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Updated: Wednesday, February 9, 2022

zshcontrib (1)


zshcontrib - user contributions to zsh


Please see following description for synopsis


ZSHCONTRIB(1)               General Commands Manual              ZSHCONTRIB(1)

       zshcontrib - user contributions to zsh

       The  Zsh  source distribution includes a number of items contributed by
       the user community.  These are not inherently a part of the shell,  and
       some may not be available in every zsh installation.  The most signifi-
       cant of these are documented here.  For documentation on other contrib-
       uted  items  such as shell functions, look for comments in the function
       source files.

   Accessing On-Line Help
       The key sequence ESC h is normally bound by ZLE to execute the run-help
       widget  (see  zshzle(1)).   This  invokes the run-help command with the
       command word from the current input line as its argument.  By  default,
       run-help  is an alias for the man command, so this often fails when the
       command word is  a  shell  builtin  or  a  user-defined  function.   By
       redefining  the  run-help  alias, one can improve the on-line help pro-
       vided by the shell.

       The helpfiles utility, found in the Util directory of the distribution,
       is a Perl program that can be used to process the zsh manual to produce
       a separate help file for each shell builtin and for  many  other  shell
       features  as  well.  The autoloadable run-help function, found in Func-
       tions/Misc, searches for these helpfiles  and  performs  several  other
       tests to produce the most complete help possible for the command.

       Help files are installed by default to a subdirectory of /usr/share/zsh
       or /usr/local/share/zsh.

       To create your own help files with helpfiles, choose or create a direc-
       tory where the individual command help files will reside.  For example,
       you might choose ~/zsh_help.  If you unpacked the zsh  distribution  in
       your home directory, you would use the commands:

              mkdir ~/zsh_help
              perl ~/zsh-5.8/Util/helpfiles ~/zsh_help

       The  HELPDIR parameter tells run-help where to look for the help files.
       When unset, it uses the default installation path.  To use your own set
       of  help files, set this to the appropriate path in one of your startup


       To use the run-help function, you need to add lines something like  the
       following to your .zshrc or equivalent startup file:

              unalias run-help
              autoload run-help

       Note  that  in order for `autoload run-help' to work, the run-help file
       must be in one of the directories named in your fpath array  (see  zsh-
       param(1)).   This should already be the case if you have a standard zsh
       installation; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/run-help to  an  appro-
       priate directory.

   Recompiling Functions
       If  you frequently edit your zsh functions, or periodically update your
       zsh installation to track the latest developments, you  may  find  that
       function  digests compiled with the zcompile builtin are frequently out
       of date with respect to the function source files.  This is not usually
       a  problem, because zsh always looks for the newest file when loading a
       function, but it may cause slower shell startup and  function  loading.
       Also,  if  a digest file is explicitly used as an element of fpath, zsh
       won't check whether any of its source files has changed.

       The zrecompile autoloadable function, found in Functions/Misc,  can  be
       used to keep function digests up to date.

       zrecompile [ -qt ] [ name ... ]
       zrecompile [ -qt ] -p arg ... [ -- arg ... ]
              This tries to find *.zwc files and automatically re-compile them
              if at least one of the original files is newer than the compiled
              file.  This works only if the names stored in the compiled files
              are full paths or are relative to the  directory  that  contains
              the .zwc file.

              In the first form, each name is the name of a compiled file or a
              directory containing *.zwc files that should be checked.  If  no
              arguments  are  given,  the directories and *.zwc files in fpath
              are used.

              When -t is given, no compilation is performed, but a return sta-
              tus  of  zero  (true)  is set if there are files that need to be
              re-compiled and non-zero (false) otherwise.  The -q option  qui-
              ets the chatty output that describes what zrecompile is doing.

              Without  the  -t  option, the return status is zero if all files
              that needed re-compilation could be  compiled  and  non-zero  if
              compilation for at least one of the files failed.

              If  the  -p  option is given, the args are interpreted as one or
              more sets of arguments for zcompile,  separated  by  `--'.   For

                     zrecompile -p \
                                -R ~/.zshrc -- \
                                -M ~/.zcompdump -- \
                                ~/zsh/comp.zwc ~/zsh/Completion/*/_*

              This  compiles  ~/.zshrc into ~/.zshrc.zwc if that doesn't exist
              or if it is older than  ~/.zshrc.  The  compiled  file  will  be
              marked  for  reading  instead  of  mapping. The same is done for
              ~/.zcompdump and ~/.zcompdump.zwc, but  this  compiled  file  is
              marked   for   mapping.   The  last  line  re-creates  the  file
              ~/zsh/comp.zwc if any of the files matching the given pattern is
              newer than it.

              Without  the  -p  option,  zrecompile  does  not create function
              digests that do not already exist, nor does it add new functions
              to the digest.

       The  following  shell loop is an example of a method for creating func-
       tion digests for all functions in your fpath, assuming  that  you  have
       write permission to the directories:

              for ((i=1; i <= $#fpath; ++i)); do
                if [[ $dir == (.|..) || $dir == (.|..)/* ]]; then
                if [[ -w $dir:h && -n $files ]]; then
                  if ( cd $dir:h &&
                       zrecompile -p -U -z $zwc $files ); then

       The  -U and -z options are appropriate for functions in the default zsh
       installation fpath; you may need to use different options for your per-
       sonal function directories.

       Once  the digests have been created and your fpath modified to refer to
       them, you can keep them up to date by running zrecompile with no  argu-

   Keyboard Definition
       The  large  number of possible combinations of keyboards, workstations,
       terminals, emulators, and window systems makes it impossible for zsh to
       have  built-in  key  bindings  for  every situation.  The zkbd utility,
       found in Functions/Misc, can help you quickly create key  bindings  for
       your configuration.

       Run zkbd either as an autoloaded function, or as a shell script:

              zsh -f ~/zsh-5.8/Functions/Misc/zkbd

       When  you  run  zkbd, it first asks you to enter your terminal type; if
       the default it offers is correct, just press return.  It then asks  you
       to  press  a  number  of different keys to determine characteristics of
       your keyboard and terminal; zkbd warns you if it finds anything out  of
       the ordinary, such as a Delete key that sends neither ^H nor ^?.

       The  keystrokes  read by zkbd are recorded as a definition for an asso-
       ciative array named key, written to a file in  the  subdirectory  .zkbd
       within  either your HOME or ZDOTDIR directory.  The name of the file is
       composed from  the  TERM,  VENDOR  and  OSTYPE  parameters,  joined  by

       You  may  read  this file into your .zshrc or another startup file with
       the `source' or `.' commands, then reference the key parameter in bind-
       key commands, like this:

              source ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.zkbd/$TERM-$VENDOR-$OSTYPE
              [[ -n ${key[Left]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Left]}" backward-char
              [[ -n ${key[Right]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Right]}" forward-char
              # etc.

       Note  that  in order for `autoload zkbd' to work, the zkdb file must be
       in one of the directories named in your fpath array (see  zshparam(1)).
       This  should  already  be the case if you have a standard zsh installa-
       tion; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/zkbd to an  appropriate  direc-

   Dumping Shell State
       Occasionally  you  may encounter what appears to be a bug in the shell,
       particularly if you are using a beta version of zsh  or  a  development
       release.  Usually it is sufficient to send a description of the problem
       to one of the zsh mailing lists (see zsh(1)), but sometimes one of  the
       zsh developers will need to recreate your environment in order to track
       the problem down.

       The script named reporter, found in the Util directory of the distribu-
       tion,  is  provided for this purpose.  (It is also possible to autoload
       reporter, but reporter is not installed in  fpath  by  default.)   This
       script  outputs  a  detailed  dump  of  the shell state, in the form of
       another script that can be read with `zsh -f' to recreate that state.

       To use reporter, read the script into your shell with the  `.'  command
       and redirect the output into a file:

              . ~/zsh-5.8/Util/reporter > zsh.report

       You should check the zsh.report file for any sensitive information such
       as passwords and delete them by hand before sending the script  to  the
       developers.   Also,  as the output can be voluminous, it's best to wait
       for the developers to ask for this information before sending it.

       You can also use reporter to dump only a subset  of  the  shell  state.
       This is sometimes useful for creating startup files for the first time.
       Most of the output from reporter is far more detailed than  usually  is
       necessary  for  a  startup  file, but the aliases, options, and zstyles
       states may be  useful  because  they  include  only  changes  from  the
       defaults.   The bindings state may be useful if you have created any of
       your own keymaps, because reporter arranges to dump the keymap creation
       commands as well as the bindings for every keymap.

       As  is  usual  with  automated tools, if you create a startup file with
       reporter, you should edit the results to remove  unnecessary  commands.
       Note  that  if  you're  using the new completion system, you should not
       dump the functions state to your startup files with reporter;  use  the
       compdump function instead (see zshcompsys(1)).

       reporter [ state ... ]
              Print  to  standard  output  the indicated subset of the current
              shell state.  The state arguments may be one or more of:

              all    Output everything listed below.
                     Output alias definitions.
                     Output ZLE key maps and bindings.
                     Output old-style compctl  commands.   New  completion  is
                     covered by functions and zstyles.
                     Output autoloads and function definitions.
              limits Output limit commands.
                     Output setopt commands.
              styles Same as zstyles.
                     Output  shell parameter assignments, plus export commands
                     for any environment variables.
                     Output zstyle commands.

              If the state is omitted, all is assumed.

       With the exception of `all', every state can be abbreviated by any pre-
       fix, even a single letter; thus a is the same as aliases, z is the same
       as zstyles, etc.

   Manipulating Hook Functions
       add-zsh-hook [ -L | -dD ] [ -Uzk ] hook function
              Several functions are special to the shell, as described in  the
              section  SPECIAL  FUNCTIONS,  see  zshmisc(1),  in that they are
              automatically called at specific points during shell  execution.
              Each has an associated array consisting of names of functions to
              be called at the same point; these  are  so-called  `hook  func-
              tions'.   The  shell function add-zsh-hook provides a simple way
              of adding or removing functions from the array.

              hook is one of chpwd, periodic, precmd, preexec,  zshaddhistory,
              zshexit,  or  zsh_directory_name, the special functions in ques-
              tion.  Note that zsh_directory_name is called in a different way
              from  the  other  functions,  but  may still be manipulated as a

              function is name of an ordinary shell function.  If  no  options
              are  given  this  will  be added to the array of functions to be
              executed in the given context.  Functions  are  invoked  in  the
              order they were added.

              If  the  option  -L  is  given,  the current values for the hook
              arrays are listed with typeset.

              If the option -d is given, the  function  is  removed  from  the
              array of functions to be executed.

              If  the option -D is given, the function is treated as a pattern
              and any matching names of functions are removed from  the  array
              of functions to be executed.

              The  options  -U,  -z and -k are passed as arguments to autoload
              for function.  For functions contributed with zsh,  the  options
              -Uz are appropriate.

       add-zle-hook-widget [ -L | -dD ] [ -Uzk ] hook widgetname
              Several  widget  names  are  special  to  the  line  editor,  as
              described in the section Special Widgets, see zshzle(1), in that
              they are automatically called at specific points during editing.
              Unlike function hooks, these do not use a  predefined  array  of
              other  names  to  call  at  the  same  point; the shell function
              add-zle-hook-widget maintains a similar array and  arranges  for
              the special widget to invoke those additional widgets.

              hook  is  one  of isearch-exit, isearch-update, line-pre-redraw,
              line-init, line-finish, history-line-set, or keymap-select, cor-
              responding to each of the special widgets zle-isearch-exit, etc.
              The special widget names are also accepted as the hook argument.

              widgetname is the name of a ZLE widget.  If no options are given
              this is added to the array of widgets to be invoked in the given
              hook context.  Widgets are invoked in the order they were added,
                     zle widgetname -Nw -- "$@"

              Note  that this means that the `WIDGET' special parameter tracks
              the widgetname when the widget function is called,  rather  than
              tracking the name of the corresponding special hook widget.

              If  the  option  -d is given, the widgetname is removed from the
              array of widgets to be executed.

              If the option -D is given, the widgetname is treated as  a  pat-
              tern  and  any  matching  names  of widgets are removed from the

              If widgetname does not name an existing widget when added to the
              array, it is assumed that a shell function also named widgetname
              is meant to provide the implementation of the widget.  This name
              is  therefore marked for autoloading, and the options -U, -z and
              -k are passed as arguments to  autoload  as  with  add-zsh-hook.
              The widget is also created with `zle -N widgetname' to cause the
              corresponding function to be loaded the first time the  hook  is

              The arrays of widgetname are currently maintained in zstyle con-
              texts, one for each hook context, with a style of `widgets'.  If
              the  -L  option  is  given,  this  set  of styles is listed with
              `zstyle -L'.  This implementation may change,  and  the  special
              widgets   that   refer   to  the  styles  are  created  only  if
              add-zle-hook-widget is called to add at least one widget, so  if
              this  function  is  used for any hooks, then all hooks should be
              managed only via this function.

       The function cdr allows you to change the working directory to a previ-
       ous working directory from a list maintained automatically.  It is sim-
       ilar in concept to the directory stack controlled by  the  pushd,  popd
       and  dirs  builtins,  but  is  more  configurable, and as it stores all
       entries in files it is maintained  across  sessions  and  (by  default)
       between  terminal  emulators  in  the  current session.  Duplicates are
       automatically removed, so that the list reflects the single most recent
       use of each directory.

       Note that the pushd directory stack is not actually modified or used by
       cdr unless you configure it to do so as described in the  configuration
       section below.

       The  system works by means of a hook function that is called every time
       the directory changes.  To install the system,  autoload  the  required
       functions and use the add-zsh-hook function described above:

              autoload -Uz chpwd_recent_dirs cdr add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook chpwd chpwd_recent_dirs

       Now  every time you change directly interactively, no matter which com-
       mand you use, the directory to which you change will be  remembered  in
       most-recent-first order.

       All direct user interaction is via the cdr function.

       The  argument  to  cdr  is  a  number  N  corresponding to the Nth most
       recently changed-to directory.  1 is the immediately  preceding  direc-
       tory;  the current directory is remembered but is not offered as a des-
       tination.  Note that if you have multiple windows open 1 may refer to a
       directory  changed  to  in another window; you can avoid this by having
       per-terminal  files  for  storing  directory  as  described   for   the
       recent-dirs-file style below.

       If  you  set  the  recent-dirs-default  style  described below cdr will
       behave the same as cd if given a non-numeric argument, or more than one
       argument.   The  recent directory list is updated just the same however
       you change directory.

       If the argument is omitted, 1 is assumed.  This is similar  to  pushd's
       behaviour of swapping the two most recent directories on the stack.

       Completion  for  the  argument to cdr is available if compinit has been
       run; menu selection is recommended, using:

              zstyle ':completion:*:*:cdr:*:*' menu selection

       to allow you to cycle through recent directories;  the  order  is  pre-
       served,  so  the  first  choice is the most recent directory before the
       current one.  The verbose style  is  also  recommended  to  ensure  the
       directory  is  shown;  this  style  is  on  by  default so no action is
       required unless you have changed it.

       The behaviour of cdr may be modified by the following options.

       -l     lists the numbers and the corresponding directories in  abbrevi-
              ated  form  (i.e.  with ~ substitution reapplied), one per line.
              The directories here are not quoted (this would only be an issue
              if  a  directory name contained a newline).  This is used by the
              completion system.

       -r     sets the variable reply  to  the  current  set  of  directories.
              Nothing is printed and the directory is not changed.

       -e     allows  you  to edit the list of directories, one per line.  The
              list can be edited to any extent you like; no sanity checking is
              performed.   Completion  is  available.  No quoting is necessary
              (except for newlines, where I have in  any  case  no  sympathy);
              directories  are  in  unabbreviated from and contain an absolute
              path, i.e. they start with /.  Usually the first entry should be
              left as the current directory.

       -p 'pattern'
              Prunes  any  items  in  the  directory list that match the given
              extended glob pattern; the pattern needs to be quoted from imme-
              diate  expansion  on  the  command line.  The pattern is matched
              against each completely expanded file name in the list; the full
              string  must  match, so wildcards at the end (e.g. '*removeme*')
              are needed to remove entries with a given substring.

              If output is to a terminal, then the function will print the new
              list  after  pruning  and  prompt  for confirmation by the user.
              This output and confirmation step can be  skipped  by  using  -P
              instead of -p.

       Configuration is by means of the styles mechanism that should be famil-
       iar from completion; if not, see the description of the zstyle  command
       in  see  zshmodules(1).   The  context  for  setting  styles  should be
       ':chpwd:*' in case the meaning of the context is  extended  in  future,
       for example:

              zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-max 0

       sets  the  value  of  the  recent-dirs-max style to 0.  In practice the
       style name is specific enough that a context of '*' should be fine.

       An exception is recent-dirs-insert, which is used  exclusively  by  the
       completion  system  and  so  has  the  usual  completion system context
       (':completion:*' if nothing more specific is needed), though again  '*'
       should be fine in practice.

              If  true, and the command is expecting a recent directory index,
              and either there is more than one argument or  the  argument  is
              not an integer, then fall through to "cd".  This allows the lazy
              to use only one  command  for  directory  changing.   Completion
              recognises  this, too; see recent-dirs-insert for how to control
              completion when this option is in use.

              The file where the list of directories is saved.  The default is
              ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.chpwd-recent-dirs,  i.e. this is in your home
              directory unless you have set  the  variable  ZDOTDIR  to  point
              somewhere  else.   Directory  names  are  saved in $'...' quoted
              form, so each line in the file can be supplied directly  to  the
              shell as an argument.

              The  value  of  this  style  may be an array.  In this case, the
              first file in the list will always be used for  saving  directo-
              ries while any other files are left untouched.  When reading the
              recent directory list, if there are fewer than the maximum  num-
              ber of entries in the first file, the contents of later files in
              the array will be appended with duplicates removed from the list
              shown.   The  contents of the two files are not sorted together,
              i.e. all the entries in the first file  are  shown  first.   The
              special  value  + can appear in the list to indicate the default
              file should be read at that point.  This allows effects like the

                     zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file \
                     ~/.chpwd-recent-dirs-${TTY##*/} +

              Recent  directories  are  read from a file numbered according to
              the terminal.  If there are insufficient  entries  the  list  is
              supplemented from the default file.

              It  is  possible  to use zstyle -e to make the directory config-
              urable at run time:

                     zstyle -e ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file pick-recent-dirs-file
                     pick-recent-dirs-file() {
                       if [[ $PWD = ~/text/writing(|/*) ]]; then

              In this example, if the current directory is ~/text/writing or a
              directory  under  it,  then use a special file for saving recent
              directories, else use the default.

              Used by completion.  If recent-dirs-default is true,  then  set-
              ting  this  to true causes the actual directory, rather than its
              index, to be inserted on the command line;  this  has  the  same
              effect  as  using the corresponding index, but makes the history
              clearer and the line easier to edit.  With this setting, if part
              of  an  argument  was already typed, normal directory completion
              rather than recent directory completion is done; this is because
              recent  directory  completion  is expected to be done by cycling
              through entries menu fashion.

              If the value of the style is always, then only  recent  directo-
              ries  will  be  completed; in that case, use the cd command when
              you want to complete other directories.

              If the value is  fallback,  recent  directories  will  be  tried
              first,  then  normal directory completion is performed if recent
              directory completion failed to find a match.

              Finally, if the value is both then both sets of completions  are
              presented;  the  usual  tag mechanism can be used to distinguish
              results, with recent directories tagged  as  recent-dirs.   Note
              that the recent directories inserted are abbreviated with direc-
              tory names where appropriate.

              The maximum number of directories to save to the file.  If  this
              is  zero  or  negative  there is no maximum.  The default is 20.
              Note this includes the current directory, which  isn't  offered,
              so  the highest number of directories you will be offered is one
              less than the maximum.

              This style is an array determining what directories  should  (or
              should  not) be added to the recent list.  Elements of the array
              can include:

              parent Prune  parents  (more  accurately,  ancestors)  from  the
                     recent  list.   If present, changing directly down by any
                     number of directories causes the current directory to  be
                     overwritten.    For   example,   changing  from  ~pws  to
                     ~pws/some/other/dir causes ~pws not to  be  left  on  the
                     recent  directory  stack.   This  only  applies to direct
                     changes to descendant directories; earlier directories on
                     the  list  are  not  pruned.   For example, changing from
                     ~pws/yet/another to ~pws/some/other/dir  does  not  cause
                     ~pws to be pruned.

                     Gives  a  zsh  pattern for directories that should not be
                     added to the recent list (if not  already  there).   This
                     element  can  be repeated to add different patterns.  For
                     example, 'pattern:/tmp(|/*)' stops /tmp  or  its  descen-
                     dants  from  being  added.   The  EXTENDED_GLOB option is
                     always turned on for these patterns.

              If set to true, cdr will use pushd instead of cd to  change  the
              directory, so the directory is saved on the directory stack.  As
              the directory stack is completely  separate  from  the  list  of
              files saved by the mechanism used in this file there is no obvi-
              ous reason to do this.

   Use with dynamic directory naming
       It is possible to refer to recent directories using the dynamic  direc-
       tory  name syntax by using the supplied function zsh_directory_name_cdr
       a hook:

              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook -Uz zsh_directory_name zsh_directory_name_cdr

       When this is done, ~[1] will refer to the most recent  directory  other
       than $PWD, and so on.  Completion after ~[...  also works.

   Details of directory handling
       This  section  is for the curious or confused; most users will not need
       to know this information.

       Recent directories are saved to a file immediately and hence  are  pre-
       served across sessions.  Note currently no file locking is applied: the
       list is updated immediately on interactive commands  and  nowhere  else
       (unlike history), and it is assumed you are only going to change direc-
       tory in one window at once.  This is not safe on shared  accounts,  but
       in  any case the system has limited utility when someone else is chang-
       ing to a different set of directories behind your back.

       To make this a little safer, only directory changes instituted from the
       command  line,  either  directly  or  indirectly through shell function
       calls (but not through subshells, evals,  traps,  completion  functions
       and  the like) are saved.  Shell functions should use cd -q or pushd -q
       to avoid side effects if the change to the directory is to be invisible
       at   the   command   line.    See   the   contents   of   the  function
       chpwd_recent_dirs for more details.

       The dynamic directory naming system  is  described  in  the  subsection
       Dynamic named directories of the section Filename Expansion in expn(1).
       In this, a reference to ~[...] is expanded by a function found  by  the
       hooks mechanism.

       The  contributed  function zsh_directory_name_generic provides a system
       allowing the user to refer to directories with only a limited amount of
       new  code.  It supports all three of the standard interfaces for direc-
       tory naming: converting from a name to a directory, converting  in  the
       reverse direction to find a short name, and completion of names.

       The  main  feature  of  this  function is a path-like syntax, combining
       abbreviations at multiple levels separated  by  ":".   As  an  example,
       ~[g:p:s] might specify:
       g      The top level directory for your git area.  This first component
              has to match, or the function  will  return  indicating  another
              directory name hook function should be tried.

       p      The name of a project within your git area.

       s      The  source  area  within that project.  This allows you to col-
              lapse references to long hierarchies to  a  very  compact  form,
              particularly  if  the  hierarchies  are similar across different
              areas of the disk.

       Name components may be completed: if a description is shown at the  top
       of the list of completions, it includes the path to which previous com-
       ponents expand, while the  description  for  an  individual  completion
       shows  the  path  segment it would add.  No additional configuration is
       needed for this as the completion system is aware of the dynamic direc-
       tory name mechanism.

       To  use the function, first define a wrapper function for your specific
       case.  We'll assume it's to be autoloaded.  This can have any name  but
       we'll  refer to it as zdn_mywrapper.  This wrapper function will define
       various variables and then call this function with the  same  arguments
       that the wrapper function gets.  This configuration is described below.

       Then arrange for the wrapper to be run as a zsh_directory_name hook:

              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook zsh_diretory_name_generic zdn_mywrapper
              add-zsh-hook -U zsh_directory_name zdn_mywrapper

       The  wrapper  function should define a local associative array zdn_top.
       Alternatively, this can be set with a style called mapping.   The  con-
       text for the style is :zdn:wrapper-name where wrapper-name is the func-
       tion calling zsh_directory_name_generic; for example:

              zstyle :zdn:zdn_mywrapper: mapping zdn_mywrapper_top

       The keys in this associative array correspond to the first component of
       the  name.   The  values  are  matching  directories.  They may have an
       optional suffix with a slash followed by a colon  and  the  name  of  a
       variable  in  the  same  format to give the next component.  (The slash
       before the colon is to disambiguate the case where a colon is needed in
       the  path for a drive.  There is otherwise no syntax for escaping this,
       so path components whose names start with a colon are  not  supported.)
       A  special  component  :default: specifies a variable in the form /:var
       (the path section is ignored and so is usually empty) that will be used
       for the next component if no variable is given for the path.  Variables
       referred to within zdn_top have the same format as zdn_top itself,  but
       contain relative paths.

       For example,

              local -A zdn_top=(
                g   ~/git
                ga  ~/alternate/git
                gs  /scratch/$USER/git/:second2
                :default: /:second1

       This specifies the behaviour of a directory referred to as ~[g:...]  or
       ~[ga:...] or ~[gs:...].  Later path components are  optional;  in  that
       case   ~[g]   expands   to   ~/git,   and   so   on.    gs  expands  to
       /scratch/$USER/git and uses the associative array second2 to match  the
       second  component;  g and ga use the associative array second1 to match
       the second component.

       When expanding a name to a directory, if the first component is  not  g
       or  ga or gs, it is not an error; the function simply returns 1 so that
       a later hook function can be tried.  However, matching the first compo-
       nent  commits  the function, so if a later component does not match, an
       error is printed (though this still does  not  stop  later  hooks  from
       being executed).

       For  components  after the first, a relative path is expected, but note
       that multiple levels may still appear.  Here is an example of second1:

              local -A second1=(
                p   myproject
                s   somproject
                os  otherproject/subproject/:third

       The path as found from zdn_top is extended with the matching directory,
       so ~[g:p] becomes ~/git/myproject.  The slash between is added automat-
       ically (it's not possible to have a later component modify the name  of
       a directory already matched).  Only os specifies a variable for a third
       component, and there's no :default:, so it's an error  to  use  a  name
       like  ~[g:p:x] or ~[ga:s:y] because there's nowhere to look up the x or

       The associative arrays need to be visible  within  this  function;  the
       generic function therefore uses internal variable names beginning _zdn_
       in order to avoid clashes.  Note that the variable reply  needs  to  be
       passed  back  to the shell, so should not be local in the calling func-

       The function does not test whether directories assembled  by  component
       actually  exist; this allows the system to work across automounted file
       systems.  The error from the  command  trying  to  use  a  non-existent
       directory should be sufficient to indicate the problem.

   Complete example
       Here  is  a  full  fictitious but usable autoloadable definition of the
       example function defined by the code above.  So  ~[gs:p:s]  expands  to
       /scratch/$USER/git/myscratchproject/top/srcdir    (with    $USER   also

              local -A zdn_top=(
                g   ~/git
                ga  ~/alternate/git
                gs  /scratch/$USER/git/:second2
                :default: /:second1

              local -A second1=(
                p   myproject
                s   somproject
                os  otherproject/subproject/:third

              local -A second2=(
                p   myscratchproject
                s   somescratchproject

              local -A third=(
                s   top/srcdir
                d   top/documentation

              # autoload not needed if you did this at initialisation...
              autoload -Uz zsh_directory_name_generic
              zsh_directory_name_generic "$@

       It is also possible to use global associative arrays,  suitably  named,
       and  set the style for the context of your wrapper function to refer to
       this.  Then your set up code would contain the following:

              typeset -A zdn_mywrapper_top=(...)
              # ... and so on for other associative arrays ...
              zstyle ':zdn:zdn_mywrapper:' mapping zdn_mywrapper_top
              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook zsh_directory_name_generic zdn_mywrapper
              add-zsh-hook -U zsh_directory_name zdn_mywrapper

       and the function zdn_mywrapper would contain only the following:

              zsh_directory_name_generic "$@"

       In a lot of cases, it is nice  to  automatically  retrieve  information
       from version control systems (VCSs), such as subversion, CVS or git, to
       be able to provide it to the user; possibly in the  user's  prompt.  So
       that  you  can  instantly  tell  which branch you are currently on, for

       In order to do that, you may use the vcs_info function.

       The following VCSs are supported, showing the abbreviated name by which
       they are referred to within the system:
       Bazaar (bzr)
       Codeville (cdv)
       Concurrent Versioning System (cvs)
       Darcs (darcs)
       Fossil (fossil)
       Git (git)
       GNU arch (tla)
       Mercurial (hg)
       Monotone (mtn)
       Perforce (p4)
       Subversion (svn)
       SVK (svk)

       There   is   also   support  for  the  patch  management  system  quilt
       (https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/quilt). See Quilt  Support  below
       for details.

       To load vcs_info:

              autoload -Uz vcs_info

       It  can be used in any existing prompt, because it does not require any
       specific $psvar entries to be available.

       To get this feature working quickly (including colors), you can do  the
       following (assuming, you loaded vcs_info properly - see above):

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' actionformats \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{3}|%F{1}%a%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' formats       \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(sv[nk]|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%F{1}:%F{3}%r'
              precmd () { vcs_info }
              PS1='%F{5}[%F{2}%n%F{5}] %F{3}%3~ ${vcs_info_msg_0_}%f%# '

       Obviously,  the last two lines are there for demonstration. You need to
       call vcs_info from your precmd function. Once that is done you  need  a
       single quoted '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' in your prompt.

       To  be  able  to  use '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' directly in your prompt like
       this, you will need to have the PROMPT_SUBST option enabled.

       Now call the vcs_info_printsys utility from the command line:

              % vcs_info_printsys
              ## list of supported version control backends:
              ## disabled systems are prefixed by a hash sign (#)
              ## flavours (cannot be used in the enable or disable styles; they
              ## are enabled and disabled with their master [git-svn -> git])
              ## they *can* be used in contexts: ':vcs_info:git-svn:*'.

       You may not want all of these because there is no point in running  the
       code  to  detect  systems you do not use.  So there is a way to disable
       some backends altogether:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr cdv darcs mtn svk tla

       You may also pick a few from that list and enable only those:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable git cvs svn

       If you rerun vcs_info_printsys after one of these  commands,  you  will
       see  the  backends  listed in the disable style (or backends not in the
       enable style - if you used that) marked as disabled  by  a  hash  sign.
       That  means  the  detection  of these systems is skipped completely. No
       wasted time there.

       The vcs_info feature can be configured via zstyle.

       First, the context in which we are working:

              is one of: git, git-svn, git-p4,  hg,  hg-git,  hg-hgsubversion,
              hg-hgsvn,  darcs,  bzr, cdv, mtn, svn, cvs, svk, tla, p4 or fos-
              sil.  This is followed by `.quilt-quilt-mode' in Quilt mode (see
              Quilt  Support  for details) and by `+hook-name' while hooks are
              active (see Hooks in vcs_info for details).

              Currently, hooks in quilt mode don't add the `.quilt-quilt-mode'
              information.  This may change in the future.

              is  a  freely configurable string, assignable by the user as the
              first argument to vcs_info (see its description below).

              is the name of a repository in which you want a style to  match.
              So,  if  you  want a setting specific to /usr/src/zsh, with that
              being a CVS checkout, you can set repo-root-name to zsh to  make
              it so.

       There  are  three  special  values  for  vcs-string: The first is named
       -init-, that is in effect as long as there was  no  decision  what  VCS
       backend  to use. The second is -preinit-; it is used before vcs_info is
       run, when initializing the data exporting variables. The third  special
       value is formats and is used by the vcs_info_lastmsg for looking up its

       The initial value of repo-root-name is -all- and it  is  replaced  with
       the actual name, as soon as it is known. Only use this part of the con-
       text for defining the formats, actionformats or branchformat styles, as
       it  is  guaranteed  that  repo-root-name  is set up correctly for these
       only. For all other styles, just use '*' instead.

       There are two pre-defined values for user-context:
              the one used if none is specified
              used by vcs_info_lastmsg to lookup its styles

       You can of course use ':vcs_info:*' to match all VCSs in all  user-con-
       texts at once.

       This is a description of all styles that are looked up.

              A list of formats, used when actionformats is not used (which is
              most of the time).

              A list of formats, used if there is a special action going on in
              your  current  repository; like an interactive rebase or a merge

              Some backends replace %b in the formats and actionformats styles
              above,  not only by a branch name but also by a revision number.
              This style lets you modify how that string should look.

              These "formats" are set when we didn't detect a version  control
              system  for the current directory or vcs_info was disabled. This
              is useful if you want vcs_info to completely take over the  gen-
              eration   of   your   prompt.   You   would  do  something  like
              PS1='${vcs_info_msg_0_}' to accomplish that.

              hg uses both a hash and a revision number to  reference  a  spe-
              cific  changeset in a repository. With this style you can format
              the revision string (see  branchformat)  to  include  either  or
              both. It's only useful when get-revision is true. Note, the full
              40-character revision id is not available (except when using the
              use-simple  option)  because  executing  hg  more  than once per
              prompt is too slow; you may customize this behavior using hooks.

              Defines the maximum number of vcs_info_msg_*_ variables vcs_info
              will set.

       enable A  list  of backends you want to use. Checked in the -init- con-
              text. If this list contains an item called NONE  no  backend  is
              used  at all and vcs_info will do nothing. If this list contains
              ALL, vcs_info will use all known  backends.  Only  with  ALL  in
              enable  will the disable style have any effect. ALL and NONE are
              case insensitive.

              A list of VCSs you don't want vcs_info to test for  repositories
              (checked  in  the -init- context, too). Only used if enable con-
              tains ALL.

              A list of patterns that are checked against $PWD. If  a  pattern
              matches, vcs_info will be disabled. This style is checked in the
              :vcs_info:-init-:*:-all- context.

              Say, ~/.zsh is a directory under version control, in  which  you
              do not want vcs_info to be active, do:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable-patterns "${(b)HOME}/.zsh(|/*)"

              If  enabled,  the  quilt support code is active in `addon' mode.
              See Quilt Support for details.

              If enabled, `standalone' mode detection is attempted if  no  VCS
              is active in a given directory. See Quilt Support for details.

              Overwrite  the value of the $QUILT_PATCHES environment variable.
              See Quilt Support for details.

              When quilt itself is called in quilt support, the value of  this
              style is used as the command name.

              If  enabled,  this  style causes the %c and %u format escapes to
              show when the working directory  has  uncommitted  changes.  The
              strings  displayed  by  these  escapes can be controlled via the
              stagedstr and unstagedstr styles. The only  backends  that  cur-
              rently  support this option are git, hg, and bzr (the latter two
              only support unstaged).

              For this  style  to  be  evaluated  with  the  hg  backend,  the
              get-revision  style  needs  to  be  set and the use-simple style
              needs to be unset. The latter is the default; the former is not.

              With the bzr backend,  lightweight  checkouts  only  honor  this
              style if the use-server style is set.

              Note, the actions taken if this style is enabled are potentially
              expensive (read: they may be slow, depending on how big the cur-
              rent repository is).  Therefore, it is disabled by default.

              This  style  is  like check-for-changes, but it never checks the
              worktree files, only the metadata in the  .${vcs}  dir.   There-
              fore, this style initializes only the %c escape (with stagedstr)
              but  not  the  %u   escape.    This   style   is   faster   than

              In  the git backend, this style checks for changes in the index.
              Other backends do not currently implement this style.

              This style is disabled by default.

              This string will be used in the %c escape if  there  are  staged
              changes in the repository.

              This  string will be used in the %u escape if there are unstaged
              changes in the repository.

              This style causes vcs_info to use the  supplied  string  as  the
              command  to  use as the VCS's binary. Note, that setting this in
              ':vcs_info:*' is not a good idea.

              If the value of this style is empty (which is the default),  the
              used  binary name is the name of the backend in use (e.g. svn is
              used in an svn repository).

              The repo-root-name part in the context  is  always  the  default
              -all- when this style is looked up.

              For  example,  this  style  can  be  used  to  use binaries from
              non-default installation directories. Assume, git  is  installed
              in  /usr/bin  but  your  sysadmin  installed  a newer version in
              /usr/local/bin. Instead of changing  the  order  of  your  $PATH
              parameter, you can do this:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*:-all-' command /usr/local/bin/git

              This is used by the Perforce backend (p4) to decide if it should
              contact the Perforce server to find out if a directory  is  man-
              aged  by Perforce.  This is the only reliable way of doing this,
              but runs the risk of a delay if the server name cannot be found.
              If  the server (more specifically, the host:port pair describing
              the server) cannot be contacted, its name is put into the  asso-
              ciative  array  vcs_info_p4_dead_servers  and  is  not contacted
              again during the session until it is removed by hand.  If you do
              not  set  this  style, the p4 backend is only usable if you have
              set the environment variable P4CONFIG to a file  name  and  have
              corresponding  files  in  the  root directories of each Perforce
              client.  See comments in  the  function  VCS_INFO_detect_p4  for
              more detail.

              The  Bazaar  backend  (bzr)  uses  this to permit contacting the
              server about lightweight checkouts,  see  the  check-for-changes

              If  there  are  two different ways of gathering information, you
              can select the simpler one by setting this style  to  true;  the
              default is to use the not-that-simple code, which is potentially
              a lot slower but might be more accurate in all  possible  cases.
              This style is used by the bzr and hg backends. In the case of hg
              it will invoke the external hexdump program to parse the  binary
              dirstate cache file; this method will not return the local revi-
              sion number.

              If set to true, vcs_info goes the extra mile to figure  out  the
              revision  of a repository's work tree (currently for the git and
              hg backends, where  this  kind  of  information  is  not  always
              vital).  For  git,  the  hash value of the currently checked out
              commit is available via the %i expansion.  With  hg,  the  local
              revision  number and the corresponding global hash are available
              via %i.

       get-mq If set to true, the hg backend will look for a  Mercurial  Queue
              (mq) patch directory. Information will be available via the `%m'

              If set to true, the hg backend will try to get a list of current
              bookmarks. They will be available via the `%m' replacement.

              The  default  is to generate a comma-separated list of all book-
              mark names that refer to the currently checked out revision.  If
              a  bookmark  is  active,  its  name  is suffixed an asterisk and
              placed first in the list.

              Determines if we assume that the assembled string from  vcs_info
              includes prompt escapes. (Used by vcs_info_lastmsg.)

       debug  Enable  debugging  output  to track possible problems. Currently
              this style is only used by vcs_info's hooks system.

       hooks  A list style that defines  hook-function  names.  See  Hooks  in
              vcs_info below for details.

              This  pair of styles format the patch information used by the %m
              expando in formats and actionformats for the git  and  hg  back-
              ends.   The  value  is subject to certain %-expansions described
              below.  The expanded value is made available in the global back-
              end_misc   array   as   ${backend_misc[patches]}   (also   if  a
              set-patch-format hook is used).

              This boolean style controls whether a backend should attempt  to
              gather  a  list of unapplied patches (for example with Mercurial
              Queue patches).

              Used by the quilt and hg backends.

       The default values for these styles in all contexts are:

              " (%s)-[%b]%u%c-"
              " (%s)-[%b|%a]%u%c-"
              "%b:%r" (for bzr, svn, svk and hg)
       enable ALL
              (empty list)
              (empty list)
              (string: "S")
              (string: "U")
              (empty string)
       get-mq true
       debug  false
       hooks  (empty list)
              empty - use $QUILT_PATCHES
              backend dependent
              backend dependent

       In normal formats and  actionformats  the  following  replacements  are

       %s     The VCS in use (git, hg, svn, etc.).
       %b     Information about the current branch.
       %a     An  identifier  that  describes  the action. Only makes sense in
       %i     The current revision number or identifier. For hg the  hgrevfor-
              mat style may be used to customize the output.
       %c     The  string from the stagedstr style if there are staged changes
              in the repository.
       %u     The string from the unstagedstr  style  if  there  are  unstaged
              changes in the repository.
       %R     The base directory of the repository.
       %r     The repository name. If %R is /foo/bar/repoXY, %r is repoXY.
       %S     A    subdirectory    within    a    repository.   If   $PWD   is
              /foo/bar/repoXY/beer/tasty, %S is beer/tasty.
       %m     A "misc" replacement. It is at the discretion of the backend  to
              decide what this replacement expands to.

              The hg and git backends use this expando to display patch infor-
              mation.  hg sources patch information from  the  mq  extensions;
              git  from in-progress rebase and cherry-pick operations and from
              the stgit extension.  The patch-format and nopatch-format styles
              control  the generated string.  The former is used when at least
              one patch from the patch queue has been applied, and the  latter

              The hg backend displays bookmark information in this expando (in
              addition to mq information).  See the get-mq  and  get-bookmarks
              styles.   Both  of these styles may be enabled at the same time.
              If both are enabled, both resulting strings will be shown  sepa-
              rated by a semicolon (that cannot currently be customized).

              The  quilt  `standalone'  backend  sets this expando to the same
              value as the %Q expando.

       %Q     Quilt series information.  When quilt is used (either in `addon'
              mode or as a `standalone' backend), this expando is set to quilt
              series' patch-format  string.   The  set-patch-format  hook  and
              nopatch-format style are honoured.

              See Quilt Support below for details.

       In branchformat these replacements are done:

       %b     The branch name.
       %r     The current revision number or the hgrevformat style for hg.

       In hgrevformat these replacements are done:

       %r     The current local revision number.
       %h     The current global revision identifier.

       In patch-format and nopatch-format these replacements are done:

       %p     The name of the top-most applied patch; may be overridden by the
              applied-string hook.
       %u     The number of unapplied patches; may be overridden by the  unap-
              plied-string hook.
       %n     The number of applied patches.
       %c     The number of unapplied patches.
       %a     The number of all patches (%a = %n + %c).
       %g     The names of active mq guards (hg backend).
       %G     The number of active mq guards (hg backend).

       Not  all VCS backends have to support all replacements. For nvcsformats
       no replacements are performed at all, it is just a string.

       If you want to use the %b (bold off) prompt expansion in formats, which
       expands  %b  itself, use %%b. That will cause the vcs_info expansion to
       replace %%b with %b, so that zsh's prompt expansion mechanism can  han-
       dle  it. Similarly, to hand down %b from branchformat, use %%%%b. Sorry
       for this inconvenience, but it cannot be easily avoided. Luckily we  do
       not  clash  with  a  lot of prompt expansions and this only needs to be
       done for those.

       When  one  of   the   gen-applied-string,   gen-unapplied-string,   and
       set-patch-format     hooks     is    defined,    applying    %-escaping
       (`foo=${foo//'%'/%%}') to the interpolated values for use in the prompt
       is  the  responsibility of those hooks (jointly); when neither of those
       hooks is defined, vcs_info handles escaping by itself.  We regret  this
       coupling, but it was required for backwards compatibility.

   Quilt Support
       Quilt  is  not  a  version control system, therefore this is not imple-
       mented as a backend. It can help keeping track of a series of  patches.
       People use it to keep a set of changes they want to use on top of soft-
       ware packages (which is  tightly  integrated  into  the  package  build
       process - the Debian project does this for a large number of packages).
       Quilt can also help individual  developers  keep  track  of  their  own
       patches on top of real version control systems.

       The  vcs_info  integration tries to support both ways of using quilt by
       having two slightly different modes  of  operation:  `addon'  mode  and
       `standalone' mode).

       Quilt  integration  is  off by default; to enable it, set the use-quilt
       style, and add %Q to your formats or actionformats style:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' use-quilt true

       Styles   looked   up   from   the   Quilt    support    code    include
       `.quilt-quilt-mode'  in  the  vcs-string  part  of  the  context, where
       quilt-mode    is    either    addon    or     standalone.      Example:

       For `addon' mode to become active vcs_info must have already detected a
       real version control system controlling the directory. If that  is  the
       case,  a  directory  that holds quilt's patches needs to be found. That
       directory is configurable via the `QUILT_PATCHES' environment variable.
       If  that  variable  exists  its  value  is  used,  otherwise  the value
       `patches' is assumed. The value from $QUILT_PATCHES can be  overwritten
       using  the  `quilt-patches'  style. (Note: you can use vcs_info to keep
       the value of $QUILT_PATCHES correct all the  time  via  the  post-quilt

       When the directory in question is found, quilt is assumed to be active.
       To gather more information,  vcs_info  looks  for  a  directory  called
       `.pc';  Quilt  uses  that directory to track its current state. If this
       directory does not exist we know that quilt has not  done  anything  to
       the working directory (read: no patches have been applied yet).

       If  patches  are  applied,  vcs_info will try to find out which. If you
       want to know which patches of a series are not yet applied, you need to
       activate the get-unapplied style in the appropriate context.

       vcs_info  allows for very detailed control over how the gathered infor-
       mation is presented (see the Configuration and Hooks in  vcs_info  sec-
       tions),  all  of which are documented below. Note there are a number of
       other patch tracking systems that work on top of a certain version con-
       trol  system  (like stgit for git, or mq for hg); the configuration for
       systems like that are generally configured the same way  as  the  quilt

       If the quilt support is working in `addon' mode, the produced string is
       available as a simple format replacement (%Q to be precise), which  can
       be used in formats and actionformats; see below for details).

       If,  on  the  other  hand,  the support code is working in `standalone'
       mode, vcs_info will pretend as if quilt were an actual version  control
       system.  That  means  that the version control system identifier (which
       otherwise would be something like  `svn'  or  `cvs')  will  be  set  to
       `-quilt-'.  This  has implications on the used style context where this
       identifier is the second element. vcs_info will have filled in a proper
       value  for  the "repository's" root directory and the string containing
       the information about quilt's state will be  available  as  the  `misc'
       replacement (and %Q for compatibility with `addon' mode).

       What  is  left  to  discuss  is  how `standalone' mode is detected. The
       detection itself is a series of searches for directories. You can  have
       this detection enabled all the time in every directory that is not oth-
       erwise under version control. If you know there is only a  limited  set
       of  trees  where  you  would like vcs_info to try and look for Quilt in
       `standalone' mode to minimise the amount of searching on every call  to
       vcs_info, there are a number of ways to do that:

       Essentially,  `standalone'  mode  detection  is  controlled  by a style
       called `quilt-standalone'. It is a string style and its value can  have
       different  effects.  The simplest values are: `always' to run detection
       every time vcs_info is run, and  `never'  to  turn  the  detection  off

       If  the  value of quilt-standalone is something else, it is interpreted
       differently. If the value is the name of a scalar variable the value of
       that   variable  is  checked  and  that  value  is  used  in  the  same
       `always'/`never' way as described above.

       If the value of quilt-standalone is an  array,  the  elements  of  that
       array are used as directory names under which you want the detection to
       be active.

       If quilt-standalone is an associative array,  the  keys  are  taken  as
       directory  names  under  which you want the detection to be active, but
       only if the corresponding value is the string `true'.

       Last, but not least, if the value of quilt-standalone is the name of  a
       function, the function is called without arguments and the return value
       decides whether detection should be active. A `0' return value is true;
       a non-zero return value is interpreted as false.

       Note,  if  there  is  both  a  function  and  a variable by the name of
       quilt-standalone, the function will take precedence.

   Function Descriptions (Public API)
       vcs_info [user-context]
              The main function, that runs all backends and assembles all data
              into  ${vcs_info_msg_*_}.  This is the function you want to call
              from precmd if you want to  include  up-to-date  information  in
              your prompt (see Variable Description below).  If an argument is
              given, that string will  be  used  instead  of  default  in  the
              user-context field of the style context.

              Statically  registers a number of functions to a given hook. The
              hook needs to be given as the first argument; what follows is  a
              list  of hook-function names to register to the hook. The `+vi-'
              prefix needs to be left out here. See Hooks  in  vcs_info  below
              for details.

              Remove  hook-functions  from  a given hook. The hook needs to be
              given as the first non-option argument; what follows is  a  list
              of  hook-function names to un-register from the hook. If `-a' is
              used as the first argument, all occurrences of the functions are
              unregistered.  Otherwise only the last occurrence is removed (if
              a function was registered to a hook more than once). The  `+vi-'
              prefix  needs  to be left out here.  See Hooks in vcs_info below
              for details.

              Outputs the last ${vcs_info_msg_*_} value.  Takes  into  account
              the  value  of  the  use-prompt-escapes style in ':vcs_info:for-
              mats:command:-all-'. It also only prints max-exports values.

       vcs_info_printsys [user-context]
              Prints a list of all supported version control  systems.  Useful
              to find out possible contexts (and which of them are enabled) or
              values for the disable style.

              Initializes vcs_info's internal list of available backends. With
              this function, you can add support for new VCSs without restart-
              ing the shell.

       All functions named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Variable Description
       ${vcs_info_msg_N_} (Note the trailing underscore)
              Where N is an integer, e.g.,  vcs_info_msg_0_.  These  variables
              are  the storage for the informational message the last vcs_info
              call has assembled. These are strongly connected to the formats,
              actionformats  and  nvcsformats  styles  described  above. Those
              styles are lists. The first member of that  list  gets  expanded
              into  ${vcs_info_msg_0_}, the second into ${vcs_info_msg_1_} and
              the Nth into ${vcs_info_msg_N-1_}. (See  the  max-exports  style

       All variables named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Hooks in vcs_info
       Hooks are places in vcs_info where you can run your own code. That code
       can communicate with the code that called it and through  that,  change
       the system's behaviour.

       For configuration, hooks change the style context:

       To  register  functions  to  a hook, you need to list them in the hooks
       style in the appropriate context.

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+foo:*' hooks bar baz

       This registers functions to the hook `foo' for all backends.  In  order
       to   avoid  namespace  problems,  all  registered  function  names  are
       prepended by a `+vi-', so the actual functions  called  for  the  `foo'
       hook are `+vi-bar' and `+vi-baz'.

       If  you  would  like to register a function to a hook regardless of the
       current context, you may use the vcs_info_hookadd function. To remove a
       function that was added like that, the vcs_info_hookdel function can be

       If something seems weird, you can enable the `debug' boolean  style  in
       the  proper  context and the hook-calling code will print what it tried
       to execute and whether the function in question existed.

       When you register more than one function to a hook, all  functions  are
       executed one after another until one function returns non-zero or until
       all functions have been called. Context-sensitive  hook  functions  are
       executed   before   statically  registered  ones  (the  ones  added  by

       You  may  pass  data  between  functions  via  an  associative   array,
       user_data.  For example:
                  # do something with ${user_data[myval]}

       There are a number of variables that are special in hook contexts:

       ret    The  return value that the hooks system will return to the call-
              er. The default is an integer `zero'. If and how a  changed  ret
              value  changes  the  execution of the caller depends on the spe-
              cific hook. See the hook documentation below for details.

              An associated array which is used for  bidirectional  communica-
              tion  from the caller to hook functions. The used keys depend on
              the specific hook.

              The active context of the hook. Functions that  wish  to  change
              this variable should make it local scope first.

       vcs    The current VCS after it was detected. The same values as in the
              enable/disable style are used. Available  in  all  hooks  except

       Finally, the full list of currently available hooks:

              Called after starting vcs_info but before the VCS in this direc-
              tory is determined. It can be used to deactivate vcs_info tempo-
              rarily  if  necessary. When ret is set to 1, vcs_info aborts and
              does nothing; when set to 2, vcs_info sets up everything  as  if
              no version control were active and exits.

              Same as start-up but after the VCS was detected.

              Called in the Mercurial backend when a bookmark string is gener-
              ated; the get-revision and get-bookmarks styles must be true.

              This hook  gets  the  names  of  the  Mercurial  bookmarks  that
              vcs_info collected from `hg'.

              If a bookmark is active, the key ${hook_com[hg-active-bookmark]}
              is set to its name.  The key is otherwise unset.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in  ${hook_com[hg-book-
              mark-string]}  will  be  used  in  the  %m escape in formats and
              actionformats and will be available in the  global  backend_misc
              array as ${backend_misc[bookmarks]}.

              Called in the git (with stgit or during rebase or merge), and hg
              (with mq) backends and in quilt support when the  applied-string
              is  generated;  the use-quilt zstyle must be true for quilt (the
              mq and stgit backends are active by default).

              This hook gets the names of all applied patches  which  vcs_info
              collected  so  far  in  the opposite order, which means that the
              first argument is the top-most patch and so forth.

              When    setting    ret    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[applied-string]}  will  be  available  as  %p  in the
              patch-format and nopatch-format styles.  This hook is,  in  con-
              cert  with  set-patch-format,  responsible  for  %-escaping that
              value for use in the prompt.  (See the Oddities section.)

              Called in the git (with stgit or during rebase),  and  hg  (with
              mq)  backend  and  in quilt support when the unapplied-string is
              generated; the get-unapplied style must be true.

              This hook gets the names of all unapplied patches which vcs_info
              collected  so  far in order, which means that the first argument
              is the patch next-in-line to be applied and so forth.

              When setting ret to non-zero,  the  string  in  ${hook_com[unap-
              plied-string]}  will  be available as %u in the patch-format and
              nopatch-format  styles.   This  hook   is,   in   concert   with
              set-patch-format,  responsible for %-escaping that value for use
              in the prompt.  (See the Oddities section.)

              Called in the hg backend when guards-string  is  generated;  the
              get-mq style must be true (default).

              This hook gets the names of any active mq guards.

              When    setting    ret    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[guards-string]} will be used in the %g escape in  the
              patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

       no-vcs This  hooks  is  called  when  no  version  control  system  was

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called as soon as the backend has finished  collecting  informa-

              The `hook_com' keys available are as for the set-message hook.

              Called  after  the quilt support is done. The following informa-
              tion is passed as arguments to the hook:  1.  the  quilt-support
              mode  (`addon'  or `standalone'); 2. the directory that contains
              the patch series; 3. the directory  that  holds  quilt's  status
              information (the `.pc' directory) or the string "-nopc-" if that
              directory wasn't found.

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called before `branchformat' is set. The only  argument  to  the
              hook is the format that is configured at this point.

              The  `hook_com'  keys  considered  are  `branch' and `revision'.
              They are set to the values figured out so far  by  vcs_info  and
              any  change will be used directly when the actual replacement is

              If    ret    is    set    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[branch-replace]}  will  be used unchanged as the `%b'
              replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called before a `hgrevformat' is set. The only argument  to  the
              hook is the format that is configured at this point.

              The  `hook_com' keys considered are `hash' and `localrev'.  They
              are set to the values figured out so far  by  vcs_info  and  any
              change  will  be  used  directly  when the actual replacement is

              If    ret    is    set    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[rev-replace]}  will  be  used  unchanged  as the `%i'
              replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              This hook is used when vcs_info's quilt functionality is  active
              in  "addon"  mode  (quilt  used on top of a real version control
              system). It is activated right before any quilt specific  action
              is taken.

              Setting  the  `ret'  variable  in  this hook to a non-zero value
              avoids any quilt specific actions from being run at all.

              This hook is used to control some of the possible expansions  in
              patch-format  and nopatch-format styles with patch queue systems
              such as quilt, mqueue and the like.

              This hook is used in the git, hg and quilt backends.

              The hook allows the control of the %p (${hook_com[applied]}) and
              %u  (${hook_com[unapplied]})  expansion in all backends that use
              the   hook.    With    the    mercurial    backend,    the    %g
              (${hook_com[guards]})  expansion  is controllable in addition to

              If    ret    is    set    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[patch-replace]}  will be used unchanged instead of an
              expanded format from patch-format or nopatch-format.

              This  hook  is,  in  concert  with  the  gen-applied-string   or
              gen-unapplied-string  hooks if they are defined, responsible for
              %-escaping the final patch-format value for use in  the  prompt.
              (See the Oddities section.)

              Called  each time before a `vcs_info_msg_N_' message is set.  It
              takes two arguments; the first being  the  `N'  in  the  message
              variable name, the second is the currently configured formats or

              There are a number of  `hook_com'  keys,  that  are  used  here:
              `action',  `branch',  `base',  `base-name',  `subdir', `staged',
              `unstaged', `revision', `misc', `vcs' and one `miscN' entry  for
              each  backend-specific data field (N starting at zero). They are
              set to the values figured out so far by vcs_info and any  change
              will be used directly when the actual replacement is done.

              Since  this hook is triggered multiple times (once for each con-
              figured formats or actionformats), each of the  `hook_com'  keys
              mentioned  above  (except  for the miscN entries) has an `_orig'
              counterpart, so even if you changed a value to your  liking  you
              can  still  get the original value in the next run. Changing the
              `_orig' values is probably not a good idea.

              If ret is set to non-zero, the  string  in  ${hook_com[message]}
              will be used unchanged as the message by vcs_info.

       If  all  of  this  sounds rather confusing, take a look at the Examples
       section below and also in the Misc/vcs_info-examples file  in  the  Zsh
       source.  They contain some explanatory code.

       Don't use vcs_info at all (even though it's in your prompt):
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable NONE

       Disable the backends for bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr svk

       Disable everything but bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable bzr svk

       Provide a special formats for git:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' formats       ' GIT, BABY! [%b]'
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' actionformats ' GIT ACTION! [%b|%a]'

       All  %x  expansion  in  all  sorts  of formats (formats, actionformats,
       branchformat, you name it) are done using the  `zformat'  builtin  from
       the  `zsh/zutil' module. That means you can do everything with these %x
       items what zformat supports. In particular, if you want something  that
       is  really  long  to  have  a  fixed  width, like a hash in a mercurial
       branchformat, you can do this: %12.12i. That'll shrink the 40 character
       hash  to  its  12 leading characters. The form is actually `%min.maxx'.
       More is possible.  See the section `The zsh/zutil  Module'  in  zshmod-
       ules(1) for details.

       Use the quicker bzr backend
              zstyle ':vcs_info:bzr:*' use-simple true

       If    you    do    use   use-simple,   please   report   if   it   does

       Display the revision number in yellow for bzr and svn:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' \
                     branchformat '%b%{'${fg[yellow]}'%}:%r'

       If you want colors, make sure you enclose the color codes in %{...%} if
       you want to use the string provided by vcs_info in prompts.

       Here  is  how  to  print  the  VCS  information  as a command (not in a
              alias vcsi='vcs_info command; vcs_info_lastmsg'

       This way,  you  can  even  define  different  formats  for  output  via
       vcs_info_lastmsg in the ':vcs_info:*:command:*' namespace.

       Now  as promised, some code that uses hooks: say, you'd like to replace
       the string `svn' by `subversion' in vcs_info's %s formats replacement.

       First, we will tell vcs_info to call a  function  when  populating  the
       message variables with the gathered information:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion

       Nothing happens. Which is reasonable, since we didn't define the actual
       function yet. To see what the hooks subsystem is trying to  do,  enable
       the `debug' style:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug true

       That  should give you an idea what is going on. Specifically, the func-
       tion that we are looking for is `+vi-svn2subversion'. Note, the  `+vi-'
       prefix.  So,  everything  is in order, just as documented. When you are
       done checking out the debugging output, disable it again:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug false

       Now, let's define the function:
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {
                  [[ ${hook_com[vcs_orig]} == svn ]] && hook_com[vcs]=subversion

       Simple enough. And it could have even been simpler, if only we had reg-
       istered our function in a less generic context. If we do it only in the
       `svn' backend's context, we don't need to test which the active backend
              zstyle ':vcs_info:svn+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {

       And finally a little more elaborate example, that uses a hook to create
       a customised bookmark string for the hg backend.

       Again, we start off by registering a function:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:hg+gen-hg-bookmark-string:*' hooks hgbookmarks

       And then we define the `+vi-hgbookmarks' function:
              function +vi-hgbookmarks() {
                  # The default is to connect all bookmark names by
                  # commas. This mixes things up a little.
                  # Imagine, there's one type of bookmarks that is
                  # special to you. Say, because it's *your* work.
                  # Those bookmarks look always like this: "sh/*"
                  # (because your initials are sh, for example).
                  # This makes the bookmarks string use only those
                  # bookmarks. If there's more than one, it
                  # concatenates them using commas.
                  # The bookmarks returned by `hg' are available in
                  # the function's positional parameters.
                  local s="${(Mj:,:)@:#sh/*}"
                  # Now, the communication with the code that calls
                  # the hook functions is done via the hook_com[]
                  # hash. The key at which the `gen-hg-bookmark-string'
                  # hook looks is `hg-bookmark-string'. So:
                  # And to signal that we want to use the string we
                  # just generated, set the special variable `ret' to
                  # something other than the default zero:
                  return 0

       Some longer examples and code snippets which might be useful are avail-
       able  in the examples file located at Misc/vcs_info-examples in the Zsh
       source directory.

       This concludes our guided tour through zsh's vcs_info.

       You should make sure  all  the  functions  from  the  Functions/Prompts
       directory of the source distribution are available; they all begin with
       the string `prompt_' except for the special function`promptinit'.   You
       also   need  the  `colors'  and  `add-zsh-hook'  functions  from  Func-
       tions/Misc.  All these functions may already be installed on your  sys-
       tem;  if  not, you will need to find them and copy them.  The directory
       should appear as one of the elements of the fpath  array  (this  should
       already  be the case if they were installed), and at least the function
       promptinit should be autoloaded; it will autoload the  rest.   Finally,
       to  initialize  the  use  of the system you need to call the promptinit
       function.  The following code in your .zshrc  will  arrange  for  this;
       assume the functions are stored in the directory ~/myfns:

              fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
              autoload -U promptinit

   Theme Selection
       Use  the  prompt  command to select your preferred theme.  This command
       may be added to your .zshrc following the call to promptinit  in  order
       to start zsh with a theme already selected.

       prompt [ -c | -l ]
       prompt [ -p | -h ] [ theme ... ]
       prompt [ -s ] theme [ arg ... ]
              Set  or  examine  the prompt theme.  With no options and a theme
              argument, the theme with that name is set as the current  theme.
              The  available  themes  are  determined  at run time; use the -l
              option to see a list.  The special  theme  `random'  selects  at
              random one of the available themes and sets your prompt to that.

              In  some  cases  the  theme may be modified by one or more argu-
              ments, which should be given after the theme name.  See the help
              for each theme for descriptions of these arguments.

              Options are:

              -c     Show  the currently selected theme and its parameters, if
              -l     List all available prompt themes.
              -p     Preview the theme named by theme, or  all  themes  if  no
                     theme is given.
              -h     Show help for the theme named by theme, or for the prompt
                     function if no theme is given.
              -s     Set theme as the current theme and save state.

              Each available theme has a setup function which is called by the
              prompt function to install that theme.  This function may define
              other functions as necessary to maintain the  prompt,  including
              functions  used  to  preview  the prompt or provide help for its
              use.  You should not normally  call  a  theme's  setup  function

   Utility Themes
       prompt off
              The  theme `off' sets all the prompt variables to minimal values
              with no special effects.

       prompt default
              The theme `default' sets all prompt variables to the same  state
              as  if  an  interactive  zsh  was started with no initialization

       prompt restore
              The special theme `restore' erases all theme settings  and  sets
              prompt  variables  to  their  state  before  the  first time the
              `prompt' function was run,  provided  each  theme  has  properly
              defined its cleanup (see below).

              Note  that  you  can undo `prompt off' and `prompt default' with
              `prompt restore', but a second restore does not undo the first.

   Writing Themes
       The first step for adding your own theme is to choose a  name  for  it,
       and  create  a  file  `prompt_name_setup' in a directory in your fpath,
       such as ~/myfns in the example above.  The file should at minimum  con-
       tain  assignments  for  the  prompt variables that your theme wishes to
       modify.  By convention, themes use PS1, PS2, RPS1,  etc.,  rather  than
       the longer PROMPT and RPROMPT.

       The  file  is autoloaded as a function in the current shell context, so
       it may contain any necessary commands to customize your theme,  includ-
       ing  defining additional functions.  To make some complex tasks easier,
       your setup function may also do any of the following:

       Assign prompt_opts
              The array prompt_opts may be assigned any of "bang", "cr", "per-
              cent",  "sp",  and/or  "subst"  as  values.   The  corresponding
              setopts  (promptbang,   etc.)   are   turned   on,   all   other
              prompt-related  options  are  turned off.  The prompt_opts array
              preserves setopts even beyond the scope of localoptions,  should
              your function need that.

       Modify precmd and preexec
              Use  of  add-zsh-hook  is  recommended.   The precmd and preexec
              hooks are automatically adjusted if the prompt theme changes  or
              is disabled.

       Declare cleanup
              If  your  function makes any other changes that should be undone
              when the theme is disabled, your setup function may call
              prompt_cleanup command
       where command should be suitably quoted.  If your theme  is  ever  dis-
       abled  or  replaced by another, command is executed with eval.  You may
       declare more than one such cleanup hook.

       Define preview
              Define or autoload a function prompt_name_preview to  display  a
              simulated version of your prompt.  A simple default previewer is
              defined by promptinit for themes that do not define  their  own.
              This preview function is called by `prompt -p'.

       Provide help
              Define  or autoload a function prompt_name_help to display docu-
              mentation or help text for your theme.  This  help  function  is
              called by `prompt -h'.

       These  functions all implement user-defined ZLE widgets (see zshzle(1))
       which can be bound to keystrokes in interactive shells.  To  use  them,
       your .zshrc should contain lines of the form

              autoload function
              zle -N function

       followed  by  an  appropriate bindkey command to associate the function
       with a key sequence.  Suggested bindings are described below.

       bash-style word functions
              If you are looking for functions to implement  moving  over  and
              editing  words  in  the  manner of bash, where only alphanumeric
              characters are considered word characters, you can use the func-
              tions  described  in  the next section.  The following is suffi-

                     autoload -U select-word-style
                     select-word-style bash

       forward-word-match, backward-word-match
       kill-word-match, backward-kill-word-match
       transpose-words-match, capitalize-word-match
       up-case-word-match, down-case-word-match
       delete-whole-word-match, select-word-match
       select-word-style, match-word-context, match-words-by-style
              The first eight `-match' functions are drop-in replacements  for
              the  builtin widgets without the suffix.  By default they behave
              in a similar way.  However, by the use of styles and  the  func-
              tion  select-word-style,  the  way  words  are  matched  can  be
              altered. select-word-match is intended to  be  used  as  a  text
              object  in  vi mode but with custom word styles. For comparison,
              the widgets described in zshzle(1) under Text Objects use  fixed
              definitions of words, compatible with the vim editor.

              The  simplest  way  of  configuring  the  functions  is  to  use
              select-word-style, which can either be called as a normal  func-
              tion with the appropriate argument, or invoked as a user-defined
              widget that will prompt for the  first  character  of  the  word
              style to be used.  The first time it is invoked, the first eight
              -match functions will automatically  replace  the  builtin  ver-
              sions, so they do not need to be loaded explicitly.

              The  word styles available are as follows.  Only the first char-
              acter is examined.

              bash   Word characters are alphanumeric characters only.

              normal As  in  normal  shell  operation:   word  characters  are
                     alphanumeric  characters  plus  any characters present in
                     the string given by the parameter $WORDCHARS.

              shell  Words are  complete  shell  command  arguments,  possibly
                     including  complete quoted strings, or any tokens special
                     to the shell.

                     Words are any set of characters delimited by whitespace.

                     Restore the default settings; this is usually the same as

              All but `default' can be input as an upper case character, which
              has the same effect but with subword  matching  turned  on.   In
              this  case,  words  with  upper case characters are treated spe-
              cially: each separate run of upper case characters, or an  upper
              case  character  followed  by any number of other characters, is
              considered a word.  The style subword-range can supply an alter-
              native  character range to the default `[:upper:]'; the value of
              the style is treated as the contents of a `[...]' pattern  (note
              that  the outer brackets should not be supplied, only those sur-
              rounding named ranges).

              More control can  be  obtained  using  the  zstyle  command,  as
              described in zshmodules(1).  Each style is looked up in the con-
              text :zle:widget where widget is the name  of  the  user-defined
              widget,  not the name of the function implementing it, so in the
              case of the definitions supplied by select-word-style the appro-
              priate  contexts are :zle:forward-word, and so on.  The function
              select-word-style itself always defines styles for  the  context
              `:zle:*'  which can be overridden by more specific (longer) pat-
              terns as well as explicit contexts.

              The style word-style specifies the rules to use.  This may  have
              the following values.

              normal Use  the  standard  shell  rules,  i.e. alphanumerics and
                     $WORDCHARS, unless overridden by the styles word-chars or

                     Similar to normal, but only the specified characters, and
                     not also alphanumerics, are considered word characters.

                     The negation of  specified.   The  given  characters  are
                     those which will not be considered part of a word.

              shell  Words  are obtained by using the syntactic rules for gen-
                     erating shell command arguments.   In  addition,  special
                     tokens which are never command arguments such as `()' are
                     also treated as words.

                     Words are whitespace-delimited strings of characters.

              The first three of those rules usually use $WORDCHARS,  but  the
              value   in   the  parameter  can  be  overridden  by  the  style
              word-chars, which works in exactly the same way  as  $WORDCHARS.
              In addition, the style word-class uses character class syntax to
              group characters and takes precedence over  word-chars  if  both
              are  set.  The word-class style does not include the surrounding
              brackets of the character class; for example, `-:[:alnum:]' is a
              valid  word-class  to include all alphanumerics plus the charac-
              ters `-' and `:'.  Be careful including  `]',  `^'  and  `-'  as
              these are special inside character classes.

              word-style  may  also  have  `-subword' appended to its value to
              turn on subword matching, as described above.

              The style skip-chars is mostly useful  for  transpose-words  and
              similar  functions.   If  set,  it  gives  a count of characters
              starting at the cursor position which  will  not  be  considered
              part  of  the  word and are treated as space, regardless of what
              they actually are.  For example, if

                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words' skip-chars 1

              has been set, and transpose-words-match is called with the  cur-
              sor  on the X of fooXbar, where X can be any character, then the
              resulting expression is barXfoo.

              Finer grained control can  be  obtained  by  setting  the  style
              word-context  to  an  array  of  pairs of entries.  Each pair of
              entries consists of a pattern and a subcontext.  The shell argu-
              ment  the  cursor  is on is matched against each pattern in turn
              until one matches; if it does, the  context  is  extended  by  a
              colon  and  the corresponding subcontext.  Note that the test is
              made against the original word on the line, with no stripping of
              quotes.   Special  handling  is  done between words: the current
              context is examined and if it contains the  string  between  the
              word is set to a single space; else if it is contains the string
              back, the word before the cursor is considered,  else  the  word
              after cursor is considered. Some examples are given below.

              The  style  skip-whitespace-first  is  only  used  with the for-
              ward-word widget.  If it is set to true, then forward-word skips
              any  non-word-characters,  followed  by any non-word-characters:
              this is similar to the behaviour of other  word-orientated  wid-
              gets,  and  also  that used by other editors, however it differs
              from the standard zsh behaviour.  When  using  select-word-style
              the  widget  is  set  in  the context :zle:* to true if the word
              style is bash and false otherwise.  It may be overridden by set-
              ting it in the more specific context :zle:forward-word*.

              It  is  possible  to  create  widgets with specific behaviour by
              defining a new widget implemented  by  the  appropriate  generic
              function,  then  setting a style for the context of the specific
              widget.  For example,  the  following  defines  a  widget  back-
              ward-kill-space-word using backward-kill-word-match, the generic
              widget implementing backward-kill-word  behaviour,  and  ensures
              that the new widget always implements space-delimited behaviour.

                     zle -N backward-kill-space-word backward-kill-word-match
                     zstyle :zle:backward-kill-space-word word-style space

              The widget backward-kill-space-word can now be bound to a key.

              Here  are  some  further examples of use of the styles, actually
              taken from the simplified interface in select-word-style:

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-style standard
                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-chars ''

              Implements bash-style word handling for all widgets,  i.e.  only
              alphanumerics  are  word  characters;  equivalent to setting the
              parameter WORDCHARS empty for the given context.

                     style ':zle:*kill*' word-style space

              Uses space-delimited words for widgets with the word  `kill'  in
              the  name.   Neither  of the styles word-chars nor word-class is
              used in this case.

              Here are some examples of  use  of  the  word-context  style  to
              extend the context.

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-context \
                            "*/*" filename "[[:space:]]" whitespace
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:whitespace' word-style shell
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-style normal
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-chars ''

              This  provides  two  different  ways  of  using  transpose-words
              depending on whether the cursor is on whitespace  between  words
              or  on a filename, here any word containing a /.  On whitespace,
              complete arguments as defined by standard shell  rules  will  be
              transposed.   In  a  filename, only alphanumerics will be trans-
              posed.  Elsewhere, words will be transposed  using  the  default
              style for :zle:transpose-words.

              The  word  matching  and  all the handling of zstyle settings is
              actually implemented by the function match-words-by-style.  This
              can  be  used  to  create new user-defined widgets.  The calling
              function should set the local parameter curcontext to  :zle:wid-
              get,   create   the   local  parameter  matched_words  and  call
              match-words-by-style   with   no    arguments.     On    return,
              matched_words will be set to an array with the elements: (1) the
              start of the line  (2)  the  word  before  the  cursor  (3)  any
              non-word  characters  between  that  word and the cursor (4) any
              non-word character at the cursor  position  plus  any  remaining
              non-word  characters before the next word, including all charac-
              ters specified by the skip-chars style, (5) the word at or  fol-
              lowing  the  cursor  (6)  any non-word characters following that
              word (7) the remainder of the line.  Any of the elements may  be
              an  empty  string;  the calling function should test for this to
              decide whether it can perform its function.

              If the variable  matched_words  is  defined  by  the  caller  to
              match-words-by-style   as   an   associative   array  (local  -A
              matched_words), then the seven  values  given  above  should  be
              retrieved  from  it as elements named start, word-before-cursor,
              ws-before-cursor,      ws-after-cursor,       word-after-cursor,
              ws-after-word,  and  end.  In addition the element is-word-start
              is 1 if the cursor is on the start of a word or subword,  or  on
              white space before it (the cases can be distinguished by testing
              the ws-after-cursor element) and 0 otherwise.  This form is rec-
              ommended for future compatibility.

              It   is   possible   to   pass   options   with   arguments   to
              match-words-by-style to override the use of styles.  The options
              -w     word-style
              -s     skip-chars
              -c     word-class
              -C     word-chars
              -r     subword-range

              For  example,  match-words-by-style -w shell -c 0 may be used to
              extract the command argument around the cursor.

              The  word-context  style  is   implemented   by   the   function
              match-word-context.   This  should not usually need to be called

              The bracketed-paste widget (see subsection Miscellaneous in zsh-
              zle(1))  inserts  pasted  text  literally into the editor buffer
              rather than interpret it as keystrokes.  This disables some com-
              mon  usages where the self-insert widget is replaced in order to
              accomplish some extra processing.  An example is the contributed
              url-quote-magic widget described below.

              The  bracketed-paste-magic  widget  is  meant  to replace brack-
              eted-paste with a  wrapper  that  re-enables  these  self-insert
              actions,  and  other  actions as selected by zstyles.  Therefore
              this widget is installed with

                     autoload -Uz bracketed-paste-magic
                     zle -N bracketed-paste bracketed-paste-magic

              Other   than   enabling   some   widget    processing,    brack-
              eted-paste-magic attempts to replicate bracketed-paste as faith-
              fully as possible.

              The following zstyles may be set to control processing of pasted
              text.    All   are   looked   up   in   the   context   `:brack-

                     A list of patterns matching widget names that  should  be
                     activated  during the paste.  All other key sequences are
                     processed as self-insert-unmeta.  The default is `self-*'
                     so  any  user-defined  widgets named with that prefix are
                     active along with the builtin self-insert.

                     If this style is not set (explicitly deleted) or  set  to
                     an empty value, no widgets are active and the pasted text
                     is inserted literally.   If  the  value  includes  `unde-
                     fined-key',  any unknown sequences are discarded from the
                     pasted text.

                     The inverse of active-widgets, a list  of  key  sequences
                     that  always use self-insert-unmeta even when bound to an
                     active widget.  Note that this is a list of  literal  key
                     sequences, not patterns.

                     A  list  of function names, called in widget context (but
                     not as widgets).  The functions are called in order until
                     one  of  them  returns  a non-zero status.  The parameter
                     `PASTED' contains the initial state of the  pasted  text.
                     All other ZLE parameters such as `BUFFER' have their nor-
                     mal values and side-effects, and full history  is  avail-
                     able,  so for example paste-init functions may move words
                     from BUFFER into PASTED to make those  words  visible  to
                     the active-widgets.

                     A  non-zero  return  from  a paste-init function does not
                     prevent the paste itself from proceeding.

                     Loading     bracketed-paste-magic      defines      back-
                     ward-extend-paste,   a   helper   function   for  use  in

                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic paste-init \

                     When a paste would insert into the middle of  a  word  or
                     append  text  to  a  word  already  on  the  line,  back-
                     ward-extend-paste moves  the  prefix  from  LBUFFER  into
                     PASTED  so  that  the active-widgets see the full word so
                     far.  This may be useful with url-quote-magic.

                     Another list of function names called in order until  one
                     returns  non-zero.   These functions are called after the
                     pasted text has been processed by the active-widgets, but
                     before it is inserted into `BUFFER'.  ZLE parameters have
                     their normal values and side-effects.

                     A non-zero return from a paste-finish function  does  not
                     prevent the paste itself from proceeding.

                     Loading bracketed-paste-magic also defines quote-paste, a
                     helper function for use in paste-finish.

                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic paste-finish \
                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic:finish quote-style \

                     When the pasted text  is  inserted  into  BUFFER,  it  is
                     quoted  per  the quote-style value.  To forcibly turn off
                     the built-in numeric prefix quoting  of  bracketed-paste,

                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic:finish quote-style \

              Important:  During active-widgets processing of the paste (after
              paste-init and before paste-finish),  BUFFER  starts  empty  and
              history  is  restricted,  so  cursor motions, etc., may not pass
              outside of the pasted content.  Text assigned to BUFFER  by  the
              active widgets is copied back into PASTED before paste-finish.

              This  widget  works  like  a combination of insert-last-word and
              copy-prev-shell-word.   Repeated  invocations  of   the   widget
              retrieve  earlier  words  on  the relevant history line.  With a
              numeric argument N, insert the Nth word from the history line; N
              may be negative to count from the end of the line.

              If insert-last-word has been used to retrieve the last word on a
              previous history line, repeated invocations  will  replace  that
              word with earlier words from the same line.

              Otherwise,  the  widget  applies  to words on the line currently
              being edited.  The widget style  can  be  set  to  the  name  of
              another  widget  that  should be called to retrieve words.  This
              widget must accept the same three arguments as insert-last-word.

              After inserting an unambiguous string into the command line, the
              new  function  based  completion  system may know about multiple
              places in this string where characters  are  missing  or  differ
              from  at  least one of the possible matches.  It will then place
              the cursor on the position it considers to be the most interest-
              ing one, i.e. the one where one can disambiguate between as many
              matches as possible with as little typing as possible.

              This widget allows the cursor to be easily moved  to  the  other
              interesting  spots.   It  can  be  invoked  repeatedly  to cycle
              between all positions reported by the completion system.

              This is another function which works like the  -match  functions
              described  immediately  above,  i.e.  using styles to decide the
              word boundaries.  However, it  is  not  a  replacement  for  any
              existing function.

              The  basic  behaviour  is  to delete the word around the cursor.
              There is no numeric argument  handling;  only  the  single  word
              around  the  cursor  is  considered.  If the widget contains the
              string kill, the removed text will be placed  in  the  cutbuffer
              for   future   yanking.    This  can  be  obtained  by  defining
              kill-whole-word-match as follows:

                     zle -N kill-whole-word-match delete-whole-word-match

              and then binding the widget kill-whole-word-match.

       up-line-or-beginning-search, down-line-or-beginning-search
              These   widgets   are   similar   to   the   builtin   functions
              up-line-or-search  and  down-line-or-search:   if in a multiline
              buffer they move up or down within the  buffer,  otherwise  they
              search  for  a  history  line  matching the start of the current
              line.  In this case, however,  they  search  for  a  line  which
              matches  the  current line up to the current cursor position, in
              the manner of  history-beginning-search-backward  and  -forward,
              rather than the first word on the line.

              Edit the command line using your visual editor, as in ksh.

                     bindkey -M vicmd v edit-command-line

              Expand  the  file  name  under  the  cursor to an absolute path,
              resolving symbolic links.  Where possible, the initial path seg-
              ment  is  turned into a named directory or reference to a user's
              home directory.

              This   function   implements    the    widgets    history-begin-
              ning-search-backward-end    and    history-beginning-search-for-
              ward-end.  These commands work by first calling the  correspond-
              ing builtin widget (see `History Control' in zshzle(1)) and then
              moving the cursor to the end of the line.  The  original  cursor
              position  is  remembered and restored before calling the builtin
              widget a second time, so that the same  search  is  repeated  to
              look farther through the history.

              Although  you autoload only one function, the commands to use it
              are slightly different because it implements two widgets.

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-backward-end \
                     zle -N history-beginning-search-forward-end \
                     bindkey '\e^P' history-beginning-search-backward-end
                     bindkey '\e^N' history-beginning-search-forward-end

              This function implements yet another form of history  searching.
              The text before the cursor is used to select lines from the his-
              tory, as for history-beginning-search-backward except  that  all
              matches  are  shown  in a numbered menu.  Typing the appropriate
              digits inserts the full history line.  Note that leading  zeroes
              must  be  typed (they are only shown when necessary for removing
              ambiguity).  The entire history is searched; there  is  no  dis-
              tinction between forwards and backwards.

              With a numeric argument, the search is not anchored to the start
              of the line; the string typed by the use may appear anywhere  in
              the line in the history.

              If  the  widget  name contains `-end' the cursor is moved to the
              end of the line inserted.  If the widget name contains  `-space'
              any  space  in  the  text typed is treated as a wildcard and can
              match anything (hence a leading space is equivalent to giving  a
              numeric argument).  Both forms can be combined, for example:

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-menu-space-end \

              The  function  history-pattern-search  implements  widgets which
              prompt for a pattern with which to search the history  backwards
              or  forwards.   The  pattern is in the usual zsh format, however
              the first character may be ^ to anchor the search to  the  start
              of  the  line,  and  the  last  character may be $ to anchor the
              search to the end of the line.  If the search was  not  anchored
              to  the  end of the line the cursor is positioned just after the
              pattern found.

              The commands to create bindable widgets are similar to those  in
              the example immediately above:

                     autoload -U history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-backward history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-forward history-pattern-search

       incarg Typing  the keystrokes for this widget with the cursor placed on
              or to the left of an integer causes that integer  to  be  incre-
              mented  by  one.   With a numeric argument, the number is incre-
              mented by the amount of the argument (decremented if the numeric
              argument is negative).  The shell parameter incarg may be set to
              change the default increment to something other than one.

                     bindkey '^X+' incarg

              This allows incremental completion of a  word.   After  starting
              this  command,  a  list of completion choices can be shown after
              every character you type, which you can delete with ^H  or  DEL.
              Pressing return accepts the completion so far and returns you to
              normal editing (that is, the command  line  is  not  immediately
              executed).  You can hit TAB to do normal completion, ^G to abort
              back to the state when you started, and ^D to list the matches.

              This works only with the new function based completion system.

                     bindkey '^Xi' incremental-complete-word

              This function allows you to compose characters that don't appear
              on  the keyboard to be inserted into the command line.  The com-
              mand is followed by two keys corresponding to  ASCII  characters
              (there is no prompt).  For accented characters, the two keys are
              a base character followed by a code for the  accent,  while  for
              other  special  characters  the  two  characters together form a
              mnemonic for the character to be  inserted.   The  two-character
              codes  are  a subset of those given by RFC 1345 (see for example

              The function may optionally be followed by up to two  characters
              which  replace  one or both of the characters read from the key-
              board; if both characters are supplied, no input is  read.   For
              example,  insert-composed-char a: can be used within a widget to
              insert an a with umlaut into the command  line.   This  has  the
              advantages  over use of a literal character that it is more por-

              For best results zsh should have been  built  with  support  for
              multibyte  characters (configured with --enable-multibyte); how-
              ever, the function works for the  limited  range  of  characters
              available in single-byte character sets such as ISO-8859-1.

              The  character  is  converted  into the local representation and
              inserted into the command line at  the  cursor  position.   (The
              conversion  is  done within the shell, using whatever facilities
              the C library provides.)  With a numeric argument, the character
              and its code are previewed in the status line

              The  function may be run outside zle in which case it prints the
              character (together with a newline) to standard  output.   Input
              is still read from keystrokes.

              See insert-unicode-char for an alternative way of inserting Uni-
              code characters using their hexadecimal character number.

              The set of accented characters is reasonably complete up to Uni-
              code  character  U+0180,  the set of special characters less so.
              However, it is very sporadic from that point.  Adding new  char-
              acters is easy, however; see the function define-composed-chars.
              Please send any additions to zsh-workers@zsh.org.

              The codes for the second character when used to accent the first
              are  as  follows.   Note that not every character can take every
              !      Grave.
              '      Acute.
              >      Circumflex.
              ?      Tilde.  (This is not ~ as RFC 1345 does not  assume  that
                     character is present on the keyboard.)
              -      Macron.  (A horizontal bar over the base character.)
              (      Breve.  (A shallow dish shape over the base character.)
              .      Dot above the base character, or in the case of i no dot,
                     or in the case of L and l a centered dot.
              :      Diaeresis (Umlaut).
              c      Cedilla.
              _      Underline, however  there  are  currently  no  underlined
              /      Stroke through the base character.
              "      Double acute (only supported on a few letters).
              ;      Ogonek.   (A  little  forward  facing  hook at the bottom
                     right of the character.)
              <      Caron.  (A little v over the letter.)
              0      Circle over the base character.
              2      Hook over the base character.
              9      Horn over the base character.

              The most common characters from the Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek  and
              Hebrew  alphabets are available; consult RFC 1345 for the appro-
              priate sequences.  In addition, a set of two letter codes not in
              RFC  1345  are  available for the double-width characters corre-
              sponding to ASCII characters from !  to ~ (0x21 to 0x7e) by pre-
              ceding  the  character with ^, for example ^A for a double-width

              The following other two-character sequences are understood.

              ASCII characters
                     These are already present on most keyboards:
              <(     Left square bracket
              //     Backslash (solidus)
              )>     Right square bracket
              (!     Left brace (curly bracket)
              !!     Vertical bar (pipe symbol)
              !)     Right brace (curly bracket)
              '?     Tilde

              Special letters
                     Characters found in various variants of the Latin  alpha-
              ss     Eszett (scharfes S)
              D-, d- Eth
              TH, th Thorn
              kk     Kra
              'n     'n
              NG, ng Ng
              OI, oi Oi
              yr     yr
              ED     ezh

              Currency symbols
              Ct     Cent
              Pd     Pound sterling (also lira and others)
              Cu     Currency
              Ye     Yen
              Eu     Euro (N.B. not in RFC 1345)

              Punctuation characters
                     References to "right" quotes indicate the shape (like a 9
                     rather than 6) rather than their grammatical  use.   (For
                     example,  a "right" low double quote is used to open quo-
                     tations in German.)
              !I     Inverted exclamation mark
              BB     Broken vertical bar
              SE     Section
              Co     Copyright
              -a     Spanish feminine ordinal indicator
              <<     Left guillemet
              --     Soft hyphen
              Rg     Registered trade mark
              PI     Pilcrow (paragraph)
              -o     Spanish masculine ordinal indicator
              >>     Right guillemet
              ?I     Inverted question mark
              -1     Hyphen
              -N     En dash
              -M     Em dash
              -3     Horizontal bar
              :3     Vertical ellipsis
              .3     Horizontal midline ellipsis
              !2     Double vertical line
              =2     Double low line
              '6     Left single quote
              '9     Right single quote
              .9     "Right" low quote
              9'     Reversed "right" quote
              "6     Left double quote
              "9     Right double quote
              :9     "Right" low double quote
              9"     Reversed "right" double quote
              /-     Dagger
              /=     Double dagger

              Mathematical symbols
              DG     Degree
              -2, +-, -+
                     - sign, +/- sign, -/+ sign
              2S     Superscript 2
              3S     Superscript 3
              1S     Superscript 1
              My     Micro
              .M     Middle dot
              14     Quarter
              12     Half
              34     Three quarters
              *X     Multiplication
              -:     Division
              %0     Per mille
              FA, TE, /0
                     For all, there exists, empty set
              dP, DE, NB
                     Partial derivative, delta (increment), del (nabla)
              (-, -) Element of, contains
              *P, +Z Product, sum
              *-, Ob, Sb
                     Asterisk, ring, bullet
              RT, 0(, 00
                     Root sign, proportional to, infinity

              Other symbols
              cS, cH, cD, cC
                     Card suits: spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs
              Md, M8, M2, Mb, Mx, MX
                     Musical notation: crotchet (quarter note), quaver (eighth
                     note),  semiquavers (sixteenth notes), flag sign, natural
                     sign, sharp sign
              Fm, Ml Female, male

              Accents on their own
              '>     Circumflex (same as caret, ^)
              '!     Grave (same as backtick, `)
              ',     Cedilla
              ':     Diaeresis (Umlaut)
              'm     Macron
              ''     Acute

              This function allows you  type  a  file  pattern,  and  see  the
              results of the expansion at each step.  When you hit return, all
              expansions are inserted into the command line.

                     bindkey '^Xf' insert-files

              When first executed, the user inputs a set of  hexadecimal  dig-
              its.   This  is  terminated  with  another  call  to insert-uni-
              code-char.  The digits are then turned  into  the  corresponding
              Unicode  character.  For example, if the widget is bound to ^XU,
              the character sequence `^XU 4 c ^XU' inserts L (Unicode U+004c).

              See insert-composed-char for a way of inserting characters using
              a two-character mnemonic.

       narrow-to-region [ -p pre ] [ -P post ]
                        [  -S statepm | -R statepm | [ -l lbufvar ] [ -r rbuf-
       var ] ]
                        [ -n ] [ start end ]
              Narrow the editable portion of the buffer to the region  between
              the  cursor  and  the  mark,  which may be in either order.  The
              region may not be empty.

              narrow-to-region may be used as a widget or called as a function
              from  a  user-defined  widget;  by default, the text outside the
              editable area remains visible.  A  recursive-edit  is  performed
              and  the  original  widening  status  is then restored.  Various
              options and arguments are available when it is called as a func-

              The  options  -p  pretext and -P posttext may be used to replace
              the text before and after the display for the  duration  of  the
              function; either or both may be an empty string.

              If the option -n is also given, pretext or posttext will only be
              inserted if there is text before or  after  the  region  respec-
              tively which will be made invisible.

              Two numeric arguments may be given which will be used instead of
              the cursor and mark positions.

              The option -S statepm is used to narrow according to  the  other
              options  while  saving  the original state in the parameter with
              name statepm, while the option -R statepm is used to restore the
              state  from  the  parameter;  note in both cases the name of the
              parameter is required.  In the second case,  other  options  and
              arguments  are  irrelevant.  When this method is used, no recur-
              sive-edit is performed; the  calling  widget  should  call  this
              function with the option -S, perform its own editing on the com-
              mand line or pass control to the user via `zle  recursive-edit',
              then  call  this  function  with  the  option  -R.  The argument
              statepm must be a  suitable  name  for  an  ordinary  parameter,
              except  that  parameters  beginning  with  the  prefix _ntr_ are
              reserved for use within narrow-to-region.  Typically the parame-
              ter will be local to the calling function.

              The  options  -l  lbufvar  and -r rbufvar may be used to specify
              parameters where the widget will store the resulting  text  from
              the  operation.   The parameter lbufvar will contain LBUFFER and
              rbufvar will contain RBUFFER.  Neither of these two options  may
              be used with -S or -R.

              narrow-to-region-invisible  is  a simple widget which calls nar-
              row-to-region with arguments which replace any text outside  the
              region with `...'.  It does not take any arguments.

              The  display  is  restored (and the widget returns) upon any zle
              command which would usually cause the line  to  be  accepted  or
              aborted.  Hence an additional such command is required to accept
              or abort the current line.

              The return status of both  widgets  is  zero  if  the  line  was
              accepted, else non-zero.

              Here is a trivial example of a widget using this feature.
                     local state
                     narrow-to-region -p $'Editing restricted region\n' \
                       -P '' -S state
                     zle recursive-edit
                     narrow-to-region -R state

              This set of functions implements predictive typing using history
              search.  After predict-on, typing characters causes  the  editor
              to  look  backward  in  the history for the first line beginning
              with what you have typed so  far.   After  predict-off,  editing
              returns  to normal for the line found.  In fact, you often don't
              even need to use predict-off, because if the line doesn't  match
              something in the history, adding a key performs standard comple-
              tion, and then inserts itself  if  no  completions  were  found.
              However,  editing  in  the middle of a line is liable to confuse
              prediction; see the toggle style below.

              With the function based completion system (which is  needed  for
              this),  you  should  be  able to type TAB at almost any point to
              advance the cursor to the next ``interesting''  character  posi-
              tion  (usually  the end of the current word, but sometimes some-
              where in the middle of the word).  And of course as soon as  the
              entire  line is what you want, you can accept with return, with-
              out needing to move the cursor to the end first.

              The first time predict-on is used, it creates several additional
              widget functions:

                     Replaces  the  backward-delete-char  widget.   You do not
                     need to bind this yourself.
                     Implements predictive typing by replacing the self-insert
                     widget.  You do not need to bind this yourself.
                     Turns off predictive typing.

              Although you autoload only the predict-on function, it is neces-
              sary to create a keybinding for predict-off as well.

                     zle -N predict-on
                     zle -N predict-off
                     bindkey '^X^Z' predict-on
                     bindkey '^Z' predict-off

              This is most useful when called as a function from inside a wid-
              get,  but  will work correctly as a widget in its own right.  It
              prompts for a value below the current command line; a value  may
              be  input  using  all  of  the  standard zle operations (and not
              merely the restricted set available when executing, for example,
              execute-named-cmd).   The  value is then returned to the calling
              function in the parameter $REPLY and the editing buffer restored
              to  its  previous  state.  If the read was aborted by a keyboard
              break (typically ^G), the function returns status 1  and  $REPLY
              is not set.

              If  one  argument  is  supplied to the function it is taken as a
              prompt, otherwise `? ' is used.  If two arguments are  supplied,
              they  are the prompt and the initial value of $LBUFFER, and if a
              third argument is given it is the  initial  value  of  $RBUFFER.
              This  provides  a  default  value and starting cursor placement.
              Upon return the entire buffer is the value of $REPLY.

              One option is available: `-k num' specifies that num  characters
              are  to be read instead of a whole line.  The line editor is not
              invoked recursively in this case, so depending on  the  terminal
              settings  the  input may not be visible, and only the input keys
              are placed in $REPLY, not the entire buffer.  Note  that  unlike
              the read builtin num must be given; there is no default.

              The  name  is  a  slight  misnomer,  as  in fact the shell's own
              minibuffer is not used.  Hence it is still possible to call exe-
              cuted-named-cmd and similar functions while reading a value.

       replace-argument, replace-argument-edit
              The  function  replace-argument can be used to replace a command
              line argument in the current command line  or,  if  the  current
              command  line  is  empty, in the last command line executed (the
              new command line is not executed).  Arguments are  as  delimited
              by standard shell syntax,

              If  a  numeric argument is given, that specifies the argument to
              be replaced.  0 means the command name, as in history expansion.
              A negative numeric argument counts backward from the last word.

              If  no  numeric  argument  is  given,  the  current  argument is
              replaced; this is the last argument if the previous history line
              is being used.

              The function prompts for a replacement argument.

              If  the  widget contains the string edit, for example is defined

                     zle -N replace-argument-edit replace-argument

              then the function presents the current value of the argument for
              editing,  otherwise  the  editing  buffer for the replacement is
              initially empty.

       replace-string, replace-pattern
       replace-string-again, replace-pattern-again
              The  function  replace-string  implements  three  widgets.    If
              defined  under the same name as the function, it prompts for two
              strings; the first (source) string will be replaced by the  sec-
              ond everywhere it occurs in the line editing buffer.

              If  the  widget name contains the word `pattern', for example by
              defining the widget using the command  `zle  -N  replace-pattern
              replace-string',  then  the matching is performed using zsh pat-
              terns.  All zsh extended globbing patterns can be  used  in  the
              source  string; note that unlike filename generation the pattern
              does not need to match an entire word, nor  do  glob  qualifiers
              have  any  effect.  In addition, the replacement string can con-
              tain parameter or command substitutions.  Furthermore, a `&'  in
              the  replacement string will be replaced with the matched source
              string, and a backquoted digit `\N' will be replaced by the  Nth
              parenthesised  expression  matched.  The form `\{N}' may be used
              to protect the digit from following digits.

              If the widget instead contains the word `regex'  (or  `regexp'),
              then  the  matching  is  performed  using  regular  expressions,
              respecting the setting of  the  option  RE_MATCH_PCRE  (see  the
              description  of the function regexp-replace below).  The special
              replacement facilities described above for pattern matching  are

              By default the previous source or replacement string will not be
              offered for editing.  However, this feature can be activated  by
              setting  the style edit-previous in the context :zle:widget (for
              example, :zle:replace-string) to true.  In addition, a  positive
              numeric  argument  forces  the  previous values to be offered, a
              negative or zero argument forces them not to be.

              The function replace-string-again can be used to repeat the pre-
              vious    replacement;   no   prompting   is   done.    As   with
              replace-string, if the name of  the  widget  contains  the  word
              `pattern'  or `regex', pattern or regular expression matching is
              performed, else a literal string  replacement.   Note  that  the
              previous  source  and replacement text are the same whether pat-
              tern, regular expression or string matching is used.

              In addition, replace-string shows the previous replacement above
              the prompt, so long as there was one during the current session;
              if the source string is empty, that replacement will be repeated
              without the widget prompting for a replacement string.

              For example, starting from the line:

                     print This line contains fan and fond

              and  invoking replace-pattern with the source string `f(?)n' and
              the replacement string `c\1r' produces the not very useful line:

                     print This line contains car and cord

              The range of the replacement string can be limited by using  the
              narrow-to-region-invisible  widget.   One limitation of the cur-
              rent version is that undo will  cycle  through  changes  to  the
              replacement  and  source  strings before undoing the replacement

              This is similar to read-from-minibuffer in that it may be called
              as  a  function  from  a  widget  or as a widget of its own, and
              interactively reads input from the keyboard.  However, the input
              being  typed  is  concealed  and  a string of asterisks (`*') is
              shown instead.  The value is saved in the  parameter  $INVISIBLE
              to  which a reference is inserted into the editing buffer at the
              restored cursor position.  If the read was aborted by a keyboard
              break  (typically  ^G)  or  another  escape from editing such as
              push-line, $INVISIBLE is set to empty and the original buffer is
              restored unchanged.

              If  one  argument  is  supplied to the function it is taken as a
              prompt, otherwise `Non-echoed text: ' is used (as in emacs).  If
              a  second and third argument are supplied they are used to begin
              and end the reference to $INVISIBLE that is  inserted  into  the
              buffer.   The  default  is  to open with ${, then INVISIBLE, and
              close with }, but many other effects are possible.

              This function may replace the insert-last-word widget, like so:

                     zle -N insert-last-word smart-insert-last-word

              With a numeric argument, or when passed command  line  arguments
              in a call from another widget, it behaves like insert-last-word,
              except that words in comments are ignored when  INTERACTIVE_COM-
              MENTS is set.

              Otherwise,  the rightmost ``interesting'' word from the previous
              command is  found  and  inserted.   The  default  definition  of
              ``interesting''  is  that  the word contains at least one alpha-
              betic character, slash, or backslash.  This  definition  may  be
              overridden  by use of the match style.  The context used to look
              up the style is the widget  name,  so  usually  the  context  is
              :insert-last-word.   However, you can bind this function to dif-
              ferent widgets to use different patterns:

                     zle -N insert-last-assignment smart-insert-last-word
                     zstyle :insert-last-assignment match '[[:alpha:]][][[:alnum:]]#=*'
                     bindkey '\e=' insert-last-assignment

              If no interesting word is found and the auto-previous  style  is
              set  to  a  true  value, the search continues upward through the
              history.  When auto-previous is unset or  false  (the  default),
              the widget must be invoked repeatedly in order to search earlier
              history lines.

              Only useful with a multi-line editing buffer; the lines here are
              lines  within  the  current on-screen buffer, not history lines.
              The effect is similar to the function of the same name in Emacs.

              Transpose the current line with the previous line and  move  the
              cursor to the start of the next line.  Repeating this (which can
              be done by providing a positive numeric argument) has the effect
              of moving the line above the cursor down by a number of lines.

              With  a  negative numeric argument, requires two lines above the
              cursor.  These two lines are transposed and the cursor moved  to
              the  start  of the previous line.  Using a numeric argument less
              than -1 has the effect of moving the line above the cursor up by
              minus that number of lines.

              This  widget replaces the built-in self-insert to make it easier
              to type URLs as command line arguments.  As you type, the  input
              character  is  analyzed and, if it may need quoting, the current
              word is checked for a URI scheme.  If one is found and the  cur-
              rent  word  is  not  already  in quotes, a backslash is inserted
              before the input character.

              Styles to control quoting behavior:

                     This   style   is    looked    up    in    the    context
                     `:url-quote-magic:scheme'  (where  scheme  is that of the
                     current URL, e.g. "ftp").  The value is a string  listing
                     the  characters  to be treated as globbing metacharacters
                     when appearing in a URL using that scheme.   The  default
                     is to quote all zsh extended globbing characters, exclud-
                     ing '<' and '>' but including braces (as in brace  expan-
                     sion).  See also url-seps.

                     Like  url-metas, but lists characters that should be con-
                     sidered command separators, redirections, history  refer-
                     ences,  etc.  The default is to quote the standard set of
                     shell separators, excluding those that overlap  with  the
                     extended  globbing  characters, but including '<' and '>'
                     and the first character of $histchars.

                     This   style   is    looked    up    in    the    context
                     `:url-quote-magic'.   The  values  form a list of command
                     names that are expected to do their own globbing  on  the
                     URL  string.   This  implies that they are aliased to use
                     the `noglob' modifier.  When the first word on  the  line
                     matches  one  of the values and the URL refers to a local
                     file (see url-local-schema), only the url-seps characters
                     are  quoted;  the url-metas are left alone, allowing them
                     to affect command-line  parsing,  completion,  etc.   The
                     default  values  are  a  literal  `noglob' plus (when the
                     zsh/parameter module is available) any  commands  aliased
                     to   the   helper  function  `urlglobber'  or  its  alias

                     This style is always looked up in the context  `:urlglob-
                     ber',  even though it is used by both url-quote-magic and
                     urlglobber.  The values form a list of  URI  schema  that
                     should  be  treated  as referring to local files by their
                     real local path names, as  opposed  to  files  which  are
                     specified relative to a web-server-defined document root.
                     The defaults are "ftp" and "file".

                     Like url-local-schema, but lists  all  other  URI  schema
                     upon which urlglobber and url-quote-magic should act.  If
                     the URI on the  command  line  does  not  have  a  scheme
                     appearing  either in this list or in url-local-schema, it
                     is not magically quoted.  The default values are  "http",
                     "https",  and "ftp".  When a scheme appears both here and
                     in url-local-schema, it is quoted  differently  depending
                     on whether the command name appears in url-globbers.

              Loading url-quote-magic also defines a helper function `urlglob-
              ber' and aliases `globurl' to `noglob urlglobber'.   This  func-
              tion  takes  a  local  URL  apart, attempts to pattern-match the
              local file portion of the URL path, and then  puts  the  results
              back into URL format again.

              This  function  reads  a  movement command from the keyboard and
              then prompts for an external command. The  part  of  the  buffer
              covered  by  the  movement  is piped to the external command and
              then replaced by the command's output. If the  movement  command
              is bound to vi-pipe, the current line is used.

              The function serves as an example for reading a vi movement com-
              mand from within a user-defined widget.

              This function is a drop-in replacement for  the  builtin  widget
              which-command.   It has enhanced behaviour, in that it correctly
              detects whether or not the command word needs to be expanded  as
              an  alias; if so, it continues tracing the command word from the
              expanded alias until it reaches the command that  will  be  exe-

              The  style whence is available in the context :zle:$WIDGET; this
              may be set to an array to give the command and options that will
              be  used  to investigate the command word found.  The default is
              whence -c.

              This  function  is  useful  together  with  the  zcalc  function
              described  in  the section Mathematical Functions.  It should be
              bound to a key representing a binary operator such as `+',  `-',
              `*'  or  `/'.   When  running in zcalc, if the key occurs at the
              start of the line or immediately following an open  parenthesis,
              the text "ans " is inserted before the representation of the key
              itself.  This allows easy use of the answer  from  the  previous
              calculation in the current line.  The text to be inserted before
              the symbol  typed  can  be  modified  by  setting  the  variable

              Hence,  for  example, typing `+12' followed by return adds 12 to
              the previous result.

              If zcalc is in RPN mode (-r option) the effect of  this  binding
              is  automatically  suppressed  as  operators alone on a line are

              When not in zcalc, the key simply inserts the symbol itself.

   Utility Functions
       These functions are useful in constructing  widgets.   They  should  be
       loaded  with  `autoload  -U  function'  and  called  as  indicated from
       user-defined widgets.

              This function splits the line currently being edited into  shell
              arguments  and  whitespace.   The  result is stored in the array
              reply.  The array contains all the parts of the line  in  order,
              starting with any whitespace before the first argument, and fin-
              ishing with any whitespace after the last argument.   Hence  (so
              long as the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set) whitespace is given by
              odd indices in the array and arguments by  even  indices.   Note
              that  no  stripping  of quotes is done; joining together all the
              elements of reply in order is guaranteed to produce the original

              The  parameter  REPLY  is  set to the index of the word in reply
              which contains the character after the cursor, where  the  first
              element  has  index 1.  The parameter REPLY2 is set to the index
              of the character under the cursor in that word, where the  first
              character has index 1.

              Hence  reply,  REPLY  and REPLY2 should all be made local to the
              enclosing function.

              See the function modify-current-argument, described  below,  for
              an example of how to call this function.

       modify-current-argument [ expr-using-$ARG | func ]
              This  function provides a simple method of allowing user-defined
              widgets to modify the command line argument under the cursor (or
              immediately  to  the left of the cursor if the cursor is between

              The argument can be an expression which when evaluated  operates
              on the shell parameter ARG, which will have been set to the com-
              mand line argument under the cursor.  The expression  should  be
              suitably quoted to prevent it being evaluated too early.

              Alternatively,  if the argument does not contain the string ARG,
              it is assumed to be a shell function, to which the current  com-
              mand line argument is passed as the only argument.  The function
              should set the variable REPLY to the new value for  the  command
              line argument.  If the function returns non-zero status, so does
              the calling function.

              For example, a user-defined widget containing the following code
              converts  the  characters  in the argument under the cursor into
              all upper case:

                     modify-current-argument '${(U)ARG}'

              The following strips any quoting from the current word  (whether
              backslashes  or  one  of  the styles of quotes), and replaces it
              with single quoting throughout:

                     modify-current-argument '${(qq)${(Q)ARG}}'

              The following performs directory expansion on the  command  line
              argument and replaces it by the absolute path:

                     expand-dir() {
                     modify-current-argument expand-dir

              In  practice  the  function  expand-dir  would  probably  not be
              defined  within  the  widget  where  modify-current-argument  is

       The  behavior  of several of the above widgets can be controlled by the
       use of the zstyle mechanism.  In particular, widgets that interact with
       the  completion system pass along their context to any completions that
       they invoke.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its
              value  should  be  a pattern, and all keys matching this pattern
              will cause the widget to stop incremental completion without the
              key  having any further effect. Like all styles used directly by
              incremental-complete-word, this style is  looked  up  using  the
              context `:incremental'.

              The incremental-complete-word and insert-and-predict widgets set
              up their top-level context name before calling completion.  This
              allows  one  to define different sets of completer functions for
              normal completion and for these widgets.  For  example,  to  use
              completion,  approximation and correction for normal completion,
              completion and correction for incremental  completion  and  only
              completion for prediction one could use:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct _approximate
                     zstyle ':completion:incremental:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct
                     zstyle ':completion:predict:*' completer \

              It is a good idea to restrict the completers used in prediction,
              because they may be automatically  invoked  as  you  type.   The
              _list and _menu completers should never be used with prediction.
              The _approximate, _correct, _expand, and _match  completers  may
              be  used,  but be aware that they may change characters anywhere
              in the word behind the cursor, so you need  to  watch  carefully
              that the result is what you intended.

       cursor The  insert-and-predict  widget  uses this style, in the context
              `:predict', to decide where to place the cursor after completion
              has been tried.  Values are:

                     The cursor is left where it was when completion finished,
                     but only if it is after a character equal to the one just
                     inserted  by the user.  If it is after another character,
                     this value is the same as `key'.

              key    The cursor is left after the nth occurrence of the  char-
                     acter  just inserted, where n is the number of times that
                     character appeared in  the  word  before  completion  was
                     attempted.   In short, this has the effect of leaving the
                     cursor after the character just typed even if the comple-
                     tion  code  found out that no other characters need to be
                     inserted at that position.

              Any other value for this style unconditionally leaves the cursor
              at the position where the completion code left it.

       list   When using the incremental-complete-word widget, this style says
              if the matches should be listed on every key press (if they  fit
              on  the  screen).  Use the context prefix `:completion:incremen-

              The insert-and-predict widget uses this style to decide  if  the
              completion  should  be  shown even if there is only one possible
              completion.  This is done if the value  of  this  style  is  the
              string  always.   In  this  case  the context is `:predict' (not

       match  This style is used by smart-insert-last-word to provide  a  pat-
              tern (using full EXTENDED_GLOB syntax) that matches an interest-
              ing word.  The context is  the  name  of  the  widget  to  which
              smart-insert-last-word is bound (see above).  The default behav-
              ior of smart-insert-last-word is equivalent to:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:]/\\]*'

              However, you might want to include words that contain spaces:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:][:space:]/\\]*'

              Or include numbers as long as the word is at least  two  charac-
              ters long:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*([[:digit:]]?|[[:alpha:]/\\])*'

              The above example causes redirections like "2>" to be included.

       prompt The  incremental-complete-word  widget  shows  the value of this
              style in the status line  during  incremental  completion.   The
              string  value may contain any of the following substrings in the
              manner of the PS1 and other prompt parameters:

              %c     Replaced by the name of the completer function that  gen-
                     erated the matches (without the leading underscore).

              %l     When the list style is set, replaced by `...' if the list
                     of matches is too long to fit on the screen and  with  an
                     empty  string otherwise.  If the list style is `false' or
                     not set, `%l' is always removed.

              %n     Replaced by the number of matches generated.

              %s     Replaced by `-no match-',  `-no  prefix-',  or  an  empty
                     string if there is no completion matching the word on the
                     line, if the matches have no common prefix different from
                     the  word  on the line, or if there is such a common pre-
                     fix, respectively.

              %u     Replaced by the unambiguous part of all matches, if there
                     is any, and if it is different from the word on the line.

              Like `break-keys', this uses the `:incremental' context.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its
              value is treated similarly to the one for the  break-keys  style
              (and  uses  the same context: `:incremental').  However, in this
              case all keys matching the pattern given as its value will  stop
              incremental  completion  and will then execute their usual func-

       toggle This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related widgets
              in the context `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard `true'
              values, predictive typing is automatically toggled off in situa-
              tions  where it is unlikely to be useful, such as when editing a
              multi-line buffer or after moving into the middle of a line  and
              then  deleting  a character.  The default is to leave prediction
              turned on until an explicit call to predict-off.

              This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related widgets
              in the context `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard `true'
              values, these widgets display a message below  the  prompt  when
              the  predictive state is toggled.  This is most useful in combi-
              nation with the toggle style.   The  default  does  not  display
              these messages.

       widget This style is similar to the command style: For widget functions
              that use zle to call other widgets, this style can sometimes  be
              used  to  override  the widget which is called.  The context for
              this style is the name of the calling widget (not  the  name  of
              the  calling function, because one function may be bound to mul-
              tiple widget names).

                     zstyle :copy-earlier-word widget smart-insert-last-word

              Check the documentation for the calling widget  or  function  to
              determine whether the widget style is used.

       Two  functions are provided to enable zsh to provide exception handling
       in a form that should be familiar from other languages.

       throw exception
              The function throw throws the named exception.  The name  is  an
              arbitrary  string  and is only used by the throw and catch func-
              tions.  An exception is for the most part treated the same as  a
              shell error, i.e. an unhandled exception will cause the shell to
              abort all processing in a function or script and  to  return  to
              the top level in an interactive shell.

       catch exception-pattern
              The  function  catch  returns  status  zero  if an exception was
              thrown and the pattern exception-pattern matches its name.  Oth-
              erwise  it  returns  status  1.  exception-pattern is a standard
              shell  pattern,  respecting   the   current   setting   of   the
              EXTENDED_GLOB option.  An alias catch is also defined to prevent
              the argument to the function from matching  filenames,  so  pat-
              terns  may  be  used  unquoted.  Note that as exceptions are not
              fundamentally different from other shell errors it  is  possible
              to  catch shell errors by using an empty string as the exception
              name.  The shell variable CAUGHT is set by catch to the name  of
              the exception caught.  It is possible to rethrow an exception by
              calling the throw function again  once  an  exception  has  been

       The  functions  are  designed  to be used together with the always con-
       struct described in zshmisc(1).  This is important as  only  this  con-
       struct provides the required support for exceptions.  A typical example
       is as follows.

                # "try" block
                # ... nested code here calls "throw MyExcept"
              } always {
                # "always" block
                if catch MyExcept; then
                  print "Caught exception MyExcept"
                elif catch ''; then
                  print "Caught a shell error.  Propagating..."
                  throw ''
                # Other exceptions are not handled but may be caught further
                # up the call stack.

       If all exceptions should  be  caught,  the  following  idiom  might  be

                # ... nested code here throws an exception
              } always {
                if catch *; then
                  case $CAUGHT in
                    print "Caught my own exception"
                    print "Caught some other exception"

       In common with exception handling in other languages, the exception may
       be thrown by code deeply nested inside the `try' block.  However,  note
       that  it  must  be  thrown  inside the current shell, not in a subshell
       forked for a pipeline, parenthesised current-shell construct,  or  some
       form of command or process substitution.

       The  system  internally uses the shell variable EXCEPTION to record the
       name of the exception between throwing and catching.  One  drawback  of
       this scheme is that if the exception is not handled the variable EXCEP-
       TION remains set and may be incorrectly recognised as the  name  of  an
       exception if a shell error subsequently occurs.  Adding unset EXCEPTION
       at the start of the outermost layer of any  code  that  uses  exception
       handling will eliminate this problem.

       Three  functions  are available to provide handling of files recognised
       by extension, for example to dispatch a file text.ps when executed as a
       command to an appropriate viewer.

       zsh-mime-setup [ -fv ] [ -l [ suffix ... ] ]
       zsh-mime-handler [ -l ] command argument ...
              These   two   functions   use   the   files   ~/.mime.types  and
              /etc/mime.types, which associate types and extensions,  as  well
              as  ~/.mailcap and /etc/mailcap files, which associate types and
              the programs that handle them.  These are provided on many  sys-
              tems with the Multimedia Internet Mail Extensions.

              To  enable  the  system,  the  function zsh-mime-setup should be
              autoloaded and run.  This allows files  with  extensions  to  be
              treated  as  executable; such files be completed by the function
              completion system.  The  function  zsh-mime-handler  should  not
              need to be called by the user.

              The  system  works by setting up suffix aliases with `alias -s'.
              Suffix aliases already installed by the user will not  be  over-

              For  suffixes  defined  in  lower case, upper case variants will
              also automatically be handled (e.g. PDF is automatically handled
              if handling for the suffix pdf is defined), but not vice versa.

              Repeated  calls  to  zsh-mime-setup do not override the existing
              mapping between suffixes and executable files unless the  option
              -f  is given.  Note, however, that this does not override exist-
              ing suffix aliases assigned to handlers other than zsh-mime-han-

              Calling  zsh-mime-setup  with  the  option -l lists the existing
              mappings without altering them.  Suffixes  to  list  (which  may
              contain  pattern characters that should be quoted from immediate
              interpretation on the command line) may be given  as  additional
              arguments, otherwise all suffixes are listed.

              Calling  zsh-mime-setup with the option -v causes verbose output
              to be shown during the setup operation.

              The system respects the mailcap flags  needsterminal  and  copi-
              ousoutput, see mailcap(4).

              The  functions  use the following styles, which are defined with
              the zstyle builtin command (see zshmodules(1)).  They should  be
              defined  before  zsh-mime-setup  is  run.  The contexts used all
              start with :mime:, with additional components in some cases.  It
              is  recommended  that a trailing * (suitably quoted) be appended
              to style patterns in case the  system  is  extended  in  future.
              Some examples are given below.

              For  files  that have multiple suffixes, e.g. .pdf.gz, where the
              context includes the suffix it will be looked up  starting  with
              the  longest  possible  suffix  until  a  match for the style is
              found.  For example, if .pdf.gz produces a match  for  the  han-
              dler,  that  will be used; otherwise the handler for .gz will be
              used.  Note that, owing to the way suffix aliases  work,  it  is
              always  required that there be a handler for the shortest possi-
              ble suffix, so in this example .pdf.gz can only  be  handled  if
              .gz  is  also  handled (though not necessarily in the same way).
              Alternatively, if no handling for .gz on its own is needed, sim-
              ply adding the command

                     alias -s gz=zsh-mime-handler

              to  the  initialisation code is sufficient; .gz will not be han-
              dled on its own, but may be in combination with other suffixes.

                     If this boolean style is true, the  mailcap  handler  for
                     the  context  in  question  is run using the eval builtin
                     instead of by starting a new sh process.   This  is  more
                     efficient, but may not work in the occasional cases where
                     the mailcap handler uses strict POSIX syntax.

              disown If this boolean style is true, mailcap  handlers  started
                     in  the  background will be disowned, i.e. not subject to
                     job control  within  the  parent  shell.   Such  handlers
                     nearly  always  produce  their  own  windows, so the only
                     likely harmful side effect of setting the style  is  that
                     it becomes harder to kill jobs from within the shell.

                     This style gives a list of patterns to be matched against
                     files passed for execution with a  handler  program.   If
                     the  file matches the pattern, the entire command line is
                     executed in its current form, with no handler.   This  is
                     useful  for  files which might have suffixes but nonethe-
                     less be executable in their own right.  If the  style  is
                     not  set, the pattern *(*) *(/) is used; hence executable
                     files are executed directly and not passed to a  handler,
                     and  the option AUTO_CD may be used to change to directo-
                     ries that happen to have MIME suffixes.

                     This style is useful in combination  with  execute-as-is.
                     It  is  set to an array of patterns corresponding to full
                     paths to files that  should  never  be  treated  as  exe-
                     cutable,  even  if  the  file  passed to the MIME handler
                     matches execute-as-is.  This is useful for  file  systems
                     that don't handle execute permission or that contain exe-
                     cutables from another operating system.  For example,  if
                     /mnt/windows is a Windows mount, then

                            zstyle ':mime:*' execute-never '/mnt/windows/*'

                     will  ensure  that  any  files found in that area will be
                     executed as MIME types even if they are  executable.   As
                     this  example  shows,  the  complete file name is matched
                     against the pattern,  regardless  of  how  the  file  was
                     passed  to  the  handler.  The file is resolved to a full
                     path using the :P modifier described  in  the  subsection
                     Modifiers  in  zshexpn(1); this means that symbolic links
                     are resolved where possible, so  that  links  into  other
                     file systems behave in the correct fashion.

                     Used  if the style find-file-in-path is true for the same
                     context.  Set to an array of directories  that  are  used
                     for  searching for the file to be handled; the default is
                     the command path given by  the  special  parameter  path.
                     The  shell option PATH_DIRS is respected; if that is set,
                     the appropriate path will be searched even if the name of
                     the  file to be handled as it appears on the command line
                     contains a `/'.  The full context is  :mime:.suffix:,  as
                     described for the style handler.

                     If  set, allows files whose names do not contain absolute
                     paths to be searched for in the command path or the  path
                     specified  by  the  file-path  style.  If the file is not
                     found in the path, it is looked for locally  (whether  or
                     not  the  current directory is in the path); if it is not
                     found locally, the handler will  abort  unless  the  han-
                     dle-nonexistent  style  is  set.  Files found in the path
                     are tested as described for the style execute-as-is.  The
                     full  context  is  :mime:.suffix:,  as  described for the
                     style handler.

              flags  Defines flags to go with a handler; the context is as for
                     the  handler style, and the format is as for the flags in

                     By default, arguments that don't correspond to files  are
                     not  passed  to  the  MIME handler in order to prevent it
                     from intercepting commands found in the path that  happen
                     to  have  suffixes.  This style may be set to an array of
                     extended glob patterns for arguments that will be  passed
                     to  the  handler  even if they don't exist.  If it is not
                     explicitly  set  it  defaults  to  [[:alpha:]]#:/*  which
                     allows  URLs to be passed to the MIME handler even though
                     they don't exist in that format in the file system.   The
                     full  context  is  :mime:.suffix:,  as  described for the
                     style handler.

                     Specifies a handler for a suffix; the suffix is given  by
                     the context as :mime:.suffix:, and the format of the han-
                     dler is exactly that in mailcap.  Note in particular  the
                     `.'  and  trailing  colon  to distinguish this use of the
                     context.  This overrides any  handler  specified  by  the
                     mailcap  files.   If the handler requires a terminal, the
                     flags style should be set to include the word needstermi-
                     nal,  or if the output is to be displayed through a pager
                     (but not if the handler is itself  a  pager),  it  should
                     include copiousoutput.

                     A   list  of  files  in  the  format  of  ~/.mailcap  and
                     /etc/mailcap to  be  read  during  setup,  replacing  the
                     default list which consists of those two files.  The con-
                     text is :mime:.  A + in the list will be replaced by  the
                     default files.

                     This  style  is  used to resolve multiple mailcap entries
                     for the same MIME type.  It consists of an array  of  the
                     following  elements,  in  descending  order  of priority;
                     later entries will be used if earlier entries are  unable
                     to  resolve  the  entries being compared.  If none of the
                     tests resolve the entries, the first entry encountered is

                     files  The  order of files (entries in the mailcap style)
                            read.  Earlier files are  preferred.   (Note  this
                            does not resolve entries in the same file.)

                            The  priority  flag  from  the mailcap entry.  The
                            priority is an  integer  from  0  to  9  with  the
                            default value being 5.

                     flags  The test given by the mailcap-prio-flags option is
                            used to resolve entries.

                     place  Later entries are preferred; as  the  entries  are
                            strictly ordered, this test always succeeds.

                     Note that as this style is handled during initialisation,
                     the context is always :mime:, with no  discrimination  by

                     This  style is used when the keyword flags is encountered
                     in the list of tests specified by the  mailcap-priorities
                     style.   It  should be set to a list of patterns, each of
                     which is tested against the flags specified in the  mail-
                     cap  entry (in other words, the sets of assignments found
                     with some entries in the mailcap file).  Earlier patterns
                     in the list are preferred to later ones, and matched pat-
                     terns are preferred to unmatched ones.

                     A list of  files  in  the  format  of  ~/.mime.types  and
                     /etc/mime.types  to  be  read during setup, replacing the
                     default list which consists of those two files.  The con-
                     text  is :mime:.  A + in the list will be replaced by the
                     default files.

                     If this boolean style is set, the handler for  the  given
                     context  is  always  run  in  the foreground, even if the
                     flags provided in the mailcap entry suggest it  need  not
                     be (for example, it doesn't require a terminal).

              pager  If  set, will be used instead of $PAGER or more to handle
                     suffixes where the copiousoutput flag is set.   The  con-
                     text  is as for handler, i.e. :mime:.suffix: for handling
                     a file with the given suffix.


                     zstyle ':mime:*' mailcap ~/.mailcap /usr/local/etc/mailcap
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' handler less %s
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' flags needsterminal

              When zsh-mime-setup is subsequently run, it will look for  mail-
              cap  entries  in the two files given.  Files of suffix .txt will
              be handled by running `less file.txt'.  The  flag  needsterminal
              is  set  to show that this program must run attached to a termi-

              As there are several steps to dispatching a command, the follow-
              ing  should be checked if attempting to execute a file by exten-
              sion .ext does not have the expected effect.

              The command `alias -s ext'  should  show  `ps=zsh-mime-handler'.
              If  it  shows  something  else, another suffix alias was already
              installed and was not overwritten.  If it shows nothing, no han-
              dler  was installed:  this is most likely because no handler was
              found in the .mime.types and mailcap combination for .ext files.
              In   that   case,   appropriate  handling  should  be  added  to
              ~/.mime.types and mailcap.

              If the extension is handled by zsh-mime-handler but the file  is
              not opened correctly, either the handler defined for the type is
              incorrect, or the flags associated with it are  in  appropriate.
              Running  zsh-mime-setup  -l  will show the handler and, if there
              are any, the flags.  A %s in the handler is replaced by the file
              (suitably  quoted if necessary).  Check that the handler program
              listed lists and can be run in the way shown.  Also  check  that
              the  flags needsterminal or copiousoutput are set if the handler
              needs to be run under a terminal; the second flag is used if the
              output  should  be  sent  to  a pager.  An example of a suitable
              mailcap entry for such a program is:

                     text/html; /usr/bin/lynx '%s'; needsterminal

              Running `zsh-mime-handler -l command line'  prints  the  command
              line  that would be executed, simplified to remove the effect of
              any flags, and quoted so that the output can be run  as  a  com-
              plete  zsh  command line.  This is used by the completion system
              to decide how to complete after a file handled by  zsh-mime-set-

              This  function is separate from the two MIME functions described
              above and can be assigned directly to a suffix:

                     autoload -U pick-web-browser
                     alias -s html=pick-web-browser

              It is provided as an intelligent front end  to  dispatch  a  web
              browser.   It may be run as either a function or a shell script.
              The status 255 is returned if no browser could be started.

              Various  styles  are  available  to  customize  the  choice   of

                     The  value of the style is an array giving preferences in
                     decreasing order for the type of  browser  to  use.   The
                     values of elements may be

                            Use  a GUI browser that is already running when an
                            X  Window  display  is  available.   The  browsers
                            listed  in the x-browsers style are tried in order
                            until one is found; if it is,  the  file  will  be
                            displayed in that browser, so the user may need to
                            check whether it  has  appeared.   If  no  running
                            browser  is  found,  one is not started.  Browsers
                            other  than  Firefox,  Opera  and  Konqueror   are
                            assumed to understand the Mozilla syntax for open-
                            ing a URL remotely.

                     x      Start a new GUI browser when an X  Window  display
                            is  available.  Search for the availability of one
                            of the browsers listed in the x-browsers style and
                            start  the  first  one that is found.  No check is
                            made for an already running browser.

                     tty    Start a terminal-based browser.   Search  for  the
                            availability  of one of the browsers listed in the
                            tty-browsers style and start the first one that is

                     If  the  style  is  not  set the default running x tty is

                     An array in decreasing order of preference of browsers to
                     use  when  running  under the X Window System.  The array
                     consists of the command name under  which  to  start  the
                     browser.  They are looked up in the context :mime: (which
                     may be extended in future, so  appending  `*'  is  recom-
                     mended).  For example,

                            zstyle ':mime:*' x-browsers opera konqueror firefox

                     specifies  that  pick-web-browser should first look for a
                     running instance of Opera, Konqueror or Firefox, in  that
                     order,  and  if  it  fails  to find any should attempt to
                     start Opera.  The default  is  firefox  mozilla  netscape
                     opera konqueror.

                     An  array  similar  to  x-browsers,  except that it gives
                     browsers to use when no X Window  display  is  available.
                     The default is elinks links lynx.

                     If  it is set this style is used to pick the command used
                     to  open  a  page  for  a  browser.    The   context   is
                     :mime:browser:new:$browser:  to  start  a  new browser or
                     :mime:browser:running:$browser:  to  open  a  URL  in   a
                     browser  already  running on the current X display, where
                     $browser is  the  value  matched  in  the  x-browsers  or
                     tty-browsers  style.   The  escape  sequence  %b  in  the
                     style's value will be replaced by the browser,  while  %u
                     will  be  replaced  by the URL.  If the style is not set,
                     the default for all new instances is equivalent to %b  %u
                     and  the  defaults for using running browsers are equiva-
                     lent to the values kfmclient openURL  %u  for  Konqueror,
                     firefox  -new-tab  %u  for Firefox, opera -newpage %u for
                     Opera, and %b -remote "openUrl(%u)" for all others.

       zcalc [ -erf ] [ expression ... ]
              A reasonably powerful calculator based on zsh's arithmetic eval-
              uation  facility.   The syntax is similar to that of formulae in
              most programming languages; see the section `Arithmetic  Evalua-
              tion' in zshmisc(1) for details.

              Non-programmers  should  note that, as in many other programming
              languages, expressions involving  only  integers  (whether  con-
              stants  without  a  `.',  variables containing such constants as
              strings, or variables declared to be integers)  are  by  default
              evaluated using integer arithmetic, which is not how an ordinary
              desk calculator operates.  To force  floating  point  operation,
              pass the option -f; see further notes below.

              If  the  file  ~/.zcalcrc  exists  it will be sourced inside the
              function once it is set up and  about  to  process  the  command
              line.  This can be used, for example, to set shell options; emu-
              late -L zsh and setopt extendedglob are in effect at this point.
              Any failure to source the file if it exists is treated as fatal.
              As with other initialisation files, the  directory  $ZDOTDIR  is
              used instead of $HOME if it is set.

              The  mathematical  library  zsh/mathfunc will be loaded if it is
              available; see the section `The zsh/mathfunc Module' in  zshmod-
              ules(1).   The mathematical functions correspond to the raw sys-
              tem libraries, so trigonometric functions  are  evaluated  using
              radians, and so on.

              Each line typed is evaluated as an expression.  The prompt shows
              a number, which corresponds to a positional parameter where  the
              result  of  that calculation is stored.  For example, the result
              of the calculation on the line preceded by `4> ' is available as
              $4.   The  last value calculated is available as ans.  Full com-
              mand line editing, including the history  of  previous  calcula-
              tions,   is   available;  the  history  is  saved  in  the  file
              ~/.zcalc_history.  To exit, enter a blank line or type  `:q'  on
              its own (`q' is allowed for historical compatibility).

              A  line  ending  with  a single backslash is treated in the same
              fashion as it is in command  line  editing:   the  backslash  is
              removed, the function prompts for more input (the prompt is pre-
              ceded by `...' to indicate this), and  the  lines  are  combined
              into  one to get the final result.  In addition, if the input so
              far contains more open than close parentheses zcalc will  prompt
              for more input.

              If  arguments  are  given to zcalc on start up, they are used to
              prime the first few positional parameters.  A visual  indication
              of this is given when the calculator starts.

              The  constants  PI (3.14159...) and E (2.71828...) are provided.
              Parameter assignment is possible, but note that  all  parameters
              will  be put into the global namespace unless the :local special
              command is used.  The function  creates  local  variables  whose
              names  start  with _, so users should avoid doing so.  The vari-
              ables ans (the last answer) and stack (the stack  in  RPN  mode)
              may  be  referred to directly; stack is an array but elements of
              it are  numeric.   Various  other  special  variables  are  used
              locally  with  their  standard meaning, for example compcontext,
              match, mbegin, mend, psvar.

              The output  base  can  be  initialised  by  passing  the  option
              `-#base',  for  example  `zcalc  -#16'  (the  `#' may have to be
              quoted, depending on the globbing options set).

              If the option `-e' is set, the function runs  non-interactively:
              the  arguments  are treated as expressions to be evaluated as if
              entered interactively line by line.

              If the option `-f' is set, all numbers are treated  as  floating
              point,  hence for example the expression `3/4' evaluates to 0.75
              rather than 0.  Options must appear in separate words.

              If the option `-r' is set, RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) mode is
              entered.  This has various additional properties:
              Stack  Evaluated  values are maintained in a stack; this is con-
                     tained in an array named stack with the most recent value
                     in ${stack[1]}.

              Operators and functions
                     If  the line entered matches an operator (+, -, *, /, **,
                     ^, | or &) or a function  supplied  by  the  zsh/mathfunc
                     library,  the bottom element or elements of the stack are
                     popped to use as the argument or arguments.   The  higher
                     elements  of  stack  (least  recent)  are used as earlier
                     arguments.  The result is then pushed into ${stack[1]}.

                     Other expressions are evaluated  normally,  printed,  and
                     added  to the stack as numeric values.  The syntax within
                     expressions on a single line is normal  shell  arithmetic
                     (not RPN).

              Stack listing
                     If  an  integer follows the option -r with no space, then
                     on every evaluation that  many  elements  of  the  stack,
                     where  available,  are  printed  instead of just the most
                     recent result.   Hence,  for  example,  zcalc  -r4  shows
                     $stack[4] to $stack[1] each time results are printed.

              Duplication: =
                     The  pseudo-operator  = causes the most recent element of
                     the stack to be duplicated onto the stack.

              pop    The pseudo-function pop causes the most recent element of
                     the  stack  to  be popped.  A `>' on its own has the same

              >ident The expression > followed (with  no  space)  by  a  shell
                     identifier causes the most recent element of the stack to
                     be popped and assigned to the variable  with  that  name.
                     The variable is local to the zcalc function.

              <ident The  expression  <  followed  (with  no space) by a shell
                     identifier causes the value of  the  variable  with  that
                     name  to be pushed onto the stack.  ident may be an inte-
                     ger, in which case the previous result with  that  number
                     (as  shown  before the > in the standard zcalc prompt) is
                     put on the stack.

              Exchange: xy
                     The pseudo-function xy causes the most  recent  two  ele-
                     ments  of  the  stack to be exchanged.  `<>' has the same

              The prompt is configurable via the parameter ZCALCPROMPT,  which
              undergoes  standard  prompt expansion.  The index of the current
              entry is stored locally in the first element of the array psvar,
              which  can  be referred to in ZCALCPROMPT as `%1v'.  The default
              prompt is `%1v> '.

              The variable ZCALC_ACTIVE is set within the function and can  be
              tested  by nested functions; it has the value rpn if RPN mode is
              active, else 1.

              A few special commands are available; these are introduced by  a
              colon.  For backward compatibility, the colon may be omitted for
              certain commands.  Completion is available if compinit has  been

              The  output  precision  may be specified within zcalc by special
              commands familiar from many calculators.
              :norm  The default output format.  It corresponds to the  printf
                     %g  specification.  Typically this shows six decimal dig-

              :sci digits
                     Scientific notation, corresponding to the printf %g  out-
                     put format with the precision given by digits.  This pro-
                     duces either fixed point or exponential notation  depend-
                     ing on the value output.

              :fix digits
                     Fixed point notation, corresponding to the printf %f out-
                     put format with the precision given by digits.

              :eng digits
                     Exponential notation, corresponding to the printf %E out-
                     put format with the precision given by digits.

              :raw   Raw  output:  this is the default form of the output from
                     a math evaluation.  This may show more precision than the
                     number actually possesses.

              Other special commands:
                     Execute  line...  as  a  normal shell command line.  Note
                     that it is executed in the context of the function,  i.e.
                     with local variables.  Space is optional after :!.

              :local arg ...
                     Declare variables local to the function.  Other variables
                     may be used, too, but they will be taken from or put into
                     the global scope.

              :function name [ body ]
                     Define  a  mathematical function or (with no body) delete
                     it.  :function may be abbreviated to :func or simply  :f.
                     The name may contain the same characters as a shell func-
                     tion name.  The function is defined  using  zmathfuncdef,
                     see below.

                     Note  that  zcalc  takes  care of all quoting.  Hence for

                            :f cube $1 * $1 * $1

                     defines a function to cube the sole argument.   Functions
                     so  defined,  or indeed any functions defined directly or
                     indirectly using functions -M, are available  to  execute
                     by  typing  only  the  name on the line in RPN mode; this
                     pops the appropriate number of arguments off the stack to
                     pass  to  the function, i.e. 1 in the case of the example
                     cube function.  If there are optional arguments only  the
                     mandatory arguments are supplied by this means.

                     This  is  not  a  special  command, rather part of normal
                     arithmetic syntax; however, when this form appears  on  a
                     line  by  itself the default output radix is set to base.
                     Use, for example, `[#16]' to display  hexadecimal  output
                     preceded  by  an indication of the base, or `[##16]' just
                     to display the raw number in the given base.  Bases them-
                     selves  are  always  specified in decimal. `[#]' restores
                     the normal output format.  Note that  setting  an  output
                     base  suppresses  floating  point  output;  use  `[#]' to
                     return to normal operation.

              $var   Print out the value of var literally; does not affect the
                     calculation.   To  use the value of var, omit the leading

              See the comments in the function for a few extra tips.

       min(arg, ...)
       max(arg, ...)
       sum(arg, ...)
              The function zmathfunc defines the three mathematical  functions
              min,  max,  and sum.  The functions min and max take one or more
              arguments.  The function  sum  takes  zero  or  more  arguments.
              Arguments can be of different types (ints and floats).

              Not  to  be  confused with the zsh/mathfunc module, described in
              the section `The zsh/mathfunc Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zmathfuncdef [ mathfunc [ body ] ]
              A convenient front end to functions -M.

              With two arguments, define a mathematical function  named  math-
              func  which  can  be  used in any form of arithmetic evaluation.
              body is a mathematical expression to implement the function.  It
              may  contain  references  to position parameters $1, $2, ...  to
              refer to mandatory parameters and ${1:-defvalue} ...   to  refer
              to  optional  parameters.   Note that the forms must be strictly
              adhered to for the function to calculate the correct  number  of
              arguments.  The implementation is held in a shell function named
              zsh_math_func_mathfunc; usually the user will not need to  refer
              to  the  shell  function directly.  Any existing function of the
              same name is silently replaced.

              With one argument, remove the mathematical function mathfunc  as
              well as the shell function implementation.

              With  no  arguments, list all mathfunc functions in a form suit-
              able for restoring the definition.  The functions have not  nec-
              essarily been defined by zmathfuncdef.

       The  zsh/newuser  module  comes  with  a function to aid in configuring
       shell options for new users.  If the module is installed, this function
       can  also be run by hand.  It is available even if the module's default
       behaviour, namely running the function for a new user logging in  with-
       out startup files, is inhibited.

       zsh-newuser-install [ -f ]
              The  function  presents  the  user with various options for cus-
              tomizing their initialization scripts.  Currently only  ~/.zshrc
              is  handled.   $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc  is used instead if the parameter
              ZDOTDIR is set; this provides a way for the user to configure  a
              file without altering an existing .zshrc.

              By default the function exits immediately if it finds any of the
              files .zshenv, .zprofile, .zshrc, or .zlogin in the  appropriate
              directory.   The  option  -f  is  required in order to force the
              function to continue.  Note  this  may  happen  even  if  .zshrc
              itself does not exist.

              As  currently  configured, the function will exit immediately if
              the user has root privileges; this behaviour cannot be  overrid-

              Once  activated,  the  function's  behaviour  is  supposed to be
              self-explanatory.  Menus are present allowing the user to  alter
              the  value  of options and parameters.  Suggestions for improve-
              ments are always welcome.

              When the script exits, the user is given the opportunity to save
              the  new  file  or  not; changes are not irreversible until this
              point.  However, the script is careful to  restrict  changes  to
              the file only to a group marked by the lines `# Lines configured
              by zsh-newuser-install'  and  `#  End  of  lines  configured  by
              zsh-newuser-install'.  In addition, the old version of .zshrc is
              saved to a file with the suffix .zni appended.

              If the function edits an existing .zshrc, it is up to  the  user
              to  ensure that the changes made will take effect.  For example,
              if control usually returns early from the  existing  .zshrc  the
              lines  will  not be executed; or a later initialization file may
              override options or parameters, and so on.  The function  itself
              does not attempt to detect any such conflicts.

       There  are  a  large  number of helpful functions in the Functions/Misc
       directory of the zsh distribution.  Most are very  simple  and  do  not
       require documentation here, but a few are worthy of special mention.

       colors This  function  initializes  several  associative  arrays to map
              color names to (and from) the ANSI standard eight-color terminal
              codes.   These  are used by the prompt theme system (see above).
              You seldom should need to run colors more than once.

              The eight base colors are:  black,  red,  green,  yellow,  blue,
              magenta,  cyan,  and  white.   Each of these has codes for fore-
              ground and background.  In addition there  are  seven  intensity
              attributes:  bold,  faint,  standout, underline, blink, reverse,
              and conceal.  Finally, there are  seven  codes  used  to  negate
              attributes:  none (reset all attributes to the defaults), normal
              (neither bold nor faint), no-standout,  no-underline,  no-blink,
              no-reverse, and no-conceal.

              Some  terminals  do  not  support all combinations of colors and

              The associative arrays are:

              colour Map all the color names to their integer codes, and inte-
                     ger  codes  to the color names.  The eight base names map
                     to the foreground color codes, as do names prefixed  with
                     `fg-', such as `fg-red'.  Names prefixed with `bg-', such
                     as `bg-blue', refer to the background codes.  The reverse
                     mapping  from  code  to  color yields base name for fore-
                     ground codes and the bg- form for backgrounds.

                     Although it is a misnomer to call  them  `colors',  these
                     arrays  also map the other fourteen attributes from names
                     to codes and codes to names.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI  terminal  escape
                     sequences  that  set  the  corresponding  foreground text
                     properties.  The fg sequences change  the  color  without
                     changing the eight intensity attributes.

                     Map  the  eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape
                     sequences that set the corresponding  background  proper-
                     ties.  The bg sequences change the color without changing
                     the eight intensity attributes.

              In addition, the scalar parameters  reset_color  and  bold_color
              are  set  to  the  ANSI  terminal  escapes  that  turn  off  all
              attributes and turn on bold intensity, respectively.

       fned [ -x num ] name
              Same as zed -f.  This function does not appear in the  zsh  dis-
              tribution, but can be created by linking zed to the name fned in
              some directory in your fpath.

       is-at-least needed [ present ]
              Perform a greater-than-or-equal-to  comparison  of  two  strings
              having  the format of a zsh version number; that is, a string of
              numbers and text with segments separated by dots or dashes.   If
              the  present string is not provided, $ZSH_VERSION is used.  Seg-
              ments are paired left-to-right in the two strings  with  leading
              non-number parts ignored.  If one string has fewer segments than
              the other, the missing segments are considered zero.

              This is useful in startup files to set options and  other  state
              that are not available in all versions of zsh.

                     is-at-least 3.1.6-15 && setopt NO_GLOBAL_RCS
                     is-at-least 3.1.0 && setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
                     is-at-least 2.6-17 || print "You can't use is-at-least here."

       nslookup [ arg ... ]
              This  wrapper  function  for  the  nslookup command requires the
              zsh/zpty module (see zshmodules(1)).  It  behaves  exactly  like
              the  standard  nslookup  except  that  it  provides customizable
              prompts  (including  a  right-side  prompt)  and  completion  of
              nslookup  commands,  host  names,  etc.  (if  you  use the func-
              tion-based completion system).  Completion  styles  may  be  set
              with the context prefix `:completion:nslookup'.

              See also the pager, prompt and rprompt styles below.

       regexp-replace var regexp replace
              Use  regular  expressions to perform a global search and replace
              operation on a variable.  POSIX extended regular expressions are
              used,  unless  the  option  RE_MATCH_PCRE has been set, in which
              case Perl-compatible regular expressions are used (this requires
              the shell to be linked against the pcre library).

              var  is  the  name  of  the variable containing the string to be
              matched.  The variable will be modified directly  by  the  func-
              tion.   The  variables  MATCH, MBEGIN, MEND, match, mbegin, mend
              should be avoided as these are used by  the  regular  expression

              regexp is the regular expression to match against the string.

              replace  is  the  replacement text.  This can contain parameter,
              command and arithmetic expressions which will be  replaced:   in
              particular,  a  reference to $MATCH will be replaced by the text
              matched by the pattern.

              The return status is 0 if at least one match was performed, else

       run-help cmd
              This function is designed to be invoked by the run-help ZLE wid-
              get, in place of the  default  alias.   See  `Accessing  On-Line
              Help' above for setup instructions.

              In  the  discussion which follows, if cmd is a file system path,
              it is first reduced to its rightmost component (the file name).

              Help is first sought by looking for a  file  named  cmd  in  the
              directory  named by the HELPDIR parameter.  If no file is found,
              an assistant function, alias, or command named  run-help-cmd  is
              sought.   If  found,  the assistant is executed with the rest of
              the current command line (everything after the command name cmd)
              as its arguments.  When neither file nor assistant is found, the
              external command `man cmd' is run.

              An example assistant for the "ssh" command:

                     run-help-ssh() {
                         emulate -LR zsh
                         local -a args
                         # Delete the "-l username" option
                         zparseopts -D -E -a args l:
                         # Delete other options, leaving: host command
                         if [[ ${#args} -lt 2 ]]; then
                             man ssh
                             run-help $args[2]

              Several of these assistants are provided in  the  Functions/Misc
              directory.   These  must  be autoloaded, or placed as executable
              scripts in your search path, in order to be found  and  used  by

                     Assistant  functions  for the git, ip, openssl, p4, sudo,
                     svk, and svn, commands.

       tetris Zsh was once accused of not being as complete as Emacs,  because
              it  lacked  a  Tetris game.  This function was written to refute
              this vicious slander.

              This function must be used as a ZLE widget:

                     autoload -U tetris
                     zle -N tetris
                     bindkey keys tetris

              To start a game, execute the widget by typing the  keys.   What-
              ever  command  line you were editing disappears temporarily, and
              your keymap is also temporarily replaced by the  Tetris  control
              keys.   The  previous editor state is restored when you quit the
              game (by pressing `q') or when you lose.

              If you quit in the middle of a game, the next invocation of  the
              tetris widget will continue where you left off.  If you lost, it
              will start a new game.

              This is a port of the above to zcurses.  The input  handling  is
              improved a bit so that moving a block sideways doesn't automati-
              cally advance a timestep, and the  graphics  use  unicode  block

              This  version  does not save the game state between invocations,
              and is not invoked as a widget, but rather as:

                     autoload -U tetriscurses

       zargs [ option ... -- ] [ input ... ] [ -- command [ arg ... ] ]
              This function has a similar purpose to GNU  xargs.   Instead  of
              reading  lines  of  arguments  from the standard input, it takes
              them from the command line.  This is useful because  zsh,  espe-
              cially with recursive glob operators, often can construct a com-
              mand line for a shell  function  that  is  longer  than  can  be
              accepted by an external command.

              The  option list represents options of the zargs command itself,
              which are the same as those of xargs.  The  input  list  is  the
              collection  of  strings (often file names) that become the argu-
              ments of the command, analogous to the standard input of  xargs.
              Finally,  the  arg  list  consists  of  those arguments (usually
              options) that are passed to the command each time it runs.   The
              arg  list precedes the elements from the input list in each run.
              If no command is provided, then no arg list may be provided, and
              in  that event the default command is `print' with arguments `-r

              For example, to get a long ls listing of  all  non-hidden  plain
              files in the current directory or its subdirectories:

                     autoload -U zargs
                     zargs -- **/*(.) -- ls -ld --

              The first and third occurrences of `--' are used to mark the end
              of options for zargs and ls respectively to guard against  file-
              names  starting  with  `-', while the second is used to separate
              the list of files from the command to run (`ls -ld --').

              The first `--' would also be needed if there was  a  chance  the
              list might be empty as in:

                     zargs -r -- ./*.back(#qN) -- rm -f

              In  the event that the string `--' is or may be an input, the -e
              option may be used to change  the  end-of-inputs  marker.   Note
              that  this does not change the end-of-options marker.  For exam-
              ple, to use `..' as the marker:

                     zargs -e.. -- **/*(.) .. ls -ld --

              This is a good choice in that example because no plain file  can
              be  named  `..',  but the best end-marker depends on the circum-

              The options -i, -I, -l, -L, and -n differ  slightly  from  their
              usage in xargs.  There are no input lines for zargs to count, so
              -l and -L count through the input list, and -n counts the number
              of  arguments passed to each execution of command, including any
              arg list.  Also, any time -i or -I is used, each input  is  pro-
              cessed separately as if by `-L 1'.

              For  details  of the other zargs options, see xargs(1) (but note
              the difference in function between zargs and xargs) or run zargs
              with the --help option.

       zed [ -f [ -x num ] ] name
       zed -b This function uses the ZLE editor to edit a file or function.

              Only  one  name argument is allowed.  If the -f option is given,
              the name is taken to be that of a function; if the  function  is
              marked  for  autoloading,  zed  searches for it in the fpath and
              loads it.  Note that functions edited  this  way  are  installed
              into  the  current  shell,  but not written back to the autoload
              file.  In this case the -x option specifies  that  leading  tabs
              indenting  the  function according to syntax should be converted
              into the given number of spaces; `-x 2' is consistent  with  the
              layout of functions distributed with the shell.

              Without  -f,  name  is  the path name of the file to edit, which
              need not exist; it is created on write, if necessary.

              While editing, the function sets the main keymap to zed and  the
              vi  command  keymap to zed-vicmd.  These will be copied from the
              existing main and vicmd keymaps if they do not exist  the  first
              time  zed is run.  They can be used to provide special key bind-
              ings used only in zed.

              If it creates the keymap, zed rebinds the return key to insert a
              line  break and `^X^W' to accept the edit in the zed keymap, and
              binds `ZZ' to accept the edit in the zed-vicmd keymap.

              The bindings alone can be installed by running `zed  -b'.   This
              is  suitable  for  putting  into  a startup file.  Note that, if
              rerun, this  will  overwrite  the  existing  zed  and  zed-vicmd

              Completion  is available, and styles may be set with the context
              prefix `:completion:zed'.

              A zle widget zed-set-file-name is available.  This can be called
              by  name  from  within  zed using `\ex zed-set-file-name' (note,
              however, that because of zed's rebindings you will have to  type
              ^j  at  the end instead of the return key), or can be bound to a
              key in either of the zed or zed-vicmd keymaps after `zed -b' has
              been  run.  When the widget is called, it prompts for a new name
              for the file being edited.  When zed  exits  the  file  will  be
              written  under  that  name  and  the  original file will be left
              alone.  The widget has no effect with `zed -f'.

              While zed-set-file-name is running, zed uses the keymap zed-nor-
              mal-keymap,  which  is  linked from the main keymap in effect at
              the time zed initialised its bindings.  (This  is  to  make  the
              return  key  operate  normally.)  The result is that if the main
              keymap has been changed, the widget won't notice.  This is not a
              concern for most users.

       zcp [ -finqQvwW ] srcpat dest
       zln [ -finqQsvwW ] srcpat dest
              Same as zmv -C and zmv -L, respectively.  These functions do not
              appear in the zsh distribution, but can be  created  by  linking
              zmv to the names zcp and zln in some directory in your fpath.

       zkbd   See `Keyboard Definition' above.

       zmv [ -finqQsvwW ] [ -C | -L | -M | -{p|P} program ] [ -o optstring ]
           srcpat dest
              Move (usually, rename) files matching the pattern srcpat to cor-
              responding files having names of the form given by  dest,  where
              srcpat  contains  parentheses surrounding patterns which will be
              replaced in turn by $1, $2, ... in dest.  For example,

                     zmv '(*).lis' '$1.txt'

              renames   `foo.lis'   to   `foo.txt',   `my.old.stuff.lis'    to
              `my.old.stuff.txt', and so on.

              The  pattern is always treated as an EXTENDED_GLOB pattern.  Any
              file whose name is not changed by  the  substitution  is  simply
              ignored.  Any error (a substitution resulted in an empty string,
              two substitutions gave the same result, the destination  was  an
              existing  regular  file  and -f was not given) causes the entire
              function to abort without doing anything.

              In addition to pattern  replacement,  the  variable  $f  can  be
              referrred  to  in the second (replacement) argument.  This makes
              it possible to use variable substitution to alter the  argument;
              see examples below.


              -f     Force  overwriting  of  destination files.  Not currently
                     passed down to the mv/cp/ln command due  to  vagaries  of
                     implementations (but you can use -o-f to do that).
              -i     Interactive:  show  each  line to be executed and ask the
                     user whether to execute it.  `Y' or `y' will execute  it,
                     anything  else  will skip it.  Note that you just need to
                     type one character.
              -n     No execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.
              -q     Turn bare glob qualifiers off: now assumed by default, so
                     this has no effect.
              -Q     Force bare glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless
                     you are actually using glob qualifiers in a pattern.
              -s     Symbolic, passed down to ln; only works with -L.
              -v     Verbose: print each command as it's being executed.
              -w     Pick out wildcard parts  of  the  pattern,  as  described
                     above,  and  implicitly  add parentheses for referring to
              -W     Just like -w, with the addition of turning  wildcards  in
                     the replacement pattern into sequential ${1} .. ${N} ref-
              -M     Force cp, ln or mv, respectively, regardless of the  name
                     of the function.
              -p program
                     Call  program instead of cp, ln or mv.  Whatever it does,
                     it should at least understand the form `program  --  old-
                     name  newname'  where  oldname  and newname are filenames
                     generated by zmv.  program will be split into  words,  so
                     might  be e.g. the name of an archive tool plus a copy or
                     rename subcommand.
              -P program
                     As -p program, except that program does not accept a fol-
                     lowing  --  to indicate the end of options.  In this case
                     filenames must already be in a sane form for the  program
                     in question.
              -o optstring
                     The  optstring is split into words and passed down verba-
                     tim to the cp, ln or mv command  called  to  perform  the
                     work.  It should probably begin with a `-'.

              Further examples:

                     zmv -v '(* *)' '${1// /_}'

              For any file in the current directory with at least one space in
              the name, replace every space by an underscore and  display  the
              commands executed.

                     zmv -v '* *' '${f// /_}'

              This  does exactly the same by referring to the file name stored
              in $f.

              For more complete examples and other implementation details, see
              the  zmv  source file, usually located in one of the directories
              named in your fpath, or in Functions/Misc/zmv in the zsh distri-

              See `Recompiling Functions' above.

       zstyle+ context style value [ + subcontext style value ... ]
              This  makes  defining styles a bit simpler by using a single `+'
              as a special token that allows you to append a context  name  to
              the previously used context name.  Like this:

                     zstyle+ ':foo:bar' style1 value1 \
                            +':baz'     style2 value2 \
                            +':frob'    style3 value3

              This  defines  style1  with  value1  for the context :foo:bar as
              usual, but it also defines style2 with value2  for  the  context
              :foo:bar:baz and style3 with value3 for :foo:bar:frob.  Any sub-
              context may be the empty string  to  re-use  the  first  context

              The  zed function sets this style in context `:completion:zed:*'
              to turn off completion when TAB is typed at the beginning  of  a
              line.   You may override this by setting your own value for this
              context and style.

       pager  The nslookup  function  looks  up  this  style  in  the  context
              `:nslookup' to determine the program used to display output that
              does not fit on a single screen.

              The nslookup  function  looks  up  this  style  in  the  context
              `:nslookup' to set the prompt and the right-side prompt, respec-
              tively.  The usual expansions for the PS1  and  RPS1  parameters
              may be used (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

zsh 5.8                        February 14, 2020                 ZSHCONTRIB(1)