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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

npm-install (1)

Name

npm-install - Install a package

Synopsis

npm install (with no args, in package dir)
npm install [<@scope>/]<name>
npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<tag>
npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<version>
npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<version range>
npm install <git-host>:<git-user>/<repo-name>
npm install <git repo url>
npm install <tarball file>
npm install <tarball url>
npm install <folder>

alias: npm i
common options: [-P|--save-prod|-D|--save-dev|-O|--save-optional] [-E|--save-exact] [-B|--save-bundle] [--no-save] [--dry-run]

Description

NPM-INSTALL(1)                                                  NPM-INSTALL(1)



NAME
       npm-install - Install a package

SYNOPSIS
         npm install (with no args, in package dir)
         npm install [<@scope>/]<name>
         npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<tag>
         npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<version>
         npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<version range>
         npm install <git-host>:<git-user>/<repo-name>
         npm install <git repo url>
         npm install <tarball file>
         npm install <tarball url>
         npm install <folder>

         alias: npm i
         common options: [-P|--save-prod|-D|--save-dev|-O|--save-optional] [-E|--save-exact] [-B|--save-bundle] [--no-save] [--dry-run]

DESCRIPTION
       This  command  installs a package, and any packages that it depends on.
       If the package has a package-lock or shrinkwrap file, the  installation
       of  dependencies  will  be  driven by that, with an npm-shrinkwrap.json
       taking precedence if both files exist. See npm help 5 package-lock.json
       and npm help shrinkwrap.

       A package is:

       o a)  a  folder  containing  a  program described by a npm help 5 pack-
         age.json file

       o b) a gzipped tarball containing (a)

       o c) a url that resolves to (b)

       o d) a <name>@<version> that is published on the registry (see npm help
         7 npm-registry) with (c)

       o e) a <name>@<tag> (see npm help npm-dist-tag) that points to (d)

       o f) a <name> that has a "latest" tag satisfying (e)

       o g) a <git remote url> that resolves to (a)


       Even if you never publish your package, you can still get a lot of ben-
       efits of using npm if you just want to write a node  program  (a),  and
       perhaps  if  you  also  want  to be able to easily install it elsewhere
       after packing it up into a tarball (b).

       o npm install (in package directory, no arguments):
           Install the dependencies in the local node_modules folder.
           In global mode (ie, with -g or --global appended to the command),
           it installs the current package context (ie, the current working
           directory) as a global package.
           By default, npm install will install all modules listed  as  depen-
         dencies
           in npm help 5 package.json.
           With  the --production flag (or when the NODE_ENV environment vari-
         able
           is set to production), npm will not install modules listed in
           devDependencies.  NOTE: The --production  flag  has  no  particular
         meaning when adding a
           dependency to a project.


       o npm install <folder>:
           Install  the  package  in the directory as a symlink in the current
         project.
           Its dependencies will be installed before it's linked. If  <folder>
         sits
           inside the root of your project, its dependencies may be hoisted to
         the
           toplevel node_modules as they would for other  types  of  dependen-
         cies.

       o npm install <tarball file>:
           Install  a package that is sitting on the filesystem.  Note: if you
         just want
           to link a dev directory into your npm root, you can  do  this  more
         easily by
           using npm link.
           Tarball requirements:

       o The filename must use .tar, .tar.gz, or .tgz as the extension.

       o The  package contents should reside in a subfolder inside the tarball
         (usually it is called package/). npm strips one directory layer  when
         installing  the  package (an equivalent of tar x --strip-components=1
         is run).

       o The package must contain a package.json file with  name  and  version
         properties.  Example:

         npm install ./package.tgz


       o npm install <tarball url>:
           Fetch  the  tarball  url, and then install it.  In order to distin-
         guish between
           this and other options, the argument must start with  "http://"  or
         "https://"
           Example:

             npm install https://github.com/indexzero/forever/tarball/v0.5.6

       o npm install [<@scope>/]<name>:
           Do a <name>@<tag> install, where <tag> is the "tag" config. (See
           npm help 7 npm-config. The config's default value is latest.)
           In  most cases, this will install the version of the modules tagged
         as
           latest on the npm registry.
           Example:

             npm install sax
         npm  install  saves  any  specified  packages  into  dependencies  by
       default.
         Additionally, you can control where and how they get saved with some
         additional flags:

       o -P,  --save-prod:  Package  will appear in your dependencies. This is
         the

                        default unless `-D` or `-O` are present.

       o -D, --save-dev: Package will appear in your devDependencies.

       o -O, --save-optional: Package will appear  in  your  optionalDependen-
         cies.

       o --no-save:  Prevents  saving  to dependencies.  When using any of the
         above options to save dependencies to your  package.json,  there  are
         two additional, optional flags:

       o -E, --save-exact: Saved dependencies will be configured with an exact
         version rather than using npm's default semver range operator.

       o -B, --save-bundle: Saved dependencies will also be added to your bun-
         dleDependencies list.  Further, if you have an npm-shrinkwrap.json or
         package-lock.json then it  will  be  updated  as  well.   <scope>  is
         optional. The package will be downloaded from the registry associated
         with the specified scope. If no registry is associated with the given
         scope  the  default  registry  is  assumed. See npm help 7 npm-scope.
         Note: if you do not include the @-symbol on your scope name, npm will
         interpret  this  as  a  GitHub  repository instead, see below. Scopes
         names must also be followed by a slash.  Examples:

         npm install sax
         npm install githubname/reponame
         npm install @myorg/privatepackage
         npm install node-tap --save-dev
         npm install dtrace-provider --save-optional
         npm install readable-stream --save-exact
         npm install ansi-regex --save-bundle



         **Note**: If there is a file or folder named `<name>` in the current
         working directory, then it will try to install that, and only try to
         fetch the package by name if it is not valid.

       o npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<tag>:
           Install the version of the package that is referenced by the speci-
         fied tag.
           If  the  tag  does not exist in the registry data for that package,
         then this
           will fail.
           Example:

             npm install sax@latest
             npm install @myorg/mypackage@latest

       o npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<version>:
           Install the specified version of the package.  This  will  fail  if
         the
           version has not been published to the registry.
           Example:

             npm install sax@0.1.1
             npm install @myorg/privatepackage@1.5.0

       o npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<version range>:
           Install  a  version  of  the package matching the specified version
         range.  This
           will follow the same rules for resolving dependencies described  in
         npm help 5 package.json.
           Note  that  most  version ranges must be put in quotes so that your
         shell will
           treat it as a single argument.
           Example:

             npm install sax@">=0.1.0 <0.2.0"
             npm install @myorg/privatepackage@">=0.1.0 <0.2.0"

       o npm install <git remote url>:
           Installs the package from the hosted git provider, cloning it  with
         git.
           For a full git remote url, only that URL will be attempted.

             <protocol>://[<user>[:<password>]@]<hostname>[:<port>][:][/]<path>[#<commit-ish> | #semver:<semver>]
         <protocol> is one of git, git+ssh, git+http, git+https, or
         git+file.
         If #<commit-ish> is provided, it will be used to clone exactly that
         commit.  If  the commit-ish has the format #semver:<semver>, <semver>
       can
         be any valid semver range or exact version, and npm will look for any
       tags
         or  refs  matching  that  range  in the remote repository, much as it
       would for a
         registry dependency. If neither #<commit-ish> or #semver:<semver> is
         specified, then master is used.
         If the repository makes use of submodules, those submodules  will  be
       cloned
         as well.
         If the package being installed contains a prepare script, its
         dependencies and devDependencies will be installed, and the prepare
         script will be run, before the package is packaged and installed.
         The  following  git  environment  variables are recognized by npm and
       will be
         added to the environment when running git:

       o GIT_ASKPASS

       o GIT_EXEC_PATH

       o GIT_PROXY_COMMAND

       o GIT_SSH

       o GIT_SSH_COMMAND

       o GIT_SSL_CAINFO

       o GIT_SSL_NO_VERIFY See the git man page for details.  Examples:

         npm install git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli.git#v1.0.27
         npm install git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli#semver:^5.0
         npm install git+https://isaacs@github.com/npm/cli.git
         npm install git://github.com/npm/cli.git#v1.0.27
         GIT_SSH_COMMAND='ssh -i ~/.ssh/custom_ident' npm install git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli.git


       o npm install <githubname>/<githubrepo>[#<commit-ish>]:

       o npm install github:<githubname>/<githubrepo>[#<commit-ish>]:
           Install the package at https://github.com/githubname/githubrepo by
           attempting to clone it using git.
           If #<commit-ish> is provided, it will be used to clone exactly that
           commit. If the commit-ish has the format #semver:<semver>, <semver>
         can
           be  any  valid semver range or exact version, and npm will look for
         any tags
           or refs matching that range in the remote repository,  much  as  it
         would for a
           registry  dependency.  If neither #<commit-ish> or #semver:<semver>
         is
           specified, then master is used.
           As with regular git dependencies, dependencies and  devDependencies
         will
           be  installed if the package has a prepare script, before the pack-
         age is
           done installing.
           Examples:

             npm install mygithubuser/myproject
             npm install github:mygithubuser/myproject

       o npm            install            gist:[<githubname>/]<gistID>[#<com-
         mit-ish>|#semver:<semver>]:
           Install the package at https://gist.github.com/gistID by attempting
         to
           clone it using git. The GitHub username associated with the gist is
           optional and will not be saved in package.json.
           As with regular git dependencies, dependencies and  devDependencies
         will
           be  installed if the package has a prepare script, before the pack-
         age is
           done installing.
           Example:

             npm install gist:101a11beef

       o npm install bitbucket:<bitbucketname>/<bitbucketrepo>[#<commit-ish>]:
           Install the package at https://bitbucket.org/bitbucketname/bitbuck-
         etrepo
           by attempting to clone it using git.
           If #<commit-ish> is provided, it will be used to clone exactly that
           commit. If the commit-ish has the format #semver:<semver>, <semver>
         can
           be any valid semver range or exact version, and npm will  look  for
         any tags
           or  refs  matching  that range in the remote repository, much as it
         would for a
           registry dependency. If neither #<commit-ish>  or  #semver:<semver>
         is
           specified, then master is used.
           As  with regular git dependencies, dependencies and devDependencies
         will
           be installed if the package has a prepare script, before the  pack-
         age is
           done installing.
           Example:

             npm install bitbucket:mybitbucketuser/myproject

       o npm install gitlab:<gitlabname>/<gitlabrepo>[#<commit-ish>]:
           Install the package at https://gitlab.com/gitlabname/gitlabrepo
           by attempting to clone it using git.
           If #<commit-ish> is provided, it will be used to clone exactly that
           commit. If the commit-ish has the format #semver:<semver>, <semver>
         can
           be any valid semver range or exact version, and npm will  look  for
         any tags
           or  refs  matching  that range in the remote repository, much as it
         would for a
           registry dependency. If neither #<commit-ish>  or  #semver:<semver>
         is
           specified, then master is used.
           As  with regular git dependencies, dependencies and devDependencies
         will
           be installed if the package has a prepare script, before the  pack-
         age is
           done installing.
           Example:

             npm install gitlab:mygitlabuser/myproject
             npm install gitlab:myusr/myproj#semver:^5.0


       You  may  combine  multiple arguments, and even multiple types of argu-
       ments.  For example:

         npm install sax@">=0.1.0 <0.2.0" bench supervisor

       The --tag argument will apply to all of the specified install  targets.
       If  a  tag  with the given name exists, the tagged version is preferred
       over newer versions.

       The --dry-run argument will report in the usual way  what  the  install
       would have done without actually installing anything.

       The   --package-lock-only   argument   will   only   update  the  pack-
       age-lock.json, instead of checking node_modules and downloading  depen-
       dencies.

       The  -f  or  --force  argument will force npm to fetch remote resources
       even if a local copy exists on disk.

         npm install sax --force

       The -g or --global argument will cause npm to install the package glob-
       ally rather than locally.  See npm help 5 npm-folders.

       The  --global-style argument will cause npm to install the package into
       your local node_modules folder with the same layout it  uses  with  the
       global  node_modules folder. Only your direct dependencies will show in
       node_modules and everything they depend on will be flattened  in  their
       node_modules folders. This obviously will eliminate some deduping.

       The --ignore-scripts argument will cause npm to not execute any scripts
       defined in the package.json. See npm help 7 npm-scripts.

       The --legacy-bundling argument will cause npm to  install  the  package
       such  that  versions of npm prior to 1.4, such as the one included with
       node 0.8, can install the package. This eliminates all automatic dedup-
       ing.

       The  --link  argument  will  cause npm to link global installs into the
       local space in some cases.

       The --no-bin-links argument will prevent npm from creating symlinks for
       any binaries the package might contain.

       The  --no-optional  argument  will  prevent  optional dependencies from
       being installed.

       The --no-shrinkwrap argument, which will ignore  an  available  package
       lock or shrinkwrap file and use the package.json instead.

       The  --no-package-lock  argument will prevent npm from creating a pack-
       age-lock.json file.  When running with package-lock's disabled npm will
       not automatically prune your node modules when installing.

       The  --nodedir=/path/to/node/source argument will allow npm to find the
       node source code so that npm can compile native modules.

       The --only={prod[uction]|dev[elopment]} argument will cause either only
       devDependencies  or only non-devDependencies to be installed regardless
       of the NODE_ENV.

       The --no-audit argument can be used to disable sending of audit reports
       to  the  configured  registries.  See npm help npm-audit for details on
       what is sent.

       See npm help 7 npm-config.  Many of the configuration params have  some
       effect on installation, since that's most of what npm does.

ALGORITHM
       To install a package, npm uses the following algorithm:

         load the existing node_modules tree from disk
         clone the tree
         fetch the package.json and assorted metadata and add it to the clone
         walk the clone and add any missing dependencies
           dependencies will be added as close to the top as is possible
           without breaking any other modules
         compare the original tree with the cloned tree and make a list of
         actions to take to convert one to the other
         execute all of the actions, deepest first
           kinds of actions are install, update, remove and move

       For  this  package{dep}  structure:  A{B,C}, B{C}, C{D}, this algorithm
       produces:

         A
         +-- B
         +-- C
         +-- D

       That is, the dependency from B to C is satisfied by  the  fact  that  A
       already  caused  C  to  be  installed  at  a  higher  level. D is still
       installed at the top level because nothing conflicts with it.

       For A{B,C}, B{C,D@1}, C{D@2}, this algorithm produces:

         A
         +-- B
         +-- C
            `-- D@2
         +-- D@1

       Because B's D@1 will be installed in  the  top  level,  C  now  has  to
       install  D@2 privately for itself. This algorithm is deterministic, but
       different trees may be produced if two dependencies are  requested  for
       installation in a different order.

       See  npm help 5 folders for a more detailed description of the specific
       folder structures that npm creates.

   Limitations of npm's Install Algorithm
       npm will refuse to install any package with an identical  name  to  the
       current  package.  This can be overridden with the --force flag, but in
       most cases can simply be addressed by changing the local package name.

       There are some very rare and pathological edge-cases where a cycle  can
       cause  npm  to try to install a never-ending tree of packages.  Here is
       the simplest case:

         A -> B -> A' -> B' -> A -> B -> A' -> B' -> A -> ...

       where A is some version of a package, and A' is a different version  of
       the  same  package.  Because B depends on a different version of A than
       the one that is already in the tree, it must install a  separate  copy.
       The  same  is true of A', which must install B'.  Because B' depends on
       the original version of A, which has been overridden, the  cycle  falls
       into infinite regress.

       To  avoid this situation, npm flat-out refuses to install any name@ver-
       sion that is already present anywhere in the  tree  of  package  folder
       ancestors.  A more correct, but more complex, solution would be to sym-
       link the existing version into the new location.  If this ever  affects
       a real use-case, it will be investigated.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+-------------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE |    ATTRIBUTE VALUE      |
       +---------------+-------------------------+
       |Availability   | runtime/nodejs/nodejs-8 |
       +---------------+-------------------------+
       |Stability      | Pass-thru volatile      |
       +---------------+-------------------------+
SEE ALSO
       o npm help 5 folders

       o npm help update

       o npm help audit

       o npm help link

       o npm help rebuild

       o npm help 7 scripts

       o npm help build

       o npm help config

       o npm help 7 config

       o npm help 5 npmrc

       o npm help 7 registry

       o npm help dist-tag

       o npm help uninstall

       o npm help shrinkwrap

       o npm help 5 package.json





NOTES
       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source    was   downloaded   from    https://github.com/nodejs/node/ar-
       chive/v8.15.1.zip

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://github.com/nodejs/node.



                                  August 2018                   NPM-INSTALL(1)