nice  discussions  on
                      cdrecord.

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
                      For the first implementation of a BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
                      For creating the first parallel port transport implemen-
                      tation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
                      for providing the CAM port  for  FreeBSD  together  with
                      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
                      for  making  libedc_ecc  available  (needed to write RAW
                      data sectors).


MAILING LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the development of  cdrecord,  you
       may join the developer mailing list via this URL:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers


AUTHOR
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Additional information can be found on:
       http://cdrecord.berlios.de/private/cdrecord.html

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de

       If you have definitely found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

INTERFACE STABILITY
       The  interfaces provided by cdrecord are designed for long term stabil-
       ity.  As cdrecord depends on  interfaces  provided  by  the  underlying
       operating  system,  the stability of the interfaces offered by cdrecord
       depends on the interface stability  of  the  OS  interfaces.   Modified
       interfaces in the OS may enforce modified interfaces in cdrecord.


       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source   was   downloaded  from   https://sourceforge.net/projects/cdr-
       tools/files/alpha/OLD/3.01aX/cdrtools-3.01a22.tar.gz/download

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://cdrecord.org/.



Joerg Schilling                   Version 3.0                      CDRECORD(1)