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Updated: Wednesday, February 10, 2021

mysql_upgrade (1)


mysql_upgrade - check and upgrade MySQL tables


mysql_upgrade [options]


MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)             MySQL Database System            MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)

       mysql_upgrade - check and upgrade MySQL tables

       mysql_upgrade [options]

       mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for
       incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server.
       mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take
       advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

       If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it
       performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table
       repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.3,
       "Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes" for manual table repair

       You should execute mysql_upgrade each time you upgrade MySQL.

       As of MySQL 5.7.5, mysql_upgrade communicates directly with the MySQL
       server, sending it the SQL statements required to perform an upgrade.
       Before 5.7.5, mysql_upgrade invokes the mysql and mysqlcheck client
       programs to perform the required operations. For the older
       implementation, if you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you
       must install the server and client RPMs.  mysql_upgrade is included in
       the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes
       mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.5, "Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM
       Packages from Oracle".)

           As of MySQL 5.7.12, the default --early-plugin-load value is empty.
           To load the keyring_file plugin, you must use an explicit
           --early-plugin-load option with a nonempty value.

           In MySQL 5.7.11, the default --early-plugin-load value was the name
           of the keyring_file plugin library file, so that plugin was loaded
           by default.  InnoDB tablespace encryption requires the keyring_file
           plugin to be loaded prior to InnoDB initialization, so this change
           of default value introduces an incompatibility for upgrades from
           5.7.11 to 5.7.12 or higher. Administrators who have encrypted
           InnoDB tablespaces must take explicit action to ensure continued
           loading of the keyring_file plugin: Start the server with an
           --early-plugin-load option that names the plugin library file. For
           additional information, see Section 6.5.4, "The MySQL Keyring".

           If you upgrade to MySQL 5.7.2 or later from a version older than
           5.7.2, a change to the mysql.user table requires a special sequence
           of steps to perform an upgrade using mysql_upgrade. For details,
           see Section, "Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.7".

           On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run
           mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by
           running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command.
           Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute

           You should always back up your current MySQL installation before
           performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, "Database Backup Methods".

           Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before
           you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See
           Section 2.11.1, "Upgrading MySQL", for instructions on determining
           whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and
           how to handle them.

       To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running. Then invoke
       it like this to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system

           shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

       After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any
       changes made to the system tables take effect.

       If you have multiple MySQL server instances running, invoke
       mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to
       the desired server. For example, with servers running on the local host
       on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the
       appropriate port:

           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options]
           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options]
           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]

       For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a
       connection using TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.

       mysql_upgrade processes all tables in all databases, which might take a
       long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore unavailable
       to other sessions while it is being processed. Check and repair
       operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.

       For details about what table-checking operations entail, see the
       description of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE statement (see
       Section, "CHECK TABLE Syntax").

       All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL
       version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with
       the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need
       to check or repair the table again.

       mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named
       mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check
       whether all tables have been checked for this release so that
       table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the
       check regardless, use the --force option.

       As of MySQL 5.7.2, mysql_upgrade checks user table rows and, for any
       row with an empty plugin column, sets that column to
       'mysql_native_password' or 'mysql_old_password' depending on the hash
       format of the Password column value. As of MySQL 5.7.5, support for
       pre-4.1 password hashing and mysql_old_password was removed, so
       mysql_upgrade sets empty plugin values to 'mysql_native_password' if
       the credentials use a hash format compatible with that plugin. Rows
       with a pre-4.1 password hash must be upgraded manually. For account
       upgrade instructions, see Section, "Migrating Away from Pre-4.1
       Password Hashing and the mysql_old_password Plugin".

       mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For
       upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.11, "Server-Side Help".

       As of MySQL 5.7.7, unless invoked with the --skip-sys-schema option,
       mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema if it is not installed, and
       upgrades it to the current version otherwise.  mysql_upgrade returns an
       error if a sys schema exists but has no version view, on the assumption
       that its absence indicates a user-created schema:

           Error occurred: A sys schema exists with no sys.version view. If
           you have a user created sys schema, this must be renamed for the
           upgrade to succeed.

       To upgrade in this case, remove or rename the existing sys schema

       In MySQL 5.7.9 and later, mysql_upgrade checks for partitioned InnoDB
       tables that were created using the generic partitioning handler and
       attempts to upgrade them to InnoDB native partitioning (used in MySQL
       5.7.6 and later). (Bug #76734, Bug #20727344) Also beginning with MySQL
       5.7.9, you can upgrade such tables individually in the mysql client
       using the ALTER TABLE ... UPGRADE PARTITIONING SQL statement.

       By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root
       password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message
       that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a
       result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run
       mysql_upgrade again. First, connect to the server as root:

           shell> mysql -u root -p
           Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here

       Reset the password using the appropriate SQL statement. As of MySQL
       5.7.6, use ALTER USER:

           mysql> ALTER USER USER() IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';

       Before 5.7.6, use SET PASSWORD:

           mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root-password');

       Then exit mysql and run mysql_upgrade again:

           shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

       mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on
       the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an
       option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs,
       see Section 4.2.6, "Using Option Files".

       o   --help

           Display a short help message and exit.

       o   --basedir=dir_name

           The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option was
           removed in MySQL 5.7.2.

       o   --bind-address=ip_address

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option
           to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL
           server. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.

       o   --character-sets-dir=dir_name

           The directory where character sets are installed. See
           Section 10.14, "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
           both support compression. The -C form of this option was added in
           MySQL 5.7.5.

       o   --datadir=dir_name

           The path to the data directory. This option was removed in MySQL

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
           d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:O,/tmp/mysql_upgrade.trace.

       o   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       o   --debug-info, -T

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits.

       o   --default-auth=plugin

           A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See
           Section 6.3.9, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 10.14,
           "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

           Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix)
           before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
           relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name
           rather than a full path name.

       o   --defaults-file=file_name

           Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
           relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name
           rather than a full path name.

       o   --defaults-group-suffix=str

           Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the
           usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql_upgrade
           normally reads the [client] and [mysql_upgrade] groups. If the
           --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql_upgrade also
           reads the [client_other] and [mysql_upgrade_other] groups.

       o   --force

           Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution even if
           mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

       o   --login-path=name

           Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login
           path file. A "login path" is an option group containing options
           that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to
           authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the
           mysql_config_editor utility. See mysql_config_editor(1).

       o   --max-allowed-packet=value

           The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The
           default value is 24MB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB and
           2GB. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.

       o   --net-buffer-length=value

           The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. The
           default value is 1MB  1KB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB
           and 16MB. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.

       o   --no-defaults

           Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to
           reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be
           used to prevent them from being read.

           The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read
           in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way
           than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used.
           (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See

       o   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
           short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
           and the password. If you omit the password value following the
           --password or -p option on the command line, mysql_upgrade prompts
           for one.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. See Section, "End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security". You can use an option file to avoid giving the password
           on the command line.

       o   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option
           applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

       o   --plugin-dir=dir_name

           The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if
           the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication
           plugin but mysql_upgrade does not find it. See Section 6.3.9,
           "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       o   --print-defaults

           Print the program name and all options that it gets from option

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
           useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a
           protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the
           permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, "Connecting to the MySQL

       o   --shared-memory-base-name=name

           On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made
           using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL.
           The shared-memory name is case-sensitive.

           The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to
           enable shared-memory connections.

       o   --skip-sys-schema

           As of MySQL 5.7.7, mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema if it is
           not installed, and upgrades it to the current version otherwise.
           The --skip-sys-schema option suppresses this behavior. This option
           was added in MySQL 5.7.7.

       o   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       o   --ssl*

           Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
           server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See Section 6.4.2, "Command Options for Encrypted

       o   --tls-version=protocol_list

           The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections.
           The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol
           names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on
           the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see
           Section 6.4.6, "Encrypted Connection Protocols and Ciphers".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.

       o   --tmpdir=dir_name, -t dir_name

           The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files.
           This option was removed in MySQL 5.7.5 due to a reimplementation
           that no longer uses temporary files.

       o   --upgrade-system-tables, -s

           Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The
           default user name is root.

       o   --verbose

           Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

       o   --version-check, -k

           Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is
           connecting to verify that it is the same as the version for which
           mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade exits. This option
           is enabled by default; to disable the check, use
           --skip-version-check. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.2.

       o   --write-binlog

           By default, binary logging by mysql_upgrade is disabled. Invoke the
           program with --write-binlog if you want its actions to be written
           to the binary log.

           When the server is running with global transaction identifiers
           (GTIDs) enabled (gtid_mode=ON), do not enable binary logging by

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       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | database/mysql-57 |
       |Stability      | Uncommitted       |
       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
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MySQL 5.7                         03/03/2018                  MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)