# man pages section 1: User Commands

Updated: Wednesday, July 27, 2022

## rsync (1)

### Name

rsync - copying tool

### Synopsis

Local:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
instead of copying.

### Description

rsync(1)                         User Commands                        rsync(1)

NAME
rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

SYNOPSIS
Local:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files

DESCRIPTION
Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a  "quick  check"
algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other   preserved
attributes  (as  requested by options) are made on the destination file
directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data  does  not
need to be updated.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-
sions

o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would
ignore

o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

o      does not require super-user privileges

o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
mirroring)

GENERAL
Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
current  host  (it  does  not  support copying files between two remote
hosts).

There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
using  a  remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell  trans-
port  is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single
colon (:) separator after a host specification.   Contacting  an  rsync
daemon  directly happens when the source or destination path contains a
double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this  latter
rule).

As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote

Rsync refers to the local side as the client and the remote side as the
server.  Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is always
a server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned
process.

SETUP
See the file README.md for installation instructions.

Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can  access
via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
for  its  communications, but it may have been configured to use a dif-
ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination
machines.

USAGE
You use rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify  a  source
and a destination, one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

rsync -t *.c foo:src/

This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
directory to the directory src on the machine foo.  If any of the files
already  exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
col is used to update the file by sending only the differences  in  the
data.   Note  that the expansion of wildcards on the command-line (*.c)
into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs  rsync  and
not  by  rsync  itself  (exactly the same as all other Posix-style pro-
grams).

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
the  machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
The files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures that  symbolic
links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved
in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to reduce  the
size of data portions of the transfer.

rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

A  trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating
an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think  of  a
trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
as opposed to "copy the directory by  name",  but  in  both  cases  the
attributes  of the containing directory are transferred to the contain-
ing directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the  follow-
ing  commands copies the files in the same way, including their setting
of the attributes of /dest/foo:

rsync -av /src/foo /dest
rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

Note also that host and module  references  don't  require  a  trailing
slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

rsync -av host: /dest
rsync -av host::module /dest

You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both  the  source  and
destination don't have a ':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like
an improved copy command.

Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a  par-
ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

See the following section for more details.

The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the  first,
or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

Older  versions  of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
these examples:

rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest  rsync,  but
is not as easy to use as the first method.

If  you  need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
the  whitespace  in  a  way that the remote shell will understand.  For
instance:

rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON
It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as  the  trans-
port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
typically using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be
running  on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON
TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

Using rsync in this way is the same as using it  with  a  remote  shell
except that:

o      you  either  use  a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con-
nect.

o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option (since that overrides
the daemon connection to use ssh -- see USING RSYNC-DAEMON  FEA-
TURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION below).

An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

rsync -av host::src /dest

Some  modules  on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If so,
you will receive a password prompt when you connect.  You can avoid the
the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
may be useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
users.  On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the  envi-
ronment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
connections to port 873.

You  may  also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
you  wish  to  run  in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
in  the  rsync  command  (so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
string).  For example:

export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
which  forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
ost (%H).

Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment  variable  is  set,  that
program  will  be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of
using the default shell of the system() call.

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
as  named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
into a system (other than what is already  required  to  allow  remote-
shell  access).   Rsync  supports  connecting  to a host using a remote
shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server  that  expects  to
read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be
useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
the  daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
to use features such as chroot or change the uid used  by  the  daemon.
(For  another  way  to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to
tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure  a  normal  rsync
daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

From  the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con-
nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
mon  transfer,  with  the only exception being that you must explicitly
set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
functionality.) For example:

rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying the rsync-user
value (for a module that  requires  user-based  authentication).   This
means  that  you  must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying
the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
--rsh option:

rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
used to log-in to the "module".

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
port).   For  full  information on how to start a daemon that will han-
dling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5)  man  page --
that  is  the  config  file  for  the  daemon, and it contains the full
details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-
figurations).

If  you're  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

SORTED TRANSFER ORDER
Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its  internal  transfer
list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
confuse  someone  when  the  files are transferred in a different order
than what was given on the command-line.

If you need a particular file  to  be  transferred  prior  to  another,
either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
--delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted  transfer  order,  but
does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

EXAMPLES
Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
"arvidsjaur".

To  synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile tar-
gets:

get:
rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
put:
rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
sync: get put

This allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
connection.   I  then  do  CVS  operations on the remote machine, which
saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-
mand:

rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

This is launched from cron every few hours.

OPTION SUMMARY
Here  is  a  short  summary  of the options available in rsync.  Please
refer to the detailed description below for a complete description.

--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
--debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
--stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
--quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
--no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
--checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
--archive, -a            archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
--no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
--recursive, -r          recurse into directories
--relative, -R           use relative path names
--no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
--backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
--inplace                update destination files in-place
--append                 append data onto shorter files
--append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
--dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
--mkpath                 create the destination's path component
--perms, -p              preserve permissions
--executability, -E      preserve executability
--chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
--acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
--xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
--owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
--group, -g              preserve group
--devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
--specials               preserve special files
-D                       same as --devices --specials
--times, -t              preserve modification times
--atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
--open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
--crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
--omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
--fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
--sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
--preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
--write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
--dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
--whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
--checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
--one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
--block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
--rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
--rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
--existing               skip creating new files on receiver
--ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
--remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
--del                    an alias for --delete-during
--delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
--delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
--delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
--delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
--delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
--delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
--ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
--delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
--ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
--force                  force deletion of dirs even if not empty
--max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
--max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
--min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
--max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
--partial                keep partially transferred files
--partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
--delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
--prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
--numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
--timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
--contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
--ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
--size-only              skip files that match in size
--modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
--temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
--fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
--compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
--copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
--compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
--compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
--compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
--skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
--cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
--filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
-F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
--exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
--include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
--include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
--files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
--from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
--protect-args, -s       no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
--copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
--port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
--outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
--stats                  give some file-transfer stats
--8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
--progress               show progress during transfer
-P                       same as --partial --progress
--itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
--remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
--out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
--log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
--log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
--early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
--list-only              list the files instead of copying them
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
--write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
--only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
--protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
--checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
--help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following  options
are accepted:

--daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
--dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
--no-detach              do not detach from the parent
--port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
--log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
--log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)

OPTIONS
Rsync  accepts  both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
letter) options.  The full list of the available options are  described
below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
are comma-separated.  Some options only have  a  long  variant,  not  a
short.   If  the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed
after the long variant, even though it must also be specified  for  the
short.   When  specifying  a  parameter,  you  can  either use the form
--option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.  The  parameter  may
need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the shell's command-
line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a  filename  is
substituted  by your shell, so --option=~/foo will not change the tilde
into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).

--help, -h (*)
Print a short help page  describing  the  options  available  in
rsync and exit.  (*) The -h short option will only invoke --help
when used without other options since it normally means --human-

--version, -V
Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.

The output includes the default list of checksum algorithms, the
default list of compression algorithms, a  list  of  compiled-in
capabilities,   a   link   to  the  rsync  web  site,  and  some

--verbose, -v
This option increases the amount of information  you  are  given
during  the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently.  A sin-
gle -v will give you information  about  what  files  are  being
transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
give you  information  on  what  files  are  being  skipped  and
should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
groups  of  --info  and  --debug options.  You can choose to use
these newer options in addition to, or in place of using  --ver-
bose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied settings
of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help  that
tells  you  exactly what flags are set for each increase in ver-
bosity.

However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
will  limit how high of a level the various individual flags can
be set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2,  then
any  info  and/or  debug flag that is set to a higher value than
what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level  in
the daemon's logging.

--info=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the informa-
tion output you want to see.  An individual  flag  name  may  be
followed  by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that out-
put, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
increasing  the  output  of  that  flag  (for those that support
higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the  available  flag
names,  what they output, and what flag names are added for each
increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

Note that --info=name's output is affected by  the  --out-format
and  --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
information on what is output and when.

This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the  server
side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
too  old  to  understand  them).   See  also the "max verbosity"
caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--debug=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control  over  the  debug
output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
by a level number, with 0 meaning  to  silence  that  output,  1
being  the  default  output level, and higher numbers increasing
the output of that flag (for those that support higher  levels).
Use  --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
output, and what flag names are added for each increase  in  the
verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

Note   that  some  debug  messages  will  only  be  output  when
--stderr=all is specified, especially those  pertaining  to  I/O
and buffer debugging.

Beginning  in  3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-forwarded to
the server side in order to allow you to specify different debug
values  for  each  side of the transfer, as well as to specify a
new debug option that is only present in one of the  rsync  ver-
sions.   If you want to duplicate the same option on both sides,
using brace expansion is an easy way to save  you  some  typing.
This works in zsh and bash:

rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

--stderr=errors|all|client
This  option  controls  which  processes output to stderr and if
info messages are also changed to stderr.  The mode strings  can
be  abbreviated, so feel free to use a single letter value.  The
3 possible choices are:

o      errors - (the default) causes all the rsync processes  to
send  an error directly to stderr, even if the process is
on the remote side of the transfer.   Info  messages  are
sent  to  the  client  side  via the protocol stream.  If
stderr is not available (i.e.  when  directly  connecting
with  a  daemon  via  a socket) errors fall back to being
sent via the protocol stream.

o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error)  to  get
written directly to stderr from all (possible) processes.
This causes stderr to become  line-buffered  (instead  of
raw) and eliminates the ability to divide up the info and
error messages by file handle.  For those doing debugging
or  using  several  levels  of verbosity, this option can
help to avoid clogging  up  the  transfer  stream  (which
should  prevent  any  chance  of  a  deadlock bug hanging
things up).  It also enables the outputting of  some  I/O
related debug messages.

o      client  -  causes  all  rsync  messages to be sent to the
client side via the protocol stream.  One client  process
outputs all messages, with errors on stderr and info mes-
sages on stdout.  This was the  default  in  older  rsync
versions, but can cause error delays when a lot of trans-
fer data is ahead of the  messages.   If  you're  pushing
files to an older rsync, you may want to use --stderr=all
since that idiom has been around for several releases.

This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version  also  began
the  forwarding  of  a  non-default  setting to the remote side,
though rsync uses the backward-compatible options  --msgs2stderr
and  --no-msgs2stderr  to represent the all and client settings,
respectively.  A newer rsync will continue to accept these older
option names to maintain compatibility.

--quiet, -q
This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
from  the  remote  server.   This option is useful when invoking
rsync from cron.

--no-motd
This option affects the information that is output by the client
at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of  modules
that  the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request
(due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

--ignore-times, -I
Normally  rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
size and have the  same  modification  timestamp.   This  option
turns  off  this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be
updated.

--size-only
This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding  files
that  need  to  be  transferred, changing it from the default of
transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
modified  time  to  just  looking for files that have changed in
size.  This is useful when starting to  use  rsync  after  using
another  mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve timestamps
exactly.

--modify-window=NUM, -@
When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats  the  timestamps  as
being  equal  if  they  differ by no more than the modify-window
value.  The default is 0, which matches  just  integer  seconds.
If  you  specify  a negative value (and the receiver is at least
version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.
Specifying  1  is  useful  for  copies  to/from  MS  Windows FAT
filesystems, because FAT represents times with a 2-second  reso-
lution  (allowing  times  to differ from the original by up to 1
second).

If you want all your transfers to default to comparing  nanosec-
onds, you can create a ~/.popt file and put these lines in it:

rsync alias -a -a@-1
rsync alias -t -t@-1

With  that  as  the default, you'd need to specify --modify-win-
dow=0 (aka -@0) to override it and ignore nanoseconds,  e.g.  if
you're  copying between ext3 and ext4, or if the receiving rsync
is older than 3.1.3.

--checksum, -c
This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
file  that  has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
data  in the files in the transfer, so this can slow things down
significantly (and this is prior to any  reading  that  will  be
done to transfer changed files)

The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
file-system scan that builds the list of  the  available  files.
The  receiver  generates  its  checksums when it is scanning for
changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
as  the corresponding sender's file: files with either a changed
size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
correctly  reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side by checking a
whole-file checksum that is generated  as  the  file  is  trans-
ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
file need to be updated?" check.

The  checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client and the
server, but can be overridden using either the --checksum-choice
(--cc)  option  or  an environment variable that is discussed in
that option's section.

--archive, -a
This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you
want  recursion  and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
being a notable omission).  The  only  exception  to  the  above
equivalence  is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r
is not implied.

Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

--no-OPTION
You  may  turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the
option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with  a
"no-":  only  options  that  are  implied by other options (e.g.
--no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in  various  cir-
cumstances  (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).
You may specify either the short or the long option  name  after
the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
(--owner), instead of converting  -a  into  -rlptgD,  you  could
specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

The order of the options is important: if you specify --no-r -a,
the -r option would end up being  turned  on,  the  opposite  of
-a --no-r.   Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
option are NOT positional, as it affects the  default  state  of
several  options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
--files-from option for more details).

--recursive, -r
This tells rsync to  copy  directories  recursively.   See  also
--dirs (-d).

Beginning  with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now
an incremental scan that uses much less memory than  before  and
begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo-
ries have been completed.  This incremental  scan  only  affects
our  recursion  algorithm,  and  does not change a non-recursive
transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends of the trans-
fer are at least version 3.0.0.

Some  options require rsync to know the full file list, so these
options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These  include:
--delete-before,    --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,   and
--delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode  when
you  specify  --delete  is now --delete-during when both ends of
the connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or  --delete-during
the --delete-delay option that is a  better  choice  than  using
--delete-after.

Incremental  recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recur-
sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

--relative, -R
Use relative paths.  This means that the full path names  speci-
fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
the last parts of the filenames.  This  is  particularly  useful
when  you want to send several different directories at the same
time.  For example, if you used this command:

rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote  machine.

rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path ele-
ments  are  called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the
"foo/bar" directories in the above example).

Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync  always  sends  these  implied
directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This  prevents
some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If  you
want  to  duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the sym-
link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
you're  dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
is  sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With
a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with  2.6.7),  you
can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

That  would  create  /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note
that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would  not
be abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need to use
a chdir to limit the source path.   For  example,  when  pushing
files:

(cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

(Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for  future  com-
mands.)  If  you're  pulling files from an older rsync, use this
idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

--no-implied-dirs
This option affects  the  default  behavior  of  the  --relative
option.   When  it  is  specified, the attributes of the implied
directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
fer.   This  means  that  the corresponding path elements on the
destination system are left unchanged if  they  exist,  and  any
missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
ences,  such  as being a symlink to a directory on the receiving
side.

For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from  entry  told
rsync  to  transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file", the directories
"path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is  used.   If
"path/foo"  is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the
receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate  it
as  a  directory,  and  receive the file into the new directory.
With   --no-implied-dirs,   the    receiving    rsync    updates
"path/foo/file"  using  the  existing path elements, which means
that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another  way
to  accomplish  this  link  preservation  is  to use the --keep-
in the rest of the transfer).

When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need
to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
you  request  and  you wish the implied directories to be trans-
ferred as normal directories.

--backup, -b
With this option, preexisting destination files are  renamed  as
each  file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
backup file goes and what (if any) suffix  gets  appended  using
the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-
times option will be forced on, and (2) if --delete is  also  in
effect  (without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a "protect"
filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your  exist-
ing  excludes  (e.g.  -f "P *~").   This will prevent previously
backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if you  are  sup-
plying  your  own  filter rules, you may need to manually insert
your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the list so
that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if
your rules specify a  trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of  *,  the
auto-added rule would never be reached).

--backup-dir=DIR
This  implies  the --backup option, and tells rsync to store all
backups in the specified directory on the receiving side.   This
can be used for incremental backups.  You can additionally spec-
ify a backup suffix using the  --suffix  option  (otherwise  the
files backed up in the specified directory will keep their orig-
inal filenames).

Note that if you specify a relative path, the  backup  directory
will  be  relative to the destination directory, so you probably
want to specify either an absolute path or a  path  that  starts
with  "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup dir
cannot go outside the module's path  hierarchy,  so  take  extra
care not to delete it or copy into it.

--suffix=SUFFIX
This  option  allows  you  to override the default backup suffix
used with the --backup (-b) option.  The default suffix is  a  ~
if  no  --backup-dir  was  specified,  otherwise  it is an empty
string.

--update, -u
This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the  destina-
tion  and  have  a  modified  time that is newer than the source
file. (If an existing destination file has a  modification  time
equal  to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are
different.)

Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
other  special files.  Also, a difference of file format between
the sender and receiver is always  considered  to  be  important
enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-
stamps.

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the

--inplace
This  option  changes  how  rsync transfers a file when its data
needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
new  copy  of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
destination file.

This has several effects:

o      Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
be visible through other hard links  to  the  destination
file.   Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files
onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in  a
"tug  of war" with the destination data changing back and
forth.

o      In-use binaries cannot be updated  (either  the  OS  will
prevent  this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent  state  during
the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
interrupted or if an update fails.

o      A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
While  a  super  user  can update any file, a normal user
needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
file for writing to be successful.

o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
reduced if some data in the destination file is overwrit-
ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later in the
file.  This does not apply if  you  use  --backup,  since
rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
file for the transfer.

WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing to use
this for a copy.

This option is useful for transferring large files  with  block-
based  changes  or  appended  data, and also on systems that are
disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-on-
write  filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire contents of
a file that only has minor changes.

The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
not  delete  the  file),  but  conflicts  with --partial-dir and
--delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-

--append
This  special  copy  mode only works to efficiently update files
that are known to be growing larger where any  existing  content
on  the  receiving side is also known to be the same as the con-
tent on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous if you
aren't  100% sure that all the files in the transfer are shared,
growing files.  You should thus use filter rules to ensure  that
you weed out any files that do not fit this criteria.

Rsync  updates these growing file in-place without verifying any
of the existing content in the file (it only verifies  the  con-
tent that it is appending).  Rsync skips any files that exist on
the receiving side that are not shorter than the associated file
on  the  sending  side  (which  means  that new files are trasn-
ferred).

This does not interfere with the updating of a  file's  non-con-
tent  attributes  (e.g.   permissions, ownership, etc.) when the
file does not need to be transferred, nor  does  it  affect  the
updating of any directories or non-regular files.

--append-verify
This  special  copy mode works like --append except that all the
data in the file is included in the checksum verification  (mak-
ing  it  much  less efficient but also potentially safer).  This
option can be dangerous if you aren't 100%  sure  that  all  the
files  in  the  transfer  are  shared,  growing  files.  See the
--append option for more details.

Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the  --append  option  worked  like
--append-verify,  so  if you are interacting with an older rsync
(or the transfer is using a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

--dirs, -d
Tell  the  sending  side  to  include  any  directories that are
encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without  this
option  or  the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directo-
ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
takes precedence.

The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
--list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
--recursive wasn't specified (so that directories  are  seen  in
the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
this off.

There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
(or   --old-d)   that   tells   rsync   to   use   a   hack   of
-r --exclude='/*/*' to get an  older  rsync  to  list  a  single
directory without recursing.

--mkpath
Create  a  missing  path component of the destination arg.  This
allows rsync to create multiple levels  of  missing  destination
dirs and to create a path in which to put a single renamed file.
Keep in mind that you'll need to supply a trailing slash if  you
want  the  entire  destination path to be treated as a directory
when copying a single arg (making rsync behave the same way that
existed).

For example, the following creates a copy of file foo as bar  in
the  sub/dir  directory,  creating  dirs  "sub" and "sub/dir" if
either do not yet exist:

rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

If you instead ran the following, it would have created file foo
in the sub/dir/bar directory:

rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

tination.

When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to  (the
referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
of rsync, this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
ries.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to  spec-
ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only
exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too  old  to
understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

This tells rsync to copy the referent  of  symbolic  links  that
point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
treated like ordinary files, and so  are  any  symlinks  in  the
source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no

Note that the cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which is
the  part of the path that rsync isn't mentioning in the verbose
output.  If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then the "subdir"
directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not the top of the
transfer (which is /src) so it is  legal  for  created  relative
symlinks  to  refer  to  other  names  inside the /src and /dest
directories.  If you instead copy "/src/subdir/" (with a  trail-
ing  slash)  to  "/dest/subdir" that would not allow symlinks to
any files outside of "subdir".

This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out-
side  the  copied tree.  All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give  unex-
pected results.

This  option  tells  rsync  to  (1)  modify  all symlinks on the
receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
(see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you  don't
quite  trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a sym-

The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
being used as long as that directory does not exist.  When  this
option  is  enabled,  rsync will refuse to run if that path is a
directory or a symlink to a directory.

The option only affects the client side of the transfer,  so  if
you  need  it  to  affect  the  server, specify it via --remote-
option. (Note that in a local transfer, the client side  is  the
sender.)

This  option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon config-
parameter.   See  also  the  "munge-symlinks" perl script in the
support directory of the source code.

This option causes the sending side to  treat  a  symlink  to  a
directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
you don't want symlinks to non-directories to  be  affected,  as

Without  this  option, if the sending side has replaced a direc-
tory with a symlink to a  directory,  the  receiving  side  will
delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in
effect).

ing side.

source.   If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
a  trailing  slash,  using --relative to make the paths match up
right.  For example:

rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on  the  source  arg  as
giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides  the
symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

This  option  causes  the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
directory as though it were a real directory,  but  only  if  it
matches  a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
directory.

For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
tains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to  directory  "bar"
keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must  trust
all the symlinks in the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted
user to create their own symlink  to  any  directory,  the  user
could  then  (on  a  subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a
real directory and affect the content of whatever directory  the
symlink references.  For backup copies, you are better off using
something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify  your
receiving hierarchy.

side.

This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
link together the corresponding files on the destination.  With-
out this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated  as
though they were separate files.

This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
links on the destination exactly matches  that  on  the  source.
Cases  in which the destination may end up with extra hard links
include the following:

o      If the destination contains extraneous  hard-links  (more
linking  than  what  is present in the source file list),
the copying algorithm will  not  break  them  explicitly.
However, if one or more of the paths have content differ-
ences, the normal file-update process  will  break  those
extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
--link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
tions.

Note  that  rsync  can only detect hard links between files that
are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file  that  has
extra  hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that
linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
your files are being updated so that you  are  certain  that  no
unintended  changes  happen due to lingering hard links (and see
the --inplace option for more caveats).

If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync  may
transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.   This
does  not  affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e. which files
are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
been found later in the transfer in another member of the  hard-
linked  set of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency is to
disable  incremental  recursion  using  the   --no-inc-recursive
option.

--perms, -p
This  option  causes  the receiving rsync to set the destination
permissions to be the same as the source permissions. (See  also
the  --chmod  option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
be the source permissions.)

When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

o      Existing files (including  updated  files)  retain  their
existing  permissions,  though the --executability option
might change just the execute permission for the file.

o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set  to  the
source  file's  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
directory's default  permissions  (either  the  receiving
process's  umask,  or  the  permissions specified via the
destination directory's default ACL), and  their  special
permission  bits  disabled except in the case where a new
directory inherits a setgid bit from  its  parent  direc-
tory.

Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
rsync's behavior is the same as that of other  file-copy  utili-
ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

In  summary:  to  give  destination files (both old and new) the
source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
unchanged), make sure that the --perms option  is  off  and  use
--chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures  that  all  non-masked bits get
enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier  to
type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the  -Z  option,
and  includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination
dir):

rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

You could then use this new option in a  command  such  as  this
one:

rsync -avZ src/ dest/

(Caveat:  make  sure  that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-
enable the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

The preservation of the destination's setgid bit  on  newly-cre-
ated  directories  when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.
Older rsync versions erroneously  preserved  the  three  special
permission  bits  for  newly-created files when --perms was off,
while overriding the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting  on  a
newly-created  directory.   Default  ACL observance was added to
the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7,  so  older  (or  non-ACL-enabled)
rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that  affects
these behaviors.)

--executability, -E
This  option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-
executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.   A
regular  file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x'
is turned on in its permissions.  When an  existing  destination
file's  executability  differs  from  that  of the corresponding
source file, rsync modifies the destination  file's  permissions
as follows:

o      To  make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
'x' permissions.

o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each  'x'  per-
mission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

--acls, -A
This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination ACLs to be
the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

The source and destination  systems  must  have  compatible  ACL
entries  for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-
ible.

Note, that rsync does not support NFSv4 ACLs.

--xattrs, -X
This  option  causes  rsync  to  update the destination extended
attributes to be the same as the source ones.

For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces,  a  copy
being  done  by  a  super-user copies all namespaces except sys-
tem.*.  A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.   To  be
able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
see the --fake-super option.

The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or  more
filter  options with the x modifier.  When you specify an xattr-
affecting filter rule, rsync requires that you do your own  sys-
tem/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for what
xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be deleted.
For example, to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

--filter='-x system.*'

To  skip  all  namespaces  except  the user namespace, you could
specify a negated-user match:

--filter='-x! user.*'

To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could  specify
a receiver-only rule that excludes all names:

--filter='-xr *'

Note that the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr val-
ues (e.g.  those used by --fake-super)  unless  you  repeat  the
option  (e.g.  -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used
with --fake-super.

--chmod=CHMOD
This option tells rsync to apply  one  or  more  comma-separated
"chmod"  modes  to  the permission of the files in the transfer.
The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
that  the  sending  side supplied for the file, which means that
this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
--perms is not enabled.

In  addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in the
chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
to  a  directory  by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item
that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  'F'.
For  example, the following will ensure that all directories get
marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both  are
user-writable  and group-writable, and that both have consistent
executability across all bits:

--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

--chmod=D2775,F664

It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to
make.

See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the trans-
fer.

--owner, -o
This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
file  to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiv-
ing rsync is being run as the super-user (see also  the  --super
and  --fake-super  options).   Without this option, the owner of
new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
receiving side.

The  preservation  of ownership will associate matching names by
default, but may fall back to using the ID number in  some  cir-
sion).

--group, -g
This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
file  to  be the same as the source file.  If the receiving pro-
gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
group  is  set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
receiving side.

The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
names  by  default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
discussion).

--devices
This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
files to the remote system  to  recreate  these  devices.   This
option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the

--specials
This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
sockets and fifos.

-D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

--write-devices
This  tells  rsync  to treat a device on the receiving side as a
regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device.

This option implies the --inplace option.

Be careful using this, as  you  should  know  what  devices  are
present  on  the  receiving  side of the transfer, especially if
running rsync as root.

This option is refused by an rsync daemon.

--times, -t
This tells rsync to transfer modification times along  with  the
files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
option is not used, the optimization that  excludes  files  that
have  not  been  modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
used  -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-
transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if  the
files  haven't  actually  changed,  you're much better off using
-t).

--atimes, -U
This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of  the  destina-
tion files to the same value as the source files.

If  repeated,  it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can
help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the same
access  times  on  the  transferred files without needing to run
rsync an extra time after a file is transferred.

Note that some older rsync versions (prior to  3.2.0)  may  have
been built with a pre-release --atimes patch that does not imply
--open-noatime when this option is repeated.

--open-noatime
This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on  sys-
tems  that  support it) to avoid changing the access time of the
files that are being transferred.  If your OS does  not  support
the  O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option.
Note also that some filesystems are mounted  to  avoid  updating
the  atime  on read access even without the O_NOATIME flag being
set.

--crtimes, -N,
This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the desti-
nation files to the same value as the source files.

--omit-dir-times, -O
This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early  creation
of  directories  in  incremental  recursion copies.  The default
--inc-recursive copying normally does an  early-create  pass  of
all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to
be able to then set the modify  time  of  the  parent  directory
right away (without having to delay that until a bunch of recur-
sive copying has finished).  This early-create idiom is not nec-
essary  if directory modify times are not being preserved, so it
is skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have  accurate
mode,  mtime, or ownership, the use of this option can help when
someone wants to avoid these partially-finished directories.

This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving  modifi-
cation times (see --times).

--super
This  tells  the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
activities  include:  preserving  users  via the --owner option,
preserving all groups (not just the current user's  groups)  via
the  --groups  option,  and  copying  devices  via the --devices
option.  This is useful for systems that allow  such  activities
without  being  the  super-user,  and also for ensuring that you
will get errors if the receiving side isn't  being  run  as  the
super-user.   To  turn off super-user activities, the super-user
can use --no-super.

--fake-super
When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user  activi-
ties  by  saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special
extended attributes that are attached to each file (as  needed).
This  includes  the  file's  owner  and  group (if it is not the
default), the file's device info (device  &  special  files  are
created  as  empty  text files), and any permission bits that we
won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g. the real file  gets
u-s,g-s,o-t  for  safety) or that would limit the owner's access
(since the real super-user can always access/change a file,  the
files  we  create can always be accessed/changed by the creating
user).  This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was  specified)
and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

This  is  a  good way to backup data without using a super-user,
and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

The --fake-super option only affects the side where  the  option
is  used.   To  affect the remote side of a remote-shell connec-
tion, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

For a local copy, this option affects both the  source  and  the
destination.   If  you  wish  a local copy to enable this option
just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If  you
wish  a  local  copy  to  enable this option just for the source
files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

file.

--sparse, -S
Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
space on the destination.  If combined with --inplace  the  file
created  might  not end up with sparse blocks with some combina-
tions of kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If --whole-file
is  in  effect  (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work
because rsync truncates  the  file  prior  to  writing  out  the
updated version.

Note  that  versions  of  rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the
combination of --sparse and --inplace.

--preallocate
This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
eventual  size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only
use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided  by
Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null  byte  into
each block.

Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
more  slowly.   If  the  destination is not an extent-supporting
filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
no positive effect at all.

If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse blocks
(as opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes) if the  kernel
version  and filesystem type support creating holes in the allo-
cated data.

--dry-run, -n
This makes rsync perform a  trial  run  that  doesn't  make  any
changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
is most commonly used in  combination  with  the  --verbose,  -v
and/or  --itemize-changes,  -i options to see what an rsync com-
mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's  a  bug.
Other  output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send  the  actual  data  for
file  transfers,  so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
"bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"  statistics
are  too  small,  and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
where no file transfers were needed.

--whole-file, -W
This option disables  rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm,  which
causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer may
be faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between  the
source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
tination are specified as local paths, but  only  if  no  batch-
writing option is in effect.

--checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
This option overrides the checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm
name is specified, it is used for both  the  transfer  checksums
and  (assuming  --checksum is specified) the pre-transfer check-
sums.  If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first name
affects  the transfer checksums, and the second name affects the
pre-transfer checksums (-c).

The checksum options that you may be able to use are:

o      auto (the default automatic choice)

o      xxh128

o      xxh3

o      xxh64 (aka xxhash)

o      md5

o      md4

o      none

Run rsync --version to see the default  checksum  list  compiled
into your version (which may differ from the list above).

If  "none"  is  specified  for  the  first  (or  only) name, the
--whole-file option is forced on and no checksum verification is
performed  on  the transferred data.  If "none" is specified for
the second (or only) name, the --checksum option cannot be used.

The "auto" option is the default, where rsync  bases  its  algo-
rithm  choice on a negotiation between the client and the server
as follows:

When both sides of  the  transfer  are  at  least  3.2.0,  rsync
chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that
is also in the server's list of choices.  If no common  checksum
choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync
is too old to support checksum negotiation, a  value  is  chosen
based  on  the  protocol  version (which chooses between MD5 and
various flavors of MD4 based on protocol age).

The default order can be customized by setting  the  environment
variable   RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST  to  a  space-separated  list  of
acceptable checksum names.  If the string contains a "&" charac-
ter,  it  is separated into the "client string & server string",
otherwise the same string applies to both.  If  the  string  (or
string  portion)  contains  no  non-whitespace  characters,  the
default checksum list is used.  This method does not  allow  you
to  specify the transfer checksum separately from the pre-trans-
fer checksum, and it discards "auto" and  all  unknown  checksum
names.  A list with only invalid names results in a failed nego-
tiation.

The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this  environ-
ment list.

--one-file-system, -x
This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
recursing.  This does not limit the user's  ability  to  specify
items  to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
and  also  the  analogous recursion on the receiving side during
deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
the same device as being on the same filesystem.

If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
ries from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
at  each  mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the
mounted directory because those of  the  underlying  mount-point
directory are inaccessible).

is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
unaffected by this option.

--existing, --ignore-non-existing
This tells rsync to skip creating files (including  directories)
that  do  not  exist  yet on the destination.  If this option is
combined with the --ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
updated  (which  can  be  useful if all you want to do is delete
extraneous files).

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the

--ignore-existing
This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or

This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the

This option can be useful for  those  doing  backups  using  the
--link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into  a  new
directory  hierarchy (when it is used properly), using --ignore-
existing will ensure that the already-handled  files  don't  get
tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

--remove-source-files
This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
(meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that
are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
in  a  particular directory over to another host, make sure that
the finished files get renamed into the  source  directory,  not
directly  written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer
a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first  write
the  files  into  a different directory, you should use a naming
idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not  yet
finished  (e.g.  name  the  file  "foo.new"  when it is written,
rename it to "foo" when it is done,  and  then  use  the  option
--exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

Starting  with  3.1.0,  rsync  will skip the sender-side removal
(and output an error) if the file's size or modify time has  not
stayed unchanged.

--delete
This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but  only  for  the
directories  that  are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
using  a  wildcard  for  the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*")
since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files' parent
directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
(see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
--recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
whose contents are being copied.

This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is  a  very
good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
see what files are going to be deleted.

If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
files on the  destination.   You  can  override  this  with  the
--ignore-errors option.

The  --delete  option  may be combined with one of the --delete-
WHEN options without conflict,  as  well  as  --delete-excluded.
However,  if  none  of  the --delete-WHEN options are specified,
rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking  to
rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and the --delete-before algorithm when
talking  to  an  older  rsync.   See  also  --delete-delay   and
--delete-after.

--delete-before
Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
more details on file-deletion.

Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
transfer  to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
that  requires  rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
memory at once (see --recursive).

--delete-during, --del
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
doing the deletions prior  to  any  per-directory  filter  files
being  updated.   This  option  was first added in rsync version
2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on
file-deletion.

--delete-delay
Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be com-
puted during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
than  using  --delete-after  (but  can behave differently, since
--delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass  after
all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
--delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive  is  doing  an
incremental  scan).   See  --delete  (which is implied) for more
details on file-deletion.

--delete-after
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
after  the  transfer  has  completed.  This is useful if you are
sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
and  you  want  their  exclusions  to take effect for the delete
phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
scan all the files in the transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see
--recursive).  See  --delete (which is implied) for more details
on file-deletion.

--delete-excluded
In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
for more details on file-deletion.

--ignore-missing-args
When rsync is first processing the explicitly  requested  source
files (e.g.  command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
is normally an error if the file cannot be found.   This  option
suppresses  that  error,  and does not try to transfer the file.
This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if  a  file
was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

--delete-missing-args
This  option  takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-miss-
ing-args option a step farther: each missing arg will  become  a
deletion  request  of  the corresponding destination file on the
receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination file is  a
non-empty  directory,  it  will  only be successfully deleted if
--force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option
is independent of any other type of delete processing.

The  missing  source  files are represented by special file-list
entries which display as a "*missing" entry in  the  --list-only
output.

--ignore-errors
Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
I/O errors.

--force
This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when  it
is  to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
when  using  --delete-after,  and  it  used to be non-functional
unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

--max-delete=NUM
This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
ries.   If  that  limit  is  exceeded, all further deletions are
skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync out-
puts  a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions) and
exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
condition also occurred).

Beginning  with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
be warned about any extraneous files in the destination  without
removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
ited", so if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
use  the  less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

--max-size=SIZE
This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
than the specified SIZE.  A numeric value can be suffixed with a
string  to  indicate  the  numeric  units or left unqualified to
specify bytes.  Feel free to use a fractional value  along  with
the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the

The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo), M
(mega),  G  (giga),  T  (tera), or P (peta).  If the string is a
single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g. "G" or "GiB") then the
units  are  multiples  of  1024.  If you use a two-letter suffix
that ends with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you  get  units  that  are
multiples of 1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper
and lower-case that you want to use.

Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is off-
set  by one byte in the indicated direction.  The largest possi-
ble value is usually 8192P-1.

Examples:  --max-size=1.5mb-1  is  1499999  bytes,  and   --max-
size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

Note  that  rsync  versions  prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-
size=0.

--min-size=SIZE
This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is  smaller
than  the  specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a  description
of SIZE and other information.

Note  that  rsync  versions  prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-
size=0.

--max-alloc=SIZE
By default rsync limits an individual  malloc/realloc  to  about
1GB  in  size.   For  most people this limit works just fine and
prevents a protocol  error  causing  rsync  to  request  massive
amounts  of memory.  However, if you have many millions of files
in a transfer, a large amount of server memory,  and  you  don't
want  to  split  up  your  transfer into multiple parts, you can
increase the per-allocation limit to something larger and  rsync
will consume more memory.

Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of allo-
cated memory.  It is a sanity-check value  for  each  individual
allocation.

See  the  --max-size option for a description of how SIZE can be
specified.  The default suffix if none is given is bytes.

Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

You can set a  default  value  using  the  environment  variable
RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC  using the same SIZE values as supported by this
option.  If the remote rsync doesn't understand the  --max-alloc
option,  you  can  override an environmental value by specifying
--max-alloc=1g, which will make rsync avoid sending  the  option
to the remote side (because "1G" is the default).

--block-size=SIZE, -B
This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected  based  on  the
size  of  each file being updated.  See the technical report for
details.

Beginning in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with  a  suffix  as
detailed in the --max-size option.  Older versions only accepted
a byte count.

--rsh=COMMAND, -e
This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
copies of rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use  ssh  by
default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

If  this  option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
remote shell connection, rather than  through  a  direct  socket
connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
the section "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CON-
NECTION" above.

Beginning  with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable
will be set when a daemon connection is being made via a remote-
shell  connection.  It is set to 0 if the default daemon port is
being assumed, or it is set to the value of the rsync port  that
was  specified  via either the --port option or a non-empty port
value in an rsync:// URL.  This allows the script to discern  if
a  non-default port is being requested, allowing for things such
as an SSL or stunnel helper script to connect to  a  default  or
alternate port.

Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single  argument.   You  must
use  spaces  (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the com-
mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-  and/or
double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not back-
slashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some exam-
ples:

-e 'ssh -p 2234'
-e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

(Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as
-e.

See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this
option.

--rsync-path=PROGRAM
Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
default      remote-shell's      path       (e.g.       --rsync-
path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that PROGRAM is run with the
help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or  command
sequence  you'd  care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the
standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to communicate.

One tricky example is to set a different  default  directory  on
the  remote  machine  for  use  with the --relative option.  For
instance:

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

--remote-option=OPTION, -M
This option is used for more advanced situations where you  want
certain  effects to be limited to one side of the transfer only.
For instance, if you want to pass  --log-file=FILE  and  --fake-
super to the remote system, specify it like this:

rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

If  you  want  to have an option affect only the local side of a
transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its  negation
to the remote side.  Like this:

rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

Be  cautious  using  this, as it is possible to toggle an option
that will cause rsync to have a different idea about  what  data
to  expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a
cryptic fashion.

Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for  each
option  you want to pass.  This makes your usage compatible with
the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
your remote options will be split by the remote shell unless you
take steps to protect them.

When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
and the "remote" side is the receiver.

Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
in them that prevents you from using an  adjacent  arg  with  an
equal  in  it  next  to  a  short  option  letter (e.g. -M--log-
file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your version of  popt,  you
can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

--cvs-exclude, -C
This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
that you often don't want to transfer between systems.  It  uses
a  similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to determine if a file should be
ignored.

The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following  items
(these  initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
RULES section):

RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*  tags TAGS  .make.state
.nse_depinfo  *~  #*  .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig
*.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z  *.elc  *.ln
core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace). Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace. See the cvs(1) manual for more information. If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command- line. This makes them a lower priority than any rules you spec- ified explicitly. If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --fil- ter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules). The first option turns on the per-directory scan- ning for the .cvsignore file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above. --filter=RULE, -f This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer- tain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer. You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule from its arg. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. -F The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter' This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files in the transfer. If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='exclude .rsync-filter' This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work. --exclude=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule- parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --exclude-from=FILE This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored. If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input. --include=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full rule- parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --include-from=FILE This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored. If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input. --files-from=FILE Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or '-' for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and directories easier: o The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off). o The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no- d if you want to turn that off). o The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it. o These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the command- line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options). The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this command: rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a). Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case). In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer". For example: rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host. If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset. NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventu- ally unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list ele- ments. --from0, -0 This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF. This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files- from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule. It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace). --protect-args, -s This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. This means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~,$, ;, &,
etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by  rsync
(instead of the shell doing it).

If  you  use  this  option with --iconv, the args related to the
remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
character-set.   The  translation  happens before wild-cards are

You may also control  this  option  via  the  RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
environment  variable.   If  this variable has a non-zero value,
this option will be enabled by default,  otherwise  it  will  be
disabled  by  default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
specified positive or negative version of this option (note that
--no-s  and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).  Since
this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need  to  make
sure  it's  disabled  if you ever need to interact with a remote
rsync that is older than that.

Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
enabled  by  default (with is overridden by both the environment
and the command-line).  Run rsync --version to check if this  is
the case, as it will display "default protect-args" or "optional
protect-args" depending on how it was compiled.

This option will eventually become a new default setting at some
as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

--copy-as=USER[:GROUP]
This  option  instructs  rsync to use the USER and (if specified
after a colon) the GROUP for the  copy  operations.   This  only
works  if  the  user  that  is  running rsync has the ability to
change users.  If the group is not  specified  then  the  user's
default groups are used.

This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being run as
root into or out of a directory that  might  have  live  changes
happening  to  it and you want to make sure that root-level read
or write actions of system files are not  possible.   While  you
could  alternatively  run  all  of  rsync as the specified user,
sometimes you need the root-level host-access credentials to  be
used,  so this allows rsync to drop root for the copying part of
the operation after the remote-shell  or  daemon  connection  is
established.

The  option  only  affects  one  side of the transfer unless the
transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides.  Use the
--remote-option  to  affect  the  remote side, such as -M--copy-
as=joe.  For a local transfer, the lsh (or lsh.sh) support  file
provides a local-shell helper script that can be used to allow a
"localhost:" or "lh:" host-spec to be specified without  needing
to  setup  any  remote  shells,  allowing  you to specify remote
options that affect the side of the transfer that is  using  the
host-spec  (and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding of the
remote directory to the user's home dir).

For example, the following rsync writes the local files as  user
"joe":

sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

This  makes  all files owned by user "joe", limits the groups to
those that are available to that user, and makes  it  impossible
for  the  joe user to do a timed exploit of the path to induce a
change to a file that the joe user has no permissions to change.

The following command does a local copy into the "dest/" dir  as
user  "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh into a dir on
your $PATH): sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/ --temp-dir=DIR, -T This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create each tempo- rary file in the same directory as the associated destination file. Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they will still have a random suffix added). This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer. In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not be able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the associated destination file, but instead must copy it into place. Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the destination file, which means that the destination file will contain truncated data during this copy. If this were not done this way (even if the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the same time. If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay- updates option, which will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer. If you don't have enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specifying a --par- tial-dir with an absolute path does not have this side-effect.) --fuzzy, -y This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination file that is missing. The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or a simi- larly-named file. If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer. If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in any matching alternate destination directories that are speci- fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest. Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this. --compare-dest=DIR This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the desti- nation directory). If a file is found in DIR that is identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination directory. This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup. This option is typically used to copy into an empty (or newly created) directory. Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match. If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans- fer. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --copy-dest and --link-dest. NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file from a non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact match is found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end result more closely match a fresh copy). --copy-dest=DIR This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files found in DIR to the destination directory using a local copy. This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully trans- ferred. Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an unchanged file. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --link-dest. --link-dest=DIR This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR to the destination directory. The files must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked together. An example: rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

If file's aren't linking, double-check their  attributes.   Also
check  if  some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
control, such a mount option that  squishes  root  to  a  single
user,  or  mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20  such
directories).   If  a  match  is  found  that  differs  only  in
attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If
a  match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be
selected to try to speed up the transfer.

This option works best when copying into  an  empty  destination
hierarchy,  as  existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
and that can affect alternate destination files via  hard-links.
Also,  itemizing  of  changes  can get a bit muddled.  Note that
prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-

Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,  rsync
files together as a substitute for transferring the file,  never
as an additional check after the file is updated.

If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination

Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had  a  bug  that  could
prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a non-super-user
when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You  can  work-around
this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

--compress, -z
With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
to the destination machine, which reduces  the  amount  of  data
being  transmitted --  something that is useful over a slow con-
nection.

Rsync supports multiple compression methods and will choose  one
for  you unless you force the choice using the --compress-choice
(--zc) option.

Run rsync --version to see the default  compress  list  compiled

When  both  sides  of  the  transfer  are  at least 3.2.0, rsync
chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that
is  also in the server's list of choices.  If no common compress
choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync
is  too old to support checksum negotiation, its list is assumed
to be "zlib".

The default order can be customized by setting  the  environment
variable   RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST  to  a  space-separated  list  of
acceptable compression names.  If  the  string  contains  a  "&"
character,  it  is  separated  into  the "client string & server
string", otherwise the same string  applies  to  both.   If  the
string  (or  string  portion) contains no non-whitespace charac-
ters, the default compress list is used.  Any  unknown  compres-
sion  names  are  discarded  from the list, but a list with only
invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

There are some older rsync  versions  that  were  configured  to
reject a -z option and require the use of -zz because their com-
pression library was not compatible with the default  zlib  com-
pression  method.   You can usually ignore this weirdness unless
the rsync server complains and tells you to specify -zz.

suffixes  that will be transferred with no (or minimal) compres-
sion.

--compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
This option can be used to override the automatic negotiation of
the  compression  algorithm that occurs when --compress is used.
The option implies --compress unless "none" was specified, which

The compression options that you may be able to use are:

o      zstd

o      lz4

o      zlibx

o      zlib

o      none

Run  rsync --version  to  see the default compress list compiled
into your version (which may differ from the list above).

Note that if you see an error about an option  named  --old-com-
press or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send the --com-
press-choice=zlib or --compress-choice=zlibx option in  a  back-
ward-compatible  manner  that  more  rsync  versions understand.
This error indicates that the older rsync version on the  server
will not allow you to force the compression type.

Note  that  the "zlibx" compression algorithm is just the "zlib"
algorithm with matched data excluded from the compression stream
(to  try to make it more compatible with an external zlib imple-
mentation).

--compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z)
instead of letting it default.  The --compress option is implied
as long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress" level  for
the  compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib compres-
sion treats level 0 as "off").

The level values vary  depending  on  the  checksum  in  effect.
Because  rsync will negotiate a checksum choice by default (when
the remote rsync is new enough), it can be good to combine  this
option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option unless you're sure
of the choice in effect.  For example:

rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

For zlib & zlibx compression the valid values are from  1  to  9
with  6  being the default.  Specifying 0 turns compression off,
and specifying -1 chooses the default of 6.

For zstd compression the valid values are  from  -131072  to  22
with 3 being the default. Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3.

For  lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is always
0.

If you specify a too-large or too-small  value,  the  number  is
silently  limited  to a valid value.  This allows you to specify
something like --zl=999999999 and be assured that you'll end  up
with  the maximum compression level no matter what algorithm was
chosen.

If you want to know the compression level  that  is  in  effect,
specify  --debug=nstr  to  see  the "negotiated string" results.
This     will     report     something     like     "Client com-
press: zstd (level 3)"   (along  with  the  checksum  choice  in
effect).

--skip-compress=LIST
Override the list of file suffixes that will  be  compressed  as
little  as possible.  Rsync sets the compression level on a per-
file basis based on the file's suffix.  If the compression algo-
rithm  has  an "off" level (such as zlib/zlibx) then no compres-
sion occurs for those  files.   Other  algorithms  that  support
changing the streaming level on-the-fly will have the level min-
imized to reduces the CPU usage as much as possible for a match-
ing  file.   At this time, only zlib & zlibx compression support
this changing of levels on a per-file basis.

The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without  the  dot)
separated  by  slashes  (/).  You may specify an empty string to
indicate that no files should be skipped.

Simple character-class matching is supported: each must  consist
of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no spe-
cial meaning).

The  characters  asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no spe-
cial meaning.

Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1  of
the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

--skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in this ver-
sion of rsync are:

3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv  gpg
gz iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v
m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg
mpv  mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv ogx
opus otg oth otp ots ott oxt png qt  rar  rpm  rz  rzip  spx
squashfs  sxc sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz tzo
vob war webm webp xz z zip zst

This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
but  one  situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
list may be configured to a different default).

--numeric-ids
With  this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
rather than using user and group names and mapping them at  both
ends.

By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to deter-
mine what ownership to give files.  The special uid  0  and  the
special  group  0  are never mapped via user/group names even if
the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
match  on  the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
"use chroot"  setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

--usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
These  options allow you to specify users and groups that should
be mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The STRING  is
one  or  more  FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any
matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO  value
the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be  a  wild-
card  string,  which  will be matched against the sender's names
(wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers,  though  see  below
for  why  a  '*' matches everything).  You may instead specify a
range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For exam-
ple:

The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap  option,
and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

Note  that  the  sender's  name for the 0 user and group are not
transmitted to the receiver, so you should  either  match  these
values  using  a  0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
side (typically "root").  All other FROM names  match  those  in
use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
receiving side.

Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are  treated
as  having  an  empty  name  for  the purpose of matching.  This
allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For
instance:

--usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

When  the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send
any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an  empty  name.
This  means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if
you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

For the --usermap option to have any effect,  the  -o  (--owner)
option  must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
For  the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups)
option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need  to
have permissions to set that group.

(-s).

--chown=USER:GROUP
This option forces all files to be  owned  by  USER  with  group
GROUP.   This  is  a  simpler interface than using --usermap and
--groupmap directly, but it is implemented using  those  options
internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.   If
GROUP  is  empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER
is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.

If you specify "--chown=foo:bar", this is exactly  the  same  as
specifying  "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.  If
(-s).

--timeout=SECONDS
This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
exit.  The default is 0, which means no timeout.

--contimeout=SECONDS
This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.   If  the
timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect-
ing to an rsync daemon.  The  --address  option  allows  you  to
specify  a  specific  IP  address (or hostname) to bind to.  See
also this option in the --daemon mode section.

--port=PORT
This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
the  default  of  873.  This is only needed if you are using the
double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon  (since
the  URL  syntax  has a way to specify the port as a part of the

--sockopts=OPTIONS
This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
their  systems  to  the utmost degree.  You can set all sorts of
socket options which may make  transfers  faster  (or  slower!).
Read  the  man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
on some of the options you may be able to set.   By  default  no
special socket options are set.  This only affects direct socket
connections to a remote rsync daemon.

This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

--blocking-io
This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a  remote
shell  transport.   If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
using  non-blocking  I/O.  (Note  that  ssh prefers non-blocking
I/O.)

--outbuf=MODE
This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None  (aka
Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
tle as a single letter for the mode,  and  use  upper  or  lower
case.

The  main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line
buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

--itemize-changes, -i
Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are  being
made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you  repeat
the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
other verbose messages).

The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is  11  letters  long.
The  general  format  is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
be output if they are being modified.

The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the  remote
host (sent).

o      A  >  means that a file is being transferred to the local

o      A c means that a local change/creation is  occurring  for
the  item  (such  as  the  creation of a directory or the

o      A h means that the item is a hard link  to  another  item

o      A  .  means that the item is not being updated (though it
might have attributes that are being modified).

o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area  con-
tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S  for  a
special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

The  other  letters in the string indicate if some attributes of
the file have changed, as follows:

o      "." - the attribute is unchanged.

o      "+" - the file is newly created.

o      " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn  to
spaces).

o      "?"  -  the  change  is unknown (when the remote rsync is
old).

o      A letter indicates an attribute is being updated.

The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

o      A c means either that a  regular  file  has  a  different
checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
or special file has a changed value.  Note  that  if  you
are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
flag will be present only for checksum-differing  regular
files.

o      A  s  means  the  size of a regular file is different and
will be updated by the file transfer.

o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
updated  to  the  sender's  value (requires --times).  An
alternate value of T means  that  the  modification  time
will  be  set  to the transfer time, which happens when a
file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
(Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client,  you  might  see
the  s  flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag
for this time-setting failure.)

o      A p means the permissions are  different  and  are  being
updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv-
ileges).

o      A  g means the group is different and is being updated to
the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
set the group).

o      A u|n|b indicates the following information: u  means the
access (use) time is different and is  being  updated  to
the  sender's value (requires --atimes); n means the cre-
ate time (newness) is different and is being  updated  to
the  sender's  value  (requires  --crtimes); b means that
both the access and create times are being updated.

o      The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

o      The x means that the extended  attribute  information  is
being changed.

One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will
output the string  "*deleting"  for  each  item  that  is  being
removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose
message).

--out-format=FORMAT
This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text  string
containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
with a percent (%) character.  A default  format  of  "%n%L"  is
assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
just the name of the file and, if the item is a link,  where  it
points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name
option,  which  will  mention  each  file,  dir,  etc. that gets
updated in a significant way (a transferred  file,  a  recreated
itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string  (e.g.  if
the  --itemize-changes  option  was  used), the logging of names
increases to mention any item that is changed  in  any  way  (as
long  as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the --item-
ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
in which case the logging is done  at  the  end  of  the  file's
transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
also specified, rsync will also output  the  name  of  the  file
being  transferred  prior to its progress information (followed,
of course, by the out-format output).

--log-file=FILE
This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a  file.
This  is  similar  to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
requested for the client side and/or the server side of  a  non-
daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer log-
ging will be enabled with a default format of  "%i  %n%L".   See
the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

Here's  a  example  command that requests the remote side to log
what is happening:

rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

This is very useful if you need to debug  why  a  connection  is
closing unexpectedly.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
This  allows  you  to specify exactly what per-update logging is
put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
also  be  specified for this option to have any effect).  If you
specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

The default FORMAT used if  --log-file  is  specified  and  this
option is not is '%i %n%L'.

--stats
This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics on the
file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-
transfer  algorithm is for your data.  This option is equivalent
to --info=stats2  if  combined  with  0  or  1  -v  options,  or
--info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

The current statistics are as follows:

o      Number of files  is  the  count  of  all  "files" (in the
generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
etc.   The  total  count  will  be  followed by a list of
counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For exam-
ple:  "(reg:  5,  dir:  3,  link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)"
lists the totals for  regular  files,  directories,  sym-
links, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0,
it is completely omitted from the list.

o      Number of created files is the count of how many  "files"
(generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
The total count will be followed by a list of  counts  by
filetype (if the total is non-zero).

o      Number of deleted files  is the count of how many "files"
(generic sense) were created  (as  opposed  to  updated).
The  total  count will be followed by a list of counts by
filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
is  only  output  if deletions are in effect, and only if
protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of  nor-
mal  files  that  were updated via rsync's delta-transfer
algorithm, which does not include  dirs,  symlinks,  etc.
Note  that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
transfer.   This  does not count any size for directories
or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
sizes for just the transferred files.

o      Literal data  is  how  much unmatched file-update data we
updated files.

o      Matched data  is  how  much data the receiver got locally
when recreating the updated files.

o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

o      File list generation time  is  the number of seconds that
the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
sent from the client side to the server side.

o      Total bytes received  is  the  count  of  all non-message
bytes that rsync received by the  client  side  from  the
server  side.  "Non-message"  bytes  means  that we don't
count the bytes for a verbose  message  that  the  server
sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

--8-bit-output, -8
This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
the output instead of trying to test  them  to  see  if  they're
valid  in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All
control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,  regard-
less of this option's setting.

The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3  octal  dig-
its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

Output  numbers  in  a  more human-readable format.  There are 3
possible levels: (1) output numbers  with  a  separator  between
each  set  of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on
if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
output  numbers  in  units  of 1000 (with a character suffix for
larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
the  level  by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
numbers as pure digits) by  specifying  the  --no-human-readable
(--no-h) option.

The  unit  letters  that  are  appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
(kilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For example,
a  1234567-byte  file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
that a period is your local decimal point).

Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do
not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0.
Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a compara-
ble manner in old and new versions as long as you didn't specify
a --no-h option prior to  one  or  more  -h  options.   See  the
--list-only option for one difference.

--partial
By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
the transfer is interrupted.  In some circumstances it  is  more
desirable to keep partially transferred files.  Using the --par-
tial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file  which  should
make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

--partial-dir=DIR
A  better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the  partial  data
(instead  of  writing  it  out to the destination file).  On the
next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir  as  data
to  speed  up  the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
after it has served its purpose.

Note that if --whole-file is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
tial-dir  file  that  is  found for a file that is being updated
will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending  files  without
using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative  path
(such  as  "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync create
the partial-directory in the destination file's  directory  when
needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is
deleted.  Note that the directory is only removed  if  it  is  a
relative pathname, as it is expected that an absolute path is to
a directory that is reserved for partial-dir work.

If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An  example:  the
above   --partial-dir   option   would  add  the  equivalent  of
"-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
your  own  exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
(1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the  end  of  your
other  rules,  or  (2)  you may wish to override rsync's exclude
choice.  For instance, if you want to make  rsync  clean-up  any
left-over  partial-dirs  that  may  be  lying around, you should
specify --delete-after  and  add  a  "risk"  filter  rule,  e.g.
-f 'R .rsync-partial/'.    (Avoid   using   --delete-before   or
--delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use  any  of  the
left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not be writable by other
users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

You can also set the  partial-dir  value  the  RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
environment  variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where  par-
tial  files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For instance,
instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
and then just use the -P option  to  turn  on  the  use  of  the
.rsync-tmp  dir  for partial transfers.  The only times that the
--partial option does not look for this  environment  value  are
(1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
--partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified  (see
below).

When  a  modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in the par-
tial-dir, that partial file is now updated in-place  instead  of
creating  yet  another  tmp-file copy (so it maxes out at dest +
tmp instead of dest + partial + tmp).  This requires  both  ends
of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0.

For  the  purposes  of the daemon-config's "refuse options" set-
ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
refusal  of  the  --partial  option  can be used to disallow the
overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,  while
still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

This  option puts the temporary file from each updated file into
a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
all  the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in
each file's destination directory, but if you've  specified  the
--partial-dir  option, that directory will be used instead.  See
the comments in the --partial-dir section for  a  discussion  of
how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what
you can do if you want rsync to cleanup  old  .~tmp~  dirs  that
might be lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

This  option  implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs the full
file list in memory in order to be able to iterate  over  it  at
the end.

This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
--partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
files  will  be put into a single directory if the path is abso-
lute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy  (since
the  delayed  updates  will  fail  if they can't be renamed into
place).

for  an  update  algorithm  that  is  even  more atomic (it uses
--link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

--prune-empty-dirs, -m
This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
tories  from  the  file-list,  including nested directories that
have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
creation  of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
rsync  is  recursively  scanning  a  hierarchy  of  files  using
include/exclude/filter rules.

Note  that  the  use  of  transfer rules, such as the --min-size
option, does not affect what goes into the file list,  and  thus
does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
directory match the transfer rule.

Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
However, keep in mind that excluded files  and  directories  can
prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

You  can  prevent  the pruning of certain empty directories from
the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
this  option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept
in the file-list:

--filter 'protect emptydir/'

Here's an example that copies all .pdf  files  in  a  hierarchy,
only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
.pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
ries  in  the  destination  are removed (note the hide filter of
non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
more  time-honored options of --include='*/' --exclude='*' would
work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is  more  natural
to you).

--progress
This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
progress of the transfer.  This gives a bored user something  to
watch.   With  a  modern  rsync  this  is the same as specifying
--info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings  for
those      info      flags      takes      precedence      (e.g.
"--info=flist0 --progress").

While rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates  a
progress line that looks like this:

782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

In  this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
of  110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in
4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

These statistics can be  misleading  if  rsync's  delta-transfer
algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
will  probably  drop  dramatically when the receiver gets to the
literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
finish  than  the  receiver  estimated  as  it was finishing the
matched part of the file.

When the file transfer finishes,  rsync  replaces  the  progress
line with a summary line that looks like this:

1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
per  second  over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was
the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
see if they are up-to-date or not)  remaining  out  of  the  396
total files in the file-list.

In  an  incremental  recursion  scan, rsync won't know the total
number of files in the file-list until it reaches  the  ends  of
the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan,
it will display a line with the text "ir-chk"  (for  incremental
recursion  check)  instead  of  "to-chk" until the point that it
knows the full size of the list, at which point it  will  switch
to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the
total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
(and  each  time  it does, the count of files left to check will
increase by the number of the files added to the list).

-P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
a long transfer that may be interrupted.

There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs  statistics
based  on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.  Use
this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or  spec-
ify  --info=name0)  if you want to see how the transfer is doing
without scrolling the screen with a lot  of  names.  (You  don't
need   to   specify  the  --progress  option  in  order  to  use
--info=progress2.)

Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync
a signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.  On BSD systems, a SIG-
INFO is generated by typing a Ctrl+T  (Linux  doesn't  currently
support   a  SIGINFO  signal).   When  the  client-side  process
receives one of those signals, it sets a flag to output a single
progress  report  which is output when the current file transfer
finishes (so it may take a little time if a big  file  is  being
handled  when  the  signal  arrives).   A filename is output (if
needed) followed by  the  --info=progress2  format  of  progress
info.   If  you don't know which of the 3 rsync processes is the
client process, it's OK to signal all of them  (since  the  non-
client processes ignore the signal).

CAUTION:  sending  SIGVTALRM  to an older rsync (pre-3.2.0) will
kill it.

This option allows you to provide a password  for  accessing  an
rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
file should contain just the password on  the  first  line  (all
other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
is world readable or if a root-run rsync command  finds  a  non-
root-owned file.

This  option does not supply a password to a remote shell trans-
port such as ssh; to learn how to do that,  consult  the  remote
shell's  documentation.   When accessing an rsync daemon using a
remote shell as the  transport,  this  option  only  comes  into
effect  after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e.
if you have also specified a password  in  the  daemon's  config
file).

--early-input=FILE
This  option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the "early
exec" script on its stdin.  One possible use of this data is  to
give  the script a secret that can be used to mount an encrypted
filesystem (which you should unmount in the the "post-xfer exec"
script).

The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

--list-only
This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
transferred.  This option is  inferred  if  there  is  a  single
source  arg  and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
(1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
a  file-listing  command, or (2) to be able to specify more than
one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
tion:  keep  in  mind  that  a  source  arg  with a wild-card is
expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
try to list such an arg without using this option. For example:

rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

Starting  with  rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are
affected by the --human-readable option.  By default  they  will
contain  digit separators, but higher levels of readability will
output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the  column
width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just dig-
its in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

Compatibility  note:  when  requesting a remote listing of files
from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may  encounter
an  error  if  you  ask  for  a  non-recursive listing.  This is
because a file listing implies the --dirs  option  w/o  --recur-
sive,  and  older  rsyncs don't have that option.  To avoid this
problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't  need
to  expand  a  directory's  content),  or  turn on recursion and
exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

--bwlimit=RATE
This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate  for
the  data  sent  over the socket, specified in units per second.
The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a  size
multiplier,    and    may    be   a   fractional   value   (e.g.
"--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no suffix is specified, the value will be
assumed  to  be  in  units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had
been appended).  See the --max-size option for a description  of
all the available suffixes.  A value of 0 specifies no limit.

For  backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate  limit  will be
rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate  smaller  than  1024
bytes per second is possible.

Rsync  writes  data  over  the socket in blocks, and this option
both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and  tries
to  keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit.  Some
burstiness may be seen where rsync writes out a  block  of  data
and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
not be an accurate reflection on how  fast  the  data  is  being
sent.   This  is because some files can show up as being rapidly
sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show  up
as  very  slow  when  the  flushing of the output buffer occurs.
This may be fixed in a future version.

--stop-after=MINS
This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified  num-
ber of minutes has elapsed.

Rsync  also  accepts  an earlier version of this option: --time-
limit=MINS.

For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this  option
to  the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of
the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
even  when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can
tell the remote side about the time limit using  --remote-option
(-M), should the need arise.

--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m
This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified point
in time has been reached. The date & time can be fully specified
in   a   numeric   format  of  year-month-dayThour:minute  (e.g.
2000-12-31T23:59) in the local timezone.  You may choose to sep-
arate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

The  value can also be abbreviated in a variety of ways, such as
specifying a 2-digit year and/or leaving off various values.  In
all cases, the value will be taken to be the next possible point
in time where the supplied information matches.   If  the  value
specifies  the  current time or a past time, rsync exits with an
error.

For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at midnight
local  time),  "14:00"  specifies the next 2 P.M., "1" specifies
the next 1st of the month at midnight, "31" specifies  the  next
month where we can stop on its 31st day, and ":59" specifies the
next 59th minute after the hour.

For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this  option
to  the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of
the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
even  when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can
tell the remote side about the time limit using  --remote-option
(-M),  should  the  need arise.  Do keep in mind that the remote
host may have a different default timezone than your local host.

--write-batch=FILE
Record a file that can later be  applied  to  another  identical
destination with --read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for
details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

This option overrides the negotiated checksum &  compress  lists
and  always negotiates a choice based on old-school md5/md4/zlib
choices.  If you want a more modern choice, use the  --checksum-
choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc) options.

--only-write-batch=FILE
destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
portable  media:  if this media fills to capacity before the end
of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
remote system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data  to  be
diverted  from  the sender into the batch file without having to
flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
remote, and thus can't write the batch).

Apply  all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen-
erated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data  will  be
read  from  standard  input.  See  the  "BATCH MODE" section for
details.

--protocol=NUM
Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
--write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the  rsync

--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
--iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This  order
ensures  that the option will stay the same whether you're push-
ing or pulling files.  Finally, you  can  specify  either  --no-
iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The
default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be
affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
ports, you can run "iconv --list".

If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans-
late  the  filenames  you  specify  on the command-line that are
being sent to  the  remote  host.   See  also  the  --files-from
option.

Note  that  rsync  does not do any conversion of names in filter
files (including include/exclude files).  It is  up  to  you  to
ensure  that  you're specifying matching rules that can match on
both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences on the
two sides that need to be accounted for.

When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that  allows
it,  the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" con-
figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you  actu-
ally  pass.   Thus,  you may feel free to specify just the local
charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

--ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running
ssh.   This  affects sockets that rsync has direct control over,
such as the outgoing socket when directly  contacting  an  rsync
daemon,  as well as the forwarding of the -4 or -6 option to ssh
when rsync can deduce that ssh  is  being  used  as  the  remote
shell.   For  other  remote  shells  you'll  need to specify the
"--rsh SHELL -4" option directly  (or  whatever  ipv4/ipv6  hint
options it uses).

These options also exist in the --daemon mode section.

If  rsync  was  complied  without  support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
option will have no effect.   The  rsync --version  output  will
contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

--checksum-seed=NUM
Set  the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
(the  more  modern  MD5  file  checksums  don't use a seed).  By
default the  checksum  seed  is  generated  by  the  server  and
defaults  to  the  current time().  This option is used to set a
specific checksum seed, which is useful  for  applications  that
want  repeatable  block checksums, or in the case where the user
wants a more random checksum seed.   Setting  NUM  to  0  causes
rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

DAEMON OPTIONS
The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

--daemon
This  tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
start running may be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

If  standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from  the  current
terminal  and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a  client
and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
page for more details.

By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
daemon  with  the  --daemon option.  The --address option allows
you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
rsyncd.conf manpage.

--bwlimit=RATE
This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
specify  a  smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for some
extra details.

--config=FILE
This  specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
is only relevant when --daemon is  specified.   The  default  is
/etc/rsyncd.conf  unless  the  daemon  is  running over a remote
shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
case  the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typi-
cally $HOME). --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode. It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first module's definition. The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so desire. For instance: rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid --no-detach When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not detach itself and become a background process. This option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools or AIX's System Resource Controller. --no-detach is also recom- mended when rsync is run under a debugger. This option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd. --port=PORT This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873. See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage. --log-file=FILE This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file. --log-file-format=FORMAT This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config file. It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off. --sockopts This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax. --verbose, -v This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its startup phase. After the client connects, the dae- mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con- fig section. --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6 Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock- ets that the rsync daemon will use to listen for connections. One of these options may be required in older versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon). These options also exist in the regular rsync options section. If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect. The rsync --version output will contain "no IPv6" if is the case. --help, -h When specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ- ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon. FILTER RULES The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to trans- fer (include) and which files to skip (exclude). The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file). As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude pat- terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the filename is not skipped. Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the com- mand-line. Filter rules have the following syntax: RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME] RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME] You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below. If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional. The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol- lows (when present) must come after either a single space or an under- score (_). Here are the available rule prefixes: exclude, '-' specifies an exclude pattern. include, '+' specifies an include pattern. merge, '.' specifies a merge-file to read for more rules. dir-merge, ':' specifies a per-directory merge-file. hide, 'H' specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer. show, 'S' files that match the pattern are not hidden. protect, 'P' specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion. risk, 'R' files that match the pattern are not protected. clear, '!' clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg) When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines that start with a "#". Note that the --include & --exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the specification of include / exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file). If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string. A --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule. Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from / --exclude-from options. INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against the names of the files that are going to be trans- ferred. These patterns can take several forms: o if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu- lar spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname. This is similar to a leading ^ in regular expressions. Thus /foo would match a name of "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a per-directory rule). An unqualified foo would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the end of the filename. Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub". See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer. o if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a direc- tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device. o rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' . o a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes. o use '**' to match anything, including slashes. o a '?' matches any character except a slash (/). o a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]]. o in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild- card character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards are present. This means that there is an extra level of back- slash removal when a pattern contains wildcard characters com- pared to a pattern that has none. e.g. if you add a wildcard to "foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you would need to use "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b". o if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is matched against the full pathname, including any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the filename. (Remember that the algorithm is applied recur- sively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory on down.) o a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified). This behavior was added in version 2.6.7. Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every subdir component of every path is visited left to right, with each directory having a chance for exclusion before its content. In this way include/exclude patterns are applied recursively to the pathname of each node in the filesystem's tree (those inside the trans- fer). The exclude patterns short-circuit the directory traversal stage as rsync finds the files to send. For instance, to include "/foo/bar/baz", the directories "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be excluded. Excluding one of those parent direc- tories prevents the examination of its content, cutting off rsync's recursion into those paths and rendering the include for "/foo/bar/baz" ineffectual (since rsync can't match something it never sees in the cut-off section of the directory hierarchy). The concept path exclusion is particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule. For instance, this won't work: + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found + /file-is-included - * This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*' rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories. One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty- dirs option. Another solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited. For instance, this set of rules works fine: + /some/ + /some/path/ + /some/path/this-file-is-found + /file-also-included - * Here are some examples of exclude/include matching: o "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o o "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root directory o "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo o "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc- tory o "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc- tory o The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option) o The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*") The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-": o A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute pathname of the current item. For example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer. o A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to match. For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories. o A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C". No arg should follow. o An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side. When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred. The default is for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case default rules become sender-side only. See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify send- ing-side includes/excludes. o An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side. When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files from being deleted. See the s modifier for more info. See also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes. o A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in directories that are being deleted. For instance, the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the desti- nation. o An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr copy/delete operations (and is thus ignored when matching file/dir names). If no xattr-matching rules are specified, a default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option). MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per- directory (':'). A single-instance merge file is read one time, and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "." rule. For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists into the current list of inherited rules. These per-direc- tory rule files must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer. These rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC- TORY RULES AND DELETE below). Some examples: merge /etc/rsync/default.rules . /etc/rsync/default.rules dir-merge .per-dir-filter dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule: o A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat- terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat- terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS- compatible manner. This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified. If no file- name is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed. o A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g. "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules". o An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto- ries. o A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal line-splitting. This also turns off com- ments. Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled). o You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier set (except for the ! modifier, which would not be useful). For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory rules apply only on the sending side. If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r mod- ifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide). Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the direc- tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used. Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than the inherited rules. The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global rules. When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge file. Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash. Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter file was found. Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --fil- ter=". file": merge /home/user/.global-filter - *.gz dir-merge .rules + *.[ch] - *.o - foo* This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per- directory filter file. All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root of the transfer). If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par- ent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file. For instance, here is a common filter (see -F): --filter=': /.rsync-filter' That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all direc- tories from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".) Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files: rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories. The last command avoids the par- ent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is a part of the transfer. If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsig- nore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner. You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the per- directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules. Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules). For example: cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b + foo.o :C - *.old EOT rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b Both of the above rsync commands are identical. Each one will merge all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at the end. This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules. To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions, the contents of$HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG- NORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C". LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The "current" list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear out the parent's rules). ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored at the merge-file's directory). If you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination directory. This root governs where patterns that start with a / match. Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination host). The following examples demonstrate this. Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz". Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer: Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest +/- pattern: /foo/bar (note missing "me") +/- pattern: /bar/baz (note missing "you") Target file: /dest/foo/bar Target file: /dest/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar (note full path) +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz (ditto) Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar (starts at specified path) +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz (ditto) Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files). PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files them- selves without affecting the transfer. To make this easy, the 'e' mod- ifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent com- mands: rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the receiving side knows what files to exclude. The easiest way is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything: rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com- mand line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side. An example of the first is this (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves): rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules' --delete host:src/dir /dest In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule. In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on the receiving side. To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else should not get deleted. Like one of these commands: rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \ host:src/dir /dest rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest BATCH MODE Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi- cal systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of hosts. Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the destination trees. The write-batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees. Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi- ple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually. To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file, and the destination tree. Rsync updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file. For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write- batch option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh" appended. This script file contains a command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original destination path. This is useful when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the one used to create the batch file. Examples:$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
$scp foo* remote:$ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

$rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to   update   /adest/dir/   from
/source/dir/  and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
"foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
data  going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how  you  deal
with batches:

o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host  using
either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax, as
desired.

o      The first example uses the created  "foo.sh"  file  to  get  the
right  rsync  options when running the read-batch command on the
remote host.

o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
that  the  batch  file  doesn't  need to be copied to the remote
machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
the script file if you wished to make use of it  (just  be  sure
that  no  other  option is trying to use standard input, such as
the "--exclude-from=-" option).

Caveats:

The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that was used to create the
batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination  trees
is  encountered  the  update  might be discarded with a warning (if the
file appears to be  up-to-date  already)  or  the  file-update  may  be
attempted  and  then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a  read-
batch  operation  if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to force
the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
and  date,  use  the  -I  option (when reading the batch).  If an error
occurs, the destination tree will probably be in  a  partially  updated
state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
of operation to fix up the destination tree.

The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
the  one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
if the protocol version in the batch file is too  new  for  the  batch-
have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older  rsync  can
understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

When reading a batch file,  rsync  will  force  the  value  of  certain
options  to  match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
--files-from is dropped, and  the  --filter  /  --include  /  --exclude
options are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

The   code   that   creates  the  BATCH.sh  file  transforms  any  fil-
ter/include/exclude options into a single list that is  appended  as  a
"here"  document  to  the  shell script file.  An advanced user can use
this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
--delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
the shell script as an easy way to  run  the  appropriate  --read-batch
command for the batched data.

The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
version uses a new implementation.

Three basic behaviors are possible when  rsync  encounters  a  symbolic

By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not  transferred at all.  A message
"skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
get on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

their referent, rather than the symlink.

Rsync can also distinguish "safe"  and  "unsafe"  symbolic  links.   An
example  where  this  might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not  include  symbolic
links  to /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.  Using --copy-
unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file  they  point
be omitted altogether. (Note that you must specify --links for  --safe-

(start with /), empty, or if they contain enough  ".."   components  to
ascend from the directory being copied.

Here's  a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't men-
tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

other options to affect).

Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe  sym-

Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe sym-

Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

DIAGNOSTICS
rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
tic.   The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol ver-
sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote  shell
facility  producing  unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
for its transport.  The way to diagnose this problem  is  to  run  your
remote shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then  look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat
should be a zero length file.  If you are getting the above error  from
rsync  then  you  will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is  producing  it.
The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
(such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output  statements  for  non-

If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity  rsync  will  show  why
each individual file is included or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
0      Success

1      Syntax or usage error

2      Protocol incompatibility

3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

4      Requested  action  not supported: an attempt was made to manipu-
late 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or  an
option  was specified that is supported by the client and not by
the server.

5      Error starting client-server protocol

6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

10     Error in socket I/O

11     Error in file I/O

12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

13     Errors with program diagnostics

14     Error in IPC code

21     Some error returned by waitpid()

22     Error allocating core memory buffers

23     Partial transfer due to error

24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
CVSIGNORE
The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
terns  in  .cvsignore  files.   See the --cvs-exclude option for
more details.

RSYNC_ICONV
Specify a default --iconv setting using this  environment  vari-
able. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
Specify  a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args
option to be enabled by default, or a zero value  to  make  sure
that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

RSYNC_RSH
The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
default shell used as the transport  for  rsync.   Command  line
options  are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e
option.

RSYNC_PROXY
The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
mon.  You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

run  authenticated  rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
user intervention.  Note that this does not supply a password to
a  remote  shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
consult the remote shell's documentation.

USER or LOGNAME
The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to  determine
the  default  username  sent  to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
set, the username defaults to "nobody".

HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
.cvsignore file.

FILES
/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

+---------------+------------------+
|ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
+---------------+------------------+
|Availability   | network/rsync    |
+---------------+------------------+
|Stability      | Volatile         |
+---------------+------------------+

rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS
times are transferred as *nix time_t values

When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may re-sync unmodified
files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred  as  native  numerical
values

Please report bugs! See the web site at https://rsync.samba.org/.

VERSION
This man page is current for version 3.2.3 of rsync.

INTERNAL OPTIONS
The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
should never be typed by  a  user  under  normal  circumstances.   Some
awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
when setting up a login that  can  only  run  an  rsync  command.   For
instance,  the support directory of the rsync distribution has an exam-
ple script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with  a

CREDITS
rsync  is  distributed  under  the GNU General Public License.  See the
file COPYING for details.

A web site is available at https://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes
an  FAQ-O-Matic  which  may  cover  questions unanswered by this manual
page.

We would be delighted to hear  from  you  if  you  like  this  program.

This  program  uses  the  excellent zlib compression library written by

THANKS
Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen,  Matt  McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
Terpstra,  David  Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
well and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
I have.

AUTHOR
rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell  and  Paul  Mackerras.
Many people have later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by
Wayne Davison.

Mailing  lists  for  support   and   development   are   available   at
https://lists.samba.org/.

NOTES
Source  code  for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can