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Updated: Wednesday, July 27, 2022

rsync (1)


rsync - copying tool


rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]

Access via rsync daemon:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
instead of copying.


rsync(1)                         User Commands                        rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

           rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
               rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
               rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
       and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a  "quick  check"
       algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
       or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other   preserved
       attributes  (as  requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data  does  not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current  host  (it  does  not  support copying files between two remote

       There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a  remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell  trans-
       port  is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single
       colon (:) separator after a host specification.   Contacting  an  rsync
       daemon  directly happens when the source or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://  URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this  latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the client and the remote side as the
       server.  Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is always
       a server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned

       See the file README.md for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can  access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its  communications, but it may have been configured to use a dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify  a  source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

           rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo.  If any of the files
       already  exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences  in  the
       data.   Note  that the expansion of wildcards on the command-line (*.c)
       into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs  rsync  and
       not  by  rsync  itself  (exactly the same as all other Posix-style pro-

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the  machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
       The files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures that  symbolic
       links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved
       in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to reduce  the
       size of data portions of the transfer.

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating
       an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think  of  a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by  name",  but  in  both  cases  the
       attributes  of the containing directory are transferred to the contain-
       ing directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the  follow-
       ing  commands copies the files in the same way, including their setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

           rsync -av /src/foo /dest
           rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module  references  don't  require  a  trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

           rsync -av host: /dest
           rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both  the  source  and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a  par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

           rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the  first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

           rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
           rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
           rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older  versions  of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
       these examples:

           rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
           rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest  rsync,  but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If  you  need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
       the  whitespace  in  a  way that the remote shell will understand.  For

           rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

       It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as  the  trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be
       running  on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON
       TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it  with  a  remote  shell
       except that:

       o      you  either  use  a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con-

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
              fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option (since that overrides
              the daemon connection to use ssh -- see USING RSYNC-DAEMON  FEA-

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect.  You can avoid the
       password  prompt  by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
       users.  On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the  envi-
       ronment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may  also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the  rsync  command  (so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).  For example:

           export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
           rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
           rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which  forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
       ost (%H).

       Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment  variable  is  set,  that
       program  will  be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of
       using the default shell of the system() call.

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as  named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
       into a system (other than what is already  required  to  allow  remote-
       shell  access).   Rsync  supports  connecting  to a host using a remote
       shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server  that  expects  to
       read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the  daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
       to use features such as chroot or change the uid used  by  the  daemon.
       (For  another  way  to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to
       tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure  a  normal  rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From  the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon  transfer,  with  the only exception being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
       functionality.) For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying the rsync-user
       value (for a module that  requires  user-based  authentication).   This
       means  that  you  must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).   For  full  information on how to start a daemon that will han-
       dling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5)  man  page --
       that  is  the  config  file  for  the  daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-

       If  you're  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its  internal  transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
       named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse  someone  when  the  files are transferred in a different order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular file  to  be  transferred  prior  to  another,
       either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
       --delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted  transfer  order,  but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

           rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To  synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile tar-

               rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
               rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       This allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection.   I  then  do  CVS  operations on the remote machine, which
       saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-

           rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here  is  a  short  summary  of the options available in rsync.  Please
       refer to the detailed description below for a complete description.

       --verbose, -v            increase verbosity
       --info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
       --debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
       --stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
       --quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
       --no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
       --checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
       --archive, -a            archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
       --no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
       --recursive, -r          recurse into directories
       --relative, -R           use relative path names
       --no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
       --backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
       --backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
       --suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
       --update, -u             skip files that are newer on the receiver
       --inplace                update destination files in-place
       --append                 append data onto shorter files
       --append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
       --dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
       --mkpath                 create the destination's path component
       --links, -l              copy symlinks as symlinks
       --copy-links, -L         transform symlink into referent file/dir
       --copy-unsafe-links      only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
       --safe-links             ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
       --munge-links            munge symlinks to make them safe & unusable
       --copy-dirlinks, -k      transform symlink to dir into referent dir
       --keep-dirlinks, -K      treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
       --hard-links, -H         preserve hard links
       --perms, -p              preserve permissions
       --executability, -E      preserve executability
       --chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
       --acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
       --xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
       --owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
       --group, -g              preserve group
       --devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
       --specials               preserve special files
       -D                       same as --devices --specials
       --times, -t              preserve modification times
       --atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
       --open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
       --crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
       --omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
       --omit-link-times, -J    omit symlinks from --times
       --super                  receiver attempts super-user activities
       --fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
       --sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
       --preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
       --write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
       --dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
       --whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
       --checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
       --one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
       --block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
       --rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
       --rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
       --existing               skip creating new files on receiver
       --ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
       --remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
       --del                    an alias for --delete-during
       --delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
       --delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
       --delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
       --delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
       --delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
       --delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
       --ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
       --delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
       --ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
       --force                  force deletion of dirs even if not empty
       --max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
       --max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
       --min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
       --max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
       --partial                keep partially transferred files
       --partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
       --delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
       --prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
       --numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
       --usermap=STRING         custom username mapping
       --groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
       --chown=USER:GROUP       simple username/groupname mapping
       --timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
       --contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
       --ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
       --size-only              skip files that match in size
       --modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
       --temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
       --fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
       --compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
       --copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
       --link-dest=DIR          hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
       --compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
       --compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
       --compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
       --skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
       --cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
       --filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
       -F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
       --exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
       --exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
       --include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
       --include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
       --files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
       --from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
       --protect-args, -s       no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
       --copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
       --address=ADDRESS        bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
       --port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
       --sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
       --blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
       --outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
       --stats                  give some file-transfer stats
       --8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
       --human-readable, -h     output numbers in a human-readable format
       --progress               show progress during transfer
       -P                       same as --partial --progress
       --itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
       --remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
       --out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
       --log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
       --log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
       --password-file=FILE     read daemon-access password from FILE
       --early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
       --list-only              list the files instead of copying them
       --bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
       --write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
       --only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
       --read-batch=FILE        read a batched update from FILE
       --protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
       --checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
       --ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
       --version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
       --help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following  options
       are accepted:

       --daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
       --address=ADDRESS        bind to the specified address
       --bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
       --no-detach              do not detach from the parent
       --port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
       --log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
       --log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
       --sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
       --verbose, -v            increase verbosity
       --ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
       --help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)

       Rsync  accepts  both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
       letter) options.  The full list of the available options are  described
       below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
       are comma-separated.  Some options only have  a  long  variant,  not  a
       short.   If  the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed
       after the long variant, even though it must also be specified  for  the
       short.   When  specifying  a  parameter,  you  can  either use the form
       --option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.  The  parameter  may
       need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the shell's command-
       line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a  filename  is
       substituted  by your shell, so --option=~/foo will not change the tilde
       into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).

       --help, -h (*)
              Print a short help page  describing  the  options  available  in
              rsync and exit.  (*) The -h short option will only invoke --help
              when used without other options since it normally means --human-

       --version, -V
              Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.

              The output includes the default list of checksum algorithms, the
              default list of compression algorithms, a  list  of  compiled-in
              capabilities,   a   link   to  the  rsync  web  site,  and  some
              license/copyright info.

       --verbose, -v
              This option increases the amount of information  you  are  given
              during  the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently.  A sin-
              gle -v will give you information  about  what  files  are  being
              transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
              give you  information  on  what  files  are  being  skipped  and
              slightly  more information at the end.  More than two -v options
              should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
              groups  of  --info  and  --debug options.  You can choose to use
              these newer options in addition to, or in place of using  --ver-
              bose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied settings
              of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help  that
              tells  you  exactly what flags are set for each increase in ver-

              However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
              will  limit how high of a level the various individual flags can
              be set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2,  then
              any  info  and/or  debug flag that is set to a higher value than
              what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level  in
              the daemon's logging.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the informa-
              tion output you want to see.  An individual  flag  name  may  be
              followed  by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that out-
              put, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
              increasing  the  output  of  that  flag  (for those that support
              higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the  available  flag
              names,  what they output, and what flag names are added for each
              increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note that --info=name's output is affected by  the  --out-format
              and  --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
              information on what is output and when.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the  server
              side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
              or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
              too  old  to  understand  them).   See  also the "max verbosity"
              caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control  over  the  debug
              output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
              by a level number, with 0 meaning  to  silence  that  output,  1
              being  the  default  output level, and higher numbers increasing
              the output of that flag (for those that support higher  levels).
              Use  --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
              output, and what flag names are added for each increase  in  the
              verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note   that  some  debug  messages  will  only  be  output  when
              --stderr=all is specified, especially those  pertaining  to  I/O
              and buffer debugging.

              Beginning  in  3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-forwarded to
              the server side in order to allow you to specify different debug
              values  for  each  side of the transfer, as well as to specify a
              new debug option that is only present in one of the  rsync  ver-
              sions.   If you want to duplicate the same option on both sides,
              using brace expansion is an easy way to save  you  some  typing.
              This works in zsh and bash:

                  rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

              This  option  controls  which  processes output to stderr and if
              info messages are also changed to stderr.  The mode strings  can
              be  abbreviated, so feel free to use a single letter value.  The
              3 possible choices are:

              o      errors - (the default) causes all the rsync processes  to
                     send  an error directly to stderr, even if the process is
                     on the remote side of the transfer.   Info  messages  are
                     sent  to  the  client  side  via the protocol stream.  If
                     stderr is not available (i.e.  when  directly  connecting
                     with  a  daemon  via  a socket) errors fall back to being
                     sent via the protocol stream.

              o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error)  to  get
                     written directly to stderr from all (possible) processes.
                     This causes stderr to become  line-buffered  (instead  of
                     raw) and eliminates the ability to divide up the info and
                     error messages by file handle.  For those doing debugging
                     or  using  several  levels  of verbosity, this option can
                     help to avoid clogging  up  the  transfer  stream  (which
                     should  prevent  any  chance  of  a  deadlock bug hanging
                     things up).  It also enables the outputting of  some  I/O
                     related debug messages.

              o      client  -  causes  all  rsync  messages to be sent to the
                     client side via the protocol stream.  One client  process
                     outputs all messages, with errors on stderr and info mes-
                     sages on stdout.  This was the  default  in  older  rsync
                     versions, but can cause error delays when a lot of trans-
                     fer data is ahead of the  messages.   If  you're  pushing
                     files to an older rsync, you may want to use --stderr=all
                     since that idiom has been around for several releases.

              This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version  also  began
              the  forwarding  of  a  non-default  setting to the remote side,
              though rsync uses the backward-compatible options  --msgs2stderr
              and  --no-msgs2stderr  to represent the all and client settings,
              respectively.  A newer rsync will continue to accept these older
              option names to maintain compatibility.

       --quiet, -q
              This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
              from  the  remote  server.   This option is useful when invoking
              rsync from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
              of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of  modules
              that  the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request
              (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
              if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       --ignore-times, -I
              Normally  rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
              size and have the  same  modification  timestamp.   This  option
              turns  off  this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be

              This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding  files
              that  need  to  be  transferred, changing it from the default of
              transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
              modified  time  to  just  looking for files that have changed in
              size.  This is useful when starting to  use  rsync  after  using
              another  mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve timestamps

       --modify-window=NUM, -@
              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats  the  timestamps  as
              being  equal  if  they  differ by no more than the modify-window
              value.  The default is 0, which matches  just  integer  seconds.
              If  you  specify  a negative value (and the receiver is at least
              version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.
              Specifying  1  is  useful  for  copies  to/from  MS  Windows FAT
              filesystems, because FAT represents times with a 2-second  reso-
              lution  (allowing  times  to differ from the original by up to 1

              If you want all your transfers to default to comparing  nanosec-
              onds, you can create a ~/.popt file and put these lines in it:

                  rsync alias -a -a@-1
                  rsync alias -t -t@-1

              With  that  as  the default, you'd need to specify --modify-win-
              dow=0 (aka -@0) to override it and ignore nanoseconds,  e.g.  if
              you're  copying between ext3 and ext4, or if the receiving rsync
              is older than 3.1.3.

       --checksum, -c
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
              a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
              file  that  has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
              that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
              data  in the files in the transfer, so this can slow things down
              significantly (and this is prior to any  reading  that  will  be
              done to transfer changed files)

              The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
              file-system scan that builds the list of  the  available  files.
              The  receiver  generates  its  checksums when it is scanning for
              changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
              as  the corresponding sender's file: files with either a changed
              size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
              correctly  reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side by checking a
              whole-file checksum that is generated  as  the  file  is  trans-
              ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
              nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
              file need to be updated?" check.

              The  checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client and the
              server, but can be overridden using either the --checksum-choice
              (--cc)  option  or  an environment variable that is discussed in
              that option's section.

       --archive, -a
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you
              want  recursion  and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
              being a notable omission).  The  only  exception  to  the  above
              equivalence  is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r
              is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
              ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

              You  may  turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the
              option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with  a
              "no-":  only  options  that  are  implied by other options (e.g.
              --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in  various  cir-
              cumstances  (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).
              You may specify either the short or the long option  name  after
              the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
              (--owner), instead of converting  -a  into  -rlptgD,  you  could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important: if you specify --no-r -a,
              the -r option would end up being  turned  on,  the  opposite  of
              -a --no-r.   Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
              option are NOT positional, as it affects the  default  state  of
              several  options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
              --files-from option for more details).

       --recursive, -r
              This tells rsync to  copy  directories  recursively.   See  also
              --dirs (-d).

              Beginning  with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now
              an incremental scan that uses much less memory than  before  and
              begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo-
              ries have been completed.  This incremental  scan  only  affects
              our  recursion  algorithm,  and  does not change a non-recursive
              transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends of the trans-
              fer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some  options require rsync to know the full file list, so these
              options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These  include:
              --delete-before,    --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,   and
              --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode  when
              you  specify  --delete  is now --delete-during when both ends of
              the connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or  --delete-during
              to  request  this  improved deletion mode explicitly).  See also
              the --delete-delay option that is a  better  choice  than  using

              Incremental  recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recur-
              sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       --relative, -R
              Use relative paths.  This means that the full path names  speci-
              fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
              the last parts of the filenames.  This  is  particularly  useful
              when  you want to send several different directories at the same
              time.  For example, if you used this command:

                  rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote  machine.
              If instead you used

                  rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
              remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path ele-
              ments  are  called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the
              "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync  always  sends  these  implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This  prevents
              some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If  you
              want  to  duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the sym-
              link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
              you're  dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
              need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is  sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With
              a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with  2.6.7),  you
              can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                  rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That  would  create  /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note
              that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would  not
              be abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need to use
              a chdir to limit the source path.   For  example,  when  pushing

                  (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
              that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for  future  com-
              mands.)  If  you're  pulling files from an older rsync, use this
              idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                       remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This option affects  the  default  behavior  of  the  --relative
              option.   When  it  is  specified, the attributes of the implied
              directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
              fer.   This  means  that  the corresponding path elements on the
              destination system are left unchanged if  they  exist,  and  any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
              ences,  such  as being a symlink to a directory on the receiving

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from  entry  told
              rsync  to  transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file", the directories
              "path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is  used.   If
              "path/foo"  is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the
              receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate  it
              as  a  directory,  and  receive the file into the new directory.
              With   --no-implied-dirs,   the    receiving    rsync    updates
              "path/foo/file"  using  the  existing path elements, which means
              that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another  way
              to  accomplish  this  link  preservation  is  to use the --keep-
              dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks to  directories
              in the rest of the transfer).

              When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need
              to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you  request  and  you wish the implied directories to be trans-
              ferred as normal directories.

       --backup, -b
              With this option, preexisting destination files are  renamed  as
              each  file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
              backup file goes and what (if any) suffix  gets  appended  using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-
              times option will be forced on, and (2) if --delete is  also  in
              effect  (without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a "protect"
              filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your  exist-
              ing  excludes  (e.g.  -f "P *~").   This will prevent previously
              backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if you  are  sup-
              plying  your  own  filter rules, you may need to manually insert
              your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the list so
              that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if
              your rules specify a  trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of  *,  the
              auto-added rule would never be reached).

              This  implies  the --backup option, and tells rsync to store all
              backups in the specified directory on the receiving side.   This
              can be used for incremental backups.  You can additionally spec-
              ify a backup suffix using the  --suffix  option  (otherwise  the
              files backed up in the specified directory will keep their orig-
              inal filenames).

              Note that if you specify a relative path, the  backup  directory
              will  be  relative to the destination directory, so you probably
              want to specify either an absolute path or a  path  that  starts
              with  "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup dir
              cannot go outside the module's path  hierarchy,  so  take  extra
              care not to delete it or copy into it.

              This  option  allows  you  to override the default backup suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option.  The default suffix is  a  ~
              if  no  --backup-dir  was  specified,  otherwise  it is an empty

       --update, -u
              This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the  destina-
              tion  and  have  a  modified  time that is newer than the source
              file. (If an existing destination file has a  modification  time
              equal  to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are

              Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
              other  special files.  Also, a difference of file format between
              the sender and receiver is always  considered  to  be  important
              enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
              other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
              has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This  option  changes  how  rsync transfers a file when its data
              needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
              new  copy  of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
              plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
                     be visible through other hard links  to  the  destination
                     file.   Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files
                     onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in  a
                     "tug  of war" with the destination data changing back and

              o      In-use binaries cannot be updated  (either  the  OS  will
                     prevent  this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
                     swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent  state  during
                     the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
                     interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
                     While  a  super  user  can update any file, a normal user
                     needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
                     file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
                     reduced if some data in the destination file is overwrit-
                     ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later in the
                     file.  This does not apply if  you  use  --backup,  since
                     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
                     file for the transfer.

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
              being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing to use
              this for a copy.

              This option is useful for transferring large files  with  block-
              based  changes  or  appended  data, and also on systems that are
              disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-on-
              write  filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire contents of
              a file that only has minor changes.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not  delete  the  file),  but  conflicts  with --partial-dir and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-
              patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This  special  copy  mode only works to efficiently update files
              that are known to be growing larger where any  existing  content
              on  the  receiving side is also known to be the same as the con-
              tent on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous if you
              aren't  100% sure that all the files in the transfer are shared,
              growing files.  You should thus use filter rules to ensure  that
              you weed out any files that do not fit this criteria.

              Rsync  updates these growing file in-place without verifying any
              of the existing content in the file (it only verifies  the  con-
              tent that it is appending).  Rsync skips any files that exist on
              the receiving side that are not shorter than the associated file
              on  the  sending  side  (which  means  that new files are trasn-

              This does not interfere with the updating of a  file's  non-con-
              tent  attributes  (e.g.   permissions, ownership, etc.) when the
              file does not need to be transferred, nor  does  it  affect  the
              updating of any directories or non-regular files.

              This  special  copy mode works like --append except that all the
              data in the file is included in the checksum verification  (mak-
              ing  it  much  less efficient but also potentially safer).  This
              option can be dangerous if you aren't 100%  sure  that  all  the
              files  in  the  transfer  are  shared,  growing  files.  See the
              --append option for more details.

              Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the  --append  option  worked  like
              --append-verify,  so  if you are interacting with an older rsync
              (or the transfer is using a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
              either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       --dirs, -d
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include  any  directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without  this
              option  or  the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directo-
              ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
              one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
              takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
              --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories  are  seen  in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
              this off.

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
              (or   --old-d)   that   tells   rsync   to   use   a   hack   of
              -r --exclude='/*/*' to get an  older  rsync  to  list  a  single
              directory without recursing.

              Create  a  missing  path component of the destination arg.  This
              allows rsync to create multiple levels  of  missing  destination
              dirs and to create a path in which to put a single renamed file.
              Keep in mind that you'll need to supply a trailing slash if  you
              want  the  entire  destination path to be treated as a directory
              when copying a single arg (making rsync behave the same way that
              it  would  if  the path component of the destination had already

              For example, the following creates a copy of file foo as bar  in
              the  sub/dir  directory,  creating  dirs  "sub" and "sub/dir" if
              either do not yet exist:

                  rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

              If you instead ran the following, it would have created file foo
              in the sub/dir/bar directory:

                  rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

       --links, -l
              When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des-

       --copy-links, -L
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to  (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of rsync, this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
              receiving  side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directo-
              ries.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to  spec-
              ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only
              exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too  old  to
              understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
              side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This tells rsync to copy the referent  of  symbolic  links  that
              point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
              treated like ordinary files, and so  are  any  symlinks  in  the
              source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              Note that the cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which is
              the  part of the path that rsync isn't mentioning in the verbose
              output.  If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then the "subdir"
              directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not the top of the
              transfer (which is /src) so it is  legal  for  created  relative
              symlinks  to  refer  to  other  names  inside the /src and /dest
              directories.  If you instead copy "/src/subdir/" (with a  trail-
              ing  slash)  to  "/dest/subdir" that would not allow symlinks to
              any files outside of "subdir".

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out-
              side  the  copied tree.  All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
              Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give  unex-
              pected results.

              This  option  tells  rsync  to  (1)  modify  all symlinks on the
              receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
              (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
              had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you  don't
              quite  trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a sym-
              link to a unexpected place.

              The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
              with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
              being used as long as that directory does not exist.  When  this
              option  is  enabled,  rsync will refuse to run if that path is a
              directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The option only affects the client side of the transfer,  so  if
              you  need  it  to  affect  the  server, specify it via --remote-
              option. (Note that in a local transfer, the client side  is  the

              This  option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon config-
              ures whether it wants munged symlinks via  its  "munge symlinks"
              parameter.   See  also  the  "munge-symlinks" perl script in the
              support directory of the source code.

       --copy-dirlinks, -k
              This option causes the sending side to  treat  a  symlink  to  a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you don't want symlinks to non-directories to  be  affected,  as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without  this  option, if the sending side has replaced a direc-
              tory with a symlink to a  directory,  the  receiving  side  will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv-
              ing side.

              --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to  directories  in  the
              source.   If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
              trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
              a  trailing  slash,  using --relative to make the paths match up
              right.  For example:

                  rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on  the  source  arg  as
              given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
              giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides  the
              symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       --keep-dirlinks, -K
              This  option  causes  the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory,  but  only  if  it
              matches  a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

              For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
              tains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to  directory  "bar"
              on  the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
              symlink "foo", recreates it as a  directory,  and  receives  the
              file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must  trust
              all the symlinks in the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted
              user to create their own symlink  to  any  directory,  the  user
              could  then  (on  a  subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a
              real directory and affect the content of whatever directory  the
              symlink references.  For backup copies, you are better off using
              something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify  your
              receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       --hard-links, -H
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
              link together the corresponding files on the destination.  With-
              out this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated  as
              though they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
              links on the destination exactly matches  that  on  the  source.
              Cases  in which the destination may end up with extra hard links
              include the following:

              o      If the destination contains extraneous  hard-links  (more
                     linking  than  what  is present in the source file list),
                     the copying algorithm will  not  break  them  explicitly.
                     However, if one or more of the paths have content differ-
                     ences, the normal file-update process  will  break  those
                     extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
                     links, the linking of the destination files  against  the
                     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
                     to become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

              Note  that  rsync  can only detect hard links between files that
              are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file  that  has
              extra  hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that
              linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
              option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
              your files are being updated so that you  are  certain  that  no
              unintended  changes  happen due to lingering hard links (and see
              the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync  may
              transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
              link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.   This
              does  not  affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e. which files
              are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
              data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
              been found later in the transfer in another member of the  hard-
              linked  set of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency is to
              disable  incremental  recursion  using  the   --no-inc-recursive

       --perms, -p
              This  option  causes  the receiving rsync to set the destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions. (See  also
              the  --chmod  option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including  updated  files)  retain  their
                     existing  permissions,  though the --executability option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set  to  the
                     source  file's  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
                     directory's default  permissions  (either  the  receiving
                     process's  umask,  or  the  permissions specified via the
                     destination directory's default ACL), and  their  special
                     permission  bits  disabled except in the case where a new
                     directory inherits a setgid bit from  its  parent  direc-

              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync's behavior is the same as that of other  file-copy  utili-
              ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In  summary:  to  give  destination files (both old and new) the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
              tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
              unchanged), make sure that the --perms option  is  off  and  use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures  that  all  non-masked bits get
              enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier  to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the  -Z  option,
              and  includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination

                  rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a  command  such  as  this

                  rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat:  make  sure  that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-
              enable the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

              The preservation of the destination's setgid bit  on  newly-cre-
              ated  directories  when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.
              Older rsync versions erroneously  preserved  the  three  special
              permission  bits  for  newly-created files when --perms was off,
              while overriding the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting  on  a
              newly-created  directory.   Default  ACL observance was added to
              the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7,  so  older  (or  non-ACL-enabled)
              rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
              mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that  affects
              these behaviors.)

       --executability, -E
              This  option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-
              executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.   A
              regular  file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x'
              is turned on in its permissions.  When an  existing  destination
              file's  executability  differs  from  that  of the corresponding
              source file, rsync modifies the destination  file's  permissions
              as follows:

              o      To  make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each  'x'  per-
                     mission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       --acls, -A
              This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination ACLs to be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination  systems  must  have  compatible  ACL
              entries  for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
              option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

              Note, that rsync does not support NFSv4 ACLs.

       --xattrs, -X
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  update the destination extended
              attributes to be the same as the source ones.

              For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces,  a  copy
              being  done  by  a  super-user copies all namespaces except sys-
              tem.*.  A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.   To  be
              able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
              see the --fake-super option.

              The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or  more
              filter  options with the x modifier.  When you specify an xattr-
              affecting filter rule, rsync requires that you do your own  sys-
              tem/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for what
              xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be deleted.
              For example, to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

                  --filter='-x system.*'

              To  skip  all  namespaces  except  the user namespace, you could
              specify a negated-user match:

                  --filter='-x! user.*'

              To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could  specify
              a receiver-only rule that excludes all names:

                  --filter='-xr *'

              Note that the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr val-
              ues (e.g.  those used by --fake-super)  unless  you  repeat  the
              option  (e.g.  -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used
              with --fake-super.

              This option tells rsync to apply  one  or  more  comma-separated
              "chmod"  modes  to  the permission of the files in the transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
              that  the  sending  side supplied for the file, which means that
              this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In  addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to  a  directory  by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item
              that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  'F'.
              For  example, the following will ensure that all directories get
              marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both  are
              user-writable  and group-writable, and that both have consistent
              executability across all bits:


              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
              additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
              ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the trans-

       --owner, -o
              This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
              file  to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiv-
              ing rsync is being run as the super-user (see also  the  --super
              and  --fake-super  options).   Without this option, the owner of
              new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The  preservation  of ownership will associate matching names by
              default, but may fall back to using the ID number in  some  cir-
              cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus-

       --group, -g
              This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
              file  to  be the same as the source file.  If the receiving pro-
              gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
              specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group  is  set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
              names  by  default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

              This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
              files to the remote system  to  recreate  these  devices.   This
              option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
              super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

              This  tells  rsync  to treat a device on the receiving side as a
              regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device.

              This option implies the --inplace option.

              Be careful using this, as  you  should  know  what  devices  are
              present  on  the  receiving  side of the transfer, especially if
              running rsync as root.

              This option is refused by an rsync daemon.

       --times, -t
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along  with  the
              files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that  excludes  files  that
              have  not  been  modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used  -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-
              transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if  the
              files  haven't  actually  changed,  you're much better off using

       --atimes, -U
              This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of  the  destina-
              tion files to the same value as the source files.

              If  repeated,  it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can
              help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the same
              access  times  on  the  transferred files without needing to run
              rsync an extra time after a file is transferred.

              Note that some older rsync versions (prior to  3.2.0)  may  have
              been built with a pre-release --atimes patch that does not imply
              --open-noatime when this option is repeated.

              This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on  sys-
              tems  that  support it) to avoid changing the access time of the
              files that are being transferred.  If your OS does  not  support
              the  O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option.
              Note also that some filesystems are mounted  to  avoid  updating
              the  atime  on read access even without the O_NOATIME flag being

       --crtimes, -N,
              This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the desti-
              nation files to the same value as the source files.

       --omit-dir-times, -O
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
              fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
              on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
              is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

              This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early  creation
              of  directories  in  incremental  recursion copies.  The default
              --inc-recursive copying normally does an  early-create  pass  of
              all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to
              be able to then set the modify  time  of  the  parent  directory
              right away (without having to delay that until a bunch of recur-
              sive copying has finished).  This early-create idiom is not nec-
              essary  if directory modify times are not being preserved, so it
              is skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have  accurate
              mode,  mtime, or ownership, the use of this option can help when
              someone wants to avoid these partially-finished directories.

       --omit-link-times, -J
              This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving  modifi-
              cation times (see --times).

              This  tells  the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
              activities  include:  preserving  users  via the --owner option,
              preserving all groups (not just the current user's  groups)  via
              the  --groups  option,  and  copying  devices  via the --devices
              option.  This is useful for systems that allow  such  activities
              without  being  the  super-user,  and also for ensuring that you
              will get errors if the receiving side isn't  being  run  as  the
              super-user.   To  turn off super-user activities, the super-user
              can use --no-super.

              When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user  activi-
              ties  by  saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special
              extended attributes that are attached to each file (as  needed).
              This  includes  the  file's  owner  and  group (if it is not the
              default), the file's device info (device  &  special  files  are
              created  as  empty  text files), and any permission bits that we
              won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g. the real file  gets
              u-s,g-s,o-t  for  safety) or that would limit the owner's access
              (since the real super-user can always access/change a file,  the
              files  we  create can always be accessed/changed by the creating
              user).  This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was  specified)
              and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This  is  a  good way to backup data without using a super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The --fake-super option only affects the side where  the  option
              is  used.   To  affect the remote side of a remote-shell connec-
              tion, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

                  rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For a local copy, this option affects both the  source  and  the
              destination.   If  you  wish  a local copy to enable this option
              just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If  you
              wish  a  local  copy  to  enable this option just for the source
              files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the "fake super" setting in  the  daemon's  rsyncd.conf

       --sparse, -S
              Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
              space on the destination.  If combined with --inplace  the  file
              created  might  not end up with sparse blocks with some combina-
              tions of kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If --whole-file
              is  in  effect  (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work
              because rsync truncates  the  file  prior  to  writing  out  the
              updated version.

              Note  that  versions  of  rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the
              combination of --sparse and --inplace.

              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
              eventual  size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only
              use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided  by
              Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
              not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null  byte  into
              each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
              on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
              more  slowly.   If  the  destination is not an extent-supporting
              filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
              no positive effect at all.

              If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse blocks
              (as opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes) if the  kernel
              version  and filesystem type support creating holes in the allo-
              cated data.

       --dry-run, -n
              This makes rsync perform a  trial  run  that  doesn't  make  any
              changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
              is most commonly used in  combination  with  the  --verbose,  -v
              and/or  --itemize-changes,  -i options to see what an rsync com-
              mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
              same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
              trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's  a  bug.
              Other  output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
              areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send  the  actual  data  for
              file  transfers,  so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
              "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"  statistics
              are  too  small,  and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
              where no file transfers were needed.

       --whole-file, -W
              This option disables  rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm,  which
              causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer may
              be faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between  the
              source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
              disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
              tination are specified as local paths, but  only  if  no  batch-
              writing option is in effect.

       --checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
              This option overrides the checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm
              name is specified, it is used for both  the  transfer  checksums
              and  (assuming  --checksum is specified) the pre-transfer check-
              sums.  If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first name
              affects  the transfer checksums, and the second name affects the
              pre-transfer checksums (-c).

              The checksum options that you may be able to use are:

              o      auto (the default automatic choice)

              o      xxh128

              o      xxh3

              o      xxh64 (aka xxhash)

              o      md5

              o      md4

              o      none

              Run rsync --version to see the default  checksum  list  compiled
              into your version (which may differ from the list above).

              If  "none"  is  specified  for  the  first  (or  only) name, the
              --whole-file option is forced on and no checksum verification is
              performed  on  the transferred data.  If "none" is specified for
              the second (or only) name, the --checksum option cannot be used.

              The "auto" option is the default, where rsync  bases  its  algo-
              rithm  choice on a negotiation between the client and the server
              as follows:

              When both sides of  the  transfer  are  at  least  3.2.0,  rsync
              chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that
              is also in the server's list of choices.  If no common  checksum
              choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync
              is too old to support checksum negotiation, a  value  is  chosen
              based  on  the  protocol  version (which chooses between MD5 and
              various flavors of MD4 based on protocol age).

              The default order can be customized by setting  the  environment
              variable   RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST  to  a  space-separated  list  of
              acceptable checksum names.  If the string contains a "&" charac-
              ter,  it  is separated into the "client string & server string",
              otherwise the same string applies to both.  If  the  string  (or
              string  portion)  contains  no  non-whitespace  characters,  the
              default checksum list is used.  This method does not  allow  you
              to  specify the transfer checksum separately from the pre-trans-
              fer checksum, and it discards "auto" and  all  unknown  checksum
              names.  A list with only invalid names results in a failed nego-

              The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this  environ-
              ment list.

       --one-file-system, -x
              This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
              recursing.  This does not limit the user's  ability  to  specify
              items  to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and  also  the  analogous recursion on the receiving side during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
              ries from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
              at  each  mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the
              mounted directory because those of  the  underlying  mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including  directories)
              that  do  not  exist  yet on the destination.  If this option is
              combined with the --ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
              updated  (which  can  be  useful if all you want to do is delete
              extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
              the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option can be useful for  those  doing  backups  using  the
              --link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
              got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into  a  new
              directory  hierarchy (when it is used properly), using --ignore-
              existing will ensure that the already-handled  files  don't  get
              tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
              files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that
              are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
              in  a  particular directory over to another host, make sure that
              the finished files get renamed into the  source  directory,  not
              directly  written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer
              a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first  write
              the  files  into  a different directory, you should use a naming
              idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not  yet
              finished  (e.g.  name  the  file  "foo.new"  when it is written,
              rename it to "foo" when it is done,  and  then  use  the  option
              --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              Starting  with  3.1.0,  rsync  will skip the sender-side removal
              (and output an error) if the file's size or modify time has  not
              stayed unchanged.

              This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but  only  for  the
              directories  that  are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using  a  wildcard  for  the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*")
              since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
              a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files' parent
              directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is  a  very
              good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
              errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
              files on the  destination.   You  can  override  this  with  the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The  --delete  option  may be combined with one of the --delete-
              WHEN options without conflict,  as  well  as  --delete-excluded.
              However,  if  none  of  the --delete-WHEN options are specified,
              rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking  to
              rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and the --delete-before algorithm when
              talking  to  an  older  rsync.   See  also  --delete-delay   and

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer  to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
              forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
              that  requires  rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
              memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
              scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
              so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
              doing the deletions prior  to  any  per-directory  filter  files
              being  updated.   This  option  was first added in rsync version
              2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be com-
              puted during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
              removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
              bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
              than  using  --delete-after  (but  can behave differently, since
              --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass  after
              all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
              an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
              receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
              you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
              the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
              --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive  is  doing  an
              incremental  scan).   See  --delete  (which is implied) for more
              details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              after  the  transfer  has  completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
              and  you  want  their  exclusions  to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
              old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
              scan all the files in the transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see
              --recursive).  See  --delete (which is implied) for more details
              on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
              sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
              files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

              When rsync is first processing the explicitly  requested  source
              files (e.g.  command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
              is normally an error if the file cannot be found.   This  option
              suppresses  that  error,  and does not try to transfer the file.
              This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if  a  file
              was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

              This  option  takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-miss-
              ing-args option a step farther: each missing arg will  become  a
              deletion  request  of  the corresponding destination file on the
              receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination file is  a
              non-empty  directory,  it  will  only be successfully deleted if
              --force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option
              is independent of any other type of delete processing.

              The  missing  source  files are represented by special file-list
              entries which display as a "*missing" entry in  the  --list-only

              Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
              I/O errors.

              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when  it
              is  to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when  using  --delete-after,  and  it  used to be non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
              ries.   If  that  limit  is  exceeded, all further deletions are
              skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync out-
              puts  a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions) and
              exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
              condition also occurred).

              Beginning  with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
              be warned about any extraneous files in the destination  without
              removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
              ited", so if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
              use  the  less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
              way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
              versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

              This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE.  A numeric value can be suffixed with a
              string  to  indicate  the  numeric  units or left unqualified to
              specify bytes.  Feel free to use a fractional value  along  with
              the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo), M
              (mega),  G  (giga),  T  (tera), or P (peta).  If the string is a
              single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g. "G" or "GiB") then the
              units  are  multiples  of  1024.  If you use a two-letter suffix
              that ends with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you  get  units  that  are
              multiples of 1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper
              and lower-case that you want to use.

              Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is off-
              set  by one byte in the indicated direction.  The largest possi-
              ble value is usually 8192P-1.

              Examples:  --max-size=1.5mb-1  is  1499999  bytes,  and   --max-
              size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              Note  that  rsync  versions  prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is  smaller
              than  the  specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
              small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a  description
              of SIZE and other information.

              Note  that  rsync  versions  prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-

              By default rsync limits an individual  malloc/realloc  to  about
              1GB  in  size.   For  most people this limit works just fine and
              prevents a protocol  error  causing  rsync  to  request  massive
              amounts  of memory.  However, if you have many millions of files
              in a transfer, a large amount of server memory,  and  you  don't
              want  to  split  up  your  transfer into multiple parts, you can
              increase the per-allocation limit to something larger and  rsync
              will consume more memory.

              Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of allo-
              cated memory.  It is a sanity-check value  for  each  individual

              See  the  --max-size option for a description of how SIZE can be
              specified.  The default suffix if none is given is bytes.

              Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

              You can set a  default  value  using  the  environment  variable
              RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC  using the same SIZE values as supported by this
              option.  If the remote rsync doesn't understand the  --max-alloc
              option,  you  can  override an environmental value by specifying
              --max-alloc=1g, which will make rsync avoid sending  the  option
              to the remote side (because "1G" is the default).

       --block-size=SIZE, -B
              This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
              rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected  based  on  the
              size  of  each file being updated.  See the technical report for

              Beginning in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with  a  suffix  as
              detailed in the --max-size option.  Older versions only accepted
              a byte count.

       --rsh=COMMAND, -e
              This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
              program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use  ssh  by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If  this  option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
              remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than  through  a  direct  socket
              connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
              NECTION" above.

              Beginning  with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable
              will be set when a daemon connection is being made via a remote-
              shell  connection.  It is set to 0 if the default daemon port is
              being assumed, or it is set to the value of the rsync port  that
              was  specified  via either the --port option or a non-empty port
              value in an rsync:// URL.  This allows the script to discern  if
              a  non-default port is being requested, allowing for things such
              as an SSL or stunnel helper script to connect to  a  default  or
              alternate port.

              Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single  argument.   You  must
              use  spaces  (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the com-
              mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-  and/or
              double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not back-
              slashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
              quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
              quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
              shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some exam-

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

              See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this

              Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
              machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default      remote-shell's      path       (e.g.       --rsync-
              path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that PROGRAM is run with the
              help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or  command
              sequence  you'd  care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the
              standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to communicate.

              One tricky example is to set a different  default  directory  on
              the  remote  machine  for  use  with the --relative option.  For

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       --remote-option=OPTION, -M
              This option is used for more advanced situations where you  want
              certain  effects to be limited to one side of the transfer only.
              For instance, if you want to pass  --log-file=FILE  and  --fake-
              super to the remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If  you  want  to have an option affect only the local side of a
              transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its  negation
              to the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be  cautious  using  this, as it is possible to toggle an option
              that will cause rsync to have a different idea about  what  data
              to  expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a
              cryptic fashion.

              Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for  each
              option  you want to pass.  This makes your usage compatible with
              the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
              your remote options will be split by the remote shell unless you
              take steps to protect them.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
              and the "remote" side is the receiver.

              Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
              in them that prevents you from using an  adjacent  arg  with  an
              equal  in  it  next  to  a  short  option  letter (e.g. -M--log-
              file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your version of  popt,  you
              can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

       --cvs-exclude, -C
              This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don't want to transfer between systems.  It  uses
              a  similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to determine if a file should be

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following  items
              (these  initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
              RULES section):

                  RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*  tags TAGS  .make.state
                  .nse_depinfo  *~  #*  .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig
                  *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z  *.elc  *.ln
                  core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
              and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable  (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
              Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you  should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules, regardless of where the -C was  placed  on  the  command-
              line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
              ified explicitly.  If  you  want  to  control  where  these  CVS
              excludes  get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should omit
              the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of  --fil-
              ter=:C  and  --filter=-C  (either  on  your  command-line  or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a  filter  file  with  your
              other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
              ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
              import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       --filter=RULE, -f
              This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
              tain files from the list of files to be  transferred.   This  is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.   If  the  filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the rule to rsync as a single argument.   The  text  below  also
              mentions  that  you  can  use an underscore to replace the space
              that separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

                  --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use  their
              rules  to  filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                  --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter  files  themselves  from  the

              See  the  FILTER  RULES  section for detailed information on how
              these options work.

              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines  in  the  file  and  lines  starting  with  ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is '-', the list will be  read  from  standard

              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an include rule and does not allow  the  full  rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a  FILE  that  contains  include patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file  and  lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
              ignored.   If  FILE  is '-', the list will be read from standard

              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of  files
              to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or '-' for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option  is  implied,  which  will  create
                     directories  specified  in  the  list  on the destination
                     rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-
                     d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want

              o      These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the position of the --files-from option on  the  command-
                     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
                     -a works the same before or after --files-from,  as  does
                     --no-R and all other options).

              The  filenames  that  are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed  and  no  ".."
              references  are  allowed  to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:

                  rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even  "/bin"),  the
              /usr/bin  directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains "bin/"  (note  the  trailing  slash),  the
              immediate  contents of the directory would also be sent (without
              needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began  in
              version  2.6.4).   In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
              that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred  (keep  in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
              the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
              the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not  force
              the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                  rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

              If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and  the
              --files-from  filenames are being sent from one host to another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset
              to the receiving host's charset.

              NOTE:  sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps
              rsync to be more efficient, as it  will  avoid  re-visiting  the
              path  elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If the
              input is not sorted, some path  elements  (implied  directories)
              may  end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventu-
              ally unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list  ele-

       --from0, -0
              This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file
              are terminated by a null ('\0') character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
              CR+LF.   This  affects  --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-
              from, and any merged files specified in  a  --filter  rule.   It
              does  not  affect  --cvs-exclude  (since  all  names read from a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       --protect-args, -s
              This option sends all filenames and most options to  the  remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
              means that spaces are not split in names, and  any  non-wildcard
              special  characters  are  not  translated  (such  as ~, $, ;, &,
              etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by  rsync
              (instead of the shell doing it).

              If  you  use  this  option with --iconv, the args related to the
              remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
              character-set.   The  translation  happens before wild-cards are
              expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You may also control  this  option  via  the  RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
              environment  variable.   If  this variable has a non-zero value,
              this option will be enabled by default,  otherwise  it  will  be
              disabled  by  default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
              specified positive or negative version of this option (note that
              --no-s  and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).  Since
              this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need  to  make
              sure  it's  disabled  if you ever need to interact with a remote
              rsync that is older than that.

              Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
              enabled  by  default (with is overridden by both the environment
              and the command-line).  Run rsync --version to check if this  is
              the case, as it will display "default protect-args" or "optional
              protect-args" depending on how it was compiled.

              This option will eventually become a new default setting at some
              as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

              This  option  instructs  rsync to use the USER and (if specified
              after a colon) the GROUP for the  copy  operations.   This  only
              works  if  the  user  that  is  running rsync has the ability to
              change users.  If the group is not  specified  then  the  user's
              default groups are used.

              This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being run as
              root into or out of a directory that  might  have  live  changes
              happening  to  it and you want to make sure that root-level read
              or write actions of system files are not  possible.   While  you
              could  alternatively  run  all  of  rsync as the specified user,
              sometimes you need the root-level host-access credentials to  be
              used,  so this allows rsync to drop root for the copying part of
              the operation after the remote-shell  or  daemon  connection  is

              The  option  only  affects  one  side of the transfer unless the
              transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides.  Use the
              --remote-option  to  affect  the  remote side, such as -M--copy-
              as=joe.  For a local transfer, the lsh (or lsh.sh) support  file
              provides a local-shell helper script that can be used to allow a
              "localhost:" or "lh:" host-spec to be specified without  needing
              to  setup  any  remote  shells,  allowing  you to specify remote
              options that affect the side of the transfer that is  using  the
              host-spec  (and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding of the
              remote directory to the user's home dir).

              For example, the following rsync writes the local files as  user

                  sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

              This  makes  all files owned by user "joe", limits the groups to
              those that are available to that user, and makes  it  impossible
              for  the  joe user to do a timed exploit of the path to induce a
              change to a file that the joe user has no permissions to change.

              The following command does a local copy into the "dest/" dir  as
              user  "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh into a dir on
              your $PATH):

                  sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/

       --temp-dir=DIR, -T
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as  a  scratch  directory
              when  creating  temporary copies of the files transferred on the
              receiving side.  The default behavior is to create  each  tempo-
              rary  file  in  the same directory as the associated destination
              file.  Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the  temp-file  names  inside
              the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
              they will still have a random suffix added).

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does  not  have  enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
              file in the transfer.  In  this  case  (i.e.  when  the  scratch
              directory  is  on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
              able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
              associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
              place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
              destination  file,  which  means  that the destination file will
              contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not  done
              this  way  (even if the destination file were first removed, the
              data locally copied to  a  temporary  file  in  the  destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open),  and  thus  there might not be enough room to fit the new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
              of  disk  space,  you  may  wish to combine it with the --delay-
              updates option, which will ensure that all copied files get  put
              into  subdirectories  in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
              end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate
              all the arriving files on the destination partition, another way
              to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk  space
              is to use the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because
              this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of  a  single
              file  in  a  subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use
              the partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file,
              and  then  rename it into place from there. (Specifying a --par-
              tial-dir with an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)

       --fuzzy, -y
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any  destination  file  that  is missing.  The current algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
              larly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file  to
              try to speed up the transfer.

              If  the  option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
              any matching alternate destination directories that  are  speci-
              fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

              Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might get rid of any
              potential fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
              machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination  files
              against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the desti-
              nation directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is  identical
              to  the  sender's  file, the file will NOT be transferred to the
              destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a  sparse
              backup  of  just files that have changed from an earlier backup.
              This option is typically used to copy into an  empty  (or  newly
              created) directory.

              Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search  the  list  in
              the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
              that differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the  trans-

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync  will  remove  a  file
              from  a  non-empty  destination  hierarchy  if an exact match is
              found in one of the compare-dest  hierarchies  (making  the  end
              result more closely match a fresh copy).

              This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
              copy unchanged files found in DIR to the  destination  directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination while leaving existing files intact, and then  doing
              a  flash-cutover  when  all  files have been successfully trans-

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be  provided,  which  will
              cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an
              unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but  unchanged  files  are
              hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                  rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If file's aren't linking, double-check their  attributes.   Also
              check  if  some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
              control, such a mount option that  squishes  root  to  a  single
              user,  or  mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
              as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20  such
              directories).   If  a  match  is  found  that  differs  only  in
              attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If
              a  match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be
              selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              This option works best when copying into  an  empty  destination
              hierarchy,  as  existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
              and that can affect alternate destination files via  hard-links.
              Also,  itemizing  of  changes  can get a bit muddled.  Note that
              prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
              never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
              tion file already exists.

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,  rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file,  never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had  a  bug  that  could
              prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a non-super-user
              when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You  can  work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       --compress, -z
              With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
              to the destination machine, which reduces  the  amount  of  data
              being  transmitted --  something that is useful over a slow con-

              Rsync supports multiple compression methods and will choose  one
              for  you unless you force the choice using the --compress-choice
              (--zc) option.

              Run rsync --version to see the default  compress  list  compiled
              into your version.

              When  both  sides  of  the  transfer  are  at least 3.2.0, rsync
              chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that
              is  also in the server's list of choices.  If no common compress
              choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync
              is  too old to support checksum negotiation, its list is assumed
              to be "zlib".

              The default order can be customized by setting  the  environment
              variable   RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST  to  a  space-separated  list  of
              acceptable compression names.  If  the  string  contains  a  "&"
              character,  it  is  separated  into  the "client string & server
              string", otherwise the same string  applies  to  both.   If  the
              string  (or  string  portion) contains no non-whitespace charac-
              ters, the default compress list is used.  Any  unknown  compres-
              sion  names  are  discarded  from the list, but a list with only
              invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

              There are some older rsync  versions  that  were  configured  to
              reject a -z option and require the use of -zz because their com-
              pression library was not compatible with the default  zlib  com-
              pression  method.   You can usually ignore this weirdness unless
              the rsync server complains and tells you to specify -zz.

              See also the --skip-compress option for the default list of file
              suffixes  that will be transferred with no (or minimal) compres-

       --compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
              This option can be used to override the automatic negotiation of
              the  compression  algorithm that occurs when --compress is used.
              The option implies --compress unless "none" was specified, which
              instead implies --no-compress.

              The compression options that you may be able to use are:

              o      zstd

              o      lz4

              o      zlibx

              o      zlib

              o      none

              Run  rsync --version  to  see the default compress list compiled
              into your version (which may differ from the list above).

              Note that if you see an error about an option  named  --old-com-
              press or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send the --com-
              press-choice=zlib or --compress-choice=zlibx option in  a  back-
              ward-compatible  manner  that  more  rsync  versions understand.
              This error indicates that the older rsync version on the  server
              will not allow you to force the compression type.

              Note  that  the "zlibx" compression algorithm is just the "zlib"
              algorithm with matched data excluded from the compression stream
              (to  try to make it more compatible with an external zlib imple-

       --compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
              Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z)
              instead of letting it default.  The --compress option is implied
              as long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress" level  for
              the  compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib compres-
              sion treats level 0 as "off").

              The level values vary  depending  on  the  checksum  in  effect.
              Because  rsync will negotiate a checksum choice by default (when
              the remote rsync is new enough), it can be good to combine  this
              option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option unless you're sure
              of the choice in effect.  For example:

                  rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

              For zlib & zlibx compression the valid values are from  1  to  9
              with  6  being the default.  Specifying 0 turns compression off,
              and specifying -1 chooses the default of 6.

              For zstd compression the valid values are  from  -131072  to  22
              with 3 being the default. Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3.

              For  lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is always

              If you specify a too-large or too-small  value,  the  number  is
              silently  limited  to a valid value.  This allows you to specify
              something like --zl=999999999 and be assured that you'll end  up
              with  the maximum compression level no matter what algorithm was

              If you want to know the compression level  that  is  in  effect,
              specify  --debug=nstr  to  see  the "negotiated string" results.
              This     will     report     something     like     "Client com-
              press: zstd (level 3)"   (along  with  the  checksum  choice  in

              Override the list of file suffixes that will  be  compressed  as
              little  as possible.  Rsync sets the compression level on a per-
              file basis based on the file's suffix.  If the compression algo-
              rithm  has  an "off" level (such as zlib/zlibx) then no compres-
              sion occurs for those  files.   Other  algorithms  that  support
              changing the streaming level on-the-fly will have the level min-
              imized to reduces the CPU usage as much as possible for a match-
              ing  file.   At this time, only zlib & zlibx compression support
              this changing of levels on a per-file basis.

              The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without  the  dot)
              separated  by  slashes  (/).  You may specify an empty string to
              indicate that no files should be skipped.

              Simple character-class matching is supported: each must  consist
              of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no spe-
              cial meaning).

              The  characters  asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no spe-
              cial meaning.

              Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1  of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


              The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in this ver-
              sion of rsync are:

                  3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv  gpg
                  gz iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v
                  m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg
                  mpv  mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv ogx
                  opus otg oth otp ots ott oxt png qt  rar  rpm  rz  rzip  spx
                  squashfs  sxc sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz tzo
                  vob war webm webp xz z zip zst

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
              but  one  situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
              skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
              list may be configured to a different default).

              With  this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
              rather than using user and group names and mapping them at  both

              By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to deter-
              mine what ownership to give files.  The special uid  0  and  the
              special  group  0  are never mapped via user/group names even if
              the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match  on  the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also  the  comments  on  the
              "use chroot"  setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These  options allow you to specify users and groups that should
              be mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The STRING  is
              one  or  more  FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any
              matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO  value
              from  the  receiver.   You may specify usernames or user IDs for
              the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be  a  wild-
              card  string,  which  will be matched against the sender's names
              (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers,  though  see  below
              for  why  a  '*' matches everything).  You may instead specify a
              range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For exam-

                  --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
              specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap  option,
              and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

              Note  that  the  sender's  name for the 0 user and group are not
              transmitted to the receiver, so you should  either  match  these
              values  using  a  0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
              side (typically "root").  All other FROM names  match  those  in
              use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
              receiving side.

              Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are  treated
              as  having  an  empty  name  for  the purpose of matching.  This
              allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For

                  --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When  the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send
              any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an  empty  name.
              This  means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if
              you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

              For the --usermap option to have any effect,  the  -o  (--owner)
              option  must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
              be running as a super-user (see also the  --fake-super  option).
              For  the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups)
              option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need  to
              have permissions to set that group.

              If  your shell complains about the wildcards, use --protect-args

              This option forces all files to be  owned  by  USER  with  group
              GROUP.   This  is  a  simpler interface than using --usermap and
              --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using  those  options
              internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
              is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.   If
              GROUP  is  empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER
              is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.

              If you specify "--chown=foo:bar", this is exactly  the  same  as
              specifying  "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.  If
              your shell complains about  the  wildcards,  use  --protect-args

              This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit.  The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
              wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.   If  the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect-
              ing to an rsync daemon.  The  --address  option  allows  you  to
              specify  a  specific  IP  address (or hostname) to bind to.  See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
              the  default  of  873.  This is only needed if you are using the
              double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon  (since
              the  URL  syntax  has a way to specify the port as a part of the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
              their  systems  to  the utmost degree.  You can set all sorts of
              socket options which may make  transfers  faster  (or  slower!).
              Read  the  man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to set.   By  default  no
              special socket options are set.  This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.

              This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a  remote
              shell  transport.   If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
              rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
              using  non-blocking  I/O.  (Note  that  ssh prefers non-blocking

              This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None  (aka
              Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
              tle as a single letter for the mode,  and  use  upper  or  lower

              The  main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line
              buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

       --itemize-changes, -i
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are  being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you  repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
              older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
              other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is  11  letters  long.
              The  general  format  is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
              replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
              file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the  remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A  >  means that a file is being transferred to the local
                     host (received).

              o      A c means that a local change/creation is  occurring  for
                     the  item  (such  as  the  creation of a directory or the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link  to  another  item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A  .  means that the item is not being updated (though it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area  con-
                     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
              directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S  for  a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The  other  letters in the string indicate if some attributes of
              the file have changed, as follows:

              o      "." - the attribute is unchanged.

              o      "+" - the file is newly created.

              o      " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn  to

              o      "?"  -  the  change  is unknown (when the remote rsync is

              o      A letter indicates an attribute is being updated.

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means either that a  regular  file  has  a  different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or special file has a changed value.  Note  that  if  you
                     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag will be present only for checksum-differing  regular

              o      A  s  means  the  size of a regular file is different and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated  to  the  sender's  value (requires --times).  An
                     alternate value of T means  that  the  modification  time
                     will  be  set  to the transfer time, which happens when a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                     symlink  is  changed and the receiver can't set its time.
                     (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client,  you  might  see
                     the  s  flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag
                     for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A p means the permissions are  different  and  are  being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv-

              o      A  g means the group is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      A u|n|b indicates the following information: u  means the
                     access (use) time is different and is  being  updated  to
                     the  sender's value (requires --atimes); n means the cre-
                     ate time (newness) is different and is being  updated  to
                     the  sender's  value  (requires  --crtimes); b means that
                     both the access and create times are being updated.

              o      The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

              o      The x means that the extended  attribute  information  is
                     being changed.

              One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will
              output the string  "*deleting"  for  each  item  that  is  being
              removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
              that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text  string
              containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
              with a percent (%) character.  A default  format  of  "%n%L"  is
              assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
              just the name of the file and, if the item is a link,  where  it
              points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name
              option,  which  will  mention  each  file,  dir,  etc. that gets
              updated in a significant way (a transferred  file,  a  recreated
              symlink/device,  or  a  touched directory).  In addition, if the
              itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string  (e.g.  if
              the  --itemize-changes  option  was  used), the logging of names
              increases to mention any item that is changed  in  any  way  (as
              long  as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the --item-
              ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
              fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
              in which case the logging is done  at  the  end  of  the  file's
              transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
              also specified, rsync will also output  the  name  of  the  file
              being  transferred  prior to its progress information (followed,
              of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a  file.
              This  is  similar  to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
              requested for the client side and/or the server side of  a  non-
              daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer log-
              ging will be enabled with a default format of  "%i  %n%L".   See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's  a  example  command that requests the remote side to log
              what is happening:

                  rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug  why  a  connection  is
              closing unexpectedly.

              This  allows  you  to specify exactly what per-update logging is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also  be  specified for this option to have any effect).  If you
              specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The default FORMAT used if  --log-file  is  specified  and  this
              option is not is '%i %n%L'.

              This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics on the
              file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-
              transfer  algorithm is for your data.  This option is equivalent
              to --info=stats2  if  combined  with  0  or  1  -v  options,  or
              --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files  is  the  count  of  all  "files" (in the
                     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
                     etc.   The  total  count  will  be  followed by a list of
                     counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For exam-
                     ple:  "(reg:  5,  dir:  3,  link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)"
                     lists the totals for  regular  files,  directories,  sym-
                     links, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0,
                     it is completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number of created files is the count of how many  "files"
                     (generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
                     The total count will be followed by a list of  counts  by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number of deleted files  is the count of how many "files"
                     (generic sense) were created  (as  opposed  to  updated).
                     The  total  count will be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
                     is  only  output  if deletions are in effect, and only if
                     protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of  nor-
                     mal  files  that  were updated via rsync's delta-transfer
                     algorithm, which does not include  dirs,  symlinks,  etc.
                     Note  that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.   This  does not count any size for directories
                     or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal data  is  how  much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to  recreate  the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched data  is  how  much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File list generation time  is  the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total bytes received  is  the  count  of  all non-message
                     bytes that rsync received by the  client  side  from  the
                     server  side.  "Non-message"  bytes  means  that we don't
                     count the bytes for a verbose  message  that  the  server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       --8-bit-output, -8
              This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
              the output instead of trying to test  them  to  see  if  they're
              valid  in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All
              control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,  regard-
              less of this option's setting.

              The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3  octal  dig-
              its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
              backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
              lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       --human-readable, -h
              Output  numbers  in  a  more human-readable format.  There are 3
              possible levels: (1) output numbers  with  a  separator  between
              each  set  of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on
              if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
              output  numbers  in  units  of 1000 (with a character suffix for
              larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

              The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
              the  level  by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
              numbers as pure digits) by  specifying  the  --no-human-readable
              (--no-h) option.

              The  unit  letters  that  are  appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
              (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For example,
              a  1234567-byte  file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
              that a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do
              not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0.
              Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a compara-
              ble manner in old and new versions as long as you didn't specify
              a --no-h option prior to  one  or  more  -h  options.   See  the
              --list-only option for one difference.

              By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted.  In some circumstances it  is  more
              desirable to keep partially transferred files.  Using the --par-
              tial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file  which  should
              make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

              A  better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
              to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the  partial  data
              (instead  of  writing  it  out to the destination file).  On the
              next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir  as  data
              to  speed  up  the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
              tial-dir  file  that  is  found for a file that is being updated
              will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending  files  without
              using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
              not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative  path
              (such  as  "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync create
              the partial-directory in the destination file's  directory  when
              needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is
              deleted.  Note that the directory is only removed  if  it  is  a
              relative pathname, as it is expected that an absolute path is to
              a directory that is reserved for partial-dir work.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An  example:  the
              above   --partial-dir   option   would  add  the  equivalent  of
              "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your  own  exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
              (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the  end  of  your
              other  rules,  or  (2)  you may wish to override rsync's exclude
              choice.  For instance, if you want to make  rsync  clean-up  any
              left-over  partial-dirs  that  may  be  lying around, you should
              specify --delete-after  and  add  a  "risk"  filter  rule,  e.g.
              -f 'R .rsync-partial/'.    (Avoid   using   --delete-before   or
              --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use  any  of  the
              left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not be writable by other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You can also set the  partial-dir  value  the  RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment  variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
              force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where  par-
              tial  files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
              and then just use the -P option  to  turn  on  the  use  of  the
              .rsync-tmp  dir  for partial transfers.  The only times that the
              --partial option does not look for this  environment  value  are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified  (see

              When  a  modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in the par-
              tial-dir, that partial file is now updated in-place  instead  of
              creating  yet  another  tmp-file copy (so it maxes out at dest +
              tmp instead of dest + partial + tmp).  This requires  both  ends
              of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0.

              For  the  purposes  of the daemon-config's "refuse options" set-
              ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
              refusal  of  the  --partial  option  can be used to disallow the
              overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,  while
              still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This  option puts the temporary file from each updated file into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all  the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in
              each file's destination directory, but if you've  specified  the
              --partial-dir  option, that directory will be used instead.  See
              the comments in the --partial-dir section for  a  discussion  of
              how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what
              you can do if you want rsync to cleanup  old  .~tmp~  dirs  that
              might be lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

              This  option  implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs the full
              file list in memory in order to be able to iterate  over  it  at
              the end.

              This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
              file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
              --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
              in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
              files  will  be put into a single directory if the path is abso-
              lute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy  (since
              the  delayed  updates  will  fail  if they can't be renamed into

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"  subdir
              for  an  update  algorithm  that  is  even  more atomic (it uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       --prune-empty-dirs, -m
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
              tories  from  the  file-list,  including nested directories that
              have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
              creation  of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
              rsync  is  recursively  scanning  a  hierarchy  of  files  using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note  that  the  use  of  transfer rules, such as the --min-size
              option, does not affect what goes into the file list,  and  thus
              does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
              directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
              However, keep in mind that excluded files  and  directories  can
              prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
              hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You  can  prevent  the pruning of certain empty directories from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this  option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept
              in the file-list:

                  --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's an example that copies all .pdf  files  in  a  hierarchy,
              only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
              .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
              ries  in  the  destination  are removed (note the hide filter of
              non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

                  rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
              more  time-honored options of --include='*/' --exclude='*' would
              work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is  more  natural
              to you).

              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              progress of the transfer.  This gives a bored user something  to
              watch.   With  a  modern  rsync  this  is the same as specifying
              --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings  for
              those      info      flags      takes      precedence      (e.g.
              "--info=flist0 --progress").

              While rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates  a
              progress line that looks like this:

                  782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In  this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of  110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These statistics can be  misleading  if  rsync's  delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will  probably  drop  dramatically when the receiver gets to the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish  than  the  receiver  estimated  as  it was finishing the
              matched part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes,  rsync  replaces  the  progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                  1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per  second  over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was
              the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
              sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
              see if they are up-to-date or not)  remaining  out  of  the  396
              total files in the file-list.

              In  an  incremental  recursion  scan, rsync won't know the total
              number of files in the file-list until it reaches  the  ends  of
              the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan,
              it will display a line with the text "ir-chk"  (for  incremental
              recursion  check)  instead  of  "to-chk" until the point that it
              knows the full size of the list, at which point it  will  switch
              to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the
              total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
              (and  each  time  it does, the count of files left to check will
              increase by the number of the files added to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
              pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
              a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs  statistics
              based  on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.  Use
              this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or  spec-
              ify  --info=name0)  if you want to see how the transfer is doing
              without scrolling the screen with a lot  of  names.  (You  don't
              need   to   specify  the  --progress  option  in  order  to  use

              Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync
              a signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.  On BSD systems, a SIG-
              INFO is generated by typing a Ctrl+T  (Linux  doesn't  currently
              support   a  SIGINFO  signal).   When  the  client-side  process
              receives one of those signals, it sets a flag to output a single
              progress  report  which is output when the current file transfer
              finishes (so it may take a little time if a big  file  is  being
              handled  when  the  signal  arrives).   A filename is output (if
              needed) followed by  the  --info=progress2  format  of  progress
              info.   If  you don't know which of the 3 rsync processes is the
              client process, it's OK to signal all of them  (since  the  non-
              client processes ignore the signal).

              CAUTION:  sending  SIGVTALRM  to an older rsync (pre-3.2.0) will
              kill it.

              This option allows you to provide a password  for  accessing  an
              rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
              file should contain just the password on  the  first  line  (all
              other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
              is world readable or if a root-run rsync command  finds  a  non-
              root-owned file.

              This  option does not supply a password to a remote shell trans-
              port such as ssh; to learn how to do that,  consult  the  remote
              shell's  documentation.   When accessing an rsync daemon using a
              remote shell as the  transport,  this  option  only  comes  into
              effect  after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e.
              if you have also specified a password  in  the  daemon's  config

              This  option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the "early
              exec" script on its stdin.  One possible use of this data is  to
              give  the script a secret that can be used to mount an encrypted
              filesystem (which you should unmount in the the "post-xfer exec"

              The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

              This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
              transferred.  This option is  inferred  if  there  is  a  single
              source  arg  and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
              (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
              a  file-listing  command, or (2) to be able to specify more than
              one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
              tion:  keep  in  mind  that  a  source  arg  with a wild-card is
              expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
              try to list such an arg without using this option. For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting  with  rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are
              affected by the --human-readable option.  By default  they  will
              contain  digit separators, but higher levels of readability will
              output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the  column
              width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
              for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just dig-
              its in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility  note:  when  requesting a remote listing of files
              from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may  encounter
              an  error  if  you  ask  for  a  non-recursive listing.  This is
              because a file listing implies the --dirs  option  w/o  --recur-
              sive,  and  older  rsyncs don't have that option.  To avoid this
              problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't  need
              to  expand  a  directory's  content),  or  turn on recursion and
              exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate  for
              the  data  sent  over the socket, specified in units per second.
              The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a  size
              multiplier,    and    may    be   a   fractional   value   (e.g.
              "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no suffix is specified, the value will be
              assumed  to  be  in  units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had
              been appended).  See the --max-size option for a description  of
              all the available suffixes.  A value of 0 specifies no limit.

              For  backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate  limit  will be
              rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate  smaller  than  1024
              bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync  writes  data  over  the socket in blocks, and this option
              both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and  tries
              to  keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit.  Some
              burstiness may be seen where rsync writes out a  block  of  data
              and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
              not be an accurate reflection on how  fast  the  data  is  being
              sent.   This  is because some files can show up as being rapidly
              sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show  up
              as  very  slow  when  the  flushing of the output buffer occurs.
              This may be fixed in a future version.

              This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified  num-
              ber of minutes has elapsed.

              Rsync  also  accepts  an earlier version of this option: --time-

              For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this  option
              to  the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of
              the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
              even  when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can
              tell the remote side about the time limit using  --remote-option
              (-M), should the need arise.

              This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified point
              in time has been reached. The date & time can be fully specified
              in   a   numeric   format  of  year-month-dayThour:minute  (e.g.
              2000-12-31T23:59) in the local timezone.  You may choose to sep-
              arate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

              The  value can also be abbreviated in a variety of ways, such as
              specifying a 2-digit year and/or leaving off various values.  In
              all cases, the value will be taken to be the next possible point
              in time where the supplied information matches.   If  the  value
              specifies  the  current time or a past time, rsync exits with an

              For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at midnight
              local  time),  "14:00"  specifies the next 2 P.M., "1" specifies
              the next 1st of the month at midnight, "31" specifies  the  next
              month where we can stop on its 31st day, and ":59" specifies the
              next 59th minute after the hour.

              For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this  option
              to  the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of
              the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
              even  when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can
              tell the remote side about the time limit using  --remote-option
              (-M),  should  the  need arise.  Do keep in mind that the remote
              host may have a different default timezone than your local host.

              Record a file that can later be  applied  to  another  identical
              destination with --read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              This option overrides the negotiated checksum &  compress  lists
              and  always negotiates a choice based on old-school md5/md4/zlib
              choices.  If you want a more modern choice, use the  --checksum-
              choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc) options.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
              transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
              portable  media:  if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
              tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data  to  be
              diverted  from  the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
              remote, and thus can't write the batch).

              Apply  all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen-
              erated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data  will  be
              read  from  standard  input.  See  the  "BATCH MODE" section for

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
              creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
              --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the  rsync
              on the reading system).

              Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
              option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
              default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
              can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
              remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This  order
              ensures  that the option will stay the same whether you're push-
              ing or pulling files.  Finally, you  can  specify  either  --no-
              iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The
              default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be
              affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
              ports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans-
              late  the  filenames  you  specify  on the command-line that are
              being sent to  the  remote  host.   See  also  the  --files-from

              Note  that  rsync  does not do any conversion of names in filter
              files (including include/exclude files).  It is  up  to  you  to
              ensure  that  you're specifying matching rules that can match on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
              include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences on the
              two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that  allows
              it,  the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" con-
              figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you  actu-
              ally  pass.   Thus,  you may feel free to specify just the local
              charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running
              ssh.   This  affects sockets that rsync has direct control over,
              such as the outgoing socket when directly  contacting  an  rsync
              daemon,  as well as the forwarding of the -4 or -6 option to ssh
              when rsync can deduce that ssh  is  being  used  as  the  remote
              shell.   For  other  remote  shells  you'll  need to specify the
              "--rsh SHELL -4" option directly  (or  whatever  ipv4/ipv6  hint
              options it uses).

              These options also exist in the --daemon mode section.

              If  rsync  was  complied  without  support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.   The  rsync --version  output  will
              contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

              Set  the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
              seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
              (the  more  modern  MD5  file  checksums  don't use a seed).  By
              default the  checksum  seed  is  generated  by  the  server  and
              defaults  to  the  current time().  This option is used to set a
              specific checksum seed, which is useful  for  applications  that
              want  repeatable  block checksums, or in the case where the user
              wants a more random checksum seed.   Setting  NUM  to  0  causes
              rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This  tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
              start running may be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If  standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
              being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from  the  current
              terminal  and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
              the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a  client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon  with  the  --daemon option.  The --address option allows
              you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
              This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
              --config option.  See also the "address" global  option  in  the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
              specify  a  smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
              allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for some
              extra details.

              This  specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
              is only relevant when --daemon is  specified.   The  default  is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf  unless  the  daemon  is  running over a remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
              case  the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typi-
              cally $HOME).

       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M
              This option can be used to set a  daemon-config  parameter  when
              starting  up  rsync  in daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding
              the parameter at the end of the global  settings  prior  to  the
              first module's definition.  The parameter names can be specified
              without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid

              When running as a daemon, this option  instructs  rsync  to  not
              detach  itself  and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and  may  also  be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom-
              mended  when  rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no
              effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
              listen  on  rather than the default of 873.  See also the "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

              This  option  tells  the  rsync  daemon  to use the given FORMAT
              string instead of using the "log format" setting in  the  config
              file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options  setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       --verbose, -v
              This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
              during its startup phase.  After the client connects,  the  dae-
              mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
              client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
              fig section.

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
              ets that the rsync daemon will use to  listen  for  connections.
              One  of these options may be required in older versions of Linux
              to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
              already  in  use" error when nothing else is using the port, try
              specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              These options also exist in the regular rsync options section.

              If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the  --ipv6
              option  will  have  no  effect.  The rsync --version output will
              contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

       --help, -h
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page  describ-
              ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to trans-
       fer (include) and which files to  skip  (exclude).   The  rules  either
       directly  specify  include/exclude  patterns  or  they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer  is  built,  rsync  checks
       each  name  to  be transferred against the list of include/exclude pat-
       terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is  an
       exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then that filename is not skipped; if no  matching  pattern  is  found,
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either  short  or  long  RULE  names,  as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows  (when present) must come after either a single space or an under-
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

       exclude, '-'
              specifies an exclude pattern.

       include, '+'
              specifies an include pattern.

       merge, '.'
              specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.

       dir-merge, ':'
              specifies a per-directory merge-file.

       hide, 'H'
              specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.

       show, 'S'
              files that match the pattern are not hidden.

       protect, 'P'
              specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.

       risk, 'R'
              files that match the pattern are not protected.

       clear, '!'
              clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as  are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note  that  the --include & --exclude command-line options do not allow
       the full range of rule parsing as described above --  they  only  allow
       the  specification  of  include  / exclude patterns plus a "!" token to
       clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from
       a  file).   If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ "
       (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as  if  "+ "  (for  an
       include  option)  or  "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the
       string.  A --filter option, on the  other  hand,  must  always  contain
       either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each.  To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from / --exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-",  etc.  filter  rules  (as  introduced  in the FILTER RULES section
       above).  The include/exclude rules  each  specify  a  pattern  that  is
       matched  against  the  names  of  the files that are going to be trans-
       ferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
              lar  spot  in  the  hierarchy  of files, otherwise it is matched
              against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^
              in  regular  expressions.  Thus /foo would match a name of "foo"
              at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule)  or  in
              the  merge-file's  directory  (for  a  per-directory  rule).  An
              unqualified foo would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree
              because  the algorithm is applied recursively from the top down;
              it behaves as if each path component gets a turn  at  being  the
              end  of the filename.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match
              at any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found  within  a
              directory   named   "sub".    See   the   section  on  ANCHORING
              INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
              a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern  ends with a / then it will only match a direc-
              tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match  and  wildcard
              matching  by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
              wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a  '['  introduces  a  character  class,  such   as   [a-z]   or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild-
              card character, but it is matched literally  when  no  wildcards
              are  present.   This means that there is an extra level of back-
              slash removal when a pattern contains wildcard  characters  com-
              pared to a pattern that has none.  e.g. if you add a wildcard to
              "foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you would  need  to  use
              "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       o      if  the  pattern  contains  a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
              "**", then it is matched against the  full  pathname,  including
              any  leading directories.  If the pattern doesn't contain a / or
              a "**", then it is matched only against the final  component  of
              the  filename.  (Remember  that  the algorithm is applied recur-
              sively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a  path
              from the starting directory on down.)

       o      a  trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
              "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the  directory
              (as  if  "dir_name/**"  had  been specified).  This behavior was
              added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied  by
       -a),  every  subdir  component  of every path is visited left to right,
       with each directory having a chance for exclusion before  its  content.
       In  this  way  include/exclude  patterns are applied recursively to the
       pathname of each node in the filesystem's tree (those inside the trans-
       fer).  The exclude patterns short-circuit the directory traversal stage
       as rsync finds the files to send.

       For instance, to include "/foo/bar/baz",  the  directories  "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar"  must not be excluded.  Excluding one of those parent direc-
       tories prevents the examination of its  content,  cutting  off  rsync's
       recursion into those paths and rendering the include for "/foo/bar/baz"
       ineffectual (since rsync can't match something it  never  sees  in  the
       cut-off section of the directory hierarchy).

       The  concept  path  exclusion  is  particularly  important when using a
       trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't work:

           + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
           + /file-is-included
           - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by  the  '*'
       rule,  so  rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the  hierarchy  to  be  included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps  use  the  --prune-empty-
       dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include rules for all
       the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For  instance,  this  set  of
       rules works fine:

           + /some/
           + /some/path/
           + /some/path/this-file-is-found
           + /file-also-included
           - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo"  would  exclude  a file (or directory) named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
              levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc-

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named  bar  two  or  more
              levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc-

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include  all
              directories  and  C  source files but nothing else (see also the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of  "+ foo/",  "+ foo/bar.c",  and  "- *"  would
              include  only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule  should  be  matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the  passwd  file  any  time  the
              transfer  was  sending  files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
              "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A  C  is  used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
              should be inserted as excludes in place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
              should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
              side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents  files
              from  being  transferred.   The  default is for a rule to affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default  rules  become  sender-side only.  See also the hide (H)
              and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify  send-
              ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an  alternate  way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A  p  indicates  that  a  rule is perishable, meaning that it is
              ignored in directories that are being  deleted.   For  instance,
              the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and
              "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
              that  was removed on the source from being deleted on the desti-

       o      An x  indicates  that  a  rule  affects  xattr  names  in  xattr
              copy/delete  operations  (and  is  thus  ignored  when  matching
              file/dir names).  If no xattr-matching rules  are  specified,  a
              default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option).

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in  the  FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-
       directory (':').  A single-instance merge file is read  one  time,  and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan  every  directory
       that  it  traverses  for  the named file, merging its contents when the
       file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory  rule  files must be created on the sending side because it is the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These  rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side
       if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

           merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
           . /etc/rsync/default.rules
           dir-merge .per-dir-filter
           dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
           :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A  - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  C  is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-
              compatible manner.  This turns on 'n', 'w', and  '-',  but  also
              allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
              name is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto-

       o      A w specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split  on  whitespace
              instead  of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off com-
              ments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the  rule
              is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for  the  "+"  or  "-"
              rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
              the file default to having that modifier set (except for  the  !
              modifier,  which  would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
              .excl" would  treat  the  contents  of  .excl  as  absolute-path
              excludes,  while  "dir-merge,s  .filt" and ":sC" would each make
              all their per-directory rules apply only on  the  sending  side.
              If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r mod-
              ifier or both), then the rules in  the  file  must  not  specify
              sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was  used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set  of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so  it
       is  possible  to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read  from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's  an  example  filter  file  which  you'd  specify   via   --fil-
       ter=". file":

           merge /home/user/.global-filter
           - *.gz
           dir-merge .rules
           + *.[ch]
           - *.o
           - foo*

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a  per-
       directory  filter  file.   All  rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading  slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
       ent  dirs  from  that  starting point to the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is  a  common  filter
       (see -F):

           --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to  the  start  of  the normal directory scan of the file in the
       directories that are sent as a part of  the  transfer.  (Note:  for  an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

           rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and  its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and only looks  for  the  ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C)  option's  inclusion  of  the  per-
       directory  .cvsignore  file  gets placed into your rules by putting the
       ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would
       add  the  dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your
       other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line  rules).
       For example:

           cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
           + foo.o
           - *.old
           rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of  the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C instead  of  being  subservient  to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g.  "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"  filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the  rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think of the
       transfer as a subtree of names that  are  being  sent  from  sender  to
       receiver,  the  transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root governs  where  patterns  that
       start with a / match.

       Because  the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the  --relative
       option  affects  the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
           +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
           Target file: /dest/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/bar/baz

           Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
           +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

           Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

       Without  a  delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude  the  merge  files  them-
       selves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two  equivalent  com-

           rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,  because  this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it  tries  to  delete

           rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or  you'll  need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is  this  (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

           rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
              --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files  to  control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems.  Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.  In order to do
       this  using  batch  mode,  rsync  is run with the write-batch option to
       apply the changes made to the source tree to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.   The  write-batch  option causes the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all  the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi-
       ple  destination  trees.   Multicast transport protocols can be used to
       transfer the batch update files in parallel  to  many  hosts  at  once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For your convenience, a script file is also  created  when  the  write-
       batch  option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with
       ".sh" appended.  This script file contains a command-line suitable  for
       updating a destination tree using the associated batch file.  It can be
       executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally  passing  in
       an  alternate  destination  tree pathname which is then used instead of
       the original destination path.  This is  useful  when  the  destination
       tree  path  on the current host differs from the one used to create the
       batch file.


           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ scp foo* remote:
           $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to   update   /adest/dir/   from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
              local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host  using
              either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax, as

       o      The first example uses the created  "foo.sh"  file  to  get  the
              right  rsync  options when running the read-batch command on the
              remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
              that  the  batch  file  doesn't  need to be copied to the remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
              the script file if you wished to make use of it  (just  be  sure
              that  no  other  option is trying to use standard input, such as
              the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination  trees
       is  encountered  the  update  might be discarded with a warning (if the
       file appears to be  up-to-date  already)  or  the  file-update  may  be
       attempted  and  then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a  read-
       batch  operation  if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and  date,  use  the  -I  option (when reading the batch).  If an error
       occurs, the destination tree will probably be in  a  partially  updated
       state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
       if the protocol version in the batch file is too  new  for  the  batch-
       reading  rsync  to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a way to
       have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older  rsync  can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file,  rsync  will  force  the  value  of  certain
       options  to  match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
       the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and  the  --filter  /  --include  /  --exclude
       options are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The   code   that   creates  the  BATCH.sh  file  transforms  any  fil-
       ter/include/exclude options into a single list that is  appended  as  a
       "here"  document  to  the  shell script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script as an easy way to  run  the  appropriate  --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when  rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not  transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe"  and  "unsafe"  symbolic  links.   An
       example  where  this  might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
       ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not  include  symbolic
       links  to /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.  Using --copy-
       unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file  they  point
       to  on  the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links to
       be omitted altogether. (Note that you must specify --links for  --safe-
       links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic  links  are  considered  unsafe  if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough  ".."   components  to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe  sym-

              Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe sym-

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
       tic.   The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol ver-
       sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote  shell
       facility  producing  unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
       for its transport.  The way to diagnose this problem  is  to  run  your
       remote shell like this:

           ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file.  If you are getting the above error  from
       rsync  then  you  will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is  producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output  statements  for  non-
       interactive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity  rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested  action  not supported: an attempt was made to manipu-
              late 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or  an
              option  was specified that is supported by the client and not by
              the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
              terns  in  .cvsignore  files.   See the --cvs-exclude option for
              more details.

              Specify a default --iconv setting using this  environment  vari-
              able. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

              Specify  a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args
              option to be enabled by default, or a zero value  to  make  sure
              that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

              The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
              default shell used as the transport  for  rsync.   Command  line
              options  are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
              mon.  You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password  allows  you  to
              run  authenticated  rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
              user intervention.  Note that this does not supply a password to
              a  remote  shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
              consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to  determine
              the  default  username  sent  to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
              set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
              .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | network/rsync    |
       |Stability      | Volatile         |

       rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5)

       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred  as  native  numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at https://rsync.samba.org/.

       This man page is current for version 3.2.3 of rsync.

       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by  a  user  under  normal  circumstances.   Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that  can  only  run  an  rsync  command.   For
       instance,  the support directory of the rsync distribution has an exam-
       ple script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with  a
       restricted ssh login.

       rsync  is  distributed  under  the GNU General Public License.  See the
       file COPYING for details.

       A web site is available at https://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic  which  may  cover  questions unanswered by this manual

       We would be delighted to hear  from  you  if  you  like  this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

       This  program  uses  the  excellent zlib compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen,  Matt  McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
       Terpstra,  David  Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell  and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by
       Wayne Davison.

       Mailing  lists  for  support   and   development   are   available   at

       Source  code  for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source                was                downloaded                from

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://rsync.samba.org/.

rsync 3.2.3                       06 Aug 2020                         rsync(1)