Go to main content

man pages section 1: User Commands

Exit Print View

Updated: Wednesday, February 9, 2022
 
 

curl (1)

Name

curl - transfer a URL

Synopsis

curl [options / URLs]

Description

curl(1)                           Curl Manual                          curl(1)



NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options / URLs]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is  a  tool for transfering data from or to a server. It supports
       these protocols: DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, GOPHERS,  HTTP,  HTTPS,
       IMAP,  IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS, MQTT, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTMPS, RTSP, SCP,
       SFTP, SMB, SMBS, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET or TFTP. The command  is  designed
       to work without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file  trans-
       fer resume and more. As you will see below, the number of features will
       make your head spin!

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for  all  transfer-related  features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL  syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip-
       tion in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces and quoting the URL as in:

         "http://site.{one,two,three}.com"

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

         "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[1-100].txt"

         "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[001-100].txt"    (with leading zeros)

         "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[a-z].txt"

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

         "http://example.com/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html"

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.  They  will  be
       fetched  in a sequential manner in the specified order. You can specify
       command line options and URLs mixed and in any  order  on  the  command
       line.

       You  can  specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number
       or letter:

         "http://example.com/file[1-100:10].txt"

         "http://example.com/file[a-z:2].txt"

       When using [] or {} sequences when invoked from a command line  prompt,
       you probably have to put the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also  goes  for  other  characters
       treated special, like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide  the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
       and the interface name. Like in

         "http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/"

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For  exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL.  It  is  not
       trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
       is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that  getting many files from the same server will not do multiple con-
       nects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only done on
       files  specified  on  a  single command line and cannot be used between
       separate curl invocations.

OUTPUT
       If not told otherwise, curl writes the received data to stdout. It  can
       be  instructed  to  instead save that data into a local file, using the
       -o, --output or -O, --remote-name options. If curl  is  given  multiple
       URLs  to  transfer  on  the  command  line, it similarly needs multiple
       options for where to save them.

       curl does not parse or otherwise "understand" the content  it  gets  or
       writes  as  output.  It does no encoding or decoding, unless explicitly
       asked to with dedicated command line options.

PROTOCOLS
       curl supports numerous protocols, or put in URL  terms:  schemes.  Your
       particular build may not support them all.

       DICT   Lets you lookup words using online dictionaries.

       FILE   Read  or  write  local  files.  curl  does not support accessing
              file:// URL remotely, but  when  running  on  Microsoft  Windows
              using the native UNC approach will work.

       FTP(S) curl  supports  the  File Transfer Protocol with a lot of tweaks
              and levers. With or without using TLS.

       GOPHER(S)
              Retrieve files.

       HTTP(S)
              curl supports HTTP with numerous options and variations. It  can
              speak  HTTP  version  0.9,  1.0, 1.1, 2 and 3 depending on build
              options and the correct command line options.

       IMAP(S)
              Using the mail reading protocol, curl can "download" emails  for
              you. With or without using TLS.

       LDAP(S)
              curl can do directory lookups for you, with or without TLS.

       MQTT   curl supports MQTT version 3. Downloading over MQTT equals "sub-
              scribe" to a topic while uploading/posting equals "publish" on a
              topic. MQTT over TLS is not supported (yet).

       POP3(S)
              Downloading  from  a  pop3  server means getting a mail. With or
              without using TLS.

       RTMP(S)
              The Realtime Messaging Protocol  is  primarily  used  to  server
              streaming media and curl can download it.

       RTSP   curl supports RTSP 1.0 downloads.

       SCP    curl supports SSH version 2 scp transfers.

       SFTP   curl supports SFTP (draft 5) done over SSH version 2.

       SMB(S) curl supports SMB version 1 for upload and download.

       SMTP(S)
              Uploading  contents  to  an  SMTP server means sending an email.
              With or without TLS.

       TELNET Telling curl to fetch a telnet URL starts an interactive session
              where  it  sends  what  it  reads  on stdin and outputs what the
              server sends it.

       TFTP   curl can do TFTP downloads and uploads.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a progress meter during  operations,  indicating
       the  amount  of  transferred  data,  transfer speeds and estimated time
       left, etc. The progress meter displays number of bytes and  the  speeds
       are  in  bytes per second. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024 based.
       For example 1k is 1024 bytes. 1M is 1048576 bytes.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you  invoke
       curl  to do an operation and it is about to write data to the terminal,
       it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect the response output to a file, using shell redirect  (>),  -o,
       --output or similar.

       This  does  not apply to FTP upload as that operation does not spit out
       any response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress  "bar"  instead  of  the  regular  meter,  -#,
       --progress-bar  is your friend. You can also disable the progress meter
       completely with the -s, --silent option.

OPTIONS
       Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the  options  require  an
       additional value next to them.

       The  short  "single-dash"  form  of the options, -d for example, may be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended separator. The long "double-dash" form, -d, --data for
       example, requires a space between it and its value.

       Short version options that don't need any additional values can be used
       immediately  next  to  each other, like for example you can specify all
       the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again
       disabled  with --no-option. That is, you use the exact same option name
       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
       show  the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options was
       added in 7.19.0. Previously most options were  toggled  on/off  through
       repeated use of the same command line option.)

       --abstract-unix-socket <path>
              (HTTP)  Connect  through an abstract Unix domain socket, instead
              of using the network.   Note:  netstat  shows  the  path  of  an
              abstract  socket  prefixed with '@', however the <path> argument
              should not have this leading character.

              Example:
               curl --abstract-unix-socket socketpath https://example.com

              Added in 7.53.0.

       --alt-svc <file name>
              (HTTPS) This option enables the alt-svc parser in curl.  If  the
              file name points to an existing alt-svc cache file, that will be
              used. After a completed transfer, the cache will be saved to the
              file name again if it has been modified.

              Specify a "" file name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
              make curl just handle the cache in memory.

              If this option is used several times, curl  will  load  contents
              from all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

              Example:
               curl --alt-svc svc.txt https://example.com

              Added in 7.64.1.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
              and use the most secure one the remote site claims  to  support.
              This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
              headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.
              This  is  used  instead  of  setting  a  specific authentication
              method, which you can do with  --basic,  --digest,  --ntlm,  and
              --negotiate.

              Using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads from stdin,
              since it may require data to be sent twice and then  the  client
              must  be able to rewind. If the need should arise when uploading
              from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

              Used together with -u, --user.

              Example:
               curl --anyauth --user me:pwd https://example.com

              See also --proxy-anyauth, --basic and --digest.

       -a, --append
              (FTP SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append to the
              target  file  instead  of  overwriting  it.  If  the remote file
              doesn't exist, it will be  created.   Note  that  this  flag  is
              ignored by some SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).

              Example:
               curl --upload-file local --append ftp://example.com/

       --aws-sigv4 <provider1[:provider2[:region[:service]]]>
              Use AWS V4 signature authentication in the transfer.

              The  provider argument is a string that is used by the algorithm
              when creating outgoing authentication headers.

              The region argument is a string that points to a geographic area
              of  a resources collection (region-code) when the region name is
              omitted from the endpoint.

              The service argument is a string that points to a function  pro-
              vided by a cloud (service-code) when the service name is omitted
              from the endpoint.

              Example:
               curl --aws-sigv4 "aws:amz:east-2:es" --user "key:secret" https://example.com

              Added in 7.75.0.

       --basic
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use  HTTP  Basic  authentication  with  the
              remote  host.  This  is  the  default and this option is usually
              pointless, unless you use it to override a previously set option
              that  sets  a  different  authentication method (such as --ntlm,
              --digest, or --negotiate).

              Used together with -u, --user.

              Example:
               curl -u name:password --basic https://example.com

              See also --proxy-basic.

       --cacert <file>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify
              the  peer.  The  file  may contain multiple CA certificates. The
              certificate(s) must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built  to
              use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
              alter that default file.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
              if  it  is  set,  and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert
              bundle. This option overrides that variable.

              The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for  a  CA
              certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same direc-
              tory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any
              folder along your PATH.

              If  curl  is  built  against  the  NSS  SSL library, the NSS PEM
              PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) needs to  be  available  for  this
              option to work properly.

              (iOS  and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
              then this option is supported for  backward  compatibility  with
              other  SSL  engines,  but it should not be set. If the option is
              not set, then curl will use the certificates in the  system  and
              user  Keychain to verify the peer, which is the preferred method
              of verifying the peer's certificate chain.

              (Schannel only) This option is supported for Schannel in Windows
              7  or later with libcurl 7.60 or later. This option is supported
              for backward compatibility with other SSL engines; instead it is
              recommended  to  use  Windows'  store  of root certificates (the
              default for Schannel).

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --cacert CA-file.txt https://example.com

       --capath <dir>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate  directory  to
              verify  the  peer.  Multiple paths can be provided by separating
              them with ":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
              be  in  PEM  format,  and  if curl is built against OpenSSL, the
              directory must have been processed using  the  c_rehash  utility
              supplied  with OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered
              curl to make SSL-connections much more  efficiently  than  using
              --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

              If this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored,
              and if it is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --capath /local/directory https://example.com

       --cert-status
              (TLS) Tells curl to verify the status of the server  certificate
              by using the Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS
              extension.

              If this option is enabled and the server sends an invalid  (e.g.
              expired) response, if the response suggests that the server cer-
              tificate has been revoked, or no response at  all  is  received,
              the verification fails.

              This  is  currently  only implemented in the OpenSSL, GnuTLS and
              NSS backends.

              Example:
               curl --cert-status https://example.com

              Added in 7.41.0.

       --cert-type <type>
              (TLS) Tells curl what type the provided  client  certificate  is
              using. PEM, DER, ENG and P12 are recognized types.  If not spec-
              ified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --cert-type PEM --cert file https://example.com

              See also -E, --cert, --key and --key-type.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified  client  certificate  file
              when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based proto-
              col. The certificate must be in PKCS#12 format if  using  Secure
              Transport,  or  PEM  format  if  using any other engine.  If the
              optional password isn't specified, it will be queried for on the
              terminal.  Note  that  this  option assumes a "certificate" file
              that is the private key and the client certificate concatenated!
              See -E, --cert and --key to specify them independently.

              If  curl  is  built against the NSS SSL library then this option
              can tell curl the nickname of the certificate to use within  the
              NSS  database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or by
              default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS  PEM  PKCS#11  module  (lib-
              nsspem.so)  is  available  then  PEM files may be loaded. If you
              want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
              with  "./"  prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.
              If the nickname contains ":", it needs to be preceded by "\"  so
              that  it  is not recognized as password delimiter.  If the nick-
              name contains "\", it needs to be escaped as "\\" so that it  is
              not recognized as an escape character.

              If  curl is built against OpenSSL library, and the engine pkcs11
              is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
              ify  a  certificate located in a PKCS#11 device. A string begin-
              ning with "pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI.  If  a
              PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the --engine option will be set as
              "pkcs11" if none was provided and the --cert-type option will be
              set as "ENG" if none was provided.

              (iOS  and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
              then the certificate string can either be the name of a certifi-
              cate/private  key in the system or user keychain, or the path to
              a PKCS#12-encoded certificate and private key. If  you  want  to
              use  a  file  from the current directory, please precede it with
              "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

              (Schannel only) Client certificates must be specified by a  path
              expression  to  a  certificate  store.  (Loading PFX is not sup-
              ported; you can import it to a store first). You can use "<store
              location>\<store  name>\<thumbprint>"  to refer to a certificate
              in  the  system  certificates  store,  for   example,   "Curren-
              tUser\MY\934a7ac6f8a5d579285a74fa61e19f23ddfe8d7a".   Thumbprint
              is usually a SHA-1 hex string which you can see  in  certificate
              details.  Following  store locations are supported: CurrentUser,
              LocalMachine, CurrentService, Services,  CurrentUserGroupPolicy,
              LocalMachineGroupPolicy, LocalMachineEnterprise.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --cert certfile --key keyfile https://example.com

              See also --cert-type, --key and --key-type.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (TLS) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
              of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read  up  on  SSL  cipher
              list details on this URL:

               https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 https://example.com

       --compressed-ssh
              (SCP SFTP) Enables built-in SSH compression.  This is a request,
              not an order; the server may or may not do it.

              Example:
               curl --compressed-ssh sftp://example.com/

              Added in 7.56.0.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
              curl supports, and automatically decompress the content. Headers
              are not modified.

              If this option is used  and  the  server  sends  an  unsupported
              encoding,  curl  will report an error. This is a request, not an
              order; the server may or may not deliver data compressed.

              Example:
               curl --compressed https://example.com

       -K, --config <file>

              Specify a text file to read curl  arguments  from.  The  command
              line  arguments  found  in the text file will be used as if they
              were provided on the command line.

              Options and their parameters must be specified on the same  line
              in the file, separated by whitespace, colon, or the equals sign.
              Long option names can optionally be given  in  the  config  file
              without the initial double dashes and if so, the colon or equals
              characters can be used as separators. If the option is specified
              with  one or two dashes, there can be no colon or equals charac-
              ter between the option and its parameter.

              If the parameter contains whitespace (or starts with  :  or  =),
              the  parameter  must  be  enclosed  within quotes. Within double
              quotes, the following escape sequences are  available:  \\,  \",
              \t,  \n,  \r  and  \v. A backslash preceding any other letter is
              ignored.

              If the first column of a config line is  a  '#'  character,  the
              rest of the line will be treated as a comment.

              Only write one option per physical line in the config file.

              Specify  the  filename  to -K, --config as '-' to make curl read
              the file from stdin.

              Note that to be able to specify a URL in the  config  file,  you
              need  to  specify  it  using the --url option, and not by simply
              writing the URL on its own line. So, it could  look  similar  to
              this:

              url = "https://curl.se/docs/"

              When  curl  is invoked, it (unless -q, --disable is used) checks
              for a default config file and uses it if found, even  when  this
              option  is  used.  The default config file is checked for in the
              following places in this order:

              1) Use the CURL_HOME environment variable if set

              2) Use the XDG_CONFIG_HOME environment variable if set (Added in
              7.73.0)

              3) Use the HOME environment variable if set

              4) Non-windows: use getpwuid to find the home directory

              5) Windows: use APPDATA if set

              6) Windows: use "USERPROFILE\Application Data" if set

              7)  On  windows, if there is no .curlrc file in the home dir, it
              checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
              Unix-like  systems,  it will simply try to load .curlrc from the
              determined home dir.

              # --- Example file ---
              # this is a comment
              url = "example.com"
              output = "curlhere.html"
              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

              # and fetch another URL too
              url = "example.com/docs/manpage.html"
              -O
              referer = "http://nowhereatall.example.com/"
              # --- End of example file ---

              This option can be used multiple times to load  multiple  config
              files.

              Example:
               curl --config file.txt https://example.com

       --connect-timeout <fractional seconds>
              Maximum  time  in  seconds  that  you allow curl's connection to
              take.  This only limits the connection phase, so  if  curl  con-
              nects  within the given period it will continue - if not it will
              exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Examples:
               curl --connect-timeout 20 https://example.com
               curl --connect-timeout 3.14 https://example.com

              See also -m, --max-time.

       --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2>

              For  a  request  to  the  given  HOST1:PORT1  pair,  connect  to
              HOST2:PORT2 instead.  This option is suitable to direct requests
              at a specific server, e.g. at a specific cluster node in a clus-
              ter  of  servers. This option is only used to establish the net-
              work connection. It does NOT affect the  hostname/port  that  is
              used for TLS/SSL (e.g. SNI, certificate verification) or for the
              application protocols. "HOST1" and  "PORT1"  may  be  the  empty
              string, meaning "any host/port". "HOST2" and "PORT2" may also be
              the  empty  string,  meaning   "use   the   request's   original
              host/port".

              A "host" specified to this option is compared as a string, so it
              needs to match the name used in request URL. It  can  be  either
              numerical  such  as  "127.0.0.1"  or  the full host name such as
              "example.org".

              This option can be used many times to add many connect rules.

              Example:
               curl --connect-to example.com:443:example.net:8443 https://example.com

              See also --resolve and -H, --header. Added in 7.49.0.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at  the  given  offset.
              The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
              skipped, counting from the beginning of the source  file  before
              it is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the
              FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out  where/how  to
              resume  the  transfer. It then uses the given output/input files
              to figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Examples:
               curl -C - https://example.com
               curl -C 400 https://example.com

              See also -r, --range.

       -c, --cookie-jar <filename>
              (HTTP) Specify to which file you want curl to write all  cookies
              after  a  completed  operation. Curl writes all cookies from its
              in-memory cookie storage to the given file at the end of  opera-
              tions.  If  no  cookies  are known, no data will be written. The
              file will be written using the Netscape cookie file  format.  If
              you set the file name to a single dash, "-", the cookies will be
              written to stdout.

              This command line option will activate the  cookie  engine  that
              makes curl record and use cookies. Another way to activate it is
              to use the -b, --cookie option.

              If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl
              operation  won't fail or even report an error clearly. Using -v,
              --verbose will get a warning displayed, but  that  is  the  only
              visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              If  this  option  is used several times, the last specified file
              name will be used.

              Examples:
               curl -c store-here.txt https://example.com
               curl -c store-here.txt -b read-these https://example.com

       -b, --cookie <data|filename>
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server in the Cookie header. It
              is  supposedly the data previously received from the server in a
              "Set-Cookie:"  line.   The  data  should  be   in   the   format
              "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

              If  no '=' symbol is used in the argument, it is instead treated
              as a filename to read previously stored cookie from. This option
              also  activates  the  cookie  engine which will make curl record
              incoming cookies, which may be handy if  you're  using  this  in
              combination  with  the  -L, --location option or do multiple URL
              transfers on the same invoke. If the  file  name  is  exactly  a
              minus ("-"), curl will instead read the contents from stdin.

              The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain
              HTTP headers (Set-Cookie style) or the  Netscape/Mozilla  cookie
              file format.

              The  file  specified with -b, --cookie is only used as input. No
              cookies will be written to the file. To store cookies,  use  the
              -c, --cookie-jar option.

              If you use the Set-Cookie file format and don't specify a domain
              then the cookie is not sent since the domain will  never  match.
              To  address  this,  set  a domain in Set-Cookie line (doing that
              will include sub-domains) or preferably: use the  Netscape  for-
              mat.

              This option can be used multiple times.

              Users very often want to both read cookies from a file and write
              updated cookies back to a file, so using both -b,  --cookie  and
              -c, --cookie-jar in the same command line is common.

              Examples:
               curl -b cookiefile https://example.com
               curl -b cookiefile -c cookiefile https://example.com

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the -o, --output option, curl will
              create the necessary local directory hierarchy as  needed.  This
              option  creates  the directories mentioned with the -o, --output
              option, nothing else. If the --output file name uses  no  direc-
              tory, or if the directories it mentions already exist, no direc-
              tories will be created.

              Created dirs are made with mode 0750 on unix style file systems.

              To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try  --ftp-
              create-dirs.

              Example:
               curl --create-dirs --output local/dir/file https://example.com

       --create-file-mode <mode>
              (SFTP SCP FILE) When curl is used to create files remotely using
              one of the supported protocols, this option allows the  user  to
              set which 'mode' to set on the file at creation time, instead of
              the default 0644.

              This option takes an octal number as argument.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --create-file-mode 0777 -T localfile sftp://example.com/new

              See also --ftp-create-dirs. Added in 7.75.0.

       --crlf (FTP SMTP)  Convert  LF  to  CRLF  in  upload.  Useful  for  MVS
              (OS/390).

              (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

              Example:
               curl --crlf -T file ftp://example.com/

       --crlfile <file>
              (TLS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate Revoca-
              tion List that may specify peer certificates that are to be con-
              sidered revoked.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --crlfile rejects.txt https://example.com

              Added in 7.19.7.

       --curves <algorithm list>
              (TLS)  Tells  curl  to request specific curves to use during SSL
              session establishment according  to  RFC  8422,  5.1.   Multiple
              algorithms  can  be  provided  by separating them with ":" (e.g.
              "X25519:P-521").  The parameter is available identically in  the
              "openssl s_client/s_server" utilities.

              --curves  allows  a OpenSSL powered curl to make SSL-connections
              with exactly the (EC) curve requested by  the  client,  avoiding
              intransparent client/server negotiations.

              If  this  option  is  set,  the  default  curves list built into
              openssl will be ignored.

              Example:
               curl --curves X25519 https://example.com

              Added in 7.73.0.

       --data-ascii <data>
              (HTTP) This is just an alias for -d, --data.

              Example:
               curl --data-ascii @file https://example.com

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no  extra  pro-
              cessing whatsoever.

              If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              filename.  Data is posted in a  similar  manner  as  -d,  --data
              does,  except  that  newlines and carriage returns are preserved
              and conversions are never done.

              Like -d, --data the default content-type sent to the  server  is
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  If  you  want the data to be
              treated as arbitrary binary data by the server then set the con-
              tent-type  to octet-stream: -H "Content-Type: application/octet-
              stream".

              If this option is used several times,  the  ones  following  the
              first will append data as described in -d, --data.

              Example:
               curl --data-binary @filename https://example.com

       --data-raw <data>
              (HTTP)  This  posts data similarly to -d, --data but without the
              special interpretation of the @ character.

              Examples:
               curl --data-raw "hello" https://example.com
               curl --data-raw "@at@at@" https://example.com

              See also -d, --data. Added in 7.43.0.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other -d, --data  options
              with the exception that this performs URL-encoding.

              To  be  CGI-compliant,  the <data> part should begin with a name
              followed by a separator and a content specification. The  <data>
              part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

              content
                     This  will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
                     on. Just be careful so that the content  doesn't  contain
                     any  =  or  @  symbols, as that will then make the syntax
                     match one of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass  that
                     on. The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This  will make curl URL-encode the content part and pass
                     that on. Note that the name part is expected to  be  URL-
                     encoded already.

              @filename
                     This  will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given file
                     (including any newlines), URL-encode that data  and  pass
                     it on in the POST.

              name@filename
                     This  will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given file
                     (including any newlines), URL-encode that data  and  pass
                     it  on  in  the  POST.  The  name part gets an equal sign
                     appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note
                     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       Examples:
        curl --data-urlencode name=val https://example.com
        curl --data-urlencode =encodethis https://example.com
        curl --data-urlencode name@file https://example.com
        curl --data-urlencode @fileonly https://example.com

       See also -d, --data and --data-raw. Added in 7.18.0.

       -d, --data <data>
              (HTTP  MQTT)  Sends  the specified data in a POST request to the
              HTTP server, in the same way that a browser does when a user has
              filled  in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will
              cause curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

              --data-raw is almost the same but does not have a special inter-
              pretation of the @ character. To post data  purely  binary,  you
              should  instead use the --data-binary option.  To URL-encode the
              value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If any of these options is used more than once on the same  com-
              mand  line,  the  data  pieces specified will be merged together
              with a separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d  name=daniel  -d
              skill=lousy'  would  generate  a  post  chunk  that  looks  like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest  should  be  a
              file  name  to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read
              the data from stdin. Posting data from  a  file  named  'foobar'
              would  thus  be done with -d, --data @foobar. When -d, --data is
              told to read from a file like that, carriage  returns  and  new-
              lines will be stripped out. If you don't want the @ character to
              have a special interpretation use --data-raw instead.

              Examples:
               curl -d "name=curl" https://example.com
               curl -d "name=curl" -d "tool=cmdline" https://example.com
               curl -d @filename https://example.com

              See also --data-binary, --data-urlencode  and  --data-raw.  This
              option  overrides  -F,  --form  and -I, --head and -T, --upload-
              file.

       --delegation <LEVEL>
              (GSS/kerberos) Set LEVEL to tell the server what it  is  allowed
              to delegate when it comes to user credentials.

              none   Don't allow any delegation.

              policy Delegates  if  and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set
                     in the Kerberos service ticket,  which  is  a  matter  of
                     realm policy.

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       Example:
        curl --delegation "none" https://example.com

       --digest
              (HTTP)  Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an authenti-
              cation scheme that prevents the password from  being  sent  over
              the  wire in clear text. Use this in combination with the normal
              -u, --user option to set user name and password.

              If this option is used several times,  only  the  first  one  is
              used.

              Example:
               curl -u name:password --digest https://example.com

              See  also  -u, --user, --proxy-digest and --anyauth. This option
              overrides --basic and --ntlm and --negotiate.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
              when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
              attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with  this
              option,  it  will  use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT are exten-
              sions to the original FTP protocol, and  may  not  work  on  all
              servers, but they enable more functionality in a better way than
              the traditional PORT command.

              --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
              is an alias for --disable-eprt.

              If  the  server is accessed using IPv6, this option will have no
              effect as EPRT is necessary then.

              Disabling EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want  to
              switch  to  passive  mode  you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or
              force it with --ftp-pasv.

              Example:
               curl --disable-eprt ftp://example.com/

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use  of  the  EPSV  command  when
              doing  passive  FTP  transfers.  Curl will normally always first
              attempt to use EPSV before PASV, but with this option,  it  will
              not try using EPSV.

              --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
              is an alias for --disable-epsv.

              If the server is an IPv6 host, this option will have  no  effect
              as EPSV is necessary then.

              Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to
              switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

              Example:
               curl --disable-epsv ftp://example.com/

       -q, --disable
              If used as the first parameter on the command line,  the  curlrc
              config  file will not be read and used. See the -K, --config for
              details on the default config file search path.

              Example:
               curl -q https://example.com

       --disallow-username-in-url
              (HTTP) This tells curl to exit if  passed  a  url  containing  a
              username.  This  is  probably  most useful when the URL is being
              provided at run-time or similar.

              Example:
               curl --disallow-username-in-url https://example.com

              See also --proto. Added in 7.61.0.

       --dns-interface <interface>
              (DNS) Tell curl to send outgoing DNS  requests  through  <inter-
              face>.  This  option is a counterpart to --interface (which does
              not affect DNS). The supplied string must be an  interface  name
              (not an address).

              Example:
               curl --dns-interface eth0 https://example.com

              See  also  --dns-ipv4-addr  and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-interface
              requires that the underlying libcurl was  built  to  support  c-
              ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv4-addr <address>
              (DNS)  Tell  curl  to  bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS
              requests, so that the DNS requests originate from this  address.
              The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --dns-ipv4-addr 10.1.2.3 https://example.com

              See  also  --dns-interface  and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-ipv4-addr
              requires that the underlying libcurl was  built  to  support  c-
              ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv6-addr <address>
              (DNS)  Tell  curl  to  bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS
              requests, so that the DNS requests originate from this  address.
              The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --dns-ipv6-addr 2a04:4e42::561 https://example.com

              See  also  --dns-interface  and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-ipv6-addr
              requires that the underlying libcurl was  built  to  support  c-
              ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-servers <addresses>
              Set  the  list  of  DNS servers to be used instead of the system
              default.  The list of IP addresses should be separated with com-
              mas. Port numbers may also optionally be given as :<port-number>
              after each IP address.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --dns-servers 192.168.0.1,192.168.0.2 https://example.com

              --dns-servers requires that the underlying libcurl was built  to
              support c-ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --doh-cert-status
              (all) Same as --cert-status but used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

              Example:
               curl --doh-cert-status --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

              Added in 7.76.0.

       --doh-insecure
              (all) Same as -k, --insecure but used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

              Example:
               curl --doh-insecure --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

              Added in 7.76.0.

       --doh-url <URL>
              (all)  Specifies  which  DNS-over-HTTPS  (DoH)  server to use to
              resolve hostnames, instead of using the  default  name  resolver
              mechanism. The URL must be HTTPS.

              Some  SSL  options  that you set for your transfer will apply to
              DoH since the name lookups take place  over  SSL.  However,  the
              certificate  verification  settings are not inherited and can be
              controlled separately via --doh-insecure and --doh-cert-status.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

              Added in 7.62.0.

       -D, --dump-header <filename>
              (HTTP FTP) Write the received protocol headers to the  specified
              file.  If  no  headers are received, the use of this option will
              create an empty file.

              When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines  are  considered
              being "headers" and thus are saved there.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --dump-header store.txt https://example.com

              See also -o, --output.

       --egd-file <file>
              (TLS)  Specify  the  path  name  to the Entropy Gathering Daemon
              socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
              connections.

              Example:
               curl --egd-file /random/here https://example.com

              See also --random-file.

       --engine <name>
              (TLS)  Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher opera-
              tions. Use --engine list to print a list of build-time supported
              engines.  Note  that  not all (and possibly none) of the engines
              may be available at run-time.

              Example:
               curl --engine flavor https://example.com

       --etag-compare <file>
              (HTTP) This option makes a conditional HTTP request for the spe-
              cific ETag read from the given file by sending a custom If-None-
              Match header using the stored ETag.

              For correct results, make sure that the specified file  contains
              only  a  single  line  with  the  desired ETag. An empty file is
              parsed as an empty ETag.

              Use the option  --etag-save  to  first  save  the  ETag  from  a
              response,  and then use this option to compare against the saved
              ETag in a subsequent request.

              Example:
               curl --etag-compare etag.txt https://example.com

              Added in 7.68.0.

       --etag-save <file>
              (HTTP) This option saves an HTTP ETag to the specified file.  An
              ETag  is  a  caching  related  header,  usually  returned  in  a
              response.

              If no ETag is sent by the server, an empty file is created.

              Example:
               curl --etag-save storetag.txt https://example.com

              Added in 7.68.0.

       --expect100-timeout <seconds>
              (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
              100-continue  response  when curl emits an Expects: 100-continue
              header in its request. By default curl  will  wait  one  second.
              This  option accepts decimal values! When curl stops waiting, it
              will continue as if the response has been received.

              Example:
               curl --expect100-timeout 2.5 -T file https://example.com

              See also --connect-timeout. Added in 7.47.0.

       --fail-early
              Fail and exit on the first detected transfer error.

              When curl is used to do multiple transfers on the command  line,
              it  will  attempt  to  operate on each given URL, one by one. By
              default, it will ignore errors if there are more URLs given  and
              the  last  URL's  success  will  determine  the  error code curl
              returns. So early failures will be "hidden" by  subsequent  suc-
              cessful transfers.

              Using  this  option,  curl  will  instead return an error on the
              first transfer that fails, independent of  the  amount  of  URLs
              that  are given on the command line. This way, no transfer fail-
              ures go undetected by scripts and similar.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to
              fail due to the server's HTTP status code. You can  combine  the
              two options, however note -f, --fail is not global and is there-
              fore contained by -:, --next.

              Example:
               curl --fail-early https://example.com https://two.example

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --fail-with-body
              (HTTP) Return an error on server errors where the HTTP  response
              code  is  400  or  greater). In normal cases when an HTTP server
              fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating
              so  (which  often  also  describes why and more). This flag will
              still allow curl to output and save that  content  but  also  to
              return error 22.

              This  is  an  alternative  option to -f, --fail which makes curl
              fail for the same circumstances but without saving the content.

              Example:
               curl --fail-with-body https://example.com

              See also -f, --fail. Added in 7.76.0.

       -f, --fail
              (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server  errors.  This
              is  mostly done to enable scripts etc to better deal with failed
              attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP server fails to deliver a
              document,  it  returns  an HTML document stating so (which often
              also describes why and more). This flag will prevent  curl  from
              outputting that and return error 22.

              This  method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-
              successful response codes will  slip  through,  especially  when
              authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

              Example:
               curl --fail https://example.com

              See also --fail-with-body.

       --false-start
              (TLS)  Tells  curl  to use false start during the TLS handshake.
              False start is a mode where a  TLS  client  will  start  sending
              application data before verifying the server's Finished message,
              thus saving a round trip when performing a full handshake.

              This is currently only implemented in the NSS and Secure  Trans-
              port (on iOS 7.0 or later, or OS X 10.9 or later) backends.

              Example:
               curl --false-start https://example.com

              Added in 7.42.0.

       --form-string <name=string>
              (HTTP  SMTP  IMAP)  Similar  to -F, --form except that the value
              string for the named parameter is used  literally.  Leading  '@'
              and '<' characters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no
              special meaning. Use this in preference to -F, --form if there's
              any  possibility  that the string value may accidentally trigger
              the '@' or '<' features of -F, --form.

              Example:
               curl --form-string "data" https://example.com

              See also -F, --form.

       -F, --form <name=content>
              (HTTP SMTP IMAP) For HTTP protocol family, this lets  curl  emu-
              late  a  filled-in  form  in which a user has pressed the submit
              button. This causes curl to POST  data  using  the  Content-Type
              multipart/form-data according to RFC 2388.

              For SMTP and IMAP protocols, this is the means to compose a mul-
              tipart mail message to transmit.

              This enables uploading of binary files etc. To force  the  'con-
              tent' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To
              just get the content part from a file, prefix the file name with
              the  symbol  <.  The  difference  between @ and < is then that @
              makes a file get attached in the post as a  file  upload,  while
              the < makes a text field and just get the contents for that text
              field from a file.

              Tell curl to read content from stdin instead of a file by  using
              - as filename. This goes for both @ and < constructs. When stdin
              is used, the contents is buffered in memory  first  by  curl  to
              determine  its  size  and  allow  a possible resend.  Defining a
              part's data from a named non-regular file (such as a named  pipe
              or  similar)  is unfortunately not subject to buffering and will
              be effectively read at transmission time; since the full size is
              unknown  before the transfer starts, such data is sent as chunks
              by HTTP and rejected by IMAP.

              Example: send an image to an HTTP server, where 'profile' is the
              name  of  the  form-field to which the file portrait.jpg will be
              the input:

               curl -F profile=@portrait.jpg https://example.com/upload.cgi

              Example: send your name and shoe size in two text fields to  the
              server:

               curl -F name=John -F shoesize=11 https://example.com/

              Example:  send your essay in a text field to the server. Send it
              as a plain text field, but get the contents for it from a  local
              file:

               curl -F "story=<hugefile.txt" https://example.com/

              You  can  also  tell  curl  what  Content-Type  to  use by using
              'type=', in a manner similar to:

               curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" example.com

              or

               curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" example.com

              You can also explicitly change the name field of a  file  upload
              part by setting filename=, like this:

               curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com

              If  filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by dou-
              ble-quotes like:

               curl -F "file=@\"local,file\";filename=\"name;in;post\""  exam-
              ple.com

              or

               curl   -F   'file=@"local,file";filename="name;in;post"'  exam-
              ple.com

              Note that if a filename/path is  quoted  by  double-quotes,  any
              double-quote or backslash within the filename must be escaped by
              backslash.

              Quoting must also be applied to non-file  data  if  it  contains
              semicolons, leading/trailing spaces or leading double quotes:

               curl  -F  'colors="red;  green;  blue";type=text/x-myapp' exam-
              ple.com

              You can add custom headers to the  field  by  setting  headers=,
              like

                curl -F "submit=OK;headers=\"X-submit-type: OK\"" example.com

              or

                curl -F "submit=OK;headers=@headerfile" example.com

              The  headers=  keyword may appear more that once and above notes
              about quoting apply. When headers are read from  a  file,  Empty
              lines and lines starting with '#' are comments and ignored; each
              header can be folded by splitting between two words and starting
              the  continuation  line  with a space; embedded carriage-returns
              and trailing spaces are stripped.   Here  is  an  example  of  a
              header file contents:

                # This file contain two headers.
                X-header-1: this is a header

                # The following header is folded.
                X-header-2: this is
                 another header


              To  support  sending  multipart  mail  messages,  the  syntax is
              extended as follows:
              - name can be omitted: the equal sign is the first character  of
              the argument,
              -  if  data  starts with '(', this signals to start a new multi-
              part: it can be followed by a content type specification.
              - a multipart can be terminated with a '=)' argument.

              Example: the following command sends an SMTP  mime  e-mail  con-
              sisting in an inline part in two alternative formats: plain text
              and HTML. It attaches a text file:

               curl -F '=(;type=multipart/alternative' \
                       -F '=plain text message' \
                       -F '= <body>HTML message</body>;type=text/html' \
                    -F '=)' -F '=@textfile.txt' ...  smtp://example.com

              Data can be  encoded  for  transfer  using  encoder=.  Available
              encodings  are  binary and 8bit that do nothing else than adding
              the corresponding Content-Transfer-Encoding  header,  7bit  that
              only  rejects  8-bit  characters  with a transfer error, quoted-
              printable and base64 that encodes data according to  the  corre-
              sponding schemes, limiting lines length to 76 characters.

              Example:  send  multipart mail with a quoted-printable text mes-
              sage and a base64 attached file:

               curl -F '=text message;encoder=quoted-printable' \
                    -F '=@localfile;encoder=base64' ... smtp://example.com

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

              Example:
               curl --form "name=curl" --form "file=@loadthis" https://example.com

              This  option  overrides  -d,  --data  and  -I,  --head  and  -T,
              --upload-file.

       --ftp-account <data>
              (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name
              and password has been provided, this data is sent off using  the
              ACCT command.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-account "mr.robot" ftp://example.com/

              Added in 7.13.0.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP)  If  authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails,
              send this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's  Secure
              Transport  server  over  FTPS  using a client certificate, using
              "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the  username  from
              the certificate.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-alternative-to-user "U53r" ftp://example.com

              Added in 7.15.5.

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP  SFTP)  When  an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that
              doesn't currently exist on the server, the standard behavior  of
              curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
              create missing directories.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-create-dirs -T file ftp://example.com/remote/path/file

              See also --create-dirs.

       --ftp-method <method>
              (FTP) Control what method curl should use to reach a file on  an
              FTP(S)  server. The method argument should be one of the follow-
              ing alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl does a single CWD operation for each  path  part  in
                     the  given URL. For deep hierarchies this means very many
                     commands. This is how RFC 1738 says it  should  be  done.
                     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl  does  no  CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR
                     etc and give a full path to the server for all these com-
                     mands. This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then
                     operates on the file "normally"  (like  in  the  multicwd
                     case).  This  is  somewhat  more standards compliant than
                     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       Examples:
        curl --ftp-method multicwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
        curl --ftp-method nocwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
        curl --ftp-method singlecwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file

       Added in 7.15.1.

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP) Use passive mode for the data connection. Passive  is  the
              internal  default behavior, but using this option can be used to
              override a previous -P, --ftp-port option.

              If this option is used several times,  only  the  first  one  is
              used.  Undoing  an  enforced passive really isn't doable but you
              must then instead enforce the correct -P, --ftp-port again.

              Passive mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and
              then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-pasv ftp://example.com/

              See also --disable-epsv. Added in 7.11.0.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
              (FTP)  Reverses  the  default initiator/listener roles when con-
              necting with FTP. This option makes curl use active  mode.  curl
              then  tells the server to connect back to the client's specified
              address and port, while passive mode asks the server to setup an
              IP  address  and  port for it to connect to. <address> should be
              one of:

              interface
                     e.g. "eth0" to specify which interface's IP  address  you
                     want to use (Unix only)

              IP address
                     e.g. "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

              host name
                     e.g. "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

              -      make  curl  pick the same IP address that is already used
                     for the control connection

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be  used.  Dis-
       able  the  use  of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt to use the
       EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt.  EPRT  is  really
       PORT++.

       Since  7.19.5,  you  can  append  ":[start]-[end]"  to the right of the
       address, to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you  spec-
       ify  a  port  range,  from  a lower to a higher number. A single number
       works as well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure  since
       the port may not be available.

       Examples:
        curl -P - ftp:/example.com
        curl -P eth0 ftp:/example.com
        curl -P 192.168.0.2 ftp:/example.com

       See also --ftp-pasv and --disable-eprt.

       --ftp-pret
              (FTP)  Tell  curl to send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV).
              Certain FTP servers, mainly drftpd,  require  this  non-standard
              command  for  directory  listings as well as up and downloads in
              PASV mode.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-pret ftp://example.com/

              Added in 7.20.0.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in
              its  response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the data
              connection. Instead curl will re-use  the  same  IP  address  it
              already uses for the control connection.

              Since curl 7.74.0 this option is enabled by default.

              This  option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead
              of PASV.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-skip-pasv-ip ftp://example.com/

              See also --ftp-pasv. Added in 7.14.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive>
              (FTP) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode will not initiate  the
              shutdown, but instead wait for the server to do it, and will not
              reply to the shutdown from the server. The active mode initiates
              the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode active --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

              See also --ftp-ssl-ccc. Added in 7.16.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS
              layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
              munication  will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to fol-
              low the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

              See also --ssl and --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode. Added in 7.16.1.

       --ftp-ssl-control
              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP  login,  clear  for  transfer.
              Allows  secure  authentication, but non-encrypted data transfers
              for efficiency.  Fails the transfer if the server  doesn't  sup-
              port SSL/TLS.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-ssl-control ftp://example.com

              Added in 7.16.0.

       -G, --get
              When  used,  this  option  will make all data specified with -d,
              --data, --data-binary or --data-urlencode to be used in an  HTTP
              GET  request instead of the POST request that otherwise would be
              used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If used in combination with  -I,  --head,  the  POST  data  will
              instead be appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is
              used. This is because undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but  you
              should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

              Examples:
               curl --get https://example.com
               curl --get -d "tool=curl" -d "age=old" https://example.com
               curl --get -I -d "tool=curl" https://example.com

       -g, --globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
              this option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters  {}[]
              without  having curl itself interpret them. Note that these let-
              ters are not normal  legal  URL  contents  but  they  should  be
              encoded according to the URI standard.

              Example:
               curl -g "https://example.com/{[]}}}}"

       --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms <milliseconds>
              Happy  Eyeballs is an algorithm that attempts to connect to both
              IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for  dual-stack  hosts,  giving  IPv6  a
              head-start  of the specified number of milliseconds. If the IPv6
              address cannot be connected to within that time, then a  connec-
              tion  attempt is made to the IPv4 address in parallel. The first
              connection to be established is the one that is used.

              The range of suggested useful values is limited. Happy  Eyeballs
              RFC  6555  says  "It  is RECOMMENDED that connection attempts be
              paced 150-250 ms apart to balance human factors against  network
              load."  libcurl currently defaults to 200 ms. Firefox and Chrome
              currently default to 300 ms.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms 500 https://example.com

              Added in 7.59.0.

       --haproxy-protocol
              (HTTP) Send a HAProxy PROXY protocol v1 header at the  beginning
              of  the  connection.  This  is  used  by some load balancers and
              reverse proxies to indicate the client's  true  IP  address  and
              port.

              This  option is primarily useful when sending test requests to a
              service that expects this header.

              Example:
               curl --haproxy-protocol https://example.com

              Added in 7.60.0.

       -I, --head
              (HTTP FTP FILE) Fetch the headers only! HTTP-servers feature the
              command  HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of a
              document. When used on an FTP or FILE file,  curl  displays  the
              file size and last modification time only.

              Example:
               curl -I https://example.com

       -H, --header <header/@file>
              (HTTP)  Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP
              to a server. You may specify any number of extra  headers.  Note
              that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as
              one of the internal ones curl would  use,  your  externally  set
              header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you
              to make even trickier stuff than curl  would  normally  do.  You
              should  not  replace internally set headers without knowing per-
              fectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal header by giv-
              ing  a  replacement  without  content  on  the right side of the
              colon, as in: -H "Host:". If you send the custom header with no-
              value  then its header must be terminated with a semicolon, such
              as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

              curl will make sure that each header  you  add/replace  is  sent
              with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
              as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              This  option can take an argument in @filename style, which then
              adds a header for each line in the input  file.  Using  @-  will
              make curl read the header file from stdin. Added in 7.55.0.

              You  need  --proxy-header  to send custom headers intended for a
              HTTP proxy. Added in 7.37.0.

              Passing on a "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" header  when  doing  a
              HTTP  request  with a request body, will make curl send the data
              using chunked encoding.

              WARNING: headers set  with  this  option  will  be  set  in  all
              requests  -  even  after  redirects are followed, like when told
              with -L, --location. This can lead to the header being  sent  to
              other  hosts than the original host, so sensitive headers should
              be used with caution combined with following redirects.

              This option can be used  multiple  times  to  add/replace/remove
              multiple headers.

              Examples:
               curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" https://example.com
               curl -H "User-Agent: yes-please/2000" https://example.com
               curl -H "Host:" https://example.com

              See also -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer.

       -h, --help <category>
              Usage  help.  This  lists all commands of the <category>.  If no
              arg was provided, curl will display the most  important  command
              line  arguments.   If the argument "all" was provided, curl will
              display all options available.  If the argument  "category"  was
              provided, curl will display all categories and their meanings.

              Example:
               curl --help all

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
              (SFTP  SCP)  Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The
              string should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the  remote  host's
              public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host unless
              the md5sums match.

              Example:
               curl --hostpubmd5 e5c1c49020640a5ab0f2034854c321a8 sftp://example.com/

              Added in 7.17.1.

       --hsts <file name>
              (HTTPS) This option enables HSTS for the transfer. If  the  file
              name  points  to an existing HSTS cache file, that will be used.
              After a completed transfer, the cache will be saved to the  file
              name again if it has been modified.

              Specify a "" file name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
              make curl just handle HSTS in memory.

              If this option is used several times, curl  will  load  contents
              from all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

              Example:
               curl --hsts cache.txt https://example.com

              Added in 7.74.0.

       --http0.9
              (HTTP) Tells curl to be fine with HTTP version 0.9 response.

              HTTP/0.9  is  a completely headerless response and therefore you
              can also connect with this to non-HTTP servers and still  get  a
              response  since  curl  will  simply transparently downgrade - if
              allowed.

              Since curl 7.66.0, HTTP/0.9 is disabled by default.

              Example:
               curl --http0.9 https://example.com

       -0, --http1.0
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead of  using  its
              internally preferred HTTP version.

              Example:
               curl --http1.0 https://example.com

              This option overrides --http1.1 and --http2.

       --http1.1
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.1.

              Example:
               curl --http1.1 https://example.com

              This  option  overrides  -0,  --http1.0  and  --http2.  Added in
              7.33.0.

       --http2-prior-knowledge
              (HTTP) Tells curl to  issue  its  non-TLS  HTTP  requests  using
              HTTP/2  without  HTTP/1.1  Upgrade.  It requires prior knowledge
              that the server supports HTTP/2 straight  away.  HTTPS  requests
              will  still  do HTTP/2 the standard way with negotiated protocol
              version in the TLS handshake.

              Example:
               curl --http2-prior-knowledge https://example.com

              --http2-prior-knowledge requires that the underlying libcurl was
              built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides --http1.1 and -0,
              --http1.0 and --http2. Added in 7.49.0.

       --http2
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 2.

              For HTTPS, this means curl will attempt to negotiate  HTTP/2  in
              the TLS handshake. curl does this by default.

              For HTTP, this means curl will attempt to upgrade the request to
              HTTP/2 using the Upgrade: request header.

              Example:
               curl --http2 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http3. --http2 requires that the under-
              lying libcurl was built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides
              --http1.1 and -0, --http1.0 and  --http2-prior-knowledge.  Added
              in 7.33.0.

       --http3
              (HTTP)  WARNING: this option is experimental. Do not use in pro-
              duction.

              Tells curl to use HTTP version 3 directly to the host  and  port
              number used in the URL. A normal HTTP/3 transaction will be done
              to a host and then get redirected via Alt-Svc, but  this  option
              allows  a  user to circumvent that when you know that the target
              speaks HTTP/3 on the given host and port.

              This option will make curl fail if a QUIC connection  cannot  be
              established,  it cannot fall back to a lower HTTP version on its
              own.

              Example:
               curl --http3 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. --http3 requires that the under-
              lying libcurl was built to support HTTP/3. This option overrides
              --http1.1 and -0, --http1.0 and --http2 and --http2-prior-knowl-
              edge. Added in 7.66.0.

       --ignore-content-length
              (FTP  HTTP)  For HTTP, Ignore the Content-Length header. This is
              particularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x,  which  will
              report  incorrect  Content-Length  for files larger than 2 giga-
              bytes.

              For FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the RETR command to figure out  the
              size before downloading a file.

              This  option  doesn't  work for HTTP if libcurl was built to use
              hyper.

              Example:
               curl --ignore-content-length https://example.com

       -i, --include
              Include the HTTP  response  headers  in  the  output.  The  HTTP
              response  headers  can include things like server name, cookies,
              date of the document, HTTP version and more...

              To view the request headers, consider the -v, --verbose option.

              Example:
               curl -i https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose.

       -k, --insecure
              (TLS) By default, every SSL connection curl makes is verified to
              be  secure.  This option allows curl to proceed and operate even
              for server connections otherwise considered insecure.

              The server connection is verified by making  sure  the  server's
              certificate  contains  the  right name and verifies successfully
              using the cert store.

              See this online resource for further details:
               https://curl.se/docs/sslcerts.html

              WARNING: this makes the transfer insecure.

              Example:
               curl --insecure https://example.com

              See also --proxy-insecure and --cacert.

       --interface <name>

              Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can  enter
              interface  name,  IP address or host name. An example could look
              like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 https://www.example.com/

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              On Linux it can be used to specify a VRF, but the  binary  needs
              to  either  have CAP_NET_RAW or to be run as root. More informa-
              tion  about  Linux  VRF:   https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documenta-
              tion/networking/vrf.txt

              Example:
               curl --interface eth0 https://example.com

              See also --dns-interface.

       -4, --ipv4
              This  option tells curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only,
              and not for example try IPv6.

              Example:
               curl --ipv4 https://example.com

              See also  --http1.1  and  --http2.  This  option  overrides  -6,
              --ipv6.

       -6, --ipv6
              This  option tells curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only,
              and not for example try IPv4.

              Example:
               curl --ipv6 https://example.com

              See also  --http1.1  and  --http2.  This  option  overrides  -4,
              --ipv4.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
              option will make it discard all  "session  cookies".  This  will
              basically  have  the same effect as if a new session is started.
              Typical browsers always discard  session  cookies  when  they're
              closed down.

              Example:
               curl --junk-session-cookies -b cookies.txt https://example.com

              See also -b, --cookie and -c, --cookie-jar.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              This  option  sets  the  time  a connection needs to remain idle
              before sending keepalive probes and the time between  individual
              keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating systems
              offering  the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and  TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
              (meaning  Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no
              effect if --no-keepalive is used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds.

              Example:
               curl --keepalive-time 20 https://example.com

              Added in 7.18.0.

       --key-type <type>
              (TLS)  Private key file type. Specify which type your --key pro-
              vided private key is. DER, PEM, and ENG are  supported.  If  not
              specified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --key-type DER --key here https://example.com

       --key <key>
              (TLS SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
              vate key in this separate file. For SSH, if not specified,  curl
              tries   the  following  candidates  in  order:  '~/.ssh/id_rsa',
              '~/.ssh/id_dsa', './id_rsa', './id_dsa'.

              If curl is built against OpenSSL library, and the engine  pkcs11
              is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
              ify a private key located in a PKCS#11 device. A  string  begin-
              ning  with  "pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI. If a
              PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the --engine option will be set as
              "pkcs11"  if none was provided and the --key-type option will be
              set as "ENG" if none was provided.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --cert certificate --key here https://example.com

       --krb <level>
              (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must  be
              entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
              'private'. Should you use a level that  is  not  one  of  these,
              'private' will instead be used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --krb clear ftp://example.com/

              --krb  requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support
              Kerberos.

       --libcurl <file>
              Append this option to any ordinary curl command  line,  and  you
              will  get  libcurl-using  C source code written to the file that
              does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              If  this  option is used several times, the last given file name
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --libcurl client.c https://example.com

              Added in 7.16.1.

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify the maximum transfer rate you want curl  to  use  -  for
              both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you have a
              limited pipe and you'd like your transfer not to use your entire
              bandwidth. To make it slower than it otherwise would be.

              The  given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is
              appended.  Appending 'k' or 'K' will count the number  as  kilo-
              bytes,  'm' or 'M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes it
              gigabytes. The suffixes (k, M, G, T,  P)  are  1024  based.  For
              example 1k is 1024. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              If  you  also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will
              take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to
              help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Examples:
               curl --limit-rate 100K https://example.com
               curl --limit-rate 1000 https://example.com
               curl --limit-rate 10M https://example.com

       -l, --list-only
              (FTP  POP3)  (FTP)  When  listing  an FTP directory, this switch
              forces a name-only view. This is especially useful if  the  user
              wants  to  machine-parse  the contents of an FTP directory since
              the normal directory view doesn't use a standard look or format.
              When  used  like  this,  the option causes an NLST command to be
              sent to the server instead of LIST.

              Note: Some FTP servers list only  files  in  their  response  to
              NLST; they do not include sub-directories and symbolic links.

              (POP3)  When  retrieving a specific email from POP3, this switch
              forces a LIST command to be performed instead of RETR.  This  is
              particularly  useful if the user wants to see if a specific mes-
              sage-id exists on the server and what size it is.

              Note: When combined with -X, --request, this option can be  used
              to  send a UIDL command instead, so the user may use the email's
              unique  identifier  rather  than  its  message-id  to  make  the
              request.

              Example:
               curl --list-only ftp://example.com/dir/

              Added in 4.0.

       --local-port <num/range>
              Set  a  preferred single number or range (FROM-TO) of local port
              numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by
              nature  are a scarce resource that will be busy at times so set-
              ting this range to something too narrow might cause  unnecessary
              connection setup failures.

              Example:
               curl --local-port 1000-3000 https://example.com

              Added in 7.15.2.

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP)  Like  -L,  --location, but will allow sending the name +
              password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may or
              may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you to
              a site to which you'll send your authentication info  (which  is
              plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

              Example:
               curl --location-trusted -u user:password https://example.com

              See also -u, --user.

       -L, --location
              (HTTP)  If  the server reports that the requested page has moved
              to a different location (indicated with a Location: header and a
              3XX  response code), this option will make curl redo the request
              on the new place. If used together with  -i,  --include  or  -I,
              --head,  headers  from  all  requested pages will be shown. When
              authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials  to  the
              initial  host.  If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it
              won't be able to intercept the user+password. See  also  --loca-
              tion-trusted  on how to change this. You can limit the amount of
              redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

              When curl follows a redirect and if the request is  a  POST,  it
              will  send the following request with a GET if the HTTP response
              was 301, 302, or 303. If the response code  was  any  other  3xx
              code,  curl  will  re-send  the following request using the same
              unmodified method.

              You can tell curl to not change POST requests to GET after a 30x
              response  by  using  the  dedicated options for that: --post301,
              --post302 and --post303.

              The method set with -X,  --request  overrides  the  method  curl
              would otherwise select to use.

              Example:
               curl -L https://example.com

       --login-options <options>
              (IMAP  POP3 SMTP) Specify the login options to use during server
              authentication.

              You can use login options to specify protocol  specific  options
              that  may  be  used during authentication. At present only IMAP,
              POP3 and SMTP support login options. For more information  about
              login  options  please  see  RFC  2384,  RFC 5092 and IETF draft
              draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --login-options 'AUTH=*' imap://example.com

              Added in 7.34.0.

       --mail-auth <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address. This will be  used  to  specify
              the  authentication  address  (identity)  of a submitted message
              that is being relayed to another server.

              Example:
               curl --mail-auth user@example.come -T mail smtp://example.com/

              See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from. Added in 7.25.0.

       --mail-from <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail  should  get
              sent from.

              Example:
               curl --mail-from user@example.com -T mail smtp://example.com/

              See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-auth. Added in 7.20.0.

       --mail-rcpt-allowfails
              (SMTP) When sending data to multiple recipients, by default curl
              will abort SMTP conversation if at least one of  the  recipients
              causes RCPT TO command to return an error.

              The  default  behavior  can  be  changed by passing --mail-rcpt-
              allowfails command-line  option  which  will  make  curl  ignore
              errors and proceed with the remaining valid recipients.

              If  all  recipients  trigger  RCPT  TO failures and this flag is
              specified, curl will  still  abort  the  SMTP  conversation  and
              return the error received from to the last RCPT TO command.

              Example:
               curl --mail-rcpt-allowfails --mail-rcpt dest@example.com smtp://example.com

              Added in 7.69.0.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
              (SMTP)  Specify  a  single  e-mail address, user name or mailing
              list name. Repeat this option several times to send to  multiple
              recipients.

              When  performing  an  address  verification  (VRFY command), the
              recipient should be specified as the user name or user name  and
              domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in 7.34.0)

              When performing a mailing list expand (EXPN command), the recip-
              ient should be specified using the mailing list  name,  such  as
              "Friends" or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

              Example:
               curl --mail-rcpt user@example.net smtp://example.com

              Added in 7.20.0.

       -M, --manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

              Example:
               curl --manual

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              (FTP HTTP MQTT) Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to
              download. If the file requested is larger than this  value,  the
              transfer will not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

              A  size  modifier may be used. For example, Appending 'k' or 'K'
              will count  the  number  as  kilobytes,  'm'  or  'M'  makes  it
              megabytes,  while 'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes. Examples: 200K,
              3m and 1G. (Added in 7.58.0)

              NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to  download,  and
              for such files this option has no effect even if the file trans-
              fer ends up being larger than this given limit.  Example:
               curl --max-filesize 100K https://example.com

              See also --limit-rate.

       --max-redirs <num>
              (HTTP) Set maximum number of redirections to  follow.  When  -L,
              --location  is  used,  to  prevent  curl from following too many
              redirects, by default, the limit is set  to  50  redirects.  Set
              this option to -1 to make it unlimited.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --max-redirs 3 --location https://example.com

       -m, --max-time <fractional seconds>
              Maximum  time  in  seconds that you allow the whole operation to
              take.  This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from  hang-
              ing  for  hours due to slow networks or links going down.  Since
              7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time-
              out will decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases
              in decimal precision.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Examples:
               curl --max-time 10 https://example.com
               curl --max-time 2.92 https://example.com

              See also --connect-timeout.

       --metalink
              This option was previously used to specify a metalink  resource.
              Metalink  support  has  been  disabled  in curl since 7.78.0 for
              security reasons.

              Example:
               curl --metalink file https://example.com

              Added in 7.27.0.

       --negotiate
              (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication.

              This option requires a library built with GSS-API or  SSPI  sup-
              port.  Use  -V,  --version  to  see  if  your curl supports GSS-
              API/SSPI or SPNEGO.

              When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u,  --user
              option  to  activate the authentication code properly. Sending a
              '-u :' is enough as the user name  and  password  from  the  -u,
              --user option aren't actually used.

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --negotiate -u : https://example.com

              See also --basic, --ntlm, --anyauth and --proxy-negotiate.

       --netrc-file <filename>
              This option is similar to -n, --netrc, except that  you  provide
              the  path  (absolute  or  relative)  to the netrc file that curl
              should use.  You can only specify one netrc file per invocation.
              If  several --netrc-file options are provided, the last one will
              be used.

              It will abide by --netrc-optional if specified.

              Example:
               curl --netrc-file netrc https://example.com

              This option overrides -n, --netrc. Added in 7.21.5.

       --netrc-optional
              Very similar to -n, --netrc, but this option  makes  the  .netrc
              usage optional and not mandatory as the -n, --netrc option does.

              Example:
               curl --netrc-optional https://example.com

              See also --netrc-file. This option overrides -n, --netrc.

       -n, --netrc
              Makes  curl  scan  the  .netrc  (_netrc  on Windows) file in the
              user's home directory for login name and password. This is typi-
              cally  used for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will enable
              user authentication. See netrc(5) and ftp(1) for details on  the
              file  format.  Curl  will not complain if that file doesn't have
              the right permissions (it should be neither  world-  nor  group-
              readable).  The  environment variable "HOME" is used to find the
              home directory.

              A quick and very simple example of how  to  setup  a  .netrc  to
              allow  curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user name
              'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

              Example:
               curl --netrc https://example.com

       -:, --next
              Tells curl to use a separate operation for the following URL and
              associated   options.  This  allows  you  to  send  several  URL
              requests, each with their own  specific  options,  for  example,
              such as different user names or custom requests for each.

              -:,  --next  will  reset  all local options and only global ones
              will have their values survive over to the  operation  following
              the  -:,  --next  instruction. Global options include -v, --ver-
              bose, --trace, --trace-ascii and --fail-early.

              For example, you can do both a GET and a POST in a  single  com-
              mand line:

               curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis www2.example.com

              Examples:
               curl https://example.com --next -d postthis www2.example.com
               curl -I https://example.com --next https://example.net/

              Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-alpn
              (HTTPS)  Disable  the  ALPN  TLS  extension.  ALPN is enabled by
              default if libcurl was built with an SSL library  that  supports
              ALPN.  ALPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negoti-
              ate HTTP/2 support with the server during https sessions.

              Example:
               curl --no-alpn https://example.com

              See also --no-npn  and  --http2.  --no-alpn  requires  that  the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       -N, --no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work sit-
              uations, curl will use a standard buffered  output  stream  that
              will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not
              necessarily exactly when the data arrives.   Using  this  option
              will disable that buffering.

              Note  that  this  is the negated option name documented. You can
              thus use --buffer to enforce the buffering.

              Example:
               curl --no-buffer https://example.com

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on  the  TCP  connection.
              curl otherwise enables them by default.

              Note  that  this  is the negated option name documented. You can
              thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

              Example:
               curl --no-keepalive https://example.com

       --no-npn
              (HTTPS) Disable the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default
              if  libcurl was built with an SSL library that supports NPN. NPN
              is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2  to  negotiate  HTTP/2
              support with the server during https sessions.

              Example:
               curl --no-npn https://example.com

              See  also  --no-alpn  and  --http2.  --no-npn  requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-progress-meter
              Option to switch off the progress meter output without muting or
              otherwise  affecting warning and informational messages like -s,
              --silent does.

              Note that this is the negated option name  documented.  You  can
              thus use --progress-meter to enable the progress meter again.

              Example:
               curl --no-progress-meter -o store https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent. Added in 7.67.0.

       --no-sessionid
              (TLS)  Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default
              all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while  nothing
              should  ever  get  hurt  by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs,
              there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
              require you to disable this in order for you to succeed.

              Note  that  this  is the negated option name documented. You can
              thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

              Example:
               curl --no-sessionid https://example.com

              Added in 7.16.0.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
              Comma-separated list of hosts for which not to use a  proxy,  if
              one  is  specified.  The  only wildcard is a single * character,
              which matches all hosts, and  effectively  disables  the  proxy.
              Each  name in this list is matched as either a domain which con-
              tains  the  hostname,  or  the  hostname  itself.  For  example,
              local.com    would    match    local.com,    local.com:80,   and
              www.local.com, but not www.notlocal.com.

              Since 7.53.0, This option overrides  the  environment  variables
              that  disable  the proxy ('no_proxy' and 'NO_PROXY'). If there's
              an environment variable disabling  a  proxy,  you  can  set  the
              noproxy list to "" to override it.

              Example:
               curl --noproxy "www.example" https://example.com

              Added in 7.19.4.

       --ntlm-wb
              (HTTP) Enables NTLM much in the style --ntlm does, but hand over
              the authentication to the separate binary  ntlmauth  application
              that is executed when needed.

              Example:
               curl --ntlm-wb -u user:password https://example.com

              See also --ntlm and --proxy-ntlm.

       --ntlm (HTTP)  Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM authentication
              method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
              It  is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever peo-
              ple and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of
              behavior  should  not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone
              who uses NTLM to switch to a public and  documented  authentica-
              tion method instead, such as Digest.

              If  you  want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
              use --proxy-ntlm.

              If this option is used several times,  only  the  first  one  is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --ntlm -u user:password https://example.com

              See  also  --proxy-ntlm.  --ntlm  requires  that  the underlying
              libcurl was built to support TLS. This option overrides  --basic
              and --negotiate and --digest and --anyauth.

       --oauth2-bearer <token>
              (IMAP  POP3  SMTP  HTTP)  Specify the Bearer Token for OAUTH 2.0
              server authentication. The Bearer Token is used  in  conjunction
              with  the  user name which can be specified as part of the --url
              or -u, --user options.

              The Bearer Token and user name are formatted  according  to  RFC
              6750.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --oauth2-bearer "mF_9.B5f-4.1JqM" https://example.com

       --output-dir <dir>

              This  option  specifies  the  directory in which files should be
              stored, when -O, --remote-name or -o, --output are used.

              The given output directory is  used  for  all  URLs  and  output
              options on the command line, up until the first -:, --next.

              If  the  specified target directory doesn't exist, the operation
              will fail unless --create-dirs is also used.

              If this option is used multiple times, the last specified direc-
              tory will be used.

              Example:
               curl --output-dir "tmp" -O https://example.com

              See  also  -O, --remote-name and -J, --remote-header-name. Added
              in 7.73.0.

       -o, --output <file>
              Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or
              [] to fetch multiple documents, you should quote the URL and you
              can use '#' followed by a number in the <file>  specifier.  That
              variable  will  be  replaced with the current string for the URL
              being fetched. Like in:

               curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

               curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you
              have.  For  example, if you specify two URLs on the same command
              line, you can use it like this:

                curl -o aa example.com -o bb example.net

              and the order of the -o options and  the  URLs  doesn't  matter,
              just  that  the  first -o is for the first URL and so on, so the
              above command line can also be written as

                curl example.com example.net -o aa -o bb

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the  local  directo-
              ries  dynamically.  Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash)
              will force the output to be done to stdout.

              To  suppress  response  bodies,  you  can  redirect  output   to
              /dev/null:

                curl example.com -o /dev/null

              Or for Windows use nul:

                curl example.com -o nul

              Examples:
               curl -o file https://example.com
               curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"
               curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"
               curl -o file https://example.com -o file2 https://example.net

              See  also -O, --remote-name, --remote-name-all and -J, --remote-
              header-name.

       --parallel-immediate
              When doing parallel transfers, this option  will  instruct  curl
              that it should rather prefer opening up more connections in par-
              allel at once rather than waiting to see if new transfers can be
              added as multiplexed streams on another connection.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Example:
               curl --parallel-immediate -Z https://example.com -o file1 https://example.com -o file2

              See also -Z, --parallel and --parallel-max. Added in 7.68.0.

       --parallel-max <num>
              When asked to do parallel transfers, using -Z, --parallel,  this
              option controls the maximum amount of transfers to do simultane-
              ously.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              The default is 50.

              Example:
               curl --parallel-max 100 -Z https://example.com ftp://example.com/

              See also -Z, --parallel. Added in 7.66.0.

       -Z, --parallel
              Makes  curl perform its transfers in parallel as compared to the
              regular serial manner.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Example:
               curl --parallel https://example.com -o file1 https://example.com -o file2

              Added in 7.66.0.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSH TLS) Passphrase for the private key.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --pass secret --key file https://example.com

       --path-as-is
              Tell  curl  to  not handle sequences of /../ or /./ in the given
              URL path. Normally curl will squash or merge them  according  to
              standards but with this option set you tell it not to do that.

              Example:
               curl --path-as-is https://example.com/../../etc/passwd

              Added in 7.42.0.

       --pinnedpubkey <hashes>
              (TLS)  Tells  curl  to  use  the  specified  public key file (or
              hashes) to verify the peer. This can be a path to a  file  which
              contains a single public key in PEM or DER format, or any number
              of base64 encoded sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
              rated by ';'

              When  negotiating  a  TLS  or SSL connection, the server sends a
              certificate indicating its identity. A public key  is  extracted
              from  this certificate and if it does not exactly match the pub-
              lic key provided to this option, curl will abort the  connection
              before sending or receiving any data.

              PEM/DER support:

              7.39.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS and GSKit

              7.43.0: NSS and wolfSSL

              7.47.0: mbedtls

              sha256 support:

              7.44.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolfSSL

              7.47.0: mbedtls

              Other SSL backends not supported.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Examples:
               curl --pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
               curl --pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc' https://example.com

       --post301
              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and not convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 301 redirection. The
              non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
              conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server
              may  require  a  POST to remain a POST after such a redirection.
              This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

              Example:
               curl --post301 --location -d "data" https://example.com

              See also --post302,  --post303  and  -L,  --location.  Added  in
              7.17.1.

       --post302
              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and not convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 302 redirection. The
              non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
              conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server
              may  require  a  POST to remain a POST after such a redirection.
              This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

              Example:
               curl --post302 --location -d "data" https://example.com

              See also --post301,  --post303  and  -L,  --location.  Added  in
              7.19.1.

       --post303
              (HTTP) Tells curl to violate RFC 7231/6.4.4 and not convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following  303  redirections.  A
              server may require a POST to remain a POST after a 303 redirect-
              ion. This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

              Example:
               curl --post303 --location -d "data" https://example.com

              See also --post302,  --post301  and  -L,  --location.  Added  in
              7.26.0.

       --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port]
              Use  the  specified  SOCKS proxy before connecting to an HTTP or
              HTTPS -x, --proxy. In such a case curl  first  connects  to  the
              SOCKS  proxy  and  then  connects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or
              HTTPS proxy. Hence pre proxy.

              The pre proxy string should be specified with a protocol:// pre-
              fix  to  specify  alternative  proxy  protocols.  Use socks4://,
              socks4a://, socks5:// or  socks5h://  to  request  the  specific
              SOCKS  version  to be used. No protocol specified will make curl
              default to SOCKS4.

              If the port number is not specified in the proxy string,  it  is
              assumed to be 1080.

              User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are
              URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special  charac-
              ters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --preproxy socks5://proxy.example -x http://http.example https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       -#, --progress-bar
              Make  curl  display  transfer  progress as a simple progress bar
              instead of the standard, more informational, meter.

              This progress bar draws a single line of '#'  characters  across
              the screen and shows a percentage if the transfer size is known.
              For transfers without a known size, there  will  be  space  ship
              (-=o=-)  that  moves back and forth but only while data is being
              transferred, with a set of flying hash sign symbols on top.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Example:
               curl -# -O https://example.com

       --proto-default <protocol>
              Tells curl to use protocol for any URL missing a scheme name.

              An  unknown  or  unsupported  protocol causes error CURLE_UNSUP-
              PORTED_PROTOCOL (1).

              This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http).

              Without this option set, curl guesses protocol based on the host
              name, see --url for details.

              Example:
               curl --proto-default https ftp.example.com

              Added in 7.45.0.

       --proto-redir <protocols>
              Tells  curl to limit what protocols it may use on redirect. Pro-
              tocols denied by --proto are not overridden by this option.  See
              --proto for how protocols are represented.

              Example, allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect:

               curl --proto-redir -all,http,https http://example.com

              By default curl will allow HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and FTPS on redirect
              (7.65.2).  Older versions of curl allowed all protocols on redi-
              rect  except several disabled for security reasons: Since 7.19.4
              FILE and SCP are disabled, and since 7.40.0  SMB  and  SMBS  are
              also  disabled.  Specifying all or +all enables all protocols on
              redirect, including those disabled for security.

              Example:
               curl --proto-redir =http,https https://example.com

              Added in 7.20.2.

       --proto <protocols>
              Tells curl to limit what protocols it  may  use  for  transfers.
              Protocols  are evaluated left to right, are comma separated, and
              are each a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed  by  zero
              or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

              +  Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-
                 ted (this is the default if no modifier is used).

              -  Deny this protocol, removing it from the  list  of  protocols
                 already permitted.

              =  Permit  only this protocol (ignoring the list already permit-
                 ted), though subject  to  later  modification  by  subsequent
                 entries in the comma separated list.

              For example:

              --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

              --proto -all,https,+http
                             only enables http and https

              --proto =http,https
                             also only enables http and https

              Unknown  protocols  produce  a  warning.  This allows scripts to
              safely rely on being able to disable potentially dangerous  pro-
              tocols,  without  relying  upon  support for that protocol being
              built into curl to avoid an error.

              This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect
              is  the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of
              the option.

              Example:
               curl --proto =http,https,sftp https://example.com

              See also --proto-redir and --proto-default. Added in 7.20.2.

       --proxy-anyauth
              Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when  commu-
              nicating  with  the  given HTTP proxy. This might cause an extra
              request/response round-trip.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-anyauth --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-basic and --proxy-digest. Added in
              7.13.2.

       --proxy-basic
              Tells  curl  to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a
              remote  host.  Basic  is  the default authentication method curl
              uses with proxies.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-basic --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-cacert <file>
              Same as --cacert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-cacert CA-file.txt -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-capath, --cacert,  --capath  and  -x,  --proxy.
              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-capath <dir>
              Same as --capath but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-capath /local/directory -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See  also  --proxy-cacert,  -x,  --proxy  and --capath. Added in
              7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert-type <type>
              Same as --cert-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-cert-type PEM --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]>
              Same as -E, --cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ciphers <list>
              Same as --ciphers but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-crlfile <file>
              Same as --crlfile but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-crlfile rejects.txt -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-digest
              Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when  communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
              a remote host.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-digest --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-header <header/@file>
              (HTTP) Extra header to include in the request when sending  HTTP
              to a proxy. You may specify any number of extra headers. This is
              the equivalent option to -H, --header but is for proxy  communi-
              cation  only  like  in CONNECT requests when you want a separate
              header sent to the proxy to what is sent to  the  actual  remote
              host.

              curl  will  make  sure  that each header you add/replace is sent
              with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
              as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              Headers specified with this  option  will  not  be  included  in
              requests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy.

              Starting  in  7.55.0, this option can take an argument in @file-
              name style, which then adds a header for each line in the  input
              file. Using @- will make curl read the header file from stdin.

              This  option  can  be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
              multiple headers.

              Examples:
               curl --proxy-header "X-First-Name: Joe" -x http://proxy https://example.com
               curl --proxy-header "User-Agent: surprise" -x http://proxy https://example.com
               curl --proxy-header "Host:" -x http://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.37.0.

       --proxy-insecure
              Same as -k, --insecure but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-insecure -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key-type <type>
              Same as --key-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-key-type DER --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key <key>
              Same as --key but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

       --proxy-negotiate
              Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate  (SPNEGO)  authentication  when
              communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
              HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-negotiate --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic. Added in 7.17.1.

       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM  authentication  when  communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote
              host.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ntlm --proxy-user user:passwd -x http://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-negotiate and --proxy-anyauth.

       --proxy-pass <phrase>
              Same as --pass but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-pass secret --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-pinnedpubkey <hashes>
              (TLS) Tells curl to  use  the  specified  public  key  file  (or
              hashes)  to verify the proxy. This can be a path to a file which
              contains a single public key in PEM or DER format, or any number
              of base64 encoded sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
              rated by ';'

              When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection,  the  server  sends  a
              certificate  indicating  its identity. A public key is extracted
              from this certificate and if it does not exactly match the  pub-
              lic  key provided to this option, curl will abort the connection
              before sending or receiving any data.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Examples:
               curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
               curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc' https://example.com

       --proxy-service-name <name>
              This option allows you to change  the  service  name  for  proxy
              negotiation.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-service-name "shrubbery" -x proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.43.0.

       --proxy-ssl-allow-beast
              Same as --ssl-allow-beast but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ssl-allow-beast -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert
              Same as --ssl-auto-client-cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.77.0.

       --proxy-tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
              (TLS)  Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection to
              your HTTPS proxy when it negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers
              suites  must  specify  valid  ciphers. Read up on TLS 1.3 cipher
              suite details on this URL:

               https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              This option is currently used only when curl  is  built  to  use
              OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
              you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites by using the  --proxy-
              ciphers option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 -x proxy https://example.com

       --proxy-tlsauthtype <type>
              Same as --tlsauthtype but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlsauthtype SRP -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlspassword <string>
              Same as --tlspassword but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlspassword passwd -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsuser <name>
              Same as --tlsuser but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlsuser smith -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsv1
              Same as -1, --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlsv1 -x https://proxy https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify  the user name and password to use for proxy authentica-
              tion.

              If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled  curl  binary  and  do  either
              Negotiate  or  NTLM  authentication  then  you  can tell curl to
              select the user name and password from your environment by spec-
              ifying a single colon with this option: "-U :".

              On systems where it works, curl will hide the given option argu-
              ment from process listings. This is not enough to  protect  cre-
              dentials  from  possibly getting seen by other users on the same
              system as they will still be visible for a brief  moment  before
              cleared.  Such  sensitive  data  should be retrieved from a file
              instead or similar and never used in clear  text  in  a  command
              line.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-user name:pwd -x proxy https://example.com

       -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port]
              Use the specified proxy.

              The  proxy string can be specified with a protocol:// prefix. No
              protocol specified or http:// will be treated as HTTP proxy. Use
              socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to request a spe-
              cific SOCKS version to be used.  (The protocol support was added
              in curl 7.21.7)

              HTTPS  proxy  support  via https:// protocol prefix was added in
              7.52.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS.

              Unrecognized and unsupported  proxy  protocols  cause  an  error
              since  7.52.0.   Prior  versions may ignore the protocol and use
              http:// instead.

              If the port number is not specified in the proxy string,  it  is
              assumed to be 1080.

              This  option  overrides  existing environment variables that set
              the proxy to use. If there's an environment variable  setting  a
              proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

              All operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy will trans-
              parently be converted to HTTP. It means  that  certain  protocol
              specific operations might not be available. This is not the case
              if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the -p, --prox-
              ytunnel option.

              User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are
              URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special  charac-
              ters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

              The  proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy
              environment variables, including the protocol  prefix  (http://)
              and the embedded user + password.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy http://proxy.example https://example.com

       --proxy1.0 <host[:port]>
              Use  the  specified  HTTP  1.0  proxy. If the port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy  option  -x,
              --proxy,  is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will
              specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

              Example:
               curl --proxy1.0 -x http://proxy https://example.com

       -p, --proxytunnel
              When an HTTP proxy is used -x, --proxy, this  option  will  make
              curl  tunnel through the proxy. The tunnel approach is made with
              the HTTP proxy CONNECT  request  and  requires  that  the  proxy
              allows  direct  connect  to the remote port number curl wants to
              tunnel through to.

              To suppress proxy CONNECT response headers when curl is  set  to
              output headers use --suppress-connect-headers.

              Example:
               curl --proxytunnel -x http://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SFTP SCP) Public key file name. Allows you to provide your pub-
              lic key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the public
              key  from the private key file, so passing this option is gener-
              ally not required. Note that this public key extraction requires
              libcurl  to  be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or higher
              that is itself linked against OpenSSL.)

              Example:
               curl --pubkey file.pub sftp://example.com/

       -Q, --quote <command>
              (FTP SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP  or  SFTP
              server.  Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
              (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP  transfer,  to  be
              exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer,
              prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make  commands  be  sent  after
              curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer
              command(s), prefix the command with a '+'  (this  is  only  sup-
              ported for FTP). You may specify any number of commands.

              By  default  curl  will stop at first failure. To make curl con-
              tinue even if the command fails,  prefix  the  command  with  an
              asterisk  (*).  Otherwise, if the server returns failure for one
              of the commands, the entire operation will be aborted.

              You must send syntactically correct  FTP  commands  as  RFC  959
              defines  to  FTP servers, or one of the commands listed below to
              SFTP servers.

              This option can be used multiple times.

              SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets  SFTP
              quote  commands  itself before sending them to the server.  File
              names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-
              acters.   Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote com-
              mands:

              atime date file
                     The atime command sets the last access time of  the  file
                     named  by  the file operand. The <date expression> can be
                     all sorts of date strings, see  the  curl_getdate(3)  man
                     page for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

              chgrp group file
                     The  chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by
                     the file operand to the group ID specified by  the  group
                     operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

              chmod mode file
                     The  chmod  command  modifies  the  file mode bits of the
                     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
                     number.

              chown user file
                     The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the
                     file operand to the user ID specified by the  user  oper-
                     and. The user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

              ln source_file target_file
                     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the
                     target_file location pointing to  the  source_file  loca-
                     tion.

              mkdir directory_name
                     The  mkdir  command  creates  the  directory named by the
                     directory_name operand.

              mtime date file
                     The mtime command sets the last modification time of  the
                     file named by the file operand. The <date expression> can
                     be all sorts of date strings, see the curl_getdate(3) man
                     page for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

              pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
                     rent working directory.

              rename source target
                     The rename command renames the file or directory named by
                     the  source  operand to the destination path named by the
                     target operand.

              rm file
                     The rm command removes the file specified by the file op-
                     erand.

              rmdir directory
                     The  rmdir  command removes the directory entry specified
                     by the directory operand, provided it is empty.

              symlink source_file target_file
                     See ln.

       Example:
        curl --quote "DELE file" ftp://example.com/foo

       --random-file <file>
              Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered
              as  random  data. The data may be used to seed the random engine
              for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

              Example:
               curl --random-file rubbish https://example.com

       -r, --range <range>
              (HTTP FTP SFTP FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e. a partial docu-
              ment)  from  an  HTTP/1.1,  FTP  or SFTP server or a local FILE.
              Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(HTTP)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*) (HTTP)

              (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a  mul-
              tipart  response,  which will be returned as-is by curl! Parsing
              or otherwise transforming this response is the responsibility of
              the caller.

              Only  digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop'
              fields of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit  charac-
              ter is given in the range, the server's response will be unspec-
              ified, depending on the server's configuration.

              You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not  have
              this  feature  enabled, so that when you attempt to get a range,
              you'll instead get the whole document.

              FTP and SFTP range downloads only  support  the  simple  'start-
              stop'  syntax  (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). FTP
              use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --range 22-44 https://example.com

       --raw  (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of con-
              tent  or  transfer  encodings  and  instead makes them passed on
              unaltered, raw.

              Example:
               curl --raw https://example.com

              Added in 7.16.2.

       -e, --referer <URL>
              (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
              This can also be set with the -H, --header flag of course.  When
              used with -L, --location you  can  append  ";auto"  to  the  -e,
              --referer  URL  to  make curl automatically set the previous URL
              when it follows a Location: header. The ";auto"  string  can  be
              used alone, even if you don't set an initial -e, --referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Examples:
               curl --referer "https://fake.example" https://example.com
               curl --referer "https://fake.example;auto" -L https://example.com
               curl --referer ";auto" -L https://example.com

              See also -A, --user-agent and -H, --header.

       -J, --remote-header-name
              (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the
              server-specified   Content-Disposition   filename   instead   of
              extracting a filename from the URL.

              If  the  server  specifies a file name and a file with that name
              already exists in the current working directory it will  not  be
              overwritten and an error will occur. If the server doesn't spec-
              ify a file name then this option has no effect.

              There's no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in  the  provided
              file name, so this option may provide you with rather unexpected
              file names.

              WARNING: Exercise judicious use of this  option,  especially  on
              Windows.  A  rogue  server  could  send you the name of a DLL or
              other file that could possibly be loaded automatically  by  Win-
              dows or some third party software.

              Example:
               curl -OJ https://example.com/file

       --remote-name-all
              This  option changes the default action for all given URLs to be
              dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
              you want to disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name-
              all has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.

              Example:
               curl --remote-name-all ftp://example.com/file1 ftp://example.com/file2

              Added in 7.19.0.

       -O, --remote-name
              Write output to a local file named like the remote file we  get.
              (Only  the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut
              off.)

              The file will be saved in the current working directory. If  you
              want  the  file  saved  in  a different directory, make sure you
              change the current working directory before invoking  curl  with
              this option.

              The  remote  file  name  to use for saving is extracted from the
              given URL, nothing else, and if it already  exists  it  will  be
              overwritten.  If  you  want  the server to be able to choose the
              file name refer to -J, --remote-header-name which can be used in
              addition  to  this option. If the server chooses a file name and
              that name already exists it will not be overwritten.

              There is no URL decoding done on the file name. If it has %20 or
              other  URL  encoded parts of the name, they will end up as-is as
              file name.

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you
              have.

              Example:
               curl -O https://example.com/filename

       -R, --remote-time
              When  used,  this will make curl attempt to figure out the time-
              stamp of the remote file, and if  that  is  available  make  the
              local file get that same timestamp.

              Example:
               curl --remote-time -o foo https://example.com

       --request-target <path>
              (HTTP)  Tells curl to use an alternative "target" (path) instead
              of using the path as provided in the  URL.  Particularly  useful
              when  wanting  to  issue  HTTP requests without leading slash or
              other data that doesn't follow the  regular  URL  pattern,  like
              "OPTIONS *".

              Example:
               curl --request-target "*" -X OPTIONS https://example.com

              Added in 7.55.0.

       -X, --request <command>
              (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicat-
              ing with the HTTP server.  The specified request method will  be
              used  instead  of  the  method otherwise used (which defaults to
              GET). Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for details  and  explana-
              tions.  Common  additional HTTP requests include PUT and DELETE,
              but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE
              and more.

              Normally  you  don't  need  this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD,
              POST and PUT requests are rather invoked by using dedicated com-
              mand line options.

              This  option  only  changes  the  actual  word  used in the HTTP
              request, it does not alter the way curl behaves. So for  example
              if  you  want  to make a proper HEAD request, using -X HEAD will
              not suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option.

              The method string you set with -X, --request will  be  used  for
              all  requests,  which  if you for example use -L, --location may
              cause unintended side-effects when curl doesn't  change  request
              method according to the HTTP 30x response codes - and similar.

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
              doing file lists with FTP.

              (POP3) Specifies a custom POP3 command to use instead of LIST or
              RETR. (Added in 7.26.0)

              (IMAP)  Specifies  a custom IMAP command to use instead of LIST.
              (Added in 7.30.0)

              (SMTP) Specifies a custom SMTP command to use instead of HELP or
              VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Examples:
               curl -X "DELETE" https://example.com
               curl -X NLST ftp://example.com/

       --resolve <[+]host:port:addr[,addr]...>
              Provide  a  custom  address  for  a specific host and port pair.
              Using this, you can make the curl requests(s)  use  a  specified
              address  and  prevent the otherwise normally resolved address to
              be used. Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts  alternative  provided
              on  the  command line. The port number should be the number used
              for the specific protocol the host will be used  for.  It  means
              you  need several entries if you want to provide address for the
              same host but different ports.

              By specifying '*' as host you can tell curl to resolve any  host
              and  specific  port  pair  to the specified address. Wildcard is
              resolved last so any --resolve with a  specific  host  and  port
              will be used first.

              The provided address set by this option will be used even if -4,
              --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6 is set to make curl use another IP version.

              By prefixing the host with a '+' you can make the entry time out
              after  curl's  default  timeout  (1 minute). Note that this will
              only make sense for long running parallel transfers with  a  lot
              of files. In such cases, if this option is used curl will try to
              resolve the host as it  normally  would  once  the  timeout  has
              expired.

              Support for providing the IP address within [brackets] was added
              in 7.57.0.

              Support for providing multiple IP addresses per entry was  added
              in 7.59.0.

              Support for resolving with wildcard was added in 7.64.0.

              Support for the '+' prefix was was added in 7.75.0.

              This  option  can  be  used many times to add many host names to
              resolve.

              Example:
               curl --resolve example.com:443:127.0.0.1 https://example.com

              Added in 7.21.3.

       --retry-all-errors
              Retry on any error. This option is used together with --retry.

              This option is the "sledgehammer" of retrying. Do not  use  this
              option by default (eg in curlrc), there may be unintended conse-
              quences such as sending or receiving duplicate data. Do not  use
              with  redirected  input or output. You'd be much better off han-
              dling your unique problems in  shell  script.  Please  read  the
              example below.

              WARNING:  For server compatibility curl attempts to retry failed
              flaky transfers as close as possible to how they  were  started,
              but  this  is  not possible with redirected input or output. For
              example, before retrying it removes output data  from  a  failed
              partial  transfer  that  was  written to an output file. However
              this is not true of data redirected to a | pipe or > file, which
              are  not reset. We strongly suggest don't parse or record output
              via redirect in combination with  this  option,  since  you  may
              receive duplicate data.

              By  default  curl  will  not error on an HTTP response code that
              indicates an HTTP error, if the  transfer  was  successful.  For
              example,  if  a  server  replies  404 Not Found and the reply is
              fully received then that is not an error. When --retry  is  used
              then  curl  will retry on some HTTP response codes that indicate
              transient HTTP errors,  but  that  does  not  include  most  4xx
              response codes such as 404. If you want to retry on all response
              codes that indicate HTTP errors (4xx and 5xx) then combine  with
              -f, --fail.

              Example:
               curl --retry-all-errors https://example.com

              Added in 7.71.0.

       --retry-connrefused
              In  addition to the other conditions, consider ECONNREFUSED as a
              transient error too for --retry. This option  is  used  together
              with --retry.

              Example:
               curl --retry-connrefused --retry https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make  curl  sleep  this  amount of time before each retry when a
              transfer has failed with  a  transient  error  (it  changes  the
              default  backoff time algorithm between retries). This option is
              only interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay  to
              zero will make curl use the default backoff time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --retry-delay 5 --retry https://example.com

              Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The  retry  timer  is  reset  before the first transfer attempt.
              Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
              hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn't
              reached the limit, the request will be made and  while  perform-
              ing,  it may take longer than this given time period. To limit a
              single request's maximum time, use  -m,  --max-time.   Set  this
              option to zero to not timeout retries.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --retry-max-time 30 --retry 10 https://example.com

              Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry <num>
              If  a  transient  error is returned when curl tries to perform a
              transfer, it will retry this number of times before  giving  up.
              Setting  the  number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which is the
              default). Transient error means either: a timeout,  an  FTP  4xx
              response code or an HTTP 408, 429, 500, 502, 503 or 504 response
              code.

              When curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first  wait  one
              second  and  then for all forthcoming retries it will double the
              waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be  the
              delay  between  the rest of the retries.  By using --retry-delay
              you  disable  this  exponential  backoff  algorithm.  See   also
              --retry-max-time to limit the total time allowed for retries.

              Since  curl  7.66.0,  curl  will  comply  with  the Retry-After:
              response header if one was present to know  when  to  issue  the
              next retry.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --retry 7 https://example.com

              Added in 7.12.3.

       --sasl-authzid <identity>
              Use  this  authorisation  identity  (authzid), during SASL PLAIN
              authentication,  in  addition  to  the  authentication  identity
              (authcid) as specified by -u, --user.

              If  the  option  isn't  specified,  the  server  will derive the
              authzid from the authcid, but if specified, and depending on the
              server  implementation,  it may be used to access another user's
              inbox, that the user has been granted access  to,  or  a  shared
              mailbox for example.

              Example:
               curl --sasl-authzid zid imap://example.com/

              Added in 7.66.0.

       --sasl-ir
              Enable initial response in SASL authentication.

              Example:
               curl --sasl-ir imap://example.com/

              Added in 7.31.0.

       --service-name <name>
              This option allows you to change the service name for SPNEGO.

              Examples:    --negotiate    --service-name   sockd   would   use
              sockd/server-name.

              Example:
               curl --service-name sockd/server https://example.com

              Added in 7.43.0.

       -S, --show-error
              When used with -s, --silent, it makes curl show an error message
              if it fails.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Example:
               curl --show-error --silent https://example.com

              See also --no-progress-meter.

       -s, --silent
              Silent or quiet mode. Don't show progress meter  or  error  mes-
              sages.   Makes  Curl mute. It will still output the data you ask
              for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
              it.

              Use  -S,  --show-error  in  addition  to  this option to disable
              progress meter but still show error messages.

              Example:
               curl -s https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose, --stderr and --no-progress-meter.

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not speci-
              fied,  it  is  assumed at port 1080. Using this socket type make
              curl resolve the host name and passing the  address  on  to  the
              proxy.

              This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks4 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the same time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
              such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
              nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --socks4 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              Added in 7.15.2.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not spec-
              ified,  it  is  assumed  at  port  1080.  This asks the proxy to
              resolve the host name.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol  pre-
              fix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the same time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
              such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
              nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --socks4a hostname:4096 https://example.com

              Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5-basic
              Tells curl to use username/password authentication when connect-
              ing  to a SOCKS5 proxy.  The username/password authentication is
              enabled  by  default.   Use  --socks5-gssapi  to  force  GSS-API
              authentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-basic --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
              As  part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is negoti-
              ated. RFC 1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should  be  protected,
              but  the  NEC  reference  implementation  does  not.  The option
              --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the  pro-
              tection mode negotiation.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-gssapi-nec --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <name>
              The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
              This option allows you to change it.

              Examples:  --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service   sockd
              would  use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-
              service sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for  cases
              where the proxy-name does not match the principal name.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-gssapi-service sockd --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-gssapi
              Tells  curl  to  use GSS-API authentication when connecting to a
              SOCKS5 proxy.  The GSS-API authentication is enabled by  default
              (if  curl is compiled with GSS-API support).  Use --socks5-basic
              to force username/password authentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-gssapi --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the  proxy  resolve  the
              host  name).  If the port number is not specified, it is assumed
              at port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// proto-
              col prefix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the same time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
              such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
              nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-hostname proxy.example:7000 https://example.com

              Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy  -  but  resolve  the  host  name
              locally.  If  the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
              port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the  same  time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In
              such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
              nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              This  option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS
              or LDAP.

              Example:
               curl --socks5 proxy.example:7000 https://example.com

              Added in 7.18.0.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
              If a download is slower than this given speed (in bytes per sec-
              ond)  for  speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time is set
              with -y, --speed-time and is 30 if not set.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

       -y, --speed-time <seconds>
              If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during
              a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is
              used, the default speed-limit will be  1  unless  set  with  -Y,
              --speed-limit.

              This  option  controls  transfers  and thus will not affect slow
              connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try  the  --connect-
              timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

       --ssl-allow-beast
              This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw in the
              SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.  If this option  isn't
              used,  the SSL layer may use workarounds known to cause interop-
              erability problems with some older SSL implementations.

              WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this
              flag you ask for exactly that.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-allow-beast https://example.com

              Added in 7.25.0.

       --ssl-auto-client-cert
              Tell  libcurl  to automatically locate and use a client certifi-
              cate for authentication, when  requested  by  the  server.  This
              option  is  only  supported for Schannel (the native Windows SSL
              library). Prior to 7.77.0  this  was  the  default  behavior  in
              libcurl with Schannel. Since the server can request any certifi-
              cate that supports client authentication in the  OS  certificate
              store it could be a privacy violation and unexpected.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-auto-client-cert https://example.com

              See also --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert. Added in 7.77.0.

       --ssl-no-revoke
              (Schannel) This option tells curl to disable certificate revoca-
              tion checks.  WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and
              by using this flag you ask for exactly that.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-no-revoke https://example.com

              Added in 7.44.0.

       --ssl-reqd
              (FTP IMAP POP3 SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.  Termi-
              nates the connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-reqd ftp://example.com

              Added in 7.20.0.

       --ssl-revoke-best-effort
              (Schannel) This option tells curl to ignore certificate  revoca-
              tion checks when they failed due to missing/offline distribution
              points for the revocation check lists.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-revoke-best-effort https://example.com

              Added in 7.70.0.

       --ssl  (FTP IMAP POP3 SMTP) Try to  use  SSL/TLS  for  the  connection.
              Reverts to a non-secure connection if the server doesn't support
              SSL/TLS.  See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for  differ-
              ent levels of encryption required.

              This  option  was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0).
              That option name can still be used but  will  be  removed  in  a
              future version.

              Example:
               curl --ssl pop3://example.com/

              Added in 7.20.0.

       -2, --sslv2
              (SSL) This option previously asked curl to use SSLv2, but start-
              ing in curl 7.77.0 this instruction is ignored. SSLv2 is  widely
              considered insecure (see RFC 6176).

              Example:
               curl --sslv2 https://example.com

              See  also  --http1.1  and --http2. -2, --sslv2 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This  option  over-
              rides -3, --sslv3 and -1, --tlsv1 and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       -3, --sslv3
              (SSL) This option previously asked curl to use SSLv3, but start-
              ing in curl 7.77.0 this instruction is ignored. SSLv3 is  widely
              considered insecure (see RFC 7568).

              Example:
               curl --sslv3 https://example.com

              See  also  --http1.1  and --http2. -3, --sslv3 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This  option  over-
              rides -2, --sslv2 and -1, --tlsv1 and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect  all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If
              the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --stderr output.txt https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent.

       --styled-output
              Enables  the automatic use of bold font styles when writing HTTP
              headers to the terminal. Use --no-styled-output to  switch  them
              off.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Example:
               curl --styled-output -I https://example.com

              Added in 7.61.0.

       --suppress-connect-headers
              When -p, --proxytunnel is used and a  CONNECT  request  is  made
              don't  output  proxy  CONNECT  response  headers. This option is
              meant to be used with -D, --dump-header or -i,  --include  which
              are  used  to  show  protocol  headers  in the output. It has no
              effect on debug options such as -v, --verbose or --trace, or any
              statistics.

              Example:
               curl --suppress-connect-headers --include -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -D, --dump-header, -i, --include and -p, --proxytunnel.

       --tcp-fastopen
              Enable use of TCP Fast Open (RFC7413).

              Example:
               curl --tcp-fastopen https://example.com

              Added in 7.49.0.

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn  on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
              page for details about this option.

              Since 7.50.2, curl sets this option by default and you  need  to
              explicitly switch it off if you don't want it on.

              Example:
               curl --tcp-nodelay https://example.com

              Added in 7.11.2.

       -t, --telnet-option <opt=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

              Example:
               curl -t TTYPE=vt100 telnet://example.com/

       --tftp-blksize <value>
              (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
              size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
              a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --tftp-blksize 1024 tftp://example.com/file

              Added in 7.20.0.

       --tftp-no-options
              (TFTP) Tells curl not to send TFTP options requests.

              This  option  improves  interop with some legacy servers that do
              not acknowledge or properly implement TFTP  options.  When  this
              option is used --tftp-blksize is ignored.

              Example:
               curl --tftp-no-options tftp://192.168.0.1/

              Added in 7.48.0.

       -z, --time-cond <time>
              (HTTP  FTP) Request a file that has been modified later than the
              given time and date, or one that has been modified  before  that
              time.  The <date expression> can be all sorts of date strings or
              if it doesn't match any internal ones, it is taken as a filename
              and  tries  to  get  the  modification  date (mtime) from <file>
              instead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for  date  expression
              details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for
              a document that is older than the given date/time, default is  a
              document that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Examples:
               curl -z "Wed 01 Sep 2021 12:18:00" https://example.com
               curl -z "-Wed 01 Sep 2021 12:18:00" https://example.com
               curl -z file https://example.com

       --tls-max <VERSION>
              (SSL) VERSION defines maximum supported TLS version. The minimum
              acceptable version  is  set  by  tlsv1.0,  tlsv1.1,  tlsv1.2  or
              tlsv1.3.

              If  the  connection  is  done  without  TLS,  this option has no
              effect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.


              default
                     Use up to recommended TLS version.

              1.0    Use up to TLSv1.0.

              1.1    Use up to TLSv1.1.

              1.2    Use up to TLSv1.2.

              1.3    Use up to TLSv1.3.

       Examples:
        curl --tls-max 1.2 https://example.com
        curl --tls-max 1.3 --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

       See also  --tlsv1.0,  --tlsv1.1,  --tlsv1.2  and  --tlsv1.3.  --tls-max
       requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in
       7.54.0.

       --tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
              (TLS) Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection  if
              it  negotiates  TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers suites must specify
              valid ciphers. Read up on TLS 1.3 cipher suite details  on  this
              URL:

               https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              This  option  is  currently  used only when curl is built to use
              OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
              you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites by using the --ciphers
              option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 https://example.com

       --tlsauthtype <type>
              Set TLS  authentication  type.  Currently,  the  only  supported
              option  is  "SRP",  for  TLS-SRP  (RFC  5054).  If --tlsuser and
              --tlspassword are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then  this
              option  defaults to "SRP".  This option works only if the under-
              lying libcurl is built  with  TLS-SRP  support,  which  requires
              OpenSSL or GnuTLS with TLS-SRP support.

              Example:
               curl --tlsauthtype SRP https://example.com

              Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlspassword <string>
              Set  password  for use with the TLS authentication method speci-
              fied with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be set.

              This doesn't work with TLS 1.3.

              Example:
               curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser user https://example.com

              Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsuser <name>
              Set username for use with the TLS authentication  method  speci-
              fied  with  --tlsauthtype.  Requires  that --tlspassword also is
              set.

              This doesn't work with TLS 1.3.

              Example:
               curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser user https://example.com

              Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsv1.0
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.0 or later when  connect-
              ing to a remote TLS server.

              In  old  versions  of  curl  this option was documented to allow
              _only_ TLS 1.0, but behavior was inconsistent depending  on  the
              TLS library. Use --tls-max if you want to set a maximum TLS ver-
              sion.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.0 https://example.com

              Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.1
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 or later when  connect-
              ing to a remote TLS server.

              In  old  versions  of  curl  this option was documented to allow
              _only_ TLS 1.1, but behavior was inconsistent depending  on  the
              TLS library. Use --tls-max if you want to set a maximum TLS ver-
              sion.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.1 https://example.com

              Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.2
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 or later when  connect-
              ing to a remote TLS server.

              In  old  versions  of  curl  this option was documented to allow
              _only_ TLS 1.2, but behavior was inconsistent depending  on  the
              TLS library. Use --tls-max if you want to set a maximum TLS ver-
              sion.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

              Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.3
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.3 or later when  connect-
              ing to a remote TLS server.

              If  the  connection  is  done  without  TLS,  this option has no
              effect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

              Note that TLS 1.3 is not supported by all TLS backends.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.3 https://example.com

              Added in 7.52.0.

       -1, --tlsv1
              (SSL) Tells curl to use at least TLS version 1.x when  negotiat-
              ing  with  a  remote  TLS  server. That means TLS version 1.0 or
              higher

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. -1, --tlsv1  requires  that  the
              underlying  libcurl  was built to support TLS. This option over-
              rides --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2 and --tlsv1.3.

       --tr-encoding
              (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
              of  the  algorithms curl supports, and uncompress the data while
              receiving it.

              Example:
               curl --tr-encoding https://example.com

              Added in 7.21.6.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all  incoming  and  outgoing  data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
              only  shows  the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output
              that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --trace-ascii log.txt https://example.com

              This option overrides --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --trace-time
              Prepends  a  time  stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl
              displays.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Example:
               curl --trace-time --trace-ascii output https://example.com

              Added in 7.14.0.

       --trace <file>
              Enables  a  full  trace  dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-"  as  filename  to have the output sent to stdout. Use "%" as
              filename to have the output sent to stderr.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl --trace log.txt https://example.com

              This option overrides -v, --verbose and --trace-ascii.

       --unix-socket <path>
              (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
              the network.

              Example:
               curl --unix-socket socket-path https://example.com

              Added in 7.40.0.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
              This transfers the specified local file to the  remote  URL.  If
              there is no file part in the specified URL, curl will append the
              local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last
              directory  to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or
              curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file
              name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to
              fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
              be used.

              Use  the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a
              given file.  Alternately, the file name "."  (a  single  period)
              may  be  specified  instead  of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking
              mode to  allow  reading  server  output  while  stdin  is  being
              uploaded.

              You  can  specify one -T, --upload-file for each URL on the com-
              mand line. Each -T, --upload-file + URL pair specifies  what  to
              upload  and  to  where. curl also supports "globbing" of the -T,
              --upload-file argument, meaning that  you  can  upload  multiple
              files  to a single URL by using the same URL globbing style sup-
              ported in the URL.

              When uploading to an SMTP server: the uploaded data  is  assumed
              to be RFC 5322 formatted. It has to feature the necessary set of
              headers and mail body formatted correctly by the  user  as  curl
              will not transcode nor encode it further in any way.

              Examples:
               curl -T file https://example.com
               curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.example.com/
               curl --upload-file "{file1,file2}" https://example.com

       --url <url>
              Specify  a  URL  to  fetch. This option is mostly handy when you
              want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

              If the given URL is missing a scheme name (such as "http://"  or
              "ftp://"  etc) then curl will make a guess based on the host. If
              the outermost sub-domain name matches  DICT,  FTP,  IMAP,  LDAP,
              POP3  or  SMTP  then  that protocol will be used, otherwise HTTP
              will be used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a
              default protocol, see --proto-default for details.

              This  option  may  be used any number of times. To control where
              this URL is written, use the -o, --output or the  -O,  --remote-
              name options.

              WARNING:  On  Windows,  particular  file:// accesses can be con-
              verted to network accesses by the operating system. Beware!

              Example:
               curl --url https://example.com

       -B, --use-ascii
              (FTP LDAP) Enable ASCII transfer. For  FTP,  this  can  also  be
              enforced  by  using  a URL that ends with ";type=A". This option
              causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems.

              Example:
               curl -B ftp://example.com/README

       -A, --user-agent <name>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
              To  encode blanks in the string, surround the string with single
              quote marks. This header can also be set with the  -H,  --header
              or the --proxy-header options.

              If  you give an empty argument to -A, --user-agent (""), it will
              remove the header completely from the request. If you  prefer  a
              blank header, you can set it to a single space (" ").

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl -A "Agent 007" https://example.com

       -u, --user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for server authentica-
              tion. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional.

              If you simply specify the user name,  curl  will  prompt  for  a
              password.

              The  user  name  and  passwords are split up on the first colon,
              which makes it impossible to use a colon in the user  name  with
              this option. The password can, still.

              On systems where it works, curl will hide the given option argu-
              ment from process listings. This is not enough to  protect  cre-
              dentials  from  possibly getting seen by other users on the same
              system as they will still be visible for a brief  moment  before
              cleared.  Such  sensitive  data  should be retrieved from a file
              instead or similar and never used in clear  text  in  a  command
              line.

              When  using  Kerberos  V5 with a Windows based server you should
              include the Windows domain name in the user name, in  order  for
              the  server  to  successfully  obtain  a Kerberos Ticket. If you
              don't then the initial authentication handshake may fail.

              When using NTLM, the user name can be specified  simply  as  the
              user  name,  without the domain, if there is a single domain and
              forest in your setup for example.

              To specify the domain name use either Down-Level Logon  Name  or
              UPN (User Principal Name) formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
              user@example.com respectively.

              If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and  perform  Ker-
              beros  V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you can
              tell curl to select the user name and password from  your  envi-
              ronment by specifying a single colon with this option: "-u :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl -u user:secret https://example.com

       -v, --verbose
              Makes  curl  verbose  during the operation. Useful for debugging
              and seeing what's going on "under the  hood".  A  line  starting
              with  '>'  means  "header  data" sent by curl, '<' means "header
              data" received by curl that is hidden in  normal  cases,  and  a
              line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

              If you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might
              be the option you're looking for.

              If you think this option still doesn't give you enough  details,
              consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Use -s, --silent to make curl really quiet.

              Example:
               curl --verbose https://example.com

              See also  -i,  --include.  This  option  overrides  --trace  and
              --trace-ascii.

       -V, --version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The  first  line  includes the full version of curl, libcurl and
              other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

              The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows  all  protocols
              that libcurl reports to support.

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
              libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

              alt-svc
                     Support for the Alt-Svc: header is provided.

              AsynchDNS
                     This curl uses asynchronous name  resolves.  Asynchronous
                     name  resolves can be done using either the c-ares or the
                     threaded resolver backends.

              brotli Support for automatic brotli compression over HTTP(S).

              CharConv
                     curl was built with support for character set conversions
                     (like EBCDIC)

              Debug  This  curl  uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables
                     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For  curl-
                     developers only!

              gsasl  The  built-in  SASL authentication includes extensions to
                     support SCRAM because libcurl was built with libgsasl.

              GSS-API
                     GSS-API is supported.

              HSTS   HSTS support is present.

              HTTP2  HTTP/2 support has been built-in.

              HTTP3  HTTP/3 support has been built-in.

              HTTPS-proxy
                     This curl is built to support HTTPS proxy.

              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              Kerberos
                     Kerberos V5 authentication is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger
                     than 2GB.

              libz   Automatic decompression (via gzip, deflate) of compressed
                     files over HTTP is supported.

              MultiSSL
                     This curl supports multiple TLS backends.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              NTLM_WB
                     NTLM delegation to winbind helper is supported.

              PSL    PSL is short for Public Suffix List and means  that  this
                     curl  has  been  built  with knowledge about "public suf-
                     fixes".

              SPNEGO SPNEGO authentication is supported.

              SSL    SSL versions of various protocols are supported, such  as
                     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S and so on.

              SSPI   SSPI is supported.

              TLS-SRP
                     SRP  (Secure Remote Password) authentication is supported
                     for TLS.

              TrackMemory
                     Debug memory tracking is supported.

              Unicode
                     Unicode support on Windows.

              UnixSockets
                     Unix sockets support is provided.

              zstd   Automatic decompression (via zstd)  of  compressed  files
                     over HTTP is supported.

       Example:
        curl --version

       -w, --write-out <format>
              Make curl display information on stdout after a completed trans-
              fer. The format is a string that may contain  plain  text  mixed
              with  any  number of variables. The format can be specified as a
              literal "string", or you can have curl read the  format  from  a
              file  with  "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from
              stdin you write "@-".

              The variables present in the output format will  be  substituted
              by  the  value or text that curl thinks fit, as described below.
              All variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output  a
              normal  % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by
              using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              The output will be written to standard output, but this  can  be
              switched to standard error by using %{stderr}.

              NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment,
              where all occurrences of %  must  be  doubled  when  using  this
              option.

              The variables available are:

              content_type   The  Content-Type  of  the requested document, if
                             there was any.

              errormsg       The error message. (Added in 7.75.0)

              exitcode       The numerical exitcode of the transfer. (Added in
                             7.75.0)

              filename_effective
                             The  ultimate  filename  that curl writes out to.
                             This is only meaningful if curl is told to  write
                             to  a  file  with  the  -O,  --remote-name or -o,
                             --output option. It's most useful in  combination
                             with  the -J, --remote-header-name option. (Added
                             in 7.26.0)

              ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
                             to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

              http_code      The numerical response code that was found in the
                             last retrieved HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s)  transfer.  In
                             7.18.2  the alias response_code was added to show
                             the same info.

              http_connect   The numerical code that was  found  in  the  last
                             response   (from  a  proxy)  to  a  curl  CONNECT
                             request. (Added in 7.12.4)

              http_version   The  http  version  that  was  effectively  used.
                             (Added in 7.50.0)

              json           A JSON object with all available keys.

              local_ip       The  IP  address  of  the  local  end of the most
                             recently done connection - can be either IPv4  or
                             IPv6. (Added in 7.29.0)

              local_port     The  local  port number of the most recently done
                             connection. (Added in 7.29.0)

              method         The http method used  in  the  most  recent  HTTP
                             request. (Added in 7.72.0)

              num_connects   Number  of new connects made in the recent trans-
                             fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

              num_headers    The number of response headers in the most recent
                             request (restarted at each
                              redirect).  Note  that  the status line IS NOT a
                             header. (Added in 7.73.0)

              num_redirects  Number of redirects that  were  followed  in  the
                             request. (Added in 7.12.3)

              onerror        The  rest  of  the  output  is  only shown if the
                             transfer returned  a  non-zero  error  (Added  in
                             7.75.0)

              proxy_ssl_verify_result
                             The result of the HTTPS proxy's SSL peer certifi-
                             cate verification that was requested. 0 means the
                             verification was successful. (Added in 7.52.0)

              redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without -L, --loca-
                             tion to follow redirects (or when --max-redirs is
                             met),  this  variable  will show the actual URL a
                             redirect would have gone to. (Added in 7.18.2)

              referer        The Referer: header, if there was any. (Added  in
                             7.76.0)

              remote_ip      The  remote  IP address of the most recently done
                             connection - can be either IPv4 or  IPv6.  (Added
                             in 7.29.0)

              remote_port    The  remote port number of the most recently done
                             connection. (Added in 7.29.0)

              response_code  The numerical response code that was found in the
                             last  transfer  (formerly  known as "http_code").
                             (Added in 7.18.2)

              scheme         The URL scheme (sometimes called  protocol)  that
                             was effectively used. (Added in 7.52.0)

              size_download  The  total  amount of bytes that were downloaded.
                             This is the size of the body/data that was trans-
                             fered, excluding headers.

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
                             ers.

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent  in  the
                             HTTP request.

              size_upload    The  total  amount  of  bytes that were uploaded.
                             This is the size of the body/data that was trans-
                             fered, excluding headers.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for
                             the complete download. Bytes per second.

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl  measured  for
                             the complete upload. Bytes per second.

              ssl_verify_result
                             The  result of the SSL peer certificate verifica-
                             tion that was requested. 0 means the verification
                             was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

              stderr         From  this  point  on, the -w, --write-out output
                             will be written  to  standard  error.  (Added  in
                             7.63.0)

              stdout         From  this  point  on, the -w, --write-out output
                             will be written to standard output.  This is  the
                             default,  but  can  be  used to switch back after
                             switching to stderr.  (Added in 7.63.0)

              time_appconnect
                             The time, in seconds,  it  took  from  the  start
                             until  the  SSL/SSH/etc  connect/handshake to the
                             remote host was completed. (Added in 7.19.0)

              time_connect   The time, in seconds,  it  took  from  the  start
                             until  the  TCP  connect  to  the remote host (or
                             proxy) was completed.

              time_namelookup
                             The time, in seconds,  it  took  from  the  start
                             until the name resolving was completed.

              time_pretransfer
                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start
                             until the file transfer was just about to  begin.
                             This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
                             tiations that are specific to the particular pro-
                             tocol(s) involved.

              time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
                             steps including name lookup, connect, pretransfer
                             and  transfer  before  the  final transaction was
                             started. time_redirect shows the complete  execu-
                             tion  time  for  multiple redirections. (Added in
                             7.12.3)

              time_starttransfer
                             The time, in seconds,  it  took  from  the  start
                             until  the first byte was just about to be trans-
                             ferred. This includes time_pretransfer  and  also
                             the  time  the  server  needed  to  calculate the
                             result.

              time_total     The total time, in seconds, that the full  opera-
                             tion lasted.

              url            The URL that was fetched. (Added in 7.75.0)

              urlnum         The URL index number of this transfer, 0-indexed.
                             De-globbed URLs share the same  index  number  as
                             the origin globbed URL. (Added in 7.75.0)

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
                             ingful if you've told curl  to  follow  location:
                             headers.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Example:
               curl -w '%{http_code}\n' https://example.com

       --xattr
              When  saving  output  to a file, this option tells curl to store
              certain file metadata in extended  file  attributes.  Currently,
              the URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and, for HTTP,
              the content type is stored in the mime_type  attribute.  If  the
              file  system  does not support extended attributes, a warning is
              issued.

              Example:
               curl --xattr -o storage https://example.com

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using an environment variable to set the proxy has the same  effect  as
       using the -x, --proxy option.


       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the pro-
              tocol is a protocol that curl supports and  as  specified  in  a
              URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP, etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  the  proxy  server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is
              set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts/domains>
              list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy.  If  set
              to an asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts. Each name in this
              list is matched as either a domain name which contains the host-
              name, or the hostname itself.

              This  environment  variable  disables use of the proxy even when
              specified   with   the   -x,    --proxy    option.    That    is
              NO_PROXY=direct.example.com   curl  -x  http://proxy.example.com
              http://direct.example.com accesses the target URL directly,  and
              NO_PROXY=direct.example.com   curl  -x  http://proxy.example.com
              http://somewhere.example.com accesses the target URL through the
              proxy.

              The  list  of  host  names  can  also  be  include  numerical IP
              addresses, and  IPv6  versions  should  then  be  given  without
              enclosing brackets.

              IPv6  numerical  addresses are compared as strings, so they will
              only match if the representations are the  same:  "::1"  is  the
              same as "::0:1" but they don't match.

       CURL_SSL_BACKEND <TLS backend>
              If  curl  was built with support for "MultiSSL", meaning that it
              has built-in support for more than one TLS backend,  this  envi-
              ronment  variable can be set to the case insensitive name of the
              particular backend to use when curl is invoked. Setting  a  name
              that  isn't  a built-in alternative will make curl stay with the
              default.

              SSL backend names (case-insensitive):  bearssl,  gnutls,  gskit,
              mbedtls, mesalink, nss, openssl, rustls, schannel, secure-trans-
              port, wolfssl

       QLOGDIR <directory name>
              If curl was built with HTTP/3 support, setting this  environment
              variable  to  a  local directory will make curl produce qlogs in
              that directory, using file names  named  after  the  destination
              connection  id  (in  hex).  Do  note that these files can become
              rather large. Works with both QUIC backends.

       SSLKEYLOGFILE <file name>
              If you set this environment variable to a file name,  curl  will
              store TLS secrets from its connections in that file when invoked
              to enable you to analyze the TLS traffic in real time using net-
              work analyzing tools such as Wireshark. This works with the fol-
              lowing TLS backends: OpenSSL, libressl, BoringSSL,  GnuTLS,  NSS
              and wolfSSL.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since  curl  version  7.21.7,  the proxy string may be specified with a
       protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in  the  proxy  string  or  if  the  string
       doesn't  match  a  supported  one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP
       proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       http://
              Makes it use it as an HTTP proxy. The default if no scheme  pre-
              fix is used.

       https://
              Makes it treated as an HTTPS proxy.

       socks4://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There  are  a  bunch  of  different error codes and their corresponding
       error messages that may appear under error conditions. At the  time  of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
              protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A feature or option that  was  needed  to  perform  the  desired
              request  was  not  enabled  or was explicitly disabled at build-
              time. To make curl able to do this, you  probably  need  another
              build of libcurl!

       5      Couldn't  resolve  proxy.  The  given  proxy  host  could not be
              resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host.  The  given  remote  host  could  not  be
              resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      Weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP  access  denied. The server denied login or denied access to
              the particular resource or directory you wanted to  reach.  Most
              often  you  tried to change to a directory that doesn't exist on
              the server.

       10     FTP accept failed. While waiting for the server to connect  back
              when  an active FTP session is used, an error code was sent over
              the control connection or similar.

       11     FTP weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to  the
              PASS request.

       12     During  an  active  FTP  session while waiting for the server to
              connect back to curl, the timeout expired.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to  the
              PASV request.

       14     FTP  weird  227  format.  Curl  couldn't  parse the 227-line the
              server sent.

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got  in  the
              227-line.

       16     HTTP/2 error. A problem was detected in the HTTP2 framing layer.
              This is somewhat generic and can be one out of several problems,
              see the error message for details.

       17     FTP  couldn't  set  binary.  Couldn't  change transfer method to
              binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or  simi-
              lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP  page  not  retrieved.  The  requested url was not found or
              returned another error with the HTTP error  code  being  400  or
              above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write  error.  Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or
              similar.

       25     FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied  the  STOR  operation,
              used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation  timeout.  The  specified  time-out period was reached
              according to the conditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not  all  FTP  servers
              support  the  PORT  command,  try  doing  a  transfer using PASV
              instead!

       31     FTP couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command  is
              used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     Bad  download resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted down-
              load.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
              ation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface  error.  A  specified  outgoing interface could not be
              used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
              mum amount.

       48     Unknown  option  specified  to  libcurl. This indicates that you
              passed a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl  and
              rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

       52     The  server  didn't  reply anything, which here is considered an
              error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA  certifi-
              cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The  user  name,  password, or similar was not accepted and curl
              failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character conversion failed.

       76     Character conversion functions required.

       77     Problem reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load CRL file,  missing  or  wrong  format  (added  in
              7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed.

       85     Mismatch of RTSP CSeq numbers.

       86     Mismatch of RTSP Session Identifiers.

       87     Unable to parse FTP file list.

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error.

       89     No connection available, the session will be queued.

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key.

       91     Invalid SSL certificate status.

       92     Stream error in HTTP/2 framing layer.

       93     An API function was called from inside a callback.

       94     An authentication function returned an error.

       95     A  problem  was  detected  in the HTTP/3 layer. This is somewhat
              generic and can be one out of several problems,  see  the  error
              message for details.

       96     QUIC  connection  error.  This  error  may  be  caused by an SSL
              library error. QUIC is the protocol used for HTTP/3 transfers.

       XX     More error codes will appear here in future releases. The exist-
              ing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel  Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors
       is found in the separate THANKS file.

WWW
       https://curl.se


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Availability   | web/curl         |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
       +---------------+------------------+

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)



NOTES
       Source code for open source software components in Oracle  Solaris  can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-
       code-downloads.html.

       This    software    was    built    from    source     available     at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.    The  original  community
       source      was      downloaded       from        https://curl.se/down-
       load/curl-7.79.0.tar.bz2.

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://curl.haxx.se/.



Curl 7.79.0                    November 16, 2016                       curl(1)