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Updated: Wednesday, February 9, 2022

xorriso (1)


xorriso - creates, loads, manipulates and writes ISO 9660 filesystem images with Rock Ridge extensions.


xorriso [settings|actions]


XORRISO(1)                  General Commands Manual                 XORRISO(1)

       xorriso  -  creates,  loads, manipulates and writes ISO 9660 filesystem
       images with Rock Ridge extensions.

       xorriso [settings|actions]

       xorriso is a program which copies file  objects  from  POSIX  compliant
       filesystems  into Rock Ridge enhanced ISO 9660 filesystems and performs
       session-wise  manipulation  of  such  filesystems.  It  can  load   the
       management information of existing ISO images and it writes the session
       results to optical media or to filesystem objects.
       Vice versa xorriso is able  to  copy  file  objects  out  of  ISO  9660

       A  special property of xorriso is that it needs neither an external ISO
       9660 formatter program nor an external burn program for CD, DVD  or  BD
       but rather incorporates the libraries of libburnia-project.org .

   Overview of features:
       Operates on an existing ISO image or creates a new one.
       Copies files from disk filesystem into the ISO image.
       Copies files from ISO image to disk filesystem (see osirrox).
       Renames or deletes file objects in the ISO image.
       Changes file properties in the ISO image.
       Updates ISO subtrees incrementally to match given disk subtrees.
       Writes  result  either  as completely new image or as add-on session to
       optical media or filesystem objects.
       Can activate ISOLINUX and GRUB boot images via El Torito and MBR.
       Can perform multi-session tasks as emulation of mkisofs and cdrecord.
       Can record and restore hard links and ACL.
       Content may get zisofs compressed or filtered by external processes.
       Can issue commands to mount older sessions on GNU/Linux or FreeBSD.
       Can check media for damages and copy readable blocks to disk.
       Can attach MD5 checksums to each data file and the whole session.
       Scans for optical drives, blanks re-useable optical media.
       Reads its instructions from command line arguments, dialog, and files.
       Provides navigation commands for interactive ISO image manipulation.
       Adjustable thresholds for abort, exit value, and problem reporting.

       Note that xorriso does not write audio CDs and that it does not produce
       UDF filesystems which are specified for official video DVD or BD.

   General information paragraphs:
       Session model
       Media types and states
       Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing
       Libburn drives
       Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr
       Command processing
       Dialog, Readline, Result pager

       Maybe you first want to have a look at section EXAMPLES near the end of
       this text before reading the  next  few  hundred  lines  of  background

   Session model:
       Unlike  other  filesystems, ISO 9660 (aka ECMA-119) is not intended for
       read-write operation but rather for being generated in a  single  sweep
       and being written to media as a session.
       The data content of the session is called filesystem image.

       The  written  image in its session can then be mounted by the operating
       system for being used read-only. GNU/Linux is able to mount ISO  images
       from  block  devices, which may represent optical media, other media or
       via a loop device even from regular  disk  files.  FreeBSD  mounts  ISO
       images from devices that represent arbitrary media or from regular disk

       This session usage model has been extended on CD media by  the  concept
       of multi-session , which adds information to the CD and gives the mount
       programs of the operating systems the addresses of the entry points  of
       each   session.  The  mount  programs  recognize  block  devices  which
       represent CD media and will by default mount  the  image  in  the  last
       This  session  usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole
       medium which governs the data contents in all recorded sessions.  So in
       the  view  of  the  mount  program  all sessions of a particular medium
       together form a single filesystem image.
       Adding a session to an existing ISO image is in this text  referred  as
       The multi-session model of the MMC standard does not apply to all media
       types. But program growisofs by Andy Polyakov showed how to extend this
       functionality  to  overwriteable  media or disk files which carry valid
       ISO 9660 filesystems.

       xorriso provides growing as well as an own method named modifying which
       produces  a  completely  new  ISO  image  from  the  old  one  and  the
       modifications.   See  paragraph  Creating,  Growing,  Modifying,  Blind
       Growing below.

       xorriso  adopts  the  concept  of  multi-session  by  loading  an image
       directory tree if present, by offering  to  manipulate  it  by  several
       actions, and by writing the new image to the target medium.
       The  first  session  of  a  xorriso run begins by the definition of the
       input drive with the ISO image or by the definition of an output drive.
       The  session  ends by command -commit which triggers writing. A -commit
       is done automatically when the program ends regularly.

       After -commit a new session begins with  the  freshly  written  one  as
       input.   A new input drive can only be chosen as long as the loaded ISO
       image was not altered. Pending alteration can  be  revoked  by  command

       Writing  a  session  to  the target is supposed to be very expensive in
       terms of time and of consumed space on appendable or write-once  media.
       Therefore  all  intended manipulations of a particular ISO image should
       be done in a single session. But in principle it is possible  to  store
       intermediate states and to continue with image manipulations.

   Media types and states:
       There are two families of media in the MMC standard:
       Multi-session  media are CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD+R/DL, BD-R, and
       unformatted DVD-RW. These  media  provide  a  table  of  content  which
       describes their existing sessions. See command -toc.
       Similar  to  multi-session  media  are  DVD-R  DL and minimally blanked
       DVD-RW.  They record only a single session of which the  size  must  be
       known  in advance.  xorriso will write onto them only if command -close
       is set to "on".
       Overwriteable media are DVD-RAM, DVD+RW, BD-RE, and  formatted  DVD-RW.
       They  offer  random  write  access but do not provide information about
       their session history. If they contain one or more  ISO  9660  sessions
       and  if  the  first  session  was  written  by xorriso, then a table of
       content can be emulated. Else only a single  overall  session  will  be
       DVD-RW  media  can  be  formatted  by -format "full".  They can be made
       unformatted by -blank "deformat".
       Regular files and block devices are  handled  as  overwriteable  media.
       Pipes and other writeable file types are handled as blank multi-session

       These media can assume several states in  which  they  offer  different
       Blank  media  can  be  written  from scratch. They contain no ISO image
       suitable for xorriso.
       Blank is the state of newly purchased optical media.  With  used  CD-RW
       and   DVD-RW   it   can  be  achieved  by  action  -blank  "as_needed".
       Overwriteable media are considered blank if they are  new  or  if  they
       have been marked as blank by xorriso.  Action -blank "as_needed" can be
       used to do this marking on overwriteable media, or to  apply  mandatory
       formatting to new media if necessary.
       Appendable   media   accept  further  sessions.  Either  they  are  MMC
       multi-session media in appendable  state,  or  they  are  overwriteable
       media which contain an ISO image suitable for xorriso.
       Appendable  is  the  state  after writing a session with command -close
       Closed media cannot be written. They may contain an ISO image  suitable
       for xorriso.
       Closed  is  the state of DVD-ROM media and of multi-session media which
       were written with command -close on. If the drive is read-only hardware
       then it will probably show any media as closed CD-ROM or DVD-ROM.
       Overwriteable  media  assume  this state in such read-only drives or if
       they contain unrecognizable data in the first 32 data blocks.
       Read-only drives may or may not show session histories of multi-session
       media. Often only the first and the last session are visible. Sometimes
       not even that. Command -rom_toc_scan might or might not  help  in  such

   Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing:
       A  new  empty  ISO image gets created if there is no input drive with a
       valid ISO 9660 image when the first time an output  drive  is  defined.
       This  is  achieved by command -dev on blank media or by command -outdev
       on media in any state.
       The new empty image  can  be  populated  with  directories  and  files.
       Before  it can be written, the medium in the output drive must get into
       blank state if it was not blank already.

       If there is a input drive with a valid ISO image, then this image  gets
       loaded as foundation for manipulations and extension. The constellation
       of input and output drive determines which write method will  be  used.
       They have quite different capabilities and constraints.

       The method of growing adds new data to the existing data on the medium.
       These data comprise of new file content and they override the  existing
       ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge directory tree. It is possible to hide files from
       previous sessions but they still exist on  the  medium  and  with  many
       types  of  optical  media  it is quite easy to recover them by mounting
       older sessions.
       Growing is achieved by command -dev.

       The write method of modifying produces compact filesystem  images  with
       no outdated files or directory trees. Modifying can write its images to
       target  media  which  are  completely  unsuitable   for   multi-session
       operations.    E.g.    DVD-RW    which   were   treated   with   -blank
       deformat_quickest, DVD-R DL, named pipes, character  devices,  sockets.
       On  the  other  hand  modified sessions cannot be written to appendable
       media but to blank media only.
       So for this method one needs either two optical drives or has  to  work
       with filesystem objects as source and/or target medium.
       Modifying  takes place if input drive and output drive are not the same
       and if command -grow_blindly is set to  its  default  "off".   This  is
       achieved by commands -indev and -outdev.

       If  command -grow_blindly is set to a non-negative number and if -indev
       and -outdev are both set to different drives,  then  blind  growing  is
       performed.  It  produces  an  add-on  session  which is ready for being
       written to the given block address. This is the usage model of
        mkisofs -M $indev -C $msc1,$msc2 -o $outdev
       which gives much room for wrong parameter combinations and should  thus
       only  be employed if a strict distinction between ISO formatter xorriso
       and the burn program is desired. -C $msc1,$msc2 is equivalent to:
        -load sbsector $msc1 -grow_blindly $msc2

   Libburn drives:
       Input drive, i.e. source of an existing or empty ISO image, can be  any
       random access readable libburn drive: optical media with readable data,
       blank optical media, regular files, block devices.
       Output drive, i.e. target for writing, can be any libburn drive.   Some
       drive  types  do not support the method of growing but only the methods
       of modifying and blind growing. They all are suitable for newly created

       All  drive  file  objects  have  to  offer rw-permission to the user of
       xorriso.  Even those which will not  be  useable  for  reading  an  ISO
       With  any type of drive object, the data are considered to be organized
       in blocks of 2 KiB. Access happens in terms of  Logical  Block  Address
       (LBA) which gives the number of a particular data block.

       MMC  compliant (i.e. optical) drives on GNU/Linux usually get addressed
       by the path of their block device or of their generic character device.
         -dev /dev/sr0
         -dev /dev/hdc
         -dev /dev/sg2
       By  default  xorriso  will try to map the given address to /dev/hd* and
       /dev/sr*.  The command -scsi_dev_family can redirect the  mapping  from
       sr  to  scd  or  sg.   The  latter does not suffer from the concurrency
       problems which plague /dev/sr of Linux kernels since version 3. But  it
       does  not  yield  the  same  addresses which are used by mount(8) or by
       open(2) for read(2).
       On FreeBSD the device files have names like
         -dev /dev/cd0
       On NetBSD:
         -dev /dev/rcd0d
       On OpenSolaris:
         -dev /dev/rdsk/c4t0d0s2
       Get a list of accessible drives by command
       It might be necessary to do this as  superuser  in  order  to  see  all
       drives and to then allow rw-access for the intended users.  Consider to
       bundle the authorized users in a group like old "floppy".

       Filesystem objects of nearly  any  type  can  be  addressed  by  prefix
       "stdio:" and their path in the filesystem. E.g.:
         -dev stdio:/dev/sdc
       The  default  setting  of -drive_class allows the user to address files
       outside the /dev tree without that prefix. E.g.:
         -dev /tmp/pseudo_drive
       If path leads to a regular file or to a block device then the  emulated
       drive  is  random  access  readable  and  can be used for the method of
       growing if it already contains a valid ISO 9660 image. Any  other  file
       type  is  not  readable via "stdio:" and can only be used as target for
       the method of  modifying  or  blind  growing.   Non-existing  paths  in
       existing directories are handled as empty regular files.

       A very special kind of pseudo drive are open file descriptors. They are
       depicted by "stdio:/dev/fd/" and descriptor number (see man 2 open).
       Addresses  "-"  or  "stdio:/dev/fd/1"  depict  standard  output,  which
       normally  is  the  output channel for result texts.  To prevent a fatal
       intermingling of ISO image and text  messages,  all  result  texts  get
       redirected  to  stderr  if  -*dev "-" or "stdio:/dev/fd/1" is among the
       start arguments of the program.
       Standard output is currently suitable  for  creating  one  session  per
       program  run without dialog. Use in other situations is discouraged and
       several restrictions apply:
       It is not allowed to use standard output as pseudo drive if it was  not
       among  the  start  arguments.  Do not try to fool this ban via backdoor
       addresses to stdout.
       If stdout is used as drive, then -use_readline is permanently disabled.
       Use of backdoors can cause severe memory and/or tty corruption.

       Be  aware  that  especially the superuser can write into any accessible
       file or device by using its path with the "stdio:" prefix.  By  default
       any  address in the /dev tree without prefix "stdio:" will work only if
       it leads to a MMC drive.
       One may use command -ban_stdio_write to surely prevent this risk and to
       restrict drive usage to MMC drives.
       One  may  prepend  "mmc:"  to  a  path to surely disallow any automatic
       By command -drive_class one may  ban  certain  paths  or  allow  access
       without prefix "stdio:" to other paths.

   Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr:
       Rock Ridge is the name of a set of additional information which enhance
       an ISO 9660 filesystem so that  it  can  represent  a  POSIX  compliant
       filesystem  with  ownership,  access  permissions,  symbolic links, and
       other attributes.
       This is what xorriso uses for a decent representation of the disk files
       within  the  ISO  image.  xorriso  produces  Rock  Ridge information by
       default. It is strongly discouraged to disable this feature.

       xorriso is  not  named  "porriso"  because  POSIX  only  guarantees  14
       characters  of  filename  length.  It  is  the  X/Open System Interface
       standard XSI which demands a file name length of up to  255  characters
       and paths of up to 1024 characters. Rock Ridge fulfills this demand.

       An  El Torito boot record points the BIOS bootstrapping facility to one
       or more boot images, which are binary program files stored in  the  ISO
       image.   The  content of the boot image files is not in the scope of El
       Most bootable GNU/Linux CDs are equipped with  ISOLINUX  or  GRUB  boot
       images.   xorriso  is  able  to  create or maintain an El Torito object
       which  makes  such  an  image  bootable.  For   details   see   command
       It  is  possible  to  make  ISO images bootable from USB stick or other
       hard-disk-like media.  Several  options  install  a  MBR  (Master  Boot
       Record),  It  may  get  adjusted according to the needs of the intended
       boot firmware and the involved boot loaders, e.g. GRUB2 or ISOLINUX.  A
       MBR  contains  boot  code  and  a  partition  table.   The new MBR of a
       follow-up session can get in effect only on overwriteable media.
       MBR is read by PC-BIOS when booting from USB stick or hard disk, and by
       PowerPC  CHRP  or  PReP  when booting.  An MBR partition with type 0xee
       indicates the presence of GPT.
       Emulation -as mkisofs supports the example options out of the  ISOLINUX
       wiki, the options used in GRUB script grub-mkrescue, and the example in
       the FreeBSD AvgLiveCD wiki.
       A GPT (GUID Partition Table) marks partitions in a more modern way.  It
       is  read  by  EFI  when booting from USB stick or hard disk, and may be
       used for finding and mounting a HFS+ partition inside the ISO image.
       An APM (Apple Partition Map) marks the HFS+ partition.  It is  read  by
       Macs for booting and for mounting.
       MBR,  GPT and APM are combinable. APM occupies the first 8 bytes of MBR
       boot code. All three do not hamper El Torito booting from CDROM.
       There is support for further facilities: MIPS Big  Endian  (SGI),  MIPS
       Little  Endian  (DEC),  SUN  SPARC,  HP-PA.   Those  are  mutually  not
       combinable and also not combinable with MBR, GPT, or APM.

       ACL are an advanced way  of  controlling  access  permissions  to  file
       objects.  Neither ISO 9660 nor Rock Ridge specify a way to record ACLs.
       So libisofs has introduced a standard conformant extension  named  AAIP
       for that purpose.  It uses this extension if enabled by command -acl.
       AAIP  enhanced  images  are  supposed to be mountable normally, but one
       cannot expect that the mounted filesystem will  show  and  respect  the
       ACLs.   For  now,  only xorriso is able to retrieve those ACLs.  It can
       bring them into effect when files get restored to an ACL  enabled  file
       system or it can print them in a format suitable for tool setfacl.
       Files  with ACL show as group permissions the setting of entry "mask::"
       if that entry exists. Nevertheless the  non-listed  group  members  get
       handled  according  to  entry "group::". When removing ACL from a file,
       xorriso brings "group::" into effect.
       Recording and restoring of ACLs from and to local files works currently
       only on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD.

       xattr  (aka  EA,  or  extattr) are pairs of name and value which can be
       attached to file objects. AAIP is able to represent  them  and  xorriso
       can record and restore them.
       But  be  aware  that  pairs  with  names of non-user namespaces are not
       necessarily portable between operating systems  and  not  even  between
       filesystems.   Only  those  which  begin with "user.", like "user.x" or
       "user.whatever", can unconditionally be expected to be  appropriate  on
       other   machines  and  disks.   Processing  of  other  xattr  may  need
       administrator privileges.
       Name has to be a 0 terminated string.  Value may be any array of  bytes
       which does not exceed the size of 4095 bytes.  xattr processing happens
       only if it is enabled by command -xattr.
       As with ACL, currently only xorriso is able to retrieve xattr from AAIP
       enhanced  images,  to restore them to xattr capable file systems, or to
       print them.
       Recording and  restoring  of  xattr  from  and  to  local  files  works
       currently  only  on  GNU/Linux  and  FreeBSD,  where  they are known as

   Command processing:
       Commands are either actions which happen immediately or settings  which
       influence following actions. So their sequence does matter, unless they
       are given as program arguments and command -x is among them.
       Commands consist of a command word, followed by zero or more  parameter
       words.  If the list of parameter words is of variable length (indicated
       by "[...]" or "[***]") then it must be terminated by  either  the  list
       delimiter,  occur  at the end of the argument list, or occur at the end
       of an input line.

       At program start the list delimiter is the string "--".   This  may  be
       changed  with  the  -list_delimiter  command  in order to allow "--" as
       parameter in a variable length list.  However, it is advised  to  reset
       the delimiter to "--" immediately afterwards.
       For  brevity  the  list  delimiter  is referred as "--" throughout this
       The list  delimiter  is  silently  ignored  if  it  appears  after  the
       parameters  of  a  command  with  a fixed list length. It is handled as
       normal text if it appears among the parameters of such a command.

       Pattern expansion converts a list of  pattern  words  into  a  list  of
       existing file addresses.  Unmatched pattern words will appear unaltered
       in that result list.
       Pattern matching supports the usual  shell  parser  wildcards  '*'  '?'
       '[xyz]'  and  respects  '/'  as  the  path separator, which may only be
       matched literally.
       Pattern expansion is a property of some particular commands and  not  a
       general  feature.  It  is  controlled  by  commands -iso_rr_pattern and
       -disk_pattern.  Commands which use pattern expansion all have  variable
       parameter lists which are specified in this text by "[***]" rather than
       Some other commands perform pattern matching unconditionally.

       Command and parameter words are either read from the program arguments,
       where  one argument is one word, or from quoted input lines where words
       are recognized similar to the quotation rules of a shell parser.
       xorriso is not a shell, although it might appear so at  first  glimpse.
       Be  aware  that  the interaction of quotation marks and pattern symbols
       like "*" differs from the usual shell parsers. In xorriso, a  quotation
       mark does not make a pattern symbol literal.

       Quoted input converts whitespace-separated text into words.  The double
       quotation mark " and the single quotation mark ' can be used to enclose
       whitespace  and  make  it part of words (e.g. of file names). Each mark
       type can enclose the marks of the other type. A  trailing  backslash  \
       outside quotations or an open quotation cause the next input line to be
       Quoted input accepts any 8-bit character except NUL (0) as the  content
       of  the  quotes.   Nevertheless  it  can  be cumbersome for the user to
       produce those characters directly. Therefore quoted input  and  program
       arguments  offer  optional Backslash Interpretation which can represent
       all 8-bit characters except NUL (0) via backslash codes as in $'...' of
       This is not enabled by default. See command -backslash_codes.

       When  the  program  starts  then it first looks for argument -no_rc. If
       this is not present then it looks for its startup files and reads their
       content  as  command  input  lines.  Then  it  interprets  the  program
       arguments as commands and parameters. Finally it enters dialog mode  if
       command -dialog "on" has been executed by this point.

       The  program  ends  either  by  command  -end, or by the end of program
       arguments if dialog mode has not been enabled at that point,  or  by  a
       problem event which triggers the threshold of command -abort_on.

   Dialog, Readline, Result pager:
       Dialog  mode prompts for a quoted input line, parses it into words, and
       performs them as commands with their parameters. It provides  assisting
       services to make dialog more comfortable.

       Readline  is an enhancement for the input line. You may already know it
       from the bash shell. Whether it is available in xorriso depends on  the
       availability of package readline-dev at the time when xorriso was built
       from its sourcecode.
       Readline lets the user move the cursor over the text  in  the  line  by
       help of the Left and the Right arrow keys.  Text may be inserted at the
       cursor position. The Delete key removes the character under the cursor.
       Up  and  Down arrow keys navigate through the history of previous input
       See man readline for more info about libreadline.

       Command -page activates a built-in  result  text  pager  which  may  be
       convenient  in dialog mode. After an action has output the given number
       of terminal lines, the pager prompts the user for a line of input.
       An empty line lets xorriso resume work until the next page is output.
       The single character "@" disables paging for the current action.
       "@@@", "x", "q", "X", or "Q" request that the current action aborts and
       suppress further result output.
       Any  other  line  input  will  be  interpreted  as new dialog line. The
       current action is requested to abort. Afterwards,  the  input  line  is

       Some actions apply paging to their info output, too.
       The  request  to  abort may or may not be obeyed by the current action.
       All actions try to abort as soon as possible.

       All command words are shown with a leading dash although this  dash  is
       not  mandatory  for  the  command to be recognized. Nevertheless within
       command -as the dashes of the emulated commands are mandatory.
       Normally any number of leading dashes is ignored with command words and
       inner dashes are interpreted as underscores.

       Execution order of program arguments:

       By  default the program arguments of a xorriso run are interpreted as a
       sequence of commands which get performed exactly in  the  given  order.
       This  requires  the  user to write commands for desired settings before
       the commands which shall be influenced by those settings.
       Many other programs support program arguments in an arbitrary  ordering
       and perform settings and actions in a sequence at their own discretion.
       xorriso provides an option to enable such a behavior  at  the  cost  of
       loss of expressivity.

       -x     Enable  automatic  sorting  of program arguments into a sequence
              that (most likely) is sensible.  This command may  be  given  at
              any position among the commands which are handed over as program
              Note: It works only if it is given as program argument and  with
              a  single  dash  (i.e. "-x"). It will not work in startup files,
              nor with -options_from_file, nor in dialog mode, nor as "x"  and
              finally  not  as  "--x".   It affects only the commands given as
              program arguments.

              List all xorriso commands in the order which applies if  command
              -x is in effect.
              This  list may also be helpful without -x for a user who ponders
              over the sequence in which to put commands. Deviations from  the
              listed sorting order may well make sense, though.

       Acquiring source and target drive:

       The  effect  of acquiring a drive may depend on several commands in the
       next  paragraph  "Influencing  the  behavior  of  image  loading".   If
       desired,  their  enabling  commands  have  to  be  performed before the
       commands which acquire the drive.

       -dev address
              Set input and output drive to the same address and load  an  ISO
              image  if it is present.  If there is no ISO image then create a
              blank one.  Set the image expansion method to growing.
              This is only allowed as long as no changes are  pending  in  the
              currently loaded ISO image. If changes are pending, then one has
              to perform -commit or -rollback first.
              Special address string  "-"  means  standard  output,  to  which
              several   restrictions   apply.  See  above  paragraph  "Libburn
              An empty address string "" gives up the current  device  without
              acquiring a new one.

       -indev address
              Set  input  drive  and load an ISO image if present.  If the new
              input drive differs from -outdev then  switch  from  growing  to
              modifying  or  to  blind  growing.  It depends on the setting of
              -grow_blindly which of both gets activated.  The same rules  and
              restrictions apply as with -dev.

       -outdev address
              Set  output  drive  and  if it differs from the input drive then
              switch from growing to modifying or  to  blind  growing.  Unlike
              -dev and -indev this action does not load a new ISO image. So it
              can be performed even if there are pending changes.
              -outdev can be performed without previous  -dev  or  -indev.  In
              that case an empty ISO image with no changes pending is created.
              It can either be populated by help of -map, -add  et.al.  or  it
              can  be  discarded  silently  if  -dev  or  -indev are performed
              Special address string  "-"  means  standard  output,  to  which
              several   restrictions   apply.  See  above  paragraph  "Libburn
              An empty address string "" gives up  the  current  output  drive
              without  acquiring  a new one. No writing is possible without an
              output drive.

       -drive_class "harmless"|"banned"|"caution"|"clear_list" disk_pattern
              Add a drive path pattern to one of  the  safety  lists  or  make
              those  lists  empty.   There  are  three lists defined which get
              tested in the following sequence:
              If a drive address path matches the  "harmless"  list  then  the
              drive  will  be  accepted.  If  it  is not a MMC device then the
              prefix "stdio:" will be prepended automatically.  This  list  is
              empty by default.
              Else  if  the path matches the "banned" list then the drive will
              not be accepted by xorriso but rather lead to a  FAILURE  event.
              This list is empty by default.
              Else  if  the path matches the "caution" list and if it is not a
              MMC device, then its address must have the prefix "stdio:" or it
              will be rejected.  This list has by default one entry: "/dev".
              If   a  drive  path  matches  no  list  then  it  is  considered
              "harmless". By default these are all paths which  do  not  begin
              with directory "/dev".
              A  path  matches  a  list  if  one of its parent paths or itself
              matches a list entry. Address prefix "stdio:" or "mmc:" will  be
              ignored when testing for matches.
              By   pseudo-class  "clear_list"  and  pseudo-patterns  "banned",
              "caution", "harmless", or "all", the lists may be made empty.
              E.g.: -drive_class clear_list banned
              One will normally define the -drive_class lists in  one  of  the
              xorriso Startup Files.
              Note: This is not a security feature but rather a bumper for the
              superuser to prevent inadverted mishaps. For  reliably  blocking
              access  to  a device file you have to deny its rw-permissions in
              the filesystem.

       -drive_access "exclusive"|"shared":"unrestricted"|"readonly"
              Control whether device file locking  mechanisms  shall  be  used
              when  acquiring  a  drive,  and whether status or content of the
              medium in the drive may be altered. Useful and most harmless are
              the   setting   "shared:readonly"   and   the   default  setting
              "exclusive" enables tests and locks when acquiring the drive. It
              depends  on  the  operating  system which locking mechanisms get
              applied, if any. On GNU/Linux it is open(O_EXCL). On FreeBSD  it
              is flock(LOCK_EX).
              "shared"  disables the use of these mechanisms to become able to
              acquire drives which are mounted, or opened by some process,  or
              guarded by /dev/pktcdvd*.
              "unrestricted" enables all technically appropriate operations on
              an acquired drive. "shared:unrestricted" risks to get  own  burn
              runs   spoiled  by  other  processes  or  to  vice  versa  spoil
              activities of such processes.  So  use  "exclusive:unrestricted"
              unless you know for sure that "shared" is safe.
              "readonly" disables operations which might surprise a co-user of
              the drive.  For -outdev these are formatting, blanking, writing,
              ejecting.  For  -indev  this  is  ejecting.  Be  aware that even
              reading and drive status inquiries can disturb an  ongoing  burn
              run on CD-R[W] and DVD-R[W].

       -scsi_dev_family "default"|"sr"|"scd"|"sg"
              GNU/Linux specific:
              By  default,  xorriso  tries  to  map  Linux  drive addresses to
              /dev/sr* before they get opened for operating  the  drive.  This
              coordinates  well  with  other use cases of optical drives, like
              mount(8). But since year 2010 all /dev/sr* share a  global  lock
              which allows only one drive to process an SCSI command while all
              others have to wait  for  its  completion.   This  yields  awful
              throughput  if  more  than  one  drive  is  writing  or  reading
              simultaneously.  The global lock is not applied to device  files
              /dev/sg*  and also not if the xorriso drive address is prepended
              by "stdio:".
              So  for  simultaneous  burn  runs  on  modern  GNU/Linux  it  is
              advisable  to  perform  -scsi_dev_family  "sg"  before any -dev,
              -indev, or -outdev. The drive addresses may then well  be  given
              as  /dev/sr*  but  will  nevertheless  get  used as the matching
              If you decide so, consider to put  the  command  into  a  global
              startup file like /etc/opt/xorriso/rc.

       -grow_blindly "off"|predicted_nwa
              If  predicted_nwa  is  a  non-negative number then perform blind
              growing rather than modifying if -indev and -outdev are  set  to
              different  drives.   "off" or "-1" switch to modifying, which is
              the default.
              predicted_nwa is the block address where the add-on  session  of
              blind  growing  will finally end up. It is the responsibility of
              the user to ensure this final position and the presence  of  the
              older sessions. Else the overall ISO image will not be mountable
              or will produce read errors when accessing file content. xorriso
              will write the session to the address as obtained from examining
              -outdev and not necessarily to predicted_nwa.
              During a run of blind growing,  the  input  drive  is  given  up
              before  output begins. The output drive is given up when writing
              is done.

       Influencing the behavior of image loading:

       The following commands should normally be performed before  loading  an
       image  by  acquiring  an  input drive. In rare cases it is desirable to
       activate them only after image loading.

       -read_speed code|number[k|m|c|d|b]
              Set the speed for reading. Default is "none",  which  avoids  to
              send a speed setting command to the drive before reading begins.
              Further special speed codes are:
              "max" (or "0") selects maximum speed as announced by the drive.
              "min" (or "-1") selects minimum speed as announced by the drive.
              Speed  can  be  given in media dependent numbers or as a desired
              throughput per second in MMC compliant kB (= 1000) or MB (= 1000
              kB).  Media  x-speed factor can be set explicitly by "c" for CD,
              "d" for DVD, "b" for BD, "x" is optional.
              Example speeds:
               706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
               5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
              If there is no hint about the  speed  unit  attached,  then  the
              medium in the -indev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
              Depending  on  the  drive,  the  reported  read  speeds  can  be
              deceivingly low or high. Therefore "min"  cannot  become  higher
              than  1x  speed  of  the  involved medium type. Read speed "max"
              cannot become lower than 52xCD, 24xDVD, or 20xBD,  depending  on
              the medium type.
              MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take the
              speed value given by the burn program only as hint for their own

       -load entity id
              Load  a  particular (possibly outdated) ISO session from -dev or
              -indev.  Usually all available sessions are shown  with  command
              entity depicts the kind of addressing. id depicts the particular
              address. The following entities are defined:
              "auto" with any id addresses the last session in -toc.  This  is
              the default.
              "session"  with  id  being  a number as of a line "ISO session",
              column "Idx".
              "track" with id being a number as of a line "ISO track",  column
              "lba" or "sbsector" with a number as of a line "ISO ...", column
              "volid" with a search pattern for a text as of a line "ISO ...",
              column "Volume Id".
              Addressing a non-existing entity or one which does not represent
              an ISO image will either abandon -indev or at least  lead  to  a
              blank image.
              If  an  input drive is set at the moment when -load is executed,
              then the addressed ISO image is loaded  immediately.  Else,  the
              setting will be pending until the next -dev or -indev. After the
              image has been loaded once, the setting is valid  for  -rollback
              until next -dev or -indev, where it will be reset to "auto".

       -displacement [-]lba
              Compensate  a displacement of the image versus the start address
              for which the image was prepared. This affects only  loading  of
              ISO  images and reading of their files. The multi-session method
              of growing is not allowed as long as -displacement is  non-zero.
              I.e. -indev and -outdev must be different. The displacement gets
              reset to 0 before the drive gets re-acquired after writing.
              If a track of a CD starts at block 123456 and gets copied  to  a
              disk  file  where  it  begins  at block 0, then this copy can be
              loaded with
                -displacement -123456
              If an ISO image was written onto  a  partition  with  offset  of
              640000  blocks of 512 bytes, then it can be loaded from the base
              device by
                -load sbsector 160000 -displacement 160000
              (If the partition start address is not divisible by 4, then  you
              will have to employ a loop device instead.)
              In  both  cases, the ISO sessions should be self contained, i.e.
              not add-on sessions to an  ISO  image  outside  their  track  or

       -read_fs "any"|"norock"|"nojoliet"|"ecma119"
              Specify which kind of filesystem tree to load if present. If the
              wish cannot be fulfilled, then ECMA-119  names  are  loaded  and
              converted according to -ecma119_map.
              "any"  first tries to read Rock Ridge. If not present, Joliet is
              "norock" does not try Rock Ridge.
              "nojoliet" does not try Joliet.
              "ecma119" tries neither Rock Ridge nor Joliet.

       -assert_volid pattern severity
              Refuse to load ISO images with volume IDs which do not match the
              given  search pattern. When refusing an image, give up the input
              drive and issue an event of the given  severity  (like  FAILURE,
              see -abort_on). An empty search pattern accepts any image.
              This command does not hamper the creation of an empty image from
              blank input media and does not discard an already loaded image.

       -in_charset character_set_name
              Set the character set from which  to  convert  file  names  when
              loading  an  image.  See  paragraph  "Character  sets"  for more
              explanations.  When loading the written image after -commit  the
              setting of -out_charset will be copied to -in_charset.

       -auto_charset "on"|"off"
              Enable  or  disable  recording  and interpretation of the output
              character set name in an  xattr  attribute  of  the  image  root
              directory.  If  enabled  and if a recorded character set name is
              found, then this  name  will  be  used  as  name  of  the  input
              character set when reading an image.
              Note  that the default output charset is the local character set
              of the terminal where  xorriso  runs.  Before  attributing  this
              local character set to the produced ISO image, check whether the
              terminal properly displays all  intended  filenames,  especially
              exotic national characters.

       -hardlinks mode[:mode...]
              Enable or disable loading and recording of hardlink relations.
              In  default mode "off", iso_rr files lose their inode numbers at
              image load time. Each iso_rr file  object  which  has  no  inode
              number  at  image  generation  time  will get a new unique inode
              number if -compliance is set to new_rr.
              Mode "on" preserves inode numbers from the loaded image if  such
              numbers  were  recorded.   When committing a session it searches
              for families of iso_rr files which stem from the same disk file,
              have  identical content filtering and have identical properties.
              The family members all get the same inode number.  Whether these
              numbers  are  respected  at  mount time depends on the operating
              Command -lsl displays hardlink counts if "lsl_count" is enabled.
              This  can  slow  down the command substantially after changes to
              the  ISO  image  have  been  made.  Therefore  the  default   is
              Commands  -update and -update_r track splits and fusions of hard
              links in filesystems which have stable device and inode numbers.
              This  can cause automatic last minute changes before the session
              gets written. Command -hardlinks "perform_update" may be used to
              do  these  changes earlier, e.g. if you need to apply filters to
              all updated files.
              Mode "without_update" avoids hardlink processing  during  update
              commands.   Use this if your filesystem situation does not allow
              -disk_dev_ino "on".
              xorriso commands which extract files from an ISO  image  try  to
              hardlink  files with identical inode number. The normal scope of
              this operation is from image load to image load. One may give up
              the    accumulated    hard    link   addresses   by   -hardlinks
              A large number of hardlink families may exhaust  -temp_mem_limit
              if     not     -osirrox     "sort_lba_on"     and     -hardlinks
              "cheap_sorted_extract" are both in effect. This  restricts  hard
              linking  to  other  files  restored  by  the same single extract
              command.  -hardlinks  "normal_extract"   re-enables   wide   and
              expensive hardlink accumulation.

       -acl "on"|"off"
              Enable  or disable processing of ACLs.  If enabled, then xorriso
              will obtain ACLs from disk file objects, store ACLs in  the  ISO
              image  using  the  libisofs specific AAIP format, load AAIP data
              from ISO images, test ACL during file  comparison,  and  restore
              ACLs  to  disk  files when extracting them from ISO images.  See
              also commands -getfacl, -setfacl.

       -xattr "on"|"user"|"any"|"off"
              Enable or disable processing of xattr attributes.   If  enabled,
              then  xorriso  will  handle  xattr  similar  to  ACL.   See also
              commands -getfattr, -setfattr and above paragraph about xattr.
              Modes "on" and  "user"  read  and  write  only  attributes  from
              namespace "user".
              Mode  "any"  processes  attributes of all namespaces. This might
              need administrator privileges, even if the  owner  of  the  disk
              file tries to read or write the attributes.
              Note that xattr from namespace "isofs." are never read from disk
              or restored to disk. Further it is not possible to set them  via
              xorriso xattr manipulation commands.

       -md5 "on"|"all"|"off"|"load_check_off"
              Enable  or  disable  processing of MD5 checksums for the overall
              session and for each single data file. If  enabled  then  images
              with checksum tags get loaded only if the tags of superblock and
              directory tree match properly. The MD5 checksums of  data  files
              and whole session get loaded from the image if there are any.
              With  commands  -compare  and -update the recorded MD5 of a file
              will be used to avoid content reading from the image.  Only  the
              disk  file content will be read and compared with that MD5. This
              can save much time if -disk_dev_ino "on" is not suitable.
              At image generation time they are computed for each  file  which
              gets  its  data  written  into the new session. The checksums of
              files which have their data in older sessions  get  copied  into
              the  new  session.  Superblock,  tree  and  whole  session get a
              checksum tag each.
              Mode "all"  will  additionally  check  during  image  generation
              whether  the  checksum  of  a data file changed between the time
              when its reading began and the time when it ended. This  implies
              reading every file twice.
              Mode  "load_check_off"  together  with  "on"  or "all" will load
              recorded MD5 sums but not test the  recorded  checksum  tags  of
              superblock  and  directory tree.  This is necessary if growisofs
              was used as burn program, because  it  does  not  overwrite  the
              superblock   checksum  tag  of  the  first  session.   Therefore
              load_check_off is in effect when xorriso -as mkisofs  option  -M
              is performed.
              The test can be re-enabled by mode "load_check_on".
              Checksums    can   be   exploited   via   commands   -check_md5,
              -check_md5_r, via  find  actions  get_md5,  check_md5,  and  via

              Enable  all  extra  features which help to produce or to restore
              backups with highest fidelity of file properties. Currently this
              is a shortcut for:
              -hardlinks on -acl on -xattr any -md5 on
              If  you  restore  a  backup with xattr from non-user namespaces,
              then make sure that the target operating system  and  filesystem
              know   what  these  attributes  mean.  Possibly  you  will  need
              administrator privileges to record or restore  such  attributes.
              At   recording  time,  xorriso  will  try  to  tolerate  missing
              privileges and just record what is  readable.   But  at  restore
              time, missing privileges will cause failure events.
              Command   -xattr   "user"  after  command  -for_backup  excludes
              non-user attributes from being recorded or restored.

       -ecma119_map "stripped"|"unmapped"|"lowercase"|"uppercase"
              Choose the conversion of file names from the loaded  session  if
              neither  a  Rock  Ridge name nor a Joliet name was read from the
              Mode "stripped" is the default. It shows the names as  found  in
              the ISO but removes trailing ";1" or ".;1" if present.
              Mode   "unmapped"   shows   names   as  found  without  removing
              Mode "lowercase" is like  "stripped"  but  also  maps  uppercase
              letters  to  lowercase  letters.  This  is compatible to default
              GNU/Linux mount behavior.
              Mode "uppercase" is like "stripped" but maps  lowercase  letters
              to   uppercase,  if  any  occur  despite  the  prescriptions  of

       -iso_nowtime "dynamic"|timestring
              Choose whether to use the current time ("dynamic")  or  a  fixed
              time  point  for  timestamps  of  ISO  9660 nodes without a disk
              source file and as default for superblock timestamps.
              If a timestring is given, then it is used for  such  timestamps.
              For the formats of timestrings see command -alter_date.

       -disk_dev_ino "on"|"ino_only"|"off"
              Enable  or  disable  processing  of recorded file identification
              numbers (dev_t and ino_t). If enabled they are stored  as  xattr
              and  can substantially accelerate file comparison. The root node
              gets a global start timestamp. If during comparison a file  with
              younger  timestamps  is  found  in  the  ISO  image,  then it is
              suspected to have inconsistent content.
              If device numbers and inode numbers of the disk filesystems  are
              persistent  and  if  no  irregular  alterations of timestamps or
              system clock happen,  then  potential  content  changes  can  be
              detected  without  reading that content.  File content change is
              assumed if any of mtime, ctime, device number  or  inode  number
              have changed.
              Mode  "ino_only"  replaces  the precondition that device numbers
              are stable by the precondition that mount points in the compared
              tree  always lead to the same filesystems. Use this if mode "on"
              always sees all files changed.
              The speed advantage appears  only  if  the  loaded  session  was
              produced with -disk_dev_ino "on" too.
              Note  that  -disk_dev_ino  "off"  is  totally  in effect only if
              -hardlinks is "off", too.

       -file_name_limit [+]number
              Set the maximum permissible length for file names in  the  range
              of  64  to 255.  Path components which are longer than the given
              number  will  get  truncated  and  have  their  last  33   bytes
              overwritten by a colon ':' and the hex representation of the MD5
              of the first 4095 bytes of the whole oversized  name.  Potential
              incomplete   UTF-8  characters  will  get  their  leading  bytes
              replaced by '_'.
              iso_rr_paths with the long components  will  still  be  able  to
              access the file paths with truncated components.
              If  -file_name_limit  is  executed while an ISO tree is present,
              the file  names  in  the  ISO  tree  get  checked  for  existing
              truncated   file  names  of  the  current  limit  and  for  name
              collisions between newly truncated files and existing files.  In
              both cases, the setting will be refused with a SORRY event.
              One  may  lift  this  ban by prepending the character "+" to the
              argument of -file_name_limit. Truncated filenames may  then  get
              truncated   again,   invalidating   their  MD5  part.  Colliding
              truncated names are made unique, consuming at least 9 more bytes
              of the remaining name part.
              If  writing  of xattr is enabled, then the length will be stored
              in "isofs.nt" of the root directory.  If  reading  of  xattr  is
              enabled  and "isofs.nt" is found, then the found length will get
              into effect if  it  is  smaller  than  the  current  setting  of
              File  name  patterns  will only work if they match the truncated
              name.  This might change in future.
              Files  with   truncated   names   get   deleted   and   re-added
              unconditionally  during -update and -update_r. This might change
              in future.
              Linux kernels up to at least 4.1 misrepresent  names  of  length
              254  and  255.   If you expect such names in or under disk_paths
              and plan to mount the ISO by such Linux kernels, consider to set
              -file_name_limit  253.   Else  just  avoid names longer than 253

       -rom_toc_scan "on"|"force"|"off"[:"emul_off"][:"emul_wide"]
              Read-only drives do not tell the actual media type but show  any
              media  as  ROM  (e.g.  as  DVD-ROM).  The session history of MMC
              multi-session media might be truncated to first and last session
              or   even   be  completely  false.   (The  emulated  history  of
              overwriteable media is not affected by this.)
              To have in case of failure  a  chance  of  getting  the  session
              history and especially the address of the last session, there is
              a scan for ISO 9660 filesystem headers which might help but also
              might  yield worse results than the drive's table of content. At
              its end it can cause read attempts to invalid addresses and thus
              ugly drive behavior.  Setting "on" enables that scan for alleged
              read-only media.
              Some operating systems are not able to  mount  the  most  recent
              session  of multi-session DVD or BD. If on such a system xorriso
              has no own MMC capabilities then it may still find that  session
              from  a  scanned  table  of content. Setting "force" handles any
              media like a ROM medium with setting "on".
              On  the  other  hand  the  emulation  of  session   history   on
              overwriteable  media can hamper reading of partly damaged media.
              Setting  "off:emul_off"  disables   the   elsewise   trustworthy
              table-of-content scan for those media.
              The   table-of-content  scan  on  overwriteable  media  normally
              searches only up to the end of the session that is pointed to by
              the superblock at block 0.  Setting "on:emul_wide" lets the scan
              continue up to the end of the medium.  This may be useful  after
              copying  a  medium  with -check_media patch_lba0=on when not the
              last session was loaded.

       -calm_drive "in"|"out"|"all"|"revoke"|"on"|"off"
              Reduce drive noise until it is actually used again. Some  drives
              stay  alert  for  substantial time after they have been used for
              reading. This reduces  the  startup  time  for  the  next  drive
              operation  but  can  be loud and waste energy if no i/o with the
              drive is expected to happen soon.
              Modes "in", "out", "all" immediately calm down -indev,  -outdev,
              or  both,  respectively.  Mode "revoke" immediately alerts both.
              Mode "on" causes -calm_drive to be performed automatically after
              each -dev, -indev, and -outdev. Mode "off" disables this.

              Allow for writing only the usage of MMC optical drives. Disallow
              to write the result into files of nearly arbitrary  type.   Once
              set, this command cannot be revoked.

       -early_stdio_test "on"|"appendable_wo"|"off"
              If  enabled  by  "on"  then  regular files and block devices get
              tested for effective access permissions.  This  implies  to  try
              opening  those  files  for  writing, which otherwise will happen
              only later and only if actual writing is desired.
              The test result is used for classifying  the  pseudo  drives  as
              overwriteable,  read-only,  write-only, or uselessly empty. This
              may lead to earlier detection of severe problems, and may  avoid
              some less severe error events.
              Mode  "appendable_wo"  is like "on" with the additional property
              that non-empty  write-only  files  are  regarded  as  appendable
              rather than blank.

       -data_cache_size number_of_tiles blocks_per_tile
              Set  the  size  and  granularity of the data cache which is used
              when ISO images are loaded and when file content  is  read  from
              ISO  images.  The  cache  consists  of several tiles, which each
              consists of several blocks. A larger cache reduces the need  for
              tiles being read multiple times. Larger tiles might additionally
              improve the data throughput from the drive, but can be  wasteful
              if the data are scattered over the medium.
              Larger cache sizes help best with image loading from MMC drives.
              They  are   an   inferior   alternative   to   -osirrox   option
              blocks_per_tile  must  be  a power of 2. E.g. 16, 32, or 64. The
              overall cache size must not exceed 1 GiB.   The  default  values
              can be restored by parameter "default" instead of one or both of
              the numbers.  Currently the default is 32 tiles of 32 blocks = 2

       Inserting files into ISO image:

       The following commands expect file addresses of two kinds:
       disk_path is a path to an object in the local filesystem tree.
       iso_rr_path  is  the Rock Ridge name of a file object in the ISO image.
       If no Rock Ridge information is recorded in the loaded ISO image,  then
       you  will  see ISO 9660 names which are of limited length and character
       set.  If no Rock Ridge information shall be stored in an  emerging  ISO
       image,  then  their  names  will get mapped to such restricted ISO 9660
       (aka ECMA-119) names.

       Note that in the ISO image you are as powerful as the superuser. Access
       permissions  of  the  existing  files in the image do not apply to your
       write operations. They are intended to be in effect with the  read-only
       mounted image.

       If  the  iso_rr_path of a newly inserted file leads to an existing file
       object in the ISO image, then the following collision handling happens:
       If both objects are directories then they  get  merged  by  recursively
       inserting the subobjects from filesystem into ISO image.  If other file
       types collide then the setting of command -overwrite decides.
       Renaming of files has similar collision handling, but  directories  can
       only be replaced, not merged. Note that if the target directory exists,
       then -mv inserts the source objects into  this  directory  rather  than
       attempting  to  replace  it.  Command  -move,  on the other hand, would
       attempt to replace it.

       The commands in this section alter the ISO  image  and  not  the  local

       -disk_pattern "on"|"ls"|"off"
              Set  the  pattern expansion mode for the disk_path parameters of
              several commands which support this feature.
              Setting "off" disables this feature for all commands  which  are
              marked  in  this  man page by "disk_path [***]" or "disk_pattern
              Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
              Setting "ls" enables it only  for  those  which  are  marked  by
              "disk_pattern [***]".
              Default is "ls".

       -add pathspec [...] | disk_path [***]
              Insert  the  given files or directory trees from filesystem into
              the ISO image.
              If -pathspecs is  set  to  "on"  or  "as_mkisofs"  then  pattern
              expansion  is  always  disabled  and character '=' has a special
              meaning. It separates the ISO image path from the disk path:
              Character '=' in the iso_rr_path must be escaped by '\' (i.e. as
              With -pathspecs "on", the character '\' must not be escaped. The
              character '=' in the disk_path must not be escaped.
              With -pathspecs "as_mkisofs", all characters '\' must be escaped
              in both, iso_rr_path and disk_path. The character '=' may or may
              not be escaped in the disk_path.
              If iso_rr_path does not begin with '/' then  -cd  is  prepended.
              If disk_path does not begin with '/' then -cdx is prepended.
              If  no  '='  is given then the word is used as both, iso_rr_path
              and disk path.  If in this case the word does not begin with '/'
              then  -cdx is prepended to the disk_path and -cd is prepended to
              the iso_rr_path.
              If -pathspecs is  set  to  "off"  then  -disk_pattern  expansion
              applies,  if  enabled.   The  resulting  words are used as both,
              iso_rr_path and disk path. Relative path words get prepended the
              setting  of  -cdx  to  disk_path  and  the  setting  of  -cd  to

       -add_plainly mode
              If set to mode "unknown" then any command  word  that  does  not
              begin  with  "-"  and is not recognized as known command will be
              subject to a virtual -add command.  I.e.  it  will  be  used  as
              pathspec  or  as  disk_path and added to the image.  If enabled,
              -disk_pattern expansion applies to disk_paths.
              Mode "dashed" is similar to "unknown" but also adds unrecognized
              command words even if they begin with "-".
              Mode  "any"  announces that all further words are to be added as
              pathspecs or disk_paths. This does not work in dialog mode.
              Mode "none" is the default. It prevents  any  words  from  being
              understood  as  files  to  add,  if  they  are not parameters to
              appropriate commands.

       -path_list disk_path
              Like -add but read the parameter words from  file  disk_path  or
              standard  input  if  disk_path  is  "-".   The list must contain
              exactly one pathspec or disk_path pattern per line.

       -quoted_path_list disk_path
              Like -path_list but with quoted input reading rules.  Lines  get
              split  into  parameter words for -add. Whitespace outside quotes
              is discarded.

       -map disk_path iso_rr_path
              Insert file object disk_path into the ISO image as  iso_rr_path.
              If  disk_path is a directory then its whole sub tree is inserted
              into the ISO image.

       -map_single disk_path iso_rr_path
              Like -map, but if disk_path is a directory then its sub tree  is
              not inserted.

       -map_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
              Perform  -map with each of the disk_path parameters. iso_rr_path
              will be composed from  disk_path  by  replacing  disk_prefix  by

       -update disk_path iso_rr_path
              Compare  file  object disk_path with file object iso_rr_path. If
              they  do  not  match,   then   perform   the   necessary   image
              manipulations  to make iso_rr_path a matching copy of disk_path.
              By default this comparison will imply  lengthy  content  reading
              before  a  decision  is made. Commands -disk_dev_ino or -md5 may
              accelerate comparison if they were already in  effect  when  the
              loaded session was recorded.
              If  disk_path is a directory and iso_rr_path does not exist yet,
              then the whole subtree will be  inserted.  Else  only  directory
              attributes will be updated.

       -update_r disk_path iso_rr_path
              Like  -update  but  working  recursively.  I.e. all file objects
              below both addresses get compared whether they have counterparts
              below  the other address and whether both counterparts match. If
              there is a mismatch then the necessary  update  manipulation  is
              Note  that  the comparison result may depend on command -follow.
              Its setting should always be the same as with the  first  adding
              of disk_path as iso_rr_path.
              If  iso_rr_path  does  not  exist  yet,  then  it gets added. If
              disk_path does not exist, then iso_rr_path gets deleted.

       -update_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
              Perform  -update_r  with  each  of  the  disk_path   parameters.
              iso_rr_path   will  be  composed  from  disk_path  by  replacing
              disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.

       -update_li iso_rr_prefix disk_prefix iso_rr_path [***]
              Perform -update_r  with  each  of  the  iso_rr_path  parameters.
              disk_path   will  be  composed  from  iso_rr_path  by  replacing
              iso_rr_prefix by disk_prefix.

       -update_lxi disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
              Perform -update_r with each of the disk_path parameters and with
              iso_rr_paths  in  the  ISO filesystem which are derived from the
              disk_path   parameters   after   exchanging    disk_prefix    by
              iso_rr_prefix.  So,  other  than -update_l, this detects missing
              matches of disk_path and deletes the corresponding iso_rr_path.
              Note  that  relative  disk_paths  and  disk_path  patterns   are
              interpreted  as  sub paths of the current disk working directory
              -cdx. The corresponding iso_rr_paths are derived  by  exchanging
              disk_prefix  by  iso_rr_prefix before pattern expansion happens.
              The current -cdi directory has no influence.

       -cut_out disk_path byte_offset byte_count iso_rr_path
              Map a byte interval of a regular disk file into a  regular  file
              in  the  ISO  image.   This may be necessary if the disk file is
              larger than a single medium, or if it  exceeds  the  traditional
              limit  of 2 GiB - 1 for old operating systems, or the limit of 4
              GiB - 1 for newer ones. Only the newest Linux  kernels  seem  to
              read properly files >= 4 GiB - 1.
              A  clumsy  remedy for this limit is to backup file pieces and to
              concatenate them at restore time. A well tested chopping size is
              2047m.   It  is  permissible to request a higher byte_count than
              available. The resulting file will be truncated to  the  correct
              size  of  a  final  piece.  To request a byte_offset higher than
              available yields no file in the ISO image  but  a  SORRY  event.
               -cut_out /my/disk/file 0 2047m \
               /file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \
               -cut_out /my/disk/file 2047m 2047m \
               /file/part_2_of_3_at_2047m_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \
               -cut_out /my/disk/file 4094m 2047m \
              While  command  -split_size  is  set  larger  than 0, and if all
              pieces of a file reside in the same ISO directory with no  other
              files,  and  if  the  names  look  like  above,  then  their ISO
              directory will be recognized and handled like  a  regular  file.
              This   affects   commands  -compare*,  -update*,  and  overwrite
              situations.  See command -split_size for details.

       -cpr disk_path [***] iso_rr_path
              Insert the given files or directory trees from  filesystem  into
              the ISO image.
              The  rules  for generating the ISO addresses are similar as with
              shell  command  cp  -r.   Nevertheless,   directories   of   the
              iso_rr_path  are  created  if  necessary.  Especially  a not yet
              existing iso_rr_path will be handled as  directory  if  multiple
              disk_paths   are   present.    The  leafnames  of  the  multiple
              disk_paths will be grafted under that directory as would be done
              with an existing directory.
              If a single disk_path is present then a non-existing iso_rr_path
              will get the same type as the disk_path.
              If a disk_path does not begin with '/' then -cdx  is  prepended.
              If  the  iso_rr_path  does  not  begin  with  '/'  then  -cd  is

       -mkdir iso_rr_path [...]
              Create empty directories if they do not exist yet.  Existence as
              directory  generates  a  WARNING  event, existence as other file
              causes a FAILURE event.

       -lns target_text iso_rr_path
              Create a symbolic link with address iso_rr_path which points  to
              target_text.  iso_rr_path may not exist yet.
              Hint: Command -clone produces the ISO equivalent of a hard link.

       -clone iso_rr_path_original iso_rr_path_copy
              Create  a  copy of the ISO file object iso_rr_path_original with
              the new address iso_rr_path_copy. If the original is a directory
              then   copy   all   files   and   directories   underneath.   If
              iso_rr_path_original is a boot catalog file, then  it  gets  not
              copied but is silently ignored.
              The  copied  ISO  file  objects have the same attributes. Copied
              data files refer to the same content source as their  originals.
              The  copies  may  then  be  manipulated  independendly  of their
              This   command   will   refuse   execution   if   the    address
              iso_rr_path_copy already exists in the ISO tree.

       -cp_clone iso_rr_path_original [***] iso_rr_path_dest
              Create  copies  of  one or more ISO file objects as with command
              -clone.  In case of collision merge  directories  with  existing
              ones, but do not overwrite existing ISO file objects.
              The rules for generating the copy addresses are the same as with
              command -cpr (see above) or shell command cp -r. Other than with
              -cpr,  relative  iso_rr_path_original will get prepended the -cd
              path and not the -cdx path. Consider to -mkdir  iso_rr_path_dest
              before  -cp_clone  so  the  copy  address does not depend on the
              number of iso_rr_path_original parameters.

       Settings for file insertion:

       -file_size_limit value [value [...]] --
              Set the maximum permissible size for a  single  data  file.  The
              values  get summed up for the actual limit. If the only value is
              "off" then the file size is not limited by xorriso.  Default  is
              a limit of 100 extents, 4g -2k each:
               -file_size_limit 400g -200k --
              When  mounting  ISO  9660 filesystems, old operating systems can
              handle only files up to 2g -1 --. Newer ones are good up  to  4g
              -1  --.  You need quite a new Linux kernel to read correctly the
              final bytes of a file >= 4g if its size is not aligned  to  2048
              byte blocks.
              xorriso's  own  data  read  capabilities  are  not  affected  by
              operating system size limits.  Such  limits  apply  to  mounting
              only. Nevertheless, the target filesystem of an -extract must be
              able to take the file size.

       -not_mgt code[:code[...]]
              Control the behavior of the exclusion lists.
              Exclusion processing happens before disk_paths get mapped to the
              ISO  image  and before disk files get compared with image files.
              The absolute disk path of the  source  is  matched  against  the
              -not_paths  list.   The  leafname  of  the  disk path is matched
              against the patterns in  the  -not_leaf  list.  If  a  match  is
              detected  then the disk path will not be regarded as an existing
              file and not be added to the ISO image.
              Several codes are defined.  The _on/_off settings persist  until
              they are revoked by their_off/_on counterparts.
              "erase"  empties  the lists which were accumulated by -not_paths
              and -not_leaf.
              "reset" is like "erase" but also re-installs default behavior.
              "off"  disables   exclusion   processing   temporarily   without
              invalidating the lists and settings.
              "on" re-enables exclusion processing.
              "param_off"  applies  exclusion  processing  only to paths below
              disk_path  parameter  of   commands.   I.e.   explicitly   given
              disk_paths are exempted from exclusion processing.
              "param_on" applies exclusion processing to command parameters as
              well as to files below such parameters.
              "subtree_off" with "param_on" excludes parameter paths  only  if
              they match a -not_paths item exactly.
              "subtree_on" additionally excludes parameter paths which lead to
              a file address below any -not_paths item.
              "ignore_off" treats excluded disk files as if they were missing.
              I.e.  they get reported with -compare and deleted from the image
              with -update.
              "ignore_on" keeps excluded files  out  of  -compare  or  -update

       -not_paths disk_path [***]
              Add the given paths to the list of excluded absolute disk paths.
              If a given path is relative, then the current -cdx is  prepended
              to form an absolute path.  Pattern matching, if enabled, happens
              at definition time and not when exclusion checks are made.
              (Do not forget to end the list of disk_paths by "--")

       -not_leaf pattern
              Add  a  single  shell  parser  style  pattern  to  the  list  of
              exclusions for disk leafnames. These patterns are evaluated when
              the exclusion checks are made.

       -not_list disk_path
              Read lines from  disk_path  and  use  each  of  them  either  as
              -not_paths  parameter,  if  they  contain  a  / character, or as
              -not_leaf pattern.

       -quoted_not_list disk_path
              Like -not_list but with quoted input reading rules. Each word is
              handled as one parameter for -not_paths or -not_leaf.

       -follow occasion[:occasion[...]]
              Enable  or  disable resolution of symbolic links and mountpoints
              under disk_paths. This applies to actions  -add,  -du*x,  -ls*x,
              -findx, -concat, and to -disk_pattern expansion.
              There are three kinds of follow decisison to be made:
              link  is  the hop from a symbolic link to its target file object
              for the purpose of reading. I.e. not for  command  -concat.   If
              enabled  then  symbolic  links  are handled as their target file
              objects, else symbolic links are handled as themselves.
              mount is the hop from  one  filesystem  to  another  subordinate
              filesystem.   If enabled then mountpoint directories are handled
              as any other directory, else mountpoints are  handled  as  empty
              directories   if   they   are   encountered  in  directory  tree
              concat is the hop from a symbolic link to its target file object
              for  the purpose of writing. I.e. for command -concat. This is a
              security risk !
              Less general than above occasions:
              pattern is mount and link hopping, but only during -disk_pattern
              param  is  link  hopping  for  parameter  words  (after eventual
              pattern expansion).  If enabled then -ls*x will  show  the  link
              targets  rather  than  the  links themselves. -du*x, -findx, and
              -add will process the link targets but not follow  links  in  an
              eventual  directory  tree  below  the  targets (unless "link" is
              Occasions can  be  combined  in  a  colon  separated  list.  All
              occasions  mentioned  in  the  list will then lead to a positive
              follow decision.
              off prevents any positive follow decision. Use it  if  no  other
              occasion applies.
              default is equivalent to "pattern:mount:limit=100".
              on always decides positive. Equivalent to "link:mount:concat".

              Not an occasion but an optional setting is:
              limit=<number>  which  sets  the maximum number of link hops.  A
              link hop consists of a sequence of symbolic links  and  a  final
              target  of  different  type.  Nevertheless  those hops can loop.
                $ ln -s .. uploop
              Link hopping has a built-in loop detection which  stops  hopping
              at the first repetition of a link target. Then the repeated link
              is handled as itself and not as its target.  Regrettably one can
              construct  link networks which cause exponential workload before
              their loops get detected.  The number given  with  "limit="  can
              curb  this  workload  at  the  risk of truncating an intentional
              sequence of link hops.

       -pathspecs "on"|"off"|"as_mkisofs"
              Control parameter interpretation with xorriso actions  -add  and
              Mode "as_mkisofs" enables pathspecs of the form
              like with program mkisofs -graft-points.
              All  characters  '\'  must  be  escaped in both, iso_rr_path and
              disk_path.  The character '=' must be escaped in the iso_rr_path
              and  may  or  may  not  be  escaped in the disk_path.  This mode
              temporarily disables -disk_pattern expansion for command -add.
              Mode "on" does nearly the same. But '=' must only be escaped  in
              the iso_rr_path and '\' must not be escaped at all. This has the
              disadvantage that one cannot express an iso_rr_path  which  ends
              by '\'.
              Mode  "off"  disables  pathspecs  of  the form target=source and
              re-enables -disk_pattern expansion.

       -overwrite "on"|"nondir"|"off"
              Allow or disallow overwriting of existing files in the ISO image
              by files with the same name.
              With   setting   "off",   name  collisions  with  at  least  one
              non-directory file  cause  FAILURE  events.  Collisions  of  two
              directories lead to merging of their file lists.
              With  setting  "nondir",  only directories are protected by such
              events, other existing file types get treated  with  -rm  before
              the  new file gets added.  Setting "on" enables automatic -rm_r.
              I.e. a non-directory can replace an existing directory  and  all
              its subordinates.
              If  restoring  of  files  is  enabled,  then  the overwrite rule
              applies to the target file objects on disk as well, but "on"  is
              downgraded to "nondir".

       -split_size number["k"|"m"]
              Set the threshold for automatic splitting of regular files. Such
              splitting maps a large disk  file  onto  a  ISO  directory  with
              several  part files in it.  This is necessary if the size of the
              disk file exceeds -file_size_limit.  Older operating systems can
              handle  files  in  mounted ISO 9660 filesystems only if they are
              smaller than 2 GiB or in other cases 4 GiB.
              Default  is   0   which   will   exclude   files   larger   than
              -file_size_limit  by a FAILURE event.  A well tested -split_size
              is 2047m. Sizes above -file_size_limit are not permissible.
              While command -split_size is set larger than 0 such a  directory
              with  split  file  pieces  will be recognized and handled like a
              regular file by commands -compare* , -update*, and in  overwrite
              situations.  There are -osirrox parameters "concat_split_on" and
              "concat_split_off" which control the  handling  when  files  get
              restored to disk.
              In order to be recognizable, the names of the part files have to
              describe the splitting by 5 numbers:
              which are embedded in the following text form:
              Scaling characters like "m" or "k" are taken into respect.   All
              digits  are  interpreted  as  decimal, even if leading zeros are
              E.g: /file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821
              No other files are allowed in the directory. All parts  have  to
              be  present  and  their  numbers  have  to  be  plausible.  E.g.
              byte_count  must  be  valid  as  -cut_out  parameter  and  their
              contents may not overlap.

       File manipulations:

       The  following  commands  manipulate files in the ISO image, regardless
       whether they stem from the loaded image or were newly inserted.

       -iso_rr_pattern "on"|"ls"|"off"
              Set the pattern expansion mode for the iso_rr_path parameters of
              several commands which support this feature.
              Setting  "off" disables pattern expansion for all commands which
              are  marked  in  this  man  page  by  "iso_rr_path   [***]"   or
              "iso_rr_pattern [***]".
              Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
              Setting  "ls"  enables  it  only  for  those which are marked by
              "iso_rr_pattern [***]".
              Default is "on".

       -rm iso_rr_path [***]
              Delete the given files from the ISO image.
              Note: This does not free any space on the -indev medium, even if
              the deletion is committed to that same medium.
              The  image  size  will  shrink  if  the  image  is  written to a
              different medium in modification mode.

       -rm_r iso_rr_path [***]
              Delete the given files or directory trees from  the  ISO  image.
              See also the note with command -rm.

       -rmdir iso_rr_path [***]
              Delete empty directories.

       -move iso_rr_path iso_rr_path
              Rename  the  file given by the first (origin) iso_rr_path to the
              second (destination) iso_rr_path.  Deviate from rules  of  shell
              command  mv by not moving the origin file underneath an existing
              destination directory. The origin file will rather replace  such
              a directory, if this is allowed by command -overwrite.

       -mv iso_rr_path [***] iso_rr_path
              Rename  the  given  file  objects  in  the  ISO tree to the last
              parameter in the list. Use the same rules as with shell  command
              If  pattern  expansion  is  enabled  and  if  the last parameter
              contains wildcard characters then  it  must  match  exactly  one
              existing  file address, or else the command fails with a FAILURE

       -chown uid iso_rr_path [***]
              Set ownership of file objects in the ISO image. uid  may  either
              be a decimal number or the name of a user known to the operating

       -chown_r uid iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -chown but affecting all files below eventual directories.

       -chgrp gid iso_rr_path [***]
              Set group attribute of file objects in the ISO image.  gid   may
              either  be  a decimal number or the name of a group known to the
              operating system.

       -chgrp_r gid iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -chgrp but affecting all files below eventual directories.

       -chmod mode iso_rr_path [***]
              Equivalent to shell command chmod in the  ISO  image.   mode  is
              either  an  octal number beginning with "0" or a comma separated
              list of statements of the form [ugoa]*[+-=][rwxst]* .
              Like: go-rwx,u+rwx .
              Personalities: u=user, g=group, o=others, a=all
              Operators:  +  adds   given   permissions,   -   revokes   given
              permissions,  =  revokes  all  old permissions and then adds the
              given ones.
              Permissions:      r=read,      w=write,       x=execute|inspect,
              s=setuid|setgid, t=sticky bit
              For octal numbers see man 2 stat.

       -chmod_r mode iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -chmod but affecting all files below eventual directories.

       -setfacl acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
              Attach  the  given  ACL  to the given iso_rr_paths. If the files
              already have ACLs, then those get deleted before  the  new  ones
              get  into  effect.   If  acl_text is empty, or contains the text
              "clear" or the text "--remove-all", then the existing ACLs  will
              be  removed  and no new ones will be attached. Any other content
              of acl_text will be interpreted as a list of ACL entries. It may
              be  in the long multi-line format as put out by -getfacl but may
              also be abbreviated as follows:
              ACL entries are separated by comma or newline. If  an  entry  is
              empty  text  or begins with "#" then it will be ignored. A valid
              entry has to begin  by  a  letter  out  of  {ugom}  for  "user",
              "group",  "other",  "mask".  It has to contain two colons ":". A
              non-empty text between those ":" gives a user id  or  group  id.
              After  the second ":" there may be letters out of {rwx- #}.  The
              first three give read, write, or  execute  permission.   Letters
              "-",  "  " and TAB are ignored. "#" causes the rest of the entry
              to  be  ignored.  Letter  "X"  or  any  other  letters  are  not
              supported. Examples:
              A  valid entry may be prefixed by "d", some following characters
              and ":".  This indicates that the entry goes  to  the  "default"
              ACL rather than to the "access" ACL. Example:

       -setfacl_r acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
              Like   -setfacl   but   affecting   all   files  below  eventual

       -setfacl_list disk_path
              Read the output of -getfacl_r or shell command  getfacl  -R  and
              apply it to the iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "#
              file:". This will change ownership, group and ACL of  the  given
              files.   If  disk_path  is "-" then lines are read from standard
              input. Line "@" ends the list, "@@@" aborts without changing the
              pending iso_rr_path.
              Since -getfacl and getfacl -R strip leading "/" from file paths,
              the setting of -cd does always matter.

       -setfattr [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
              Attach the given xattr pair of  name  and  value  to  the  given
              iso_rr_paths.   If  the  given name is prefixed by "-", then the
              pair with that name gets removed from the xattr list. If name is
              "--remove-all"  then  all  user  namespace  xattr  of  the given
              iso_rr_paths get deleted. In case of deletion, value must be  an
              empty text.
              Which  names  are  permissible depends on the setting of command
              -xattr.  "on" or "user" restricts them to namespace "user". I.e.
              a name has to look like "user.x" or "user.whatever".
              -xattr  setting  "any"  enables names from all namespaces except
              Values and names undergo the normal input processing of xorriso.
              See  also  command  -backslash_codes.  Other  than  with command
              -setfattr_list,  the  byte  value  0  cannot  be  expressed  via

       -setfattr_r [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
              Like   -setfattr   but   affecting   all  files  below  eventual

       -setfattr_list disk_path
              Read the output format of -getfattr_r or shell command  getfattr
              -Rd and apply it to the iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning
              with "# file:".  All previously existing xattr of the acceptable
              namespaces  will  be  deleted before the new xattr get attached.
              The set of acceptable names depends on the  setting  of  command
              If disk_path is "-" then lines are read from standard input.
              Since  -getfattr  and  getfattr  -Rd strip leading "/" from file
              paths, the setting of -cd does always matter.
              Empty input lines and lines which begin by "#" will  be  ignored
              (except "# file:"). Line "@" ends the list, "@@@" aborts without
              changing the pending iso_rr_path. Other input  lines  must  have
              the form
              The  separator  "="  is not allowed in names.  Value may contain
              any kind of bytes. It must be  in  quotes.  Trailing  whitespace
              after  the  end  quote will be ignored. Non-printables bytes and
              quotes must be represented as \XYZ by  their  octal  8-bit  code
              XYZ.  Use code \000 for 0-bytes.

       -alter_date type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
              Alter  the  date  entries of files in the ISO image. type may be
              one of the following:
              "a" sets access time, updates ctime.
              "m" sets modification time, updates ctime.
              "b" sets access time and modification time, updates ctime.
              "a-c", "m-c", and "b-c" set the times without updating ctime.
              "c" sets the ctime.
              timestring may be in the following  formats  (see  also  section
              As expected by program date:
              As produced by program date:
               [Day] MMM DD hh:mm:ss [TZON] YYYY
              Relative times counted from current clock time:
              where  "s"  means  seconds,  "h"  hours,  "d"  days,  "w" weeks,
              "m"=30d, "y"=365.25d plus 1d added to multiplication result.
              Absolute seconds counted from Jan 1 1970:
              xorriso's own timestamps:
              scdbackup timestamps:
              where "A0" is year 2000, "B0" is 2010, etc.
              ECMA-119 volume timestamps:
              These are normally given as GMT. The suffix "LOC"  causes  local
              timezone conversion. E.g. 2013010720574700, 2013010720574700LOC.
              The last two digits cc (centiseconds) will be ignored, but  must
              be present in order to make the format recognizable.
                -alter_date m-c 2013.11.27.103951 /file1 /file2 --
              This  command  does  not persistently apply to the boot catalog,
              which  gets  fresh   timestamps   at   -commit   time.   Command
              -volume_date "uuid" can set this time value.

       -alter_date_r type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
              Like   -alter_date   but  affecting  all  files  below  eventual

       -hide hide_state iso_rr_path [***]
              Prevent the names of the given files  from  showing  up  in  the
              directory  trees  of ISO 9660 and/or Joliet and/or HFS+ when the
              image gets written.  The data content of such hidden files  will
              be  included in the resulting image, even if they do not show up
              in any directory.  But you will need own means to find  nameless
              data in the image.
              Warning:  Data  which are hidden from the ISO 9660 tree will not
              be copied by the write method of modifying.
              Possible values of hide_state are: "iso_rr" for hiding from  ISO
              9660  tree,  "joliet"  for Joliet tree, "hfsplus" for HFS+, "on"
              for them all.  "off" means visibility in all directory trees.
              These values may be combined.  E.g.: joliet:hfsplus
              This command does not apply to the boot  catalog.   Rather  use:
              -boot_image "any" "cat_hidden=on"

       Tree traversal command -find:

       -find iso_rr_path [test [op] [test ...]] [-exec action [params]] --
              A restricted substitute for shell command find in the ISO image.
              It performs an action on  matching  file  objects  at  or  below
              If  not used as last command in the line then the parameter list
              needs to get terminated by "--".
              Tests are optional. If they are omitted then action  is  applied
              to  all file objects. If tests are given then they form together
              an expression.  The action is applied  only  if  the  expression
              matches  the  file  object.  Default expression operator between
              tests is -and, i.e. the expression matches only if all its tests
              Available tests are:
              -name  pattern  : Matches if pattern matches the file leaf name.
              If the pattern does not contain any  of  the  characters  "*?[",
              then it will be truncated according to -file_name_limit and thus
              match the truncated name in the ISO filesystem.
              -wholename pattern : Matches if pattern matches the file path as
              it  would  be  printed  by  action  "echo". Character '/' can be
              matched by wildcards. If  pattern  pieces  between  '/'  do  not
              contain  any  of  the  characters  "*?[", they will be truncated
              according to -file_name_limit.
              -disk_name pattern : Like -name but testing the leaf name of the
              file  source  on  disk.   Can match only data files which do not
              stem from the loaded image, or for directories above  such  data
              files. With directories the result can change between -find runs
              if their content stems from multiple sources.
              -disk_path disk_path : Matches if the given disk_path  is  equal
              to  the  path  of the file source on disk. The same restrictions
              apply as with -disk_name.
              -type type_letter : Matches files of the  given  type:  "block",
              "char", "dir", "pipe", "file", "link", "socket", "eltorito", and
              "Xotic" which matches what is not matched by the other types.
              Only the first letter is interpreted.  E.g.: -find / -type d
              -maxdepth number : Matches only files which are at most  at  the
              given  depth  level  relative  to  the  iso_rr_path  where -find
              starts. That path itself is at depth 0, its  directory  children
              are at 1, their directory children at 2, and so on.
              -mindepth  number : Matches only files which are at least at the
              given depth level.
              -damaged : Matches files which use data blocks marked as damaged
              by a previous run of -check_media. The damage info vanishes when
              a new ISO image gets loaded.
              Note that a MD5 session mismatch marks all files of the  session
              as  damaged.   If finer distinction is desired, perform -md5 off
              before -check_media.
              -pending_data : Matches  files  which  get  their  content  from
              outside the loaded ISO image.
              -lba_range  start_lba block_count : Matches files which use data
              blocks     within     the     range     of     start_lba     and
              -has_acl : Matches files which have a non-trivial ACL.
              -has_xattr  :  Matches  files  which have xattr name-value pairs
              from user namespace.
              -has_aaip : Matches files which have ACL or any xattr.
              -has_any_xattr : Matches files which have any xattr  other  than
              -has_md5 : Matches data files which have MD5 checksums.
              -has_hfs_crtp  creator type : Matches files which have the given
              HFS+ creator and type attached.  These are codes of 4 characters
              which  get  stored if -hfsplus is enabled. Use a single dash '-'
              as wildcard that matches any such code.  E.g:.
               -has_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
               -has_hfs_crtp - -
              -has_hfs_bless blessing : Matches files  which  bear  the  given
              HFS+   blessing.   It   may   be   one   of   :   "ppc_bootdir",
              "intel_bootfile",  "show_folder",  "os9_folder",   "osx_folder",
              "any". See also action set_hfs_bless.
              -has_filter : Matches files which are filtered by -set_filter.
              -hidden  hide_state : Matches files which are hidden in "iso_rr"
              tree, in "joliet" tree, in "hfsplus" tree, in all trees  ("on"),
              or not hidden in any tree ("off").
              Those which are hidden in some tree match -not -hidden "off".
              -bad_outname  namespace  : Matches files with names which change
              when converted forth and back between the  local  character  set
              and  one  of  the  namespaces  "rockridge", "joliet", "ecma119",
              All applicable -compliance rules are taken into  respect.   Rule
              "omit_version"   is  always  enabled,  because  else  namespaces
              "joliet"  and  "ecma119"  would   cause   changes   with   every
              non-directory    name.     Consider   to   also   enable   rules
              "no_force_dots" and "no_j_force_dots".
              The namespaces use different character sets  and  apply  further
              restrictions   to   name  length,  permissible  characters,  and
              mandatory name components.  "rockridge" uses the  character  set
              defined  by  -out_charset, "joliet" uses UCS-2BE, "ecma119" uses
              ASCII, "hfsplus" uses UTF-16BE.
              -name_limit_blocker length :  Matches  file  names  which  would
              prevent  command  -file_name_limit  with  the  given length. The
              command itself reports only the first problem file.
              -prune : If this test is  reached  and  the  tested  file  is  a
              directory  then  -find  will  not dive into that directory. This
              test itself does always match.
              -use_pattern  "on"|"off"  :  This  pseudo  test   controls   the
              interpretation  of  wildcards  with tests -name, -wholename, and
              -disk_name. Default is "on". If interpretation  is  disabled  by
              "off",  then the parameters of -name, -wholename, and -disk_name
              have to match literally rather than  as  search  pattern.   This
              test itself does always match.
              -or_use_pattern    "on"|"off"    :    Like   -use_pattern,   but
              automatically appending the test by -or  rather  than  by  -and.
              Further  the  test itself does never match. So a subsequent test
              -or will cause its other operand to be performed.
              -decision  "yes"|"no"  :  If  this  test  is  reached  then  the
              evaluation  ends  immediately  and  action  is  performed if the
              decision is "yes" or "true". See operator -if.
              -true and -false : Always  match  or  match  not,  respectively.
              Evaluation goes on.
              -sort_lba  :  Always  match.  This  causes  -find to perform its
              action in a sequence sorted by the ISO image block addresses  of
              the  files.  It  may  improve throughput with actions which read
              data from optical drives. Action will always  get  the  absolute
              path as parameter.
              Available operators are:
              -not  :  Matches  if  the  next  test or sub expression does not
              match.  Several tests do this specifically:
              -undamaged, -lba_range  with  negative  start_lba,  -has_no_acl,
              -has_no_xattr, -has_no_aaip, -has_no_filter .
              -and : Matches if both neighboring tests or expressions match.
              -or  :  Matches  if  at  least  one of both neighboring tests or
              expressions matches.
              -sub ... -subend or ( ... ) : Enclose  a  sub  expression  which
              gets  evaluated  first  before  it  is  processed by neighboring
              operators.  Normal precedence is: -not, -or , -and.
              -if ... -then ... -elseif ... -then  ...   -else  ...  -endif  :
              Enclose  one  or  more  sub  expressions.  If the -if expression
              matches, then the -then expression is evaluated as the result of
              the  whole  expression  up  to  -endif.  Else  the  next -elseif
              expression is evaluated and if it matches, its -then expression.
              Finally  in case of no match, the -else expression is evaluated.
              There may be more than one -elseif. Neither  -else  nor  -elseif
              are  mandatory.   If -else is missing and would be hit, then the
              result is a non-match.
              -if-expressions are the main use case for above test -decision.

              Default action is echo, i.e. to print the address of  the  found
              file.  Other  actions  are  certain  xorriso  commands which get
              performed on the found files.  These commands may have  specific
              parameters. See also their particular descriptions.
              chown  and  chown_r  change the ownership and get the user id as
              parameter. E.g.: -exec chown thomas --
              chgrp and chgrp_r change the group attribute and get  the  group
              id as parameter. E.g.: -exec chgrp_r staff --
              chmod  and  chmod_r  change  access  permissions  and get a mode
              string as parameter.  E.g.: -exec chmod a-w,a+r --
              alter_date and alter_date_r change the timestamps.  They  get  a
              type character and a timestring as parameters.
              E.g.: -exec alter_date "m" "Dec 30 19:34:12 2007" --
              set_to_mtime  sets  the  ctime  and  atime to the value found in
              lsdl prints file information like shell command ls -dl.
              compare performs command -compare with the found file address as
              iso_rr_path   and  the  corresponding  file  address  below  its
              parameter disk_path_start. For this the iso_rr_path of the -find
              command gets replaced by the disk_path_start.
              E.g.: -find /thomas -exec compare /home/thomas --
              update  performs  command -update with the found file address as
              iso_rr_path. The corresponding file address is  determined  like
              with above action "compare".
              update_merge  is  like update but does not delete the found file
              if it is missing on disk.  It  may  be  run  several  times  and
              records with all visited files whether their counterpart on disk
              has already been seen by one of the update_merge runs.  Finally,
              a -find run with action "rm_merge" may remove all files that saw
              no counterpart on disk.
              Up to the next "rm_merge" or "clear_merge"  all  newly  inserted
              files will get marked as having a disk counterpart.
              rm  removes  the found iso_rr_path from the image if it is not a
              directory with files in it. I.e. this "rm" includes "rmdir".
              rm_r removes the found iso_rr_path  from  the  image,  including
              whole directory trees.
              rm_merge  removes the found iso_rr_path if it was visited by one
              or more previous actions "update_merge" and saw  no  counterpart
              on  disk  in any of them. The marking from the update actions is
              removed in any case.
              clear_merge   removes   an   eventual   marking   from    action
              report_damage  classifies  files  whether  they hit a data block
              that is marked as damaged. The result is printed  together  with
              the  address  of  the  first  damaged  byte, the maximum span of
              damages, file size, and the path of the file.
              report_lba prints files  which  are  associated  to  image  data
              blocks.   It  tells the logical block address, the block number,
              the byte size, and the path of each file. There may be  reported
              more  than  one  line  per  file  if  the file has more than one
              section.  In this case each line has a different  extent  number
              in column "xt".
              report_sections  like  report_lba  but telling the byte sizes of
              the particular sections rather than the overall byte size of the
              getfacl prints access permissions in ACL text form to the result
              setfacl attaches ACLs after removing existing ones. The new  ACL
              is given in text form as defined with command -setfacl.
              E.g.: -exec setfacl u:lisa:rw,u::rw,g::r,o::-,m::rw --
              getfattr  prints  xattr  name-value pairs to the result channel.
              The choice of namespaces  depends  on  the  setting  of  command
              -xattr:  "on"  or  "user"  restricts it to the namespace "user",
              "any" only omits namespace "isofs".
              get_any_xattr prints xattr name-value pairs from  any  namespace
              except  ACL  to the result channel. This is mostly for debugging
              of namespace "isofs".
              list_extattr mode prints a script to the result  channel,  which
              would  use  FreeBSD  command  setextattr to set the file's xattr
              name-value pairs of user namespace.  Parameter mode controls the
              form of the output of names and values.  Default mode "e" prints
              harmless characters in shell  quotation  marks,  but  represents
              texts with octal 001 to 037 and 0177 to 0377 by an embedded echo
              -e command.  Mode "q" prints any characters in  shell  quotation
              marks. This might not be terminal-safe but should work in script
              files.  Mode "r" uses no quotation marks. Not  safe.   Mode  "b"
              prints backslash encoding. Not suitable for shell parsing.
              E.g. -exec list_extattr e --
              Command -backslash_codes does not affect the output.
              get_md5  prints  the  MD5  sum,  if recorded, together with file
              check_md5 compares the MD5  sum,  if  recorded,  with  the  file
              content and reports if mismatch.
              E.g.: -find / -not -pending_data -exec check_md5 FAILURE --
              make_md5  equips  a  data  file  with an MD5 sum of its content.
              Useful to upgrade the files in the  loaded  image  to  full  MD5
              coverage by the next commit with -md5 "on".
              E.g.: -find / -type f -not -has_md5 -exec make_md5 --
              setfattr sets or deletes xattr name value pairs.
              E.g.: -find / -has_xattr -exec setfattr --remove-all '' --
              set_hfs_crtp  adds,  changes,  or  removes HFS+ creator and type
              E.g.: -exec set_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
              E.g.: -find /my/dir -prune -exec set_hfs_crtp --delete -
              get_hfs_crtp  prints  the  HFS+  creator  and  type   attributes
              together  with  the iso_rr_path, if the file has such attributes
              at all.
              E.g.: -exec get_hfs_crtp
              set_hfs_bless applies or removes HFS+ blessings. They are  roles
              which  can  be  attributed  to up to four directories and a data
              "ppc_bootdir",  "intel_bootfile",  "show_folder",  "os9_folder",
              They may be abbreviated as "p", "i", "s", "9", and "x".
              Each  such  role  can  be attributed to at most one file object.
              "intel_bootfile" is the one that would apply to a data file. All
              others  apply to directories.  The -find run will end as soon as
              the first  blessing  is  issued.  The  previous  bearer  of  the
              blessing  will  lose it then.  No file object can bear more than
              one blessing.
              E.g.: -find /my/blessed/directory -exec set_hfs_bless p
              Further there is  blessing  "none"  or  "n"  which  revokes  any
              blessing from the found files. This -find run will not stop when
              the first match is reached.
              E.g.: -find / -has_hfs_bless any -exec set_hfs_bless none
              get_hfs_bless prints the HFS+ blessing role and the iso_rr_path,
              if the file is blessed at all.
              E.g.: -exec get_hfs_bless
              set_filter applies or removes filters.
              E.g.: -exec set_filter --zisofs --
              mkisofs_r applies the rules of mkisofs -r to the file object:
              user  id  and  group id become 0, all r-permissions get granted,
              all w denied.  If there is any x-permission, then  all  three  x
              get granted.  s- and t-bits get removed.
              sort_weight attributes a LBA weight number to regular files.
              The  number may range from -2147483648 to 2147483647. The higher
              it is, the lower will be the block address of the file  data  in
              the  emerging  ISO  image.   Currently  the  boot  catalog has a
              hardcoded weight of 1 billion.  Normally it  should  occupy  the
              block with the lowest possible address.
              Data  files  which  are  loaded  by  -indev or -dev get a weight
              between 1 and 2 exp 28 = 268,435,456, depending on  their  block
              address.  This  shall keep them roughly in the same order if the
              write method of modifying is applied.
              Data files which are added by  other  commands  get  an  initial
              weight of 0.  Boot image files have a default weight of 2.
              E.g.: -exec sort_weight 3 --
              show_stream shows the content stream chain of a data file.
              show_stream_id  is  like  show_stream,  but  also prints between
              stream type  and  first  ":"  in  square  brackets  libisofs  id
              numbers: [fs_id,dev_id,ino_id].
              hide brings the file into one of the hide states "on", "iso_rr",
              "joliet",  "hfsplus",  "off".  They  may  be   combined.   E.g.:
                -find / -disk_name *_secret -exec hide on
              print_outname   prints   in  the  first  line  the  filename  as
              registered by the program model, and  in  the  second  line  the
              filename after conversion forth and back between local character
              set and one of the namespaces "rockridge", "joliet",  "ecma119",
              or "hfsplus". The third output line is "--" .
              The  name  conversion does not take into respect the possibility
              of name collisions in the target namespace. Such collisions  are
              most  likely  in "joliet" and "ecma119", where they get resolved
              by automatic file name changes.
                -find / -bad_outname joliet -exec print_outname joliet
              estimate_size prints a lower and  an  upper  estimation  of  the
              number  of  blocks which the found files together will occupy in
              the  emerging  ISO  image.   This  does  not  account  for   the
              superblock,  for the directories in the -find path, or for image
              find performs another run of -find on the matching file address.
              It accepts the same params as -find, except iso_rr_path.
                -find  /  -name  '???' -type d -exec find -name '[abc]*' -exec
              chmod a-w,a+r --

       Filters for data file content:

       Filters may be installed between data files in the ISO image and  their
       content  source  outside  the  image.  They may also be used vice versa
       between data content in the image and target files on disk.
       Built-in filters are "--zisofs" and "--zisofs-decode". The former is to
       be  applied  via  -set_filter,  the  latter is automatically applied if
       zisofs compressed content is detected with a file when loading the  ISO
       Another  built-in  filter  pair  is "--gzip" and "--gunzip" with suffix
       ".gz".  They behave about like  external  gzip  and  gunzip  but  avoid
       forking  a  process  for  each  single file. So they are much faster if
       there are many small files.

       -external_filter name option[:option] program_path [arguments] --
              Register a content filter by associating a name with  a  program
              path,  program  arguments,  and  some  behavioral  options. Once
              registered it can be applied to multiple data files in  the  ISO
              image,  regardless  whether  their content resides in the loaded
              ISO image or in the local filesystem.  External filter processes
              may  produce  synthetic  file  content  by  reading the original
              content from stdin and writing to  stdout  whatever  they  want.
              They  must deliver the same output on the same input in repeated
              Options are:
               "default" means that no other option is intended.
               "suffix=..." sets a file name suffix. If it is not  empty  then
              it will be appended to the file name or removed from it.
               "remove_suffix"  will  remove  a  file  name suffix rather than
              appending it.
               "if_nonempty" will leave 0-sized files unfiltered.
               "if_reduction" will try filtering and revoke it if the  content
              size does not shrink.
               "if_block_reduction"  will  revoke if the number of 2 kB blocks
              does not shrink.
               "used=..." is ignored. Command -status shows it with the number
              of files which currently have the filter applied.
               -external_filter bzip2 suffix=.bz2:if_block_reduction \
                                /usr/bin/bzip2 --
               -external_filter bunzip2 suffix=.bz2:remove_suffix \
                                /usr/bin/bunzip2 --

       -unregister_filter name
              Remove  an  -external_filter registration. This is only possible
              if the filter is not applied to any file in the ISO image.

              Irrevocably ban commands -concat "pipe",  -external_filter,  and
              -unregister_filter,  but  not  -set_filter.  Use this to prevent
              external filtering in general or when all intended  filters  are
              registered   and   -concat  mode  "pipe"  shall  be  disallowed.
              External filters may also be banned totally at compile  time  of
              xorriso.   By  default  they  are  banned  if xorriso runs under
              setuid permission.

       -set_filter name iso_rr_path [***]
              Apply an -external_filter or a built-in filter to the given data
              files  in  the  ISO  image.  If the filter suffix is not empty ,
              then it will be applied to the file name.  Renaming only happens
              if  the  filter  really  gets attached and is not revoked by its
              options.  By default files which already bear  the  suffix  will
              not  get  filtered.  The  others will get the suffix appended to
              their names.  If the filter has option "remove_suffix", then the
              filter  will only be applied if the suffix is present and can be
              removed.  Name oversize or collision  caused  by  suffix  change
              will prevent filtering.
              With  most  filter  types  this command will immediately run the
              filter once for each file in order to determine the output size.
              Content  reading  operations  like -extract , -compare and image
              generation will perform further filter runs and deliver filtered
              At  image  generation  time  the filter output must still be the
              same as the output from  the  first  run.  Filtering  for  image
              generation  does not happen with files from the loaded ISO image
              if the write method of growing is  in  effect  (i.e  -indev  and
              -outdev are identical).
              The   reserved   filter   name   "--remove-all-filters"  revokes
              filtering. This will  revoke  suffix  renamings  as  well.   Use
              "--remove-all-filters+" to prevent any suffix renaming.
              Attaching  or  detaching  filters  will  not  alter the state of
              -changes_pending.  If the filter manipulations shall be the only
              changes in a write run, then explicitly execute -changes_pending

       -set_filter_r name iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -set_filter but affecting all  data  files  below  eventual

       Writing the result, drive control:

       (see also paragraph about settings below)

              Discard  the  manipulated  ISO  image and reload it from -indev.
              (Use -rollback_end if immediate program end is desired.)

       -changes_pending "no"|"yes"|"mkisofs_printed"|"show_status"
              Write runs are performed only if a change of the image has  been
              made since the image was loaded or created blank. Vice versa the
              program will start a write run for pending changes when it  ends
              normally (i.e. not by abort and not by command -rollback_end).
              The  command  -changes_pending  can  be  used  to  override  the
              automatically  determined  state.  This  is  mainly  useful  for
              setting  state  "yes"  despite  no  real  changes were made. The
              sequence -changes_pending "no" -end is equivalent to the command
              -rollback_end.  State  "mkisofs_printed"  is caused by emulation
              command -as mkisofs if option -print-size is present.
              The pseudo-state "show_status" can be used to print the  current
              state to result channel.
              Image  loading  or manipulations which happen after this command
              will again update automatically the change status of the image.

              Perform the write operation. Afterwards, if -outdev is readable,
              make  it  the new -dev and load the image from there.  Switch to
              growing mode.  (A subsequent -outdev will activate  modification
              mode  or  blind growing.)  -commit is performed automatically at
              end of program if there are uncommitted manipulations pending.
              So, to perform a final write operation with no new -dev  and  no
              new  loading of image, rather execute command -end.  If you want
              to go on without image loading,  execute  -commit_eject  "none".
              To  eject  after  write without image loading, use -commit_eject
              To suppress a final write, execute -rollback_end.

              Writing can last quite a while. It is not unnormal with  several
              types  of  media that there is no progress visible for the first
              few minutes or that the drive gnaws on  the  medium  for  a  few
              minutes  after  all data have been transmitted.  xorriso and the
              drives are in a client-server  relationship.   The  drives  have
              much freedom about what to do with the media.  Some combinations
              of drives and media simply do not work, despite the promises  by
              their vendors.  If writing fails then try other media or another
              drive. The reason for such failure is hardly ever in the code of
              the  various  burn  programs  but you may well try some of those
              listed below under SEE ALSO.

       -eject "in"|"out"|"all"
              Eject  the  medium  in  -indev,   -outdev,   or   both   drives,
              respectively.  Note: It is not possible yet to effectively eject
              disk files.

       -commit_eject "in"|"out"|"all"|"none"
              Combined -commit and -eject. When writing has  finished  do  not
              make  -outdev  the new -dev, and load no ISO image. Rather eject
              -indev and/or -outdev. Give up any non-ejected drive.

       -blank mode
              Make media ready for writing from  scratch  (if  not  -dummy  is
              This  affects  only  the -outdev not the -indev.  If both drives
              are the same and if the ISO image was altered then this  command
              leads to a FAILURE event.  Defined modes are:
                as_needed, fast, all, deformat, deformat_quickest
              "as_needed"   cares   for   used  CD-RW,  DVD-RW  and  for  used
              overwriteable  media  by  applying  -blank  "fast".  It  applies
              -format  "full"  to   yet  unformatted  DVD-RAM and BD-RE. Other
              media in blank state are gracefully ignored.  Media which cannot
              be made ready for writing from scratch cause a FAILURE event.
              "fast"   makes   CD-RW  and  unformatted  DVD-RW  re-usable,  or
              invalidates overwriteable ISO  images.  "all"  might  work  more
              thoroughly and need more time.
              "deformat" converts overwriteable DVD-RW into unformatted ones.
              "deformat_quickest"  is a faster way to deformat or blank DVD-RW
              but produces media which are only suitable for a single session.
              Some drives announce this state by not offering feature 21h, but
              some drives offer it anyway.  If feature 21h  is  missing,  then
              xorriso  will refuse to write on DVD-RW if not command -close is
              set to "on".
              The progress reports issued by some drives  while  blanking  are
              quite  unrealistic.  Do not conclude success or failure from the
              reported percentages. Blanking was successful if no SORRY  event
              or worse occurred.
              Mode  may  be  prepended  by  "force:"  in order to override the
              evaluation of the medium state by  libburn.  E.g.  "force:fast".
              Blanking  will nevertheless only succeed if the drive is willing
              to do it.

       -format mode
              Convert unformatted DVD-RW  into  overwriteable  ones,  "de-ice"
              DVD+RW,  format newly purchased BD-RE or BD-R, re-format DVD-RAM
              or BD-RE.
              Defined modes are:
                as_needed, full, fast, by_index_<num>, fast_by_index_<num>,
                by_size_<num>, fast_by_size_<num>, without_spare
              "as_needed" formats yet unformatted DVD-RW, DVD-RAM,  BD-RE,  or
              blank unformatted BD-R. Other media are left untouched.
              "full"  (re-)formats  DVD-RW,  DVD+RW,  DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or blank
              unformatted BD-R.
              "fast" does the same as "full" but tries to be quicker.
              "by_index_" selects a format out of the descriptor  list  issued
              by  command -list_formats. The index number from that list is to
              be appended to the mode word. E.g: "by_index_3".
              "fast_by_index_" does the same as "by_index_" but  tries  to  be
              "by_size_"  selects  a  format  out of the descriptor list which
              provides at least the given size. That size is to be appended to
              the mode word.  E.g: "by_size_4100m". This applies to media with
              Defect Management.  On BD-RE it will  not  choose  format  0x31,
              which offers no Defect Management.
              "fast_by_size_"  does  the  same  as  "by_size_" but tries to be
              "without_spare" selects the largest format out of the descriptor
              list  which  provides  no  Spare  Area for Defect Management. On
              BD-RE this will be format 0x31.
              The formatting action has  no  effect  on  media  if  -dummy  is
              Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a
              medium, if ever. But it is a reason for re-formatting if:
               DVD-RW was deformatted by -blank,
               DVD+RW has read failures (re-format before next write),
               DVD-RAM or BD-RE shall change their amount of defect reserve.
              BD-R may be written unformatted or may be formatted before first
              use.   Formatting  activates  Defect  Management  which tries to
              catch and repair bad spots on media during the write process  at
              the expense of half speed even with flawless media.
              The  progress reports issued by some drives while formatting are
              quite unrealistic. Do not conclude success or failure  from  the
              reported  percentages.  Formatting  was  successful  if no SORRY
              event or worse  occurred.  Be  patient  with  apparently  frozen

              Put  out  a list of format descriptors as reported by the output
              drive for the current medium. The list gives  the  index  number
              after  "Format  idx",  a  MMC format code, the announced size in
              blocks (like "2236704s") and the same size in MiB.
              MMC format codes are manifold. Most important are: "00h" general
              formatting, "01h" increases reserve space for DVD-RAM, "26h" for
              DVD+RW, "30h" for BD-RE with  reserve  space,  "31h"  for  BD-RE
              without reserve space, "32h" for BD-R.
              Smaller  format  size  with  DVD-RAM,  BD-RE, or BD-R means more
              reserve space.

              Put out a list of speed values as reported by  the  drives  with
              the  loaded media. The list tells read speeds of the input drive
              and of the output drive. Further it tells write  speeds  of  the
              output drive.
              The  list  of  write  speeds  does not necessarily mean that the
              medium is writable or that these speeds are actually achievable.
              Especially the lists reported with empty drive or with ROM media
              obviously advertise speeds for other media.
              It is not mandatory to use speed values out of the listed range.
              The  drive is supposed to choose a safe speed that is as near to
              the desired speed as possible.
              At the end of the list, "Write speed L" and "Write speed H"  are
              the  best guesses for lower and upper write speed limit.  "Write
              speed l" and "Write  speed  h"  may  appear  only  with  CD  and
              eventually override the list of other speed offers.
              Only  if the drive reports contradicting speed information there
              will appear "Write speed 0", which tells the  outcome  of  speed
              selection  by command -speed 0, if it deviates from "Write speed
              "Read speed L" and "Read speed H" tell the minimum  and  maximum
              read  speeds,  as reported by the drive. They would be chosen by
              -read_speed "min" or "max"  if  they  undercut  or  surpass  the
              built-in limits. These are "1x", "52xCD", "24xDVD", "20xBD".

       -close_damaged "as_needed"|"force"
              Try  to  close  the  upcoming  track  and  session  if the drive
              reported the medium as damaged. This may apply to  CD-R,  CD-RW,
              DVD-R,  DVD-RW,  DVD+R, DVD+R DL, or BD-R media. It is indicated
              by warning messages when the  drive  gets  acquired,  and  by  a
              remark  "but  next track is damaged" with the line "Media status
              :" of command -toc.
              The setting of command  -close  determines  whether  the  medium
              stays appendable.
              Mode  "as_needed"  gracefully  refuses  on  media  which are not
              reported as damaged. Mode "force" attempts the  close  operation
              even with media which appear undamaged.
              No  image  changes are allowed to be pending before this command
              is performed.  After closing  was  attempted,  both  drives  are
              given up.

       -list_profiles "in"|"out"|"all"
              Put  out  a list of media types supported by -indev, -outdev, or
              both, respectively.  The currently recognized type is marked  by
              text "(current)".

       Settings for result writing:

       Rock  Ridge  info  will  be generated by default.  ACLs will be written
       according to the setting of command -acl.

       -joliet "on"|"off"
              If enabled by "on", generate Joliet tree additional to ISO  9660
              + Rock Ridge tree.

       -hfsplus "on"|"off"
              If  enabled  by  "on", generate a HFS+ filesystem inside the ISO
              9660 image and mark it by Apple Partition Map (APM)  entries  in
              the System Area, the first 32 KiB of the image.
              This   may   collide   with   data   submitted   by  -boot_image
              system_area=.   The  first  8  bytes  of  the  System  Area  get
              overwritten by { 0x45, 0x52, 0x08 0x00, 0xeb, 0x02, 0xff, 0xff }
              which can be executed  as  x86  machine  code  without  negative
              effects.  So if an MBR gets combined with this feature, then its
              first 8 bytes should contain no essential commands.
              The next blocks of 2 KiB in the System Area will be occupied  by
              APM  entries.   The  first  one covers the part of the ISO image
              before the HFS+ filesystem metadata. The second  one  marks  the
              range  from  HFS+  metadata  to the end of file content data. If
              more ISO image data follow, then a third  partition  entry  gets
              produced.  Other  features  of  xorriso might cause the need for
              more APM entries.
              The HFS+ filesystem is not suitable for add-on sessions produced
              by  the  multi-session  method of growing. An existing ISO image
              may nevertheless be the base for a new  image  produced  by  the
              method of modifying.  If -hfsplus is enabled when -indev or -dev
              gets executed, then AAIP attributes get loaded  from  the  input
              image  and  checked for information about HFS creator, filetype,
              or blessing. If found, then they get enabled as settings for the
              next  image  production.   Therefore  it is advisable to perform
              -hfsplus "on" before -indev or -dev.
              Information about HFS creator, type, and blessings  gets  stored
              by  xorriso if -hfsplus is enabled at -commit time. It is stored
              as copy outside the HFS+ partition, but rather  along  with  the
              Rock  Ridge  information.  xorriso does not read any information
              from the HFS+ meta data.
              Be aware that HFS+ is case-insensitive although  it  can  record
              file  names  with  upper-case and lower-case letters. Therefore,
              file names from the iso_rr name tree may  collide  in  the  HFS+
              name  tree.  In  this case they get changed by adding underscore
              characters and counting numbers. In case of very long names,  it
              might be necessary to map them to "MANGLED_...".

       -rockridge "on"|"off"
              Mode "off" disables production of Rock Ridge information for the
              ISO 9660 file objects. The multi-session capabilities of xorriso
              depend  much  on  the  naming  fidelity  of Rock Ridge. So it is
              strongly discouraged to deviate from default setting "on".

       -compliance rule[:rule...]
              Adjust the compliance to specifications of ISO 9660/ECMA-119 and
              its  contemporary  extensions.  In  some  cases  it  is worth to
              deviate a bit in order to circumvent bugs of the intended reader
              system or to get unofficial extra features.
              There are several adjustable rules which have a keyword each. If
              they are mentioned with this command then their rule gets  added
              to  the  relaxation  list.  This  list  can  be  erased by rules
              "strict" or "clear". It can be reset to  its  start  setting  by
              "default".  All of the following relaxation rules can be revoked
              individually by appending "_off". Like "deep_paths_off".
              Rule keywords are:
              "iso_9660_level="number chooses level 1 with ECMA-119  names  of
              the  form  8.3  and  -file_size_limit <= 4g - 1, or level 2 with
              ECMA-119 names up to length 32 and the same -file_size_limit, or
              level 3 with ECMA-119 names up to length 32 and -file_size_limit
              >= 400g -200k. If necessary -file_size_limit gets adjusted.
              "allow_dir_id_ext" allows ECMA-119 names of directories to  have
              a  name  extension  as  with other file types. It does not force
              dots and it omits the version number,  though.  This  is  a  bad
              tradition  of  mkisofs  which violates ECMA-119.  Especially ISO
              level 1 only allows 8 characters in a  directory  name  and  not
              "omit_version"  does  not  add  versions  (";1") to ECMA-119 and
              Joliet file names.
              "only_iso_version" does not add versions (";1") to  Joliet  file
              "deep_paths" allows ECMA-119 file paths deeper than 8 levels.
              "long_paths"   allows   ECMA-119  file  paths  longer  than  255
              "long_names" allows up  to  37  characters  with  ECMA-119  file
              "no_force_dots"  does not add a dot to ECMA-119 file names which
              have none.
              "no_j_force_dots" does not add a dot to Joliet file names  which
              have none.
              "lowercase" allows lowercase characters in ECMA-119 file names.
              "7bit_ascii" allows nearly all 7-bit characters in ECMA-119 file
              names.  Not allowed are 0x0  and  '/'.  If  not  "lowercase"  is
              enabled, then lowercase letters get converted to uppercase.
              "full_ascii"  allows  all 8-bit characters except 0x0 and '/' in
              ECMA-119 file names.
              "untranslated_names" might be dangerous  for  inadverted  reader
              programs  which rely on the restriction to at most 37 characters
              in ECMA-119 file names.  This rule allows ECMA-119 file names up
              to  96  characters  with no character conversion. If a file name
              has  more  characters,   then   image   production   will   fail
              "untranslated_name_len="number enables untranslated_names with a
              smaller limit for the length of  file  names.  0  disables  this
              feature,  -1 chooses maximum length limit, numbers larger than 0
              give the desired length limit.
              "joliet_long_names"  allows  Joliet  leaf  names   up   to   103
              characters rather than 64.
              "joliet_long_paths"   allows   Joliet   paths  longer  than  240
              "joliet_utf16" encodes Joliet  names  in  UTF-16BE  rather  than
              UCS-2.   The difference is with characters which are not present
              in UCS-2 and get encoded in UTF-16 by 2 words of  16  bit  each.
              Both words then stem from a reserved subset of UCS-2.
              "always_gmt"   stores  timestamps  in  GMT  representation  with
              timezone 0.
              "rec_mtime" records with  non-RockRidge  directory  entries  the
              disk  file's  mtime and not the creation time of the image. This
              applies to the ECMA-119 tree (plain ISO 9660), to Joliet, and to
              ISO  9660:1999.  "rec_time"  is  default.  If  disabled, it gets
              automatically  re-enabled  by  -as  mkisofs  emulation  when   a
              pathspec is encountered.
              "new_rr"  uses  Rock  Ridge version 1.12 (suitable for GNU/Linux
              but  not  for  older  FreeBSD  or  for  Solaris).  This  implies
              "aaip_susp_1_10_off"   which   may   be  changed  by  subsequent
              Default is "old_rr" which uses Rock  Ridge  version  1.10.  This
              implies also "aaip_susp_1_10" which may be changed by subsequent
              "aaip_susp_1_10"  allows  AAIP  to  be  written  as   unofficial
              extension  of  RRIP  rather  than  as  official  extension under
              "no_emul_toc"  saves  64  kB   with   the   first   session   on
              overwriteable  media but makes the image incapable of displaying
              its session history.
              "iso_9660_1999" causes the production of an additional directory
              tree  compliant  to  ISO 9660:1999. It can record long filenames
              for readers which do not understand Rock Ridge.
              "old_empty" uses the old way of of giving block addresses in the
              range  of  [0,31] to files with no own data content. The new way
              is to have a dedicated block to which all such files will point.
              Default setting is
              Note: The term "ECMA-119 name" means the plain  ISO  9660  names
              and  attributes  which  get  visible  if the reader ignores Rock

       -rr_reloc_dir name
              Specify the name of  the  relocation  directory  in  which  deep
              directory  subtrees  shall  be  placed  if -compliance is set to
              "deep_paths_off" or "long_paths_off".  A deep directory  is  one
              that  has a chain of 8 parent directories (including root) above
              itself, or one that contains a file with  an  ECMA-119  path  of
              more than 255 characters.
              The  overall  directory  tree  will  appear originally deep when
              interpreted as Rock Ridge tree. It will appear as re-arranged if
              only ECMA-119 information is considered.
              The  default  relocation  directory  is  the  root directory. By
              giving a non-empty name with -rr_reloc_dir, a directory  in  the
              root  directory  may  get this role.  If that directory does not
              already exist at -commit time, then  it  will  get  created  and
              marked  for  Rock  Ridge  as  relocation  artefact.  At least on
              GNU/Linux it will not be displayed in mounted Rock Ridge images.
              The name must not contain a '/' character and must not be longer
              than 255 bytes.

       -volid text
              Specify  the  volume  ID,  which  most  operating  systems  will
              consider to be the volume name of the image or medium.
              xorriso accepts any text up to 32 characters, but  according  to
              rarely obeyed specs stricter rules apply:
              ECMA-119 demands ASCII characters out of [A-Z0-9_]. Like:
              Joliet allows 16 UCS-2 characters. Like:
                "Windows name"
              Be  aware that the volume id might get used automatically as the
              name of the mount point when  the  medium  is  inserted  into  a
              playful computer system.
              If  an  ISO  image  gets  loaded  while  the volume ID is set to
              default "ISOIMAGE" or to "", then the volume ID  of  the  loaded
              image  will  become  the  effective volume id for the next write
              run. But as soon as command -volid is performed afterwards, this
              pending ID is overridden by the new setting.
              Consider  this  when  setting -volid "ISOIMAGE" before executing
              -dev, -indev, or -rollback.  If you insist in -volid "ISOIMAGE",
              set it again after those commands.

       -volset_id text
              Set  the  volume  set  ID  string  to  be  written with the next
              -commit.  Permissible are up to  128  characters.  This  setting
              gets overridden by image loading.

       -publisher text
              Set the publisher ID string to be written with the next -commit.
              This may identify the person or organisation who specified  what
              shall  be  recorded.  Permissible are up to 128 characters. This
              setting gets overridden by image loading.

       -application_id text
              Set the application ID  string  to  be  written  with  the  next
              -commit. This may identify the specification of how the data are
              recorded.  Permissible are up to 128  characters.  This  setting
              gets overridden by image loading.
              The  special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the ID string of
              xorriso which is normally written as -preparer_id. It is a wrong
              tradition to write the program ID as -application_id.

       -system_id text
              Set  the  system  ID string to be written with the next -commit.
              This may identify the system which can recognize  and  act  upon
              the  content  of  the  System  Area  in  image  blocks  0 to 15.
              Permissible  are  up  to  32  characters.  This   setting   gets
              overridden by image loading.

       -volume_date type timestring
              Set  one  of  the  four  overall timestamps for subsequent image
              writing.  Available types are:
              "c"  time when the volume was created.
              "m"  time when volume was last modified.
              "x"  time when the information in the volume expires.
              "f"  time since when the volume is effectively valid.
              "all_file_dates"  sets mtime, atime, and ctime of all files  and
              directories   to   the   given   time.   If  the  timestring  is
              "set_to_mtime", then the  atime  and  ctime  of  each  file  and
              directory get set to the value found in their mtime.
              These  actions  stay delayed until actual ISO production begins.
              Up to then they can be revoked by  "all_file_dates"  with  empty
              timestring or timestring "default".
              The  timestamps of the El Torito boot catalog file get refreshed
              when the ISO is produced. They can be influenced by "uuid".
              "uuid"  sets a timestring  that  overrides  "c"  and  "m"  times
              literally  and  sets the time of the El Torito boot catalog.  It
              must consist of 16 decimal digits which  form  YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc,
              with  YYYY  between  1970  and  2999.  Time  zone is GMT.  It is
              supposed to match this GRUB line:
               search --fs-uuid --set YYYY-MM-DD-hh-mm-ss-cc
              E.g. 2010040711405800 is 7 Apr 2010 11:40:58 (+0 centiseconds).
              Timestrings for the other types may be  given  as  with  command
              -alter_date.   Some  of them are prone to timezone computations.
              The  timestrings  "default"  or   "overridden"   cause   default
              settings:  "c"  and  "m"  will  show  the  current time of image
              creation. "x" and "f" will be marked as  insignificant.   "uuid"
              will be deactivated.
              At -commit time, some timestamps get set to the maximum value of
              effectively written volume creation and  modification  time:  El
              Torito boot catalog, HFS+ superblock, ECMA-119 file modification
              time if -compliance "no_rec_mtime".  The  isohybrid  MBR  id  is
              computed  from  "uuid"  if given, else from the effective volume
              modification date.

       -copyright_file text
              Set the copyright file name to be written with the next -commit.
              This  should  be  the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which
              contains a  copyright  statement.   Permissible  are  up  to  37
              characters. This setting gets overridden by image loading.

       -abstract_file text
              Set  the abstract file name to be written with the next -commit.
              This should be the ISO 9660 path of a file in  the  image  which
              contains   an   abstract  statement  about  the  image  content.
              Permissible  are  up  to  37  characters.  This   setting   gets
              overridden by image loading.

       -biblio_file text
              Set  the  biblio  file name to be written with the next -commit.
              This should be the ISO 9660 path of a file in  the  image  which
              contains  bibliographic  records.   Permissible  are  up  to  37
              characters. This setting gets overridden by image loading.

              Set the preparer ID string to be written with the next  -commit.
              This  may identify the person or other entity which controls the
              preparation of the data which shall be recorded.  Normally  this
              should  be  the  ID  of xorriso and not of the person or program
              which operates xorriso.  Please avoid to change it.  Permissible
              are up to 128 characters.
              The  special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the ID string of
              xorriso which is default at program startup.
              Unlike other ID strings, this setting is not influenced by image

       -application_use character|0xXY|disk_path
              Specify  the content of the Application Use field which can take
              at most 512 bytes.
              If the parameter of this command is empty,  then  the  field  is
              filled  with  512  0-bytes. If it is a single character, then it
              gets repeated 512 times.  If it begins by "0x" followed  by  two
              hex  digits  [0-9a-fA-F], then the digits are read as byte value
              which gets repeated 512 times.
              Any other parameter text is used as disk_path  to  open  a  data
              file and to read up to 512 bytes from it. If the file is smaller
              than 512 bytes, then the remaining bytes in the field get set to
              binary 0.
              This setting is not influenced by image loading.

       -out_charset character_set_name
              Set  the  character  set  to which file names get converted when
              writing an  image.  See  paragraph  "Character  sets"  for  more
              explanations.   When loading the written image after -commit the
              setting of -out_charset will be copied to -in_charset.

       -uid uid
              User id to be used for all files when  the  new  ISO  tree  gets
              written to media.

       -gid gid
              Group  id  to  be  used for all files when the new ISO tree gets
              written to media.

       -zisofs option[:options]
              Set global parameters for zisofs compression. This  data  format
              is  recognized  and  transparently  uncompressed  by  some Linux
              kernels. It is  to  be  applied  via  command  -set_filter  with
              built-in filter "--zisofs".  Parameters are:
               "level="[0-9] zlib compression: 0=none, 1=fast,..., 9=slow
               "block_size="32k|64k|128k size of compression blocks
               "by_magic=on"  enables  an  expensive  test at image generation
              time which checks files  from  disk  whether  they  already  are
              zisofs compressed, e.g. by program mkzftree.
               "default" same as "level=6:block_size=32k:by_magic=off"

       -speed code|number[k|m|c|d|b]
              Set the burn speed. Default is "max" (or "0") = maximum speed as
              announced by the drive.  Further special speed codes are:
              "min" (or "-1") selects minimum speed as announced by the drive.
              "none" avoids to send a  speed  setting  command  to  the  drive
              before burning begins.
              Speed  can  be  given in media dependent numbers or as a desired
              throughput per second in MMC compliant kB (= 1000) or MB (= 1000
              kB).  Media  x-speed factor can be set explicitly by "c" for CD,
              "d" for DVD, "b" for BD, "x" is optional.
              Example speeds:
               706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
               5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
              If there is no hint about the  speed  unit  attached,  then  the
              medium in the -outdev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
              MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take the
              speed value given by the burn program only as  upper  limit  for
              their own decision.

       -stream_recording "on"|"off"|"full"|"data"|number
              Setting  "on"  tries  to circumvent the management of defects on
              DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or BD-R. Defect management keeps partly  damaged
              media  usable.  But it reduces write speed to half nominal speed
              even if the medium  is  in  perfect  shape.   For  the  case  of
              flawless  media,  one may use -stream_recording "on" to get full
              "full" tries full speed with all write operations, whereas  "on"
              does  this only above byte address 32s. One may give a number of
              at least 16s in order to set an own address limit.
              "data" causes full speed to start when superblock and  directory
              entries are written and writing of file content blocks begins.

       -dvd_obs "default"|"32k"|"64k"
              GNU/Linux  specific:  Set  the number of bytes to be transmitted
              with each write operation to DVD or BD media. A number of 64  KB
              may  improve  throughput  with  bus  systems  which show latency
              problems.  The  default  depends  on  media  type,  on   command
              -stream_recording , and on compile time options.

       -modesty_on_drive parameter[:parameters]
              Control  whether  the  drive  buffer  shall be kept from getting
              completely filled.  Parameter "on" (or "1")  keeps  the  program
              from  trying to write to the burner drive while its buffer is in
              danger to be filled over  a  given  limit.   If  this  limit  is
              exceeded  then the program will wait until the filling reaches a
              given low percentage value.
              This can ease the load on operating system and drive  controller
              and  thus help with achieving better input bandwidth if disk and
              burner are not on independent controllers (like hda and hdb). It
              may  also help with throughput problems of simultaneous burns on
              different burners with Linux  kernels  like  3.16,  if  one  has
              reason  not to fix the problem by -scsi_dev_family "sg".  On the
              other hand it increases the risk of buffer  underflow  and  thus
              reduced write speed.
              Some  burners  are  not suitable because they report buffer fill
              with granularity too coarse in size or  time,  or  expect  their
              buffer to be filled to the top before they go to full speed.
              Parameters "off" or "0" disable this feature.
              The  threshold  for  beginning  to  wait  is  given by parameter
              "max_percent=".  Parameter "min_percent=" defines the  threshold
              for  resuming  transmission.  Percentages are permissible in the
              range of 25 to 100. Numbers in this range  without  a  prepended
              name are interpreted as "on:min_percent=".
              E.g.: -modesty_on_drive 75
              The optimal values depend on the buffer behavior of the drive.
              Parameter   "timeout_sec="   defines   after   which   time   of
              unsuccessful waiting the modesty shall be  disabled  because  it
              does not work.
              Parameter  "min_usec="  defines  the  initial sleeping period in
              microseconds.  If the drive buffer appears to be  too  full  for
              sending  more  data,  the  program  will wait the given time and
              inquire the buffer fill state again.  If repeated inquiry  shows
              not  enough  free space, the sleep time will slowly be increased
              to what parameter "max_usec=" defines.
              Parameters, which are not  mentioned  with  a  -modesty_on_drive
              command, stay unchanged.  Default is:
                -modesty_on_drive off:min_percent=90:max_percent=95:

       -use_immed_bit "on"|"off"|"default"
              Control  whether  several  long  lasting  SCSI commands shall be
              executed with the Immed bit, which makes the commands end  early
              while  the  drive  operation  is  still  going  on. xorriso then
              inquires progress indication until the drive reports to be ready
              again.  If  this  feature  is  turned  off,  then  blanking  and
              formatting will show no progress indication.
              It may depend on the operating system whether -use_immed_bit  is
              set  to "off" by default. Command -status will tell by appending
              "/on" or "/off"  if  a  drive  has  already  been  acquired  and
              -use_immed_bit   is   currently   set   to  "default".   Command
              -use_immed_bit tolerates and ignores such appended text.

       -stdio_sync "on"|"off"|"end"|number
              Set the number of bytes after which to force  output  to  stdio:
              pseudo drives.  This forcing keeps the memory from being clogged
              with lots of pending data for slow devices. Default "on" is  the
              same  as  "16m".   Forced output can be disabled by "off", or be
              delayed by "end" until all data are produced.  If  a  number  is
              chosen, then it must be at least 64k.

       -dummy "on"|"off"
              If "on" then simulate burning or refuse with FAILURE event if no
              simulation is possible, do neither blank nor format.

       -fs number["k"|"m"]
              Set the size of the fifo buffer which smoothens the data  stream
              from  ISO  image  generation to media burning. Default is 4 MiB,
              minimum 64 kiB, maximum 1 GiB.  The number may  be  followed  by
              letter  "k"  or  "m"  which means unit is kiB (= 1024) or MiB (=
              1024 kiB).

       -close "on"|"off"|"as_needed"
              If -close is set to "on" then mark the  written  medium  as  not
              appendable  any  more.  This will have no effect on overwritable
              media types.  Setting "on" is the contrary  of  cdrecord  option
              -multi, and is one aspect of growisofs option -dvd-compat.
              If  set  to  "off" then keep the medium writable for an appended
              If set to "as_needed" then use "on" only if "off"  is  predicted
              to fail with the given medium and its state.
              Not  all  drives  correctly  recognize fast-blanked DVD-RW which
              need "on".  If there is well founded suspicion that a  burn  run
              failed  due  to  -close  "off", then -close "as_needed" causes a
              re-try with "on".
              Note that emulation command -as "cdrecord" temporarily overrides
              the  current setting of -close by its own default -close "on" if
              its option -multi is missing.

       -write_type "auto"|"tao"|"sao/dao"
              Set the write type for the next burn run. "auto" will select SAO
              with  blank CD media, DAO with blank DVD-R[W] if -close is "on",
              and elsewise  CD  TAO  or  the  equivalent  write  type  of  the
              particular  DVD/BD  media.   Choosing  TAO or SAO/DAO explicitly
              might cause the burn run to fail if the desired  write  type  is
              not possible with the given media state.

       -padding number["k"|"m"]|"included"|"appended"
              Append  the  given  number  of  extra bytes to the image stream.
              This is a traditional remedy for  a  traditional  bug  in  block
              device  read drivers. Needed only for CD recordings in TAO mode.
              Since one can hardly predict on what media an  image  might  end
              up,  xorriso  adds the traditional 300k of padding by default to
              all images.
              For images which will never get to  a  CD  it  is  safe  to  use
              -padding 0 .
              Normally  padding  is  not  written as part of the ISO image but
              appended after the image end. This is -padding mode "appended".
              Emulation command -as "mkisofs" and command -jigdo cause padding
              to be written as part of the image.  The same effect is achieved
              by -padding mode "included".

       Bootable ISO images:

       Contrary to published specifications many BIOSes will load an El Torito
       record from the first session on media and not from the last one, which
       gets mounted by default. This  makes  no  problems  with  overwriteable
       media, because they appear to inadverted readers as one single session.
       But  with multi-session media CD-R[W], DVD-R[W], DVD+R, it implies that
       the whole bootable system has to reside already in  the  first  session
       and  that the last session still has to bear all files which the booted
       system expects after mounting the ISO image.
       If a boot image from ISOLINUX or GRUB is known to be present  on  media
       then  it  is advised to patch it when a follow-up session gets written.
       But one should not rely on the capability to influence the  bootability
       of the existing sessions, unless one can assume overwriteable media.
       Normally  the  boot images are data files inside the ISO filesystem. By
       special path "--interval:appended_partition_NNN:all::" it  is  possible
       to  refer  to an appended partition. The number NNN gives the partition
       number as used with the corresponding command -append_partition.  E.g.:
         -append_partition 2 0xef /tmp/efi.img
         -boot_image any efi_path=--interval:appended_partition_2:all::
       There are booting mechanisms which do not use an El Torito  record  but
       rather  start  at  the first bytes of the image: PC-BIOS MBR or EFI GPT
       for hard-disk-like devices, APM partition entries for Macs which expect
       HFS+  boot  images,  MIPS Volume Header for old SGI computers, DEC Boot
       Block for old MIPS DECstation, SUN Disk Label for SPARC machines, HP-PA
       boot  sector for HP PA-RISC machines, DEC Alpha SRM boot sector for old
       DEC Alpha machines.

       Several of the following commands expect disk paths as input  but  also
       accept  description  strings for the libisofs interval reader, which is
       able to cut out data from disk files or -indev and to zeroize parts  of
       the   content:  command  -append_partition,  boot  specs  system_area=,
       grub2_mbr=, prep_boot_part=, efi_boot_part=.
       The description string consists of the following components,  separated
       by colon ':'
       The  component  "--interval"  states that this is not a plain disk path
       but rather an interval reader description string.  The component  Flags
       modifies the further interpretation:
       "local_fs" demands to read from a file depicted by the path in Source.
       "imported_iso"  demands  to  read  from  the -indev. This works only if
       -outdev is not the same as -indev. The Source component is ignored.
       "appended_partition_NNN" with a  decimal  number  NNN  works  only  for
       -boot_image  bootspecs  which  announce  El  Torito  boot  image paths:
       bin_path=, efi_path=.  The number gives the partition  number  as  used
       with the corresponding command -append_partition.
       The  component  Interval consists of two byte address numbers separated
       by a "-" character. E.g. "0-429" means to read bytes 0 to 429.
       The component Zeroizers  consists  of  zero  or  more  comma  separated
       strings.   They  define  which  part  of the read data to zeroize. Byte
       number 0 means the byte read from the  Interval  start  address.   Each
       string may be one of:
       "zero_mbrpt"  demands  to  zeroize the MBR partition table if bytes 510
       and 511 bear the MBR signature 0x55 0xaa.
       "zero_gpt" demands to check for a GPT header in bytes 512 to  1023,  to
       zeroize it and its partition table blocks.
       "zero_apm"  demands  to  check  for  an  APM block 0 and to zeroize its
       partition table blocks.
       Start_byte"-"End_byte demands to zeroize the  read-in  bytes  beginning
       with number Start_byte and ending after End_byte.
       The component Source is the file path with flag "local_fs", and ignored
       with flag "imported_iso".
       Byte numbers may be scaled by a suffix  out  of  {k,m,g,t,s,d}  meaning
       multiplication  by  {1024,  1024k,  1024m,  1024g, 2048, 512}. A scaled
       value end number depicts the last byte of the scaled range.
       E.g. "0d-0d" is "0-511".

       -boot_image "any"|"isolinux"|"grub"
              Define the equipment of the emerging filesystem with boot  entry
              With  systems  which  boot  via  BIOS or EFI this is a set of El
              Torito  boot  images,  possibly  MBR  boot  code,  and  possibly
              partition  tables  of type MBR, GPT, or APM.  Such file sets get
              produced by boot loader systems like ISOLINUX or GRUB.

              Each -boot_image command has two parameters: type  and  setting.
              More  than  one  -boot_image  command  may be used to define the
              handling of one or more boot images. Sequence matters.
              Types isolinux and grub care for known peculiarities.  Type  any
              makes no assumptions about the origin of the boot images.

              When  loading  an ISO filesystem, system area and El Torito boot
              images get loaded, too. The default behavior  is  not  to  write
              loaded El Torito boot images and to write the loaded system area
              content without alterations.
              discard gives up the El Torito boot catalog and its boot images.
              regardless  whether  loaded from an ISO filesystem or defined by
              commands.  Any BIOS or EFI related  boot  options  get  revoked.
              Nevertheless,  loaded  system  area data stay valid. If desired,
              they have to be erased by
               -boot_image any system_area=/dev/zero
              keep keeps or copies El Torito boot images unaltered and  writes
              a new catalog.
              patch applies patching to existing El Torito boot images if they
              seem to bear a boot info table.
              A boot info table needs to be patched when the boot  image  gets
              newly introduced into the ISO image or if an existing image gets
              relocated.  This is automatically done  if  type  "isolinux"  or
              "grub" is given, but not with "any".
              If  patching is enabled, then boot images from previous sessions
              will be checked whether they seem to bear a boot info table.  If
              not,  then they stay unpatched. This check is not infallible. So
              if you do know that the  images  need  no  patching,  use  "any"
              "keep".     "grub"   "patch"   will   not   patch   EFI   images
              replay is a more modern version of "patch", which not only cares
              for   existing  El  Torito  boot  equipment  but  also  for  the
              recognizable boot provisions in the System Area. It discards any
              existing  -boot_image setting and executes the commands proposed
              by command -report_el_torito "cmd".
              This action will only succeed if the file objects  mentioned  in
              the   output   of  command  -report_el_torito  "cmd"  are  still
              available. Do not  remove  or  rename  boot  image  files  after
              Drop unknown El Torito:  -boot_image "any" "discard"
              Maintain recognizable stuff:  -boot_image "any" "replay"
              El Torito only for GRUB:  -boot_image "grub" "patch"
              El Torito only for ISOLINUX:  -boot_image "isolinux" "patch"
              show_status  will  print  what  is  known  about the loaded boot
              images and their designated fate.

              A bootspec is a word of the  form  name=value.  It  is  used  to
              describe  the  parameters  of  a boot feature.  The names "dir",
              "bin_path", "efi_path" lead to El Torito bootable images.   Name
              "system_area"  activates  a  given  file  as  MBR  or other disk
              On all media types this is possible within the first session. In
              further  sessions  an  existing boot image can get replaced by a
              new one, but depending on the  media  type  this  may  have  few
              effect at boot time. See above.
              El  Torito  boot  images  have  to  be added to the ISO image by
              normal means (image  loading,  -map,  -add,  ...).  In  case  of
              ISOLINUX  the  files should reside either in ISO image directory
              /isolinux or in /boot/isolinux .  In that case  it  suffices  to
              use     as     bootspec     the    text    "dir=/isolinux"    or
              "dir=/boot/isolinux". E.g.:
               -boot_image isolinux dir=/boot/isolinux
              which bundles these individual settings:
               -boot_image isolinux bin_path=/boot/isolinux/isolinux.bin
               -boot_image isolinux cat_path=/boot/isolinux/boot.cat
               -boot_image isolinux load_size=2048
               -boot_image any boot_info_table=on
              An El Torito boot catalog file gets inserted into the ISO  image
              with  address  cat_path= with the first -boot_image "any" "next"
              or at -commit time.  It is  subject  to  normal  -overwrite  and
              -reassure  processing  if  there is already a file with the same
              name.  The catalog lists the boot images and is read by the boot
              facility  to  choose  one  of  the  boot  images.  But it is not
              necessary that it appears in the directory tree at all. One  may
              hide  it  in  all trees by cat_hidden=on.  Other possible values
              are "iso_rr", "joliet", "hfsplus", and the default  "off".   The
              timestamps  of  the  boot  catalog  file are refreshed at commit
              time.  Command -volume_date "uuid" can  be  used  to  set  their
              bin_path= depicts an El Torito boot image file, a binary program
              which is to be started by the hardware boot facility  (e.g.  the
              BIOS) at boot time.
              efi_path= depicts an El Torito boot image file that is ready for
              EFI booting. This is normally a FAT filesystem image not  larger
              than  65535 blocks of 512 bytes (= 32 MiB - 512).  Its load_size
              is determined automatically, no boot info table gets written, no
              boot medium gets emulated, platform_id is 0xef.
              emul_type=   can   be   one   of   "no_emulation",  "hard_disk",
              "diskette".  It controls the boot medium  emulation  code  of  a
              boot   image.    The  default  "no_emulation"  is  suitable  for
              ISOLINUX, GRUB, FreeBSD cdboot.
              load_size= is a value which depends on the boot image.   Default
              is 2048 which matches the expectations of most boot images.  The
              special value "full" means the full size of the boot image  file
              rounded  up  to  a multiple of 2048 bytes. Maximum is 33,552,384
              boot_info_table=on causes address patching to bytes 8 to  63  of
              the   boot   image   which   is   given  by  "any"  "bin_path=".
              "boot_info_table=off" disables this patching.
              grub2_boot_info=on causes address patching to byte 2548  of  the
              boot  image which is given by "any" "bin_path=".  The address is
              written as 64 bit little-endian number.  It  is  the  2KB  block
              address  of  the  boot  image content, multiplied by 4, and then
              incremented by 5.  "grub2_boot_info=off" disables this patching.
              platform_id= defines by a  hexadecimal  or  decimal  number  the
              Platform  ID  of the boot image. "0x00" is 80x86 PC-BIOS, "0x01"
              is PowerPC, "0x02" is Mac, "0xef" is EFI (decimal "239").
              id_string=text|56_hexdigits defines the ID string  of  the  boot
              catalog  section  where  the  boot  image will be listed. If the
              value consists of 56 characters [0-9A-Fa-f] then it is converted
              into  28  bytes,  else  the  first  28  characters become the ID
              string.  The ID string of  the  first  boot  image  becomes  the
              overall  catalog  ID.   It  is  limited  to 24 characters. Other
              id_strings become section IDs.
              sel_crit=hexdigits defines the Selection Criteria  of  the  boot
              image.   Up  to  20  bytes  get  read  from the given characters
              [0-9A-Fa-f].  They get attributed to the boot image entry in the
              next  ends  the definition of a boot image and starts a new one.
              Any following -bootimage bootspecs will affect  the  new  image.
              The first "next" discards loaded boot images and their catalog.
              system_area=disk_path  copies at most 32768 bytes from the given
              disk file to the very start of the ISO image.  This System  Area
              is  reserved  for  system  dependent  boot software, e.g. an MBR
              which can be used to boot from USB stick or hard disk.
              Other than an El Torito boot image, the file disk_path needs not
              to be added to the ISO image.
              -boot_image  isolinux system_area= implies "partition_table=on".
              In this case, the disk path should lead to one of  the  SYSLINUX
              files  isohdp[fp]x*.bin  or to a file which was derived from one
              of those files.  E.g. to the first 512 bytes  from  an  ISOLINUX
              isohybrid ISO image.
              In this case, El Torito boot images (dir=, bin_path=, efi_path=)
              may  be  augmented  by  isolinux  partition_entry=gpt_basdat  or
              isolinux    partition_entry=gpt_hfsplus,    and    by   isolinux
              partition_entry=apm_hfsplus.   The  boot  image  will  then   be
              mentioned in GPT as Basic Data or GPT HFS+ partition, and in APM
              as HFS+ partition.  The first three GPT partitions will also  be
              marked by MBR partitions.
              In   multi-session   situations  the  existing  System  Area  is
              preserved by default.  In in this case,  the  special  disk_path
              "."  prevents  reading  of  a  disk file but nevertheless causes
              adjustments in the loaded system area data. Such adjustments may
              get ordered by -boot_image commands.
              -boot_image any gpt_disk_guid=value controls whether an emerging
              GPT shall get a randomly generated disk GUID or whether the GUID
              is  supplied  by  the  user.   Value  "random" is default. Value
              "volume_date_uuid" produces a low quality GUID  from  the  value
              set by -volume_date "uuid".
              A  string  of 32 hex digits, or a RFC 4122 compliant GUID string
              may be used to set the disk GUID directly. UEFI  prescribes  the
              first  three  components  of  a  RFC  4122  GUID  string  to  be
              byte-swapped in the binary representation:
              E.g.  gpt_disk_guid=2303cd2a-73c7-424a-a298-25632da7f446  equals
              The  partition GUIDs get generated by minimally varying the disk
              -boot_image  any  part_like_isohybrid=on   enables   -boot_image
              isolinux   partition_entry=  even  if  no  -boot_image  isolinux
              system_area= is given.  No MBR partition  of type 0xee  emerges,
              even  if GPT gets produced.  Gaps between GPT and APM partitions
              will not be filled by more partitions.  Appended partitions  get
              mentioned in APM if other APM partitions emerge.
              -boot_image any iso_mbr_part_type=number sets the partition type
              of the MBR partition  which  represents  the  ISO  or  at  least
              protects it.
              Number  may  be  0x00 to 0xff. The text "default" re-enables the
              default types of the various occasions  to  create  an  ISO  MBR
              partition.   This is without effect if no such partition emerges
              by other  settings  or  if  the  partition  type  is  prescribed
              mandatorily like 0xee for GPT protective MBR or 0x96 for CHRP.
              If  instead  a  type_guid is given by a 32-digit hex string like
              a2a0d0ebe5b9334487c068b6b72699c7 or by a  structured  text  like
              EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7,  then  it  will be used as
              partition type if the ISO filesystem  appears  as  partition  in
              GPT.    In  MBR,  C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B  will  be
              mapped to 0xef.  Any other GUID will be mapped to 0x83.
              grub2_mbr=disk_path   works   like   "any"   system_area=   with
              additional  patching  for  modern  GRUB  MBRs. The content start
              address of the first boot image is converted to a count  of  512
              byte blocks, and an offset of 4 is added.  The result is written
              as 64 bit little-endian number to byte address 0x1b0.
              This feature can be revoked either by grub2_mbr= with empty disk
              path, or by submitting a disk_path via system_area=.
              partition_table=on causes a simple partition table to be written
              into bytes 446 to 511 of the System Area.
              With type "isolinux" it shows a partition that begins at byte  0
              and it causes the LBA of the first boot image to be written into
              the  MBR.  For  the  first  session  this  works  only  if  also
              "system_area=" and "bin_path=" or "dir=" is given.
              With  types  "any"  and "grub" it shows a single partition which
              starts at byte 512 and ends where  the  ISO  image  ends.   This
              works with or without system_area= or boot image.
              Bootspecs  chrp_boot_part=,  prep_boot_part=, and efi_boot_part=
              overwrite this entry in the MBR partition table.
              If  types  "isolinux"  or  "grub"  are  set  to  "patch",   then
              "partition_table=on"  is  activated  without new boot image.  In
              this case the existing System Area gets checked whether it bears
              addresses   and   sizes   as   if   it  had  been  processed  by
              "partition_table=on". If so, then those parameters  get  updated
              when the new System Area is written.
              Special  "system_area=/dev/zero"  causes  32k of NUL-bytes.  Use
              this to discard an MBR which was loaded with the ISO image.
              appended_part_as=gpt marks partitions from -append_partition  in
              GPT  rather  than  in  MBR.  In this case the MBR shows a single
              partition of type 0xee which covers the whole output data.
              appended_part_as=mbr is the  default.  Appended  partitions  get
              marked in GPT only if GPT is produced because of other settings.
              If given  explicitly,  this  clears  setting  "gpt"  and  "apm".
              Nevertheless "apm" may be added to "mbr".
              appended_part_as=apm  marks partitions from -append_partition in
              APM additionally to "mbr" or "gpt".
              By default, appended partitions get marked in APM only if APM is
              produced    because    of    other    options    together   with
              chrp_boot_part=on causes a single partition in MBR which  covers
              the  whole  ISO  image and has type 0x96. This is not compatible
              with any other feature that produces MBR partition  entries.  It
              makes GPT unrecognizable.
              prep_boot_part=disk_path inserts the content of a data file into
              the image and marks it by an MBR partition  of  type  0x41.  The
              parts  of  the ISO image before and after this partition will be
              covered by further MBR partitions.  The data file is supposed to
              contain ELF executable code.
              efi_boot_part=disk_path  inserts the content of a data file into
              the  image  and  marks  it  by   a   GPT   partition.   If   not
              chrp_boot_part=on,  then  the  first  partition in MBR will have
              type 0xee to announce the presence of GPT.   The  data  file  is
              supposed to contain a FAT filesystem.
              Instead  of a disk_path, the word --efi-boot-image may be given.
              It exposes in GPT the content of the first El  Torito  EFI  boot
              image as EFI system partition. EFI boot images are introduced by
              bootspec efi_path=.  The affected EFI boot image cannot show  up
              in HFS+ because it is stored outside the HFS+ partition.
              partition_offset=2kb_block_adr  causes  a partition table with a
              single partition that begins at the given block address. This is
              counted  in  2048  byte  blocks,  not in 512 byte blocks. If the
              block address is non-zero  then  it  must  be  at  least  16.  A
              non-zero partition offset causes two superblocks to be generated
              and two sets of directory trees. The  image  is  then  mountable
              from its absolute start as well as from the partition start.
              The  offset  value  of  an  ISO  image gets preserved when a new
              session is added.  So the value defined here is only  in  effect
              if a new ISO image gets written.
              partition_hd_cyl=number  gives  the number of heads per cylinder
              for the partition table. 0 chooses a default value.  Maximum  is
              partition_sec_hd=number gives the number of sectors per head for
              the partition table. 0 chooses a default value. Maximum is 63.
              The product partition_sec_hd * partition_hd_cyl  *  512  is  the
              cylinder  size.  It should be divisible by 2048 in order to make
              exact  alignment  possible.   With   appended   partitions   and
              "appended_part_as=gpt"  there  is  no  limit  for  the number of
              cylinders. Else there may be at  most  1024  of  them.   If  the
              cylinder  size  is  too  small  to  stay  below  the limit, then
              appropriate  values  of   partition_hd_cyl   are   chosen   with
              partition_sec_hd   32  or  63.  If  the  image  is  larger  than
              8,422,686,720 bytes, then the cylinder size  constraints  cannot
              be fulfilled for MBR.
              partition_cyl_align=mode  controls  image  size  alignment to an
              integer number of cylinders. It is prescribed by isohybrid specs
              and  it  seems  to  please  program fdisk. Cylinder size must be
              divisible by  2048.   Images  larger  than  8,323,596,288  bytes
              cannot be aligned in MBR partition table.
              Mode  "auto"  is default. Alignment by padding happens only with
              "isolinux" "partition_table=on".
              Mode "on" causes alignment by padding with  "partition_table=on"
              for  any  type.   Mode  "all"  is  like  "on"  but  also pads up
              partitions from -append_partition to an aligned size.
              Mode "off" disables alignment for any type.
              mbr_force_bootable=mode   enforces   an   MBR   partition   with
              "bootable/active"  flag  if  options  like  partition_table=  or
              grub2_mbr= indicate production of a bootable MBR.  These options
              normally  cause  the flag to be set if there is an MBR partition
              of type other than 0xee or 0xef.  If no such  partition  exists,
              then  no  bootflag is set, unless mbr_force_bootable="on" forces
              creation of a dummy partition of type 0x00 which covers only the
              first block of the ISO image.
              If  no bootable MBR is indicated and a partition gets created by
              -append_partition,   then   mbr_force_bootable="on"   causes   a
              bootflag like it would do with a bootable MBR.
              mips_path=iso_rr_path  declares a data file in the image to be a
              MIPS Big Endian boot file and causes production of  a  MIPS  Big
              Endian Volume Header. This is mutually exclusive with production
              of other boot blocks like MBR.  It will overwrite the first  512
              bytes of any data provided by system_area=.  Up to 15 boot files
              can be declared by mips_path=.
              mipsel_path=iso_rr_path declares a data file in the image to  be
              the  MIPS  Little  Endian  boot file. This is mutually exclusive
              with other boot blocks.  It will overwrite the first  512  bytes
              of  any  data provided by system_area=.  Only a single boot file
              can be declared by mipsel_path=.
              sparc_label=text causes the production of a SUN Disk Label  with
              the given text as ASCII label. Partitions 2 to 8 may be occupied
              by appended images.  Partition 1 will always be the  ISO  image.
              See  command -append_partition.  The first 512 bytes of any data
              provided by system_area= will be overwritten.
              grub2_sparc_core=iso_rr_path causes the content address and size
              of  the  given file to be written after the SUN Disk Label. Both
              numbers are counted in bytes. The address is written as  64  bit
              big-endian  number  to byte 0x228. The size is written as 32 bit
              big-endian number to byte 0x230.
              hppa_cmdline=text sets the PALO command line for  HP-PA.  Up  to
              1023 characters are permitted by default. With hppa_hdrversion=4
              the limit is 127.
              Note that the first five hppa_ bootspecs are mandatory,  if  any
              of the hppa_ bootspecs is used. Only hppa_hdrversion= is allowed
              to be missing.
              hppa_bootloader=iso_rr_path designates the given path  as  HP-PA
              bootloader file.
              hppa_kernel_32=iso_rr_path designates the given path as HP-PA 32
              bit kernel file.
              hppa_kernel_64=iso_rr_path designates the given path as HP-PA 64
              bit kernel file.
              hppa_ramdisk=iso_rr_path  designates the given path as HP-PA RAM
              disk file.
              hppa_hdrversion=number chooses between  PALO  header  version  5
              (default)  and version 4.  For the appropriate value see in PALO
              source code: PALOHDRVERSION.
              alpha_boot=iso_rr_path declares a data file in the image  to  be
              the   DEC  Alpha  SRM  Secondary  Bootstrap  Loader  and  causes
              production of a  boot  sector  which  points  to  it.   This  is
              mutually  exclusive  with  production  of other boot blocks like
              mips_discard, sparc_discard, hppa_discard, alpha_discard  revoke
              any boot file declarations made for mips/mipsel, sparc, hppa, or
              alpha, respectively.  This removes  the  ban  on  production  of
              other boot blocks.
              hfsplus_serial=hexstring  sets  a string of 16 digits "0" to "9"
              and letters "a" to "f", which will  be  used  as  unique  serial
              number of an emerging HFS+ filesystem.
              hfsplus_block_size=number  sets  the allocation block size to be
              used when producing HFS+ filesystems. Permissible are 512, 2048,
              or 0.  The latter lets the program decide.
              apm_block_size=number  sets  the  block  size  to  be  used when
              describing partitions by an Apple Partition Map. Permissible are
              512, 2048, or 0. The latter lets the program decide.
              Note that size 512 is not compatible with production of GPT, and
              that size 2048 will not be mountable  -t  hfsplus  at  least  by
              older Linux kernels.

       -append_partition partition_number type_code disk_path
              Cause  a  prepared  filesystem  image  to be appended to the ISO
              image and to be described by a partition table entry in  a  boot
              block  at  the  start  of  the emerging ISO image. The partition
              entry will bear the size of the submitted file rounded up to the
              next  multiple  of  2048  bytes  or  to the next multiple of the
              cylinder size.
              Beware of subsequent multi-session runs. The appended  partition
              will get overwritten.
              Partitions may be appended with boot block type MBR and with SUN
              Disk Label.
              With MBR:
              partition_number may be 1 to 4. Number 1 will put the whole  ISO
              image  into  the unclaimed space before partition 1. So together
              with most xorriso MBR features,  number  2  would  be  the  most
              natural choice.
              The type_code may be "FAT12", "FAT16", "Linux", or a hexadecimal
              number between 0x00 and 0xff. Not all those numbers  will  yield
              usable  results.  For  a list of MBR partition type codes search
              the Internet for "Partition Types" or run fdisk command "L".
              type_code may also be a type  GUID  as  plain  hex  string  like
              a2a0d0ebe5b9334487c068b6b72699c7  or  as  structured  text  like
              EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7. It will  be  used  if  the
              partition      is      mentioned     in     GPT.     In     MBR,
              C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B will be mapped to 0xef. Any
              other GUID will be mapped to 0x83.
              If  some  other  command  causes the production of GPT, then the
              appended partitions will be mentioned there too.
              The disk_path must provide the necessary data  bytes  at  commit
              time.   An  empty  disk_path disables this feature for the given
              partition number.
              With SUN Disk Label (selected by -boot_image any sparc_label=):
              partition_number may be 2 to 8. Number 1 will always be the  ISO
              image.   Partition  start  addresses are aligned to 320 KiB. The
              type_code does not matter. Submit 0x0.
              Partition image name "." causes the partition to become  a  copy
              of the next lower valid one.

       Jigdo Template Extraction:

       From  man  genisoimage: "Jigdo is a tool to help in the distribution of
       large files like CD and DVD images; see  http://atterer.net/jigdo/  for
       more details. Debian CDs and DVD ISO images are published on the web in
       jigdo format to allow end users to download them more efficiently."
       xorriso can produce a .jigdo and  a  .template  file  together  with  a
       single-session  ISO  image.   The  .jigdo  file  contains checksums and
       symbolic file addresses.  The .template file  contains  the  compressed
       ISO  image  with  reference  tags  instead  of the content bytes of the
       listed files.
       Input for this process are the normal arguments for a  xorriso  session
       on  a blank -outdev, and a .md5 file which lists those data files which
       may be listed in the .jigdo  file  and  externally  referenced  in  the
       .template  file.   Each designated file is represented in the .md5 file
       by a single text line:
       MD5 as 32 hex digits, 2 blanks, size as 12 decimal digits or blanks,  2
       blanks, symbolic file address
       The  file  address in an .md5 line has to bear the same basename as the
       disk_path of the file which it shall match. The directory path  of  the
       file address is decisive for To=From mapping, not for file recognition.
       After To=From mapping, the file address gets written  into  the  .jigdo
       file.  Jigdo  restore  tools  will  convert these addresses into really
       reachable data source addresses from which they can read.
       If the list of jigdo parameters is not empty, then xorriso will  refuse
       to write to non-blank targets, it will disable multi-session emulation,
       and padding will be counted as part of the ISO image.

       -jigdo parameter_name value
              Clear  Jigdo  Template  Extraction  parameter  list  or  add   a
              parameter  to  that list.  The alias names are the corresponding
              genisoimage options. They are accepted  as  parameter  names  as
              well.   Especially  they  are  recognized  by  the  -as  mkisofs
              emulation command.
              Parameter clear with any  value  empties  the  whole  list.   No
              .jigdo and .template file will be produced.
              template_path sets the disk_path for the .template file with the
              holed and compressed ISO image copy.
              Alias: -jigdo-template
              jigdo_path sets the disk_path  for  the  .jigdo  file  with  the
              checksums  and  download  addresses  for  filling  the  holes in
              Alias: -jigdo-jigdo
              md5_path sets the disk_path where to find the .md5 input file.
              Alias: -md5-list
              min_size sets the minimum size for a data file to be  listed  in
              the .jigdo file and being a hole in the .template file.
              Alias: -jigdo-min-file-size
              exclude  adds  a  regular  expression  pattern  which  will  get
              compared with the absolute disk_path of any data file.  A  match
              causes the file to stay in .template in any case.
              Alias: -jigdo-exclude
              demand_md5  adds  a  regular  expression  pattern which will get
              compared with the absolute disk_path of any data file  that  was
              not found in the .md5 list. A match causes a MISHAP event.
              Alias: -jigdo-force-md5
              mapping  adds a string pair of the form To=From to the parameter
              list.  If a data file gets listed in the .jigdo file, then it is
              referred  by  the  file  address from its line in the .md5 file.
              This file address gets checked whether it begins with  the  From
              string.  If  so,  then  this  string  will be replaced by the To
              string and a ':' character, before it goes into the .jigdo file.
              The From string should end by a '/' character.
              Alias: -jigdo-map
              compression chooses one of "bzip2" or "gzip" for the compression
              of the template file. The jigdo file is put out uncompressed.
              Alias: -jigdo-template-compress
              checksum_iso chooses one or more  of  "md5",  "sha1",  "sha256",
              "sha512"  for the auxiliary "# Image Hex" checksums in the jigdo
              file. The value may e.g.   look  like  "md5,sha1,sha512".  Value
              "all"  chooses  all  available  algorithms.  Note that MD5 stays
              always enabled.
              Alias: -checksum_algorithm_iso
              checksum_template is like checksum_iso but for "# Template Hex".
              Alias: -checksum_algorithm_template

       Character sets:

       File names are strings of non-zero bytes with 8 bit each. Unfortunately
       the  same  byte  string  may  appear  as  different  peculiar  national
       characters on differently nationalized terminals.  The meanings of byte
       codes  are  defined  in  character sets which have names. Shell command
       iconv -l lists them.
       The file names on hard disk are assumed to  be  encoded  by  the  local
       character  set  which is also used for the communication with the user.
       Byte codes 32 to 126 of the local character set must match the US-ASCII
       characters of the same code. ISO-8859 and UTF-8 fulfill this demand.
       By  default,  xorriso  uses  the character set as told by shell command
       "locale" with argument "charmap". This may be influenced by environment
       variables  LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE, or LANG and should match the expectations
       of the terminal.  In some situations it may be necessary to set  it  by
       command -local_charset.
       Local  character  sets  should  not  matter  as  long  as  only english
       alphanumeric characters are used for file  names  or  as  long  as  all
       writers  and  readers  of  the  media use the same local character set.
       Outside these constraints it may be necessary to  let  xorriso  convert
       byte codes from and to other character sets.
       The  Rock Ridge file names in ISO filesystems are assumed to be encoded
       by the input character set.   The  Rock  Ridge  file  names  which  get
       written  with  ISO  filesystems will be encoded by the output character
       The sets can be  defined  independently  by  commands  -in_charset  and
       -out_charset.  Normally  one  will have both identical, if ever.  Other
       than the local character set, these two character sets may deviate from
       The  output  character  sets  for Joliet and HFS+ are not influenced by
       these commands. Joliet uses output character set UCS-2 or UTF-16.  HFS+
       uses UTF-16.
       The  default  output charset is the local character set of the terminal
       where xorriso runs. So by default no conversion happens  between  local
       filesystem  names  and  emerging  Rock  Ridge  names  in the image. The
       situation stays ambiguous and the reader has to riddle  what  character
       set was used.
       By command -auto_charset it is possible to attribute the output charset
       name to the image. This makes the situation unambiguous.  But  if  your
       terminal  character  set  does not match the character set of the local
       file names, then this attribute can  become  plainly  wrong  and  cause
       problems  at  read  time.   To  prevent  this  it is necessary to check
       whether the terminal properly displays all  intended  filenames.  Check
       especially the exotic national characters.
       To  enforce  recording  of  a particular character set name without any
       conversion at image generation time, set -charset and -local_charset to
       the  desired  name, and enable -backslash_codes to avoid evil character
       display on your terminal.

       -charset character_set_name
              Set the character set from which  to  convert  file  names  when
              loading an image and to which to convert when writing an image.

       -local_charset character_set_name
              Override  the system assumption of the local character set name.
              If  this  appears  necessary,  one  should   consider   to   set
              -backslash_codes  to  "on"  in  order  to avoid dangerous binary
              codes being sent to the terminal.

       Exception processing:

       Since  the  tasks  of  xorriso  are  manifold  and  prone  to  external
       influence,  there  may  arise the need for xorriso to report and handle
       problem events.
       Those events get classified when  they  are  detected  by  one  of  the
       software  modules  and  forwarded  to  reporting and evaluation modules
       which decide about reactions. Event classes are sorted by severity:
       "NEVER" The upper end of the severity spectrum.
       "ABORT" The program is being aborted and on its way to end.
       "FATAL" The main purpose of the run failed  or  an  important  resource
       failed unexpectedly.
       "FAILURE" An important part of the job could not be performed.
       "MISHAP" A FAILURE which can be tolerated during ISO image generation.
       "SORRY" A less important part of the job could not be performed.
       "WARNING" A situation is suspicious of being not intended by the user.
       "HINT" A proposal to the user how to achieve better results.
       "NOTE" A harmless information about noteworthy circumstances.
       "UPDATE" A pacifier message during long running operations.
       "DEBUG" A message which would only interest the program developers.
       "ALL" The lower end of the severity spectrum.

       -abort_on severity
              Set the severity threshold for events to abort the program.
              Useful: "NEVER", "ABORT", "FATAL", "FAILURE" , "MISHAP", "SORRY"
              It may become necessary to abort the program anyway, despite the
              setting by this command. Expect not many "ABORT"  events  to  be
              A  special  property of this command is that it works preemptive
              if given as program start argument.  I.e.  the  first  -abort_on
              setting  among the start arguments is in effect already when the
              first operations of xorriso begin. Only  "-abort_on"  with  dash
              "-" is recognized that way.

       -return_with severity exit_value
              Set  the  threshold and exit_value to be returned at program end
              if no abort has happened. This is to  allow  xorriso  to  go  on
              after  problems  but to get a failure indicating exit value from
              the program, nevertheless.  Useful is a  value  lower  than  the
              -abort_on threshold, down to "WARNING".
              exit_value may be either 0 (indicating success to the starter of
              the  program)  or  a  number  between  32  and  63.  Some  other
              exit_values  are  used  by  xorriso  if  it decides to abort the
              program run:
              1=abort due to external signal
              2=no program arguments given
              3=creation of xorriso main object failed
              4=failure to start libburnia-project.org libraries
              5=program abort during argument processing
              6=program abort during dialog processing

       -report_about severity
              Set the threshold for events to be reported.
              Useful:  "SORRY", "WARNING", "HINT", "NOTE", "UPDATE",  "DEBUG",
              Regardless  what  is  set  by -report_about, messages get always
              reported if they reach the severity threshold of -abort_on .
              Event messages are sent to the info channel "I" which is usually
              stderr  but  may  be  influenced  by  command -pkt_output.  Info
              messages which  belong  to  no  event  get  attributed  severity
              A   special   property   of  this  command  is  that  the  first
              -report_about setting among the start  arguments  is  in  effect
              already  when  the  first  operations  of  xorriso  begin.  Only
              "-report_about" with dash "-" is recognized that way.

       -signal_handling mode
              Control the installation of a signal handler which  shall  react
              on  external  signals  (e.g.  from  program  "kill" or from keys
              Ctrl+C) or on signals caused by severe program errors.
              Mode "on" is the default. It uses the signal handler of  libburn
              which  produces  ugly messages but puts much effort in releasing
              optical drives before xorriso ends.
              Mode "off" as first -signal_handling among the  start  arguments
              prevents all own signal precautions of xorriso. Inherited signal
              handler settings stay as they are.
              It works like "sig_dfl" if given after other signal handling was
              already established at program start.
              Mode  "sig_dfl"  uses  the  system  provided default handling of
              signals, which is normally a sudden abort  of  the  program.  To
              prevent  stuck  drives,  the  libburn  handler  is  used  during
              burning, blanking, and formatting on MMC drives.
              Mode "sig_ign" tries to ignore as many signal types as possible.
              This  imposes  the  risk  that  xorriso  refuses  to  end  until
              externally kill -9 if performed.  kill -9 then imposes the  risk
              that  the  drive is left in unusable state and needs poweroff to
              be reset. So during burning, blanking, and formatting  wait  for
              at least their normal run time before killing externally.
              A   special   property   of  this  command  is  that  the  first
              -signal_handling setting among the start arguments is in  effect
              already  when  the  first  operations  of  xorriso  begin.  Only
              "-signal_handling" with dash "-" is recognized that way.

       -error_behavior occasion behavior
              Control the program behavior at problem  event  occasions.   For
              now  this  applies  to  occasions "image_loading" which is given
              while an image tree is  read  from  the  input  device,  and  to
              "file_extraction"  which  is  given  with  osirrox commands like
              With "image_loading" there are three behaviors available:
              "best_effort" goes on with reading after  events  with  severity
              below FAILURE if the threshold of command -abort_on allows this.
              "failure"  aborts  image tree reading on first event of at least
              SORRY.  It issues an own FAILURE event.  This is the default.
              "fatal" acts like "failure" but issues the own event as FATAL.
              With occasion "file_extraction" there are three behaviors:
              "keep" maintains incompletely extracted files on disk.  This  is
              the default.
              "delete"  removes  files which encountered errors during content
              "best_effort" starts a revovery attempt by means of -extract_cut
              if  the  file content stems from the loaded ISO image and is not

       Dialog mode control:

       -dialog "on"|"off"|"single_line"
              Enable or  disable  to  enter  dialog  mode  after  all  program
              arguments  are  processed.   In  dialog  mode  input  lines  get
              prompted via readline or from stdin.
              If no -abort_on  severity  was  set  when  dialog  starts,  then
              "NEVER"  is  set  to avoid abort in most cases of wrong input or
              other problems. Before dialog begins, the default  is  "FAILURE"
              which e.g. aborts on unknown commands.
              Mode  "on" supports input of newline characters within quotation
              marks  and  line  continuation  by  trailing  backslash  outside
              quotation marks.  Mode "single_line" does not.

       -page length width
              Describe  terminal  to the text pager. See also above, paragraph
              Result pager.
              If parameter length is nonzero then the user gets prompted after
              that number of terminal lines. Zero length disables paging.
              Parameter  width  is the number of characters per terminal line.
              It is used to compute the number of  terminal  lines  which  get
              occupied by an output line.  A usual terminal width is 80.

       -use_readline "on"|"off"
              If "on" then use readline for dialog. Else use plain stdin.
              See also above, paragraph Dialog, Readline, Result pager.

       -reassure "on"|"tree"|"off"
              If "on" then ask the user for "y" or "n":
              before deleting or overwriting any file in the ISO image,
              before overwriting any disk file during restore operations,
              before rolling back pending image changes,
              before committing image changes to media,
              before changing the input drive,
              before blanking or formatting media,
              before ending the program.
              With  setting  "tree"  the  reassuring prompt will appear for an
              eventual directory only once and not for each file in its  whole
              Setting  "off"  silently kills any kind of image file object and
              performs above irrevocable actions.
              To really produce user prompts, command -dialog needs to be  set
              to  "on".   Note  that  the prompt does not appear in situations
              where file removal is forbidden by command -overwrite. -reassure
              only  imposes  an  additional  curb  for  removing existing file
              Be aware that file  objects  get  deleted  from  the  ISO  image
              immediately  after  confirmation.  They  are  gone  even  if the
              running  command  gets  aborted  and  its  desired  effect  gets
              revoked. In case of severe mess-up, consider to use -rollback to
              revoke the whole session.

       Drive and media related inquiry actions:

              Show list of available MMC drives with the  addresses  of  their
              libburn standard device files.
              This  is  only  possible  when no ISO image changes are pending.
              After this command was executed, there is no drive  current  and
              no image loaded.
              In  order  to  be  visible, a device has to offer rw-permissions
              with its libburn standard device file. Thus it might be only the
              superuser who is able to see all drives.
              Drives which are occupied by other processes get not shown.

              Like  -devices,  but  presenting  the  drives  with addresses of
              symbolic links which point to the actual device files.
              Modern GNU/Linux systems may shuffle drive addresses  from  boot
              to  boot.   The  udev  daemon  is supposed to create links which
              always point  to  the  same  drive,  regardless  of  its  system
              address.   The command -device_links shows the addresses of such
              links if they begin by "/dev/dvd" or "/dev/cd".  Precedence  is:
              "dvdrw", "cdrw", "dvd", "cdrom", "cd".

              Show  media  specific  tables  of  content.  This is the session
              history of the medium, not the ISO image directory tree.
              In case of overwriteable media holding a valid ISO image, it may
              happen  that  only a single session gets shown. But if the first
              session on the overwriteable media was written by xorriso then a
              complete session history can be emulated.
              A  drive  which  is  incapable  of writing may show any media as
              CD-ROM or DVD-ROM with only one or two sessions on it. The  last
              of these sessions is supposed to be the most recent real session
              Some read-only drives and media show no usable  session  history
              at all.  Command -rom_toc_scan might help.
              If  input device and output device are both acquired and not the
              same, then both tables-of-content get shown.

       -toc_of "in"|"out"|"all"[":short"]
              Like  command  -toc  but  explicitly  choosing   which   drive's
              table-of-content to show. "in" shows -indev or -dev, "out" shows
              -outdev or -dev, "all" shows the same as -toc.
              If ":short" is appended to the drive choosing word, then only  a
              short summary of drive state and medium content is printed.
              As  further  difference  to  -toc,  this  command  does not emit
              FAILURE events if the desired drive is not acquired.

       -mount_cmd drive entity id path
              Emit an appropriate command line for mounting  the  ISO  session
              indicated by drive, entity and id.  The result will be different
              on GNU/Linux and on FreeBSD or NetBSD.
              drive can be "indev" or "outdev" to  indicate  already  acquired
              drives,  or  it  can  be  the  path of a not yet acquired drive.
              Prefix "stdio:" for non-MMC drives is not mandatory.
              For entity and id, see also command -load. They must  be  either
              "sbsector"  with the superblock sector address as id, or "track"
              with a track number as id, or "session" with a  session  number,
              or  "volid"  with  a search pattern for the volume id, or "auto"
              with which any text as id mounts the first  track  of  the  last
              path  will  be  used  as mount point and must already exist as a
              directory on disk.
              The command gets printed to  the  result  channel.  See  command
              -mount for direct execution of this command.

       -mount_opts option[:option...]
              Set  options  which  influence  -mount and -mount_cmd. Currently
              there is only  option  "exclusive"  which  is  default  and  its
              counterpart  "shared".  The latter causes xorriso not to give up
              the affected drive with command -mount.  On  GNU/Linux  it  adds
              mount  option  "loop"  which  may  enable  mounting  of  several
              sessions of the same block device at the same time.  One  should
              not  write  to a mounted optical medium, of course. Take care to
              umount all sessions before ejecting.

       -session_string drive entity id format
              Print to the result channel a text which gets composed according
              to format and the parameters of the addressed session.
              Formats  "linux:"path  or  "freebsd:"path  produce the output of
              -mount_cmd for the given operating systems.
              In other texts xorriso will substitute the  following  parameter
              names.  An optional prefix "string:" will be removed.
              "%device%"  will  be substituted by the mountable device path of
              the drive address.
              "%sbsector%" will be substituted by the session start sector.
              "%track%", "%session%", "%volid%" will be substituted  by  track
              number, session number, or volume id of the depicted session.

              Print  the  foreseeable  consumption of 2048 byte blocks by next
              -commit. This can last a while as a -commit  gets  prepared  and
              only  in  last  moment  is  revoked by this command.  The result
              depends on several settings and  also  on  the  kind  of  output
              device.   If  no  -jidgo  options  are  set  and not command -as
              "mkisofs" was used, then -padding (300 kB  by  default)  is  not
              counted as part of the image size.
              If  an  El  Torito  boot  image  file  is already depicted, then
              command -print_size  automatically  executes  -boot_image  "any"
              "next".   This  means  that  the  properties  of that boot image
              cannot be edited by subsequent commands.

              Print available space on the output medium and  the  free  space
              after   subtracting  already  foreseeable  consumption  by  next
              Note that the title  of  the  prediction  "After  commit  :"  is
              misleading.   It is rather the space that may still be filled in
              this session without making the next -commit  fail  from  medium
              The  free  space  after  the  next  -commit  might be smaller by
              several MB.  This depends on medium  type,  number  of  recorded
              sessions, and drive habits.

              Print  various  ID  strings and timestamps which can be found in
              loaded ISO images. Some of the IDs may be  changed  by  commands
              like -volid or -publisher.  For these IDs -pvd_info reports what
              would be written with the next -commit.  The timestamps get  not
              automatically  propagated  from  loaded  image  to newly written
              image.  The  ones  for  new  images  may  be  set   by   command
              -volume_date.   See  there  for  the  meaning  of the particular

       -report_el_torito mode
              With mode plain print a report about the  information  found  in
              the El Torito boot catalog of the loaded ISO image.
              With  mode  help  print a text which explains the meaning of the
              lines put out by "plain".
              Mode cmd tries to print the xorriso commands which are necessary
              to produce the found boot equipment: disk identifiers, El Torito
              boot images, and System Area. Disk identifiers are strings which
              the   booting  operating  system  might  use  to  find  the  ISO
              filesystem from where it comes. Currently known is  the  use  of
              volume id and modification date.
              The  intended  use  case  is  modification  of the filesystem by
              having -indev  and  -outdev  pointing  to  different  images  or
              drives.    The  result  might  be  insufficient,  if  the  found
              equipment cannot be produced by xorriso.  Various  SORRY  events
              may  arise  in  this case, but it is not guaranteed that xorriso
              recognizes all its insufficiencies.
              Mode as_mkisofs tries to print the xorriso -as mkisofs  options,
              which  are  necessary  to  produce  the  found  equipment.   The
              intended use case is to use the mounted filesystem as input tree
              together with the printed options.

       -report_system_area mode
              With  mode  plain  print a report about the information found in
              the System Area of the loaded ISO image. The report consists  of
              zero  to many lines with a header text, a colon, and information
              With mode help print a text which explains the  meaning  of  the
              lines  put  out  by  "plain". You probably will have to look for
              more documentation which explains the technical details  of  the
              mentioned boot facilities.
              Modes    cmd    and    as_mkisofs   work   like   with   command
              -report_el_torito. See above.
              With mode gpt_disk_guid print the GPT disk GUID  of  the  loaded
              ISO  in  RFC  4122  text  format  to  result  channel. It is not
              considered an error if no GPT is present. In this  case  nothing
              is printed to result channel.
              With  mode  gpt_crc_of:disk_path read up to 32 KiB from the disk
              file with the path  given  after  the  colon.  Compute  the  GPT
              compliant  CRC  number  and  print it to the result channel. The
              number is shown like "0x690fd979".  The  special  disk_path  "-"
              causes reading from standard input.
              With  mode make_guid print a pseudo-random GUID in RFC 4122 text
              format to result channel.

       Navigation in ISO image and disk filesystem:

       -cd iso_rr_path
              Change the current working directory in the ISO image.  This  is
              prepended to iso_rr_paths which do not begin with '/'.
              It is possible to set the working directory to a path which does
              not exist yet in the ISO image. The necessary parent directories
              will be created when the first file object is inserted into that
              virtual directory.  Use  -mkdir  if  you  want  to  enforce  the
              existence of the directory already at first insertion.

       -cdx disk_path
              Change  the  current  working directory in the local filesystem.
              To be prepended to disk_paths which do not begin with '/'.

              Tell the current working directory in the ISO image.

              Tell the current working directory in the local filesystem.

       -ls iso_rr_pattern [***]
              List files in the ISO image which  match  shell  patterns  (i.e.
              with  wildcards  '*'  '?' '[a-z]').  If a pattern does not begin
              with '/' then it is compared with addresses relative to -cd.
              Directories are listed by their content rather  than  as  single
              file item.
              Pattern expansion may be disabled by command -iso_rr_pattern.

       -lsd iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Like  -ls but listing directories as themselves and not by their
              content.  This resembles shell command ls -d.

       -lsl iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Like -ls but also list some of the file attributes.  The  output
              format resembles shell command ls -ln.
              File type 'e' indicates the El Torito boot catalog.
              If  the  file has non-trivial ACL, then a '+' is appended to the
              permission info.  If the file is hidden, then 'I' for  "iso_rr",
              'J'  for  "joliet",  'A'  for "hfsplus", 'H' for multiple hiding
              gets appended.  Together with ACL it is 'i', 'j', 'a', 'h'.

       -lsdl iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Like -lsd but also list some of the file attributes.  The output
              format resembles shell command ls -dln.

       -lsx disk_pattern [***]
              List  files  in the local filesystem which match shell patterns.
              Patterns which do not begin with '/' are used relative to -cdx.
              Directories are listed by their content rather  than  as  single
              file item.
              Pattern expansion may be disabled by command -disk_pattern.

       -lsdx disk_pattern [***]
              Like -lsx but listing directories as themselves and not by their
              content.  This resembles shell command ls -d.

       -lslx disk_pattern [***]
              Like -lsx but also listing some of the file attributes.   Output
              format resembles shell command ls -ln.

       -lsdlx disk_pattern [***]
              Like -lsdx but also listing some of the file attributes.  Output
              format resembles shell command ls -dln.

       -getfacl iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Print the access permissions of the given files in the ISO image
              using  the format of shell command getfacl. If a file has no ACL
              then it gets fabricated from the -chmod  settings.  A  file  may
              have  a  real  ACL if it was introduced into the ISO image while
              command -acl was set to "on".

       -getfacl_r iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Like -gefacl  but  listing  recursively  the  whole  file  trees
              underneath eventual directories.

       -getfattr iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Print  the xattr of the given files in the ISO image.  If a file
              has no such xattr then noting is printed for it.  The choice  of
              namespaces  depends  on  the  setting of command -xattr: "on" or
              "user" restricts  it  to  namespace  "user",  "any"  only  omits
              namespace "isofs".

       -getfattr_r iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Like  -gefattr  but  listing  recursively  the  whole file trees
              underneath of directories.

       -du iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Recursively list size of directories and files in the ISO  image
              which  match  one  of the patterns.  similar to shell command du

       -dus iso_rr_pattern [***]
              List size of directories and files in the ISO image which  match
              one of the patterns.  Similar to shell command du -sk.

       -dux disk_pattern [***]
              Recursively  list  size  of  directories  and files in the local
              filesystem which match one of the  patterns.  Similar  to  shell
              command du -k.

       -dusx disk_pattern [***]
              List size of directories and files in the local filesystem which
              match one of the patterns.  Similar to shell command du -sk.

       -findx disk_path [-name pattern] [-type t] [-exec action [params]] --
              Like -find but operating on local filesystem and not on the  ISO
              image.  This is subject to the settings of -follow.
              -findx  accepts the same -type parameters as -find. Additionally
              it  recognizes  type  "mountpoint"  (or   "m")   which   matches
              subdirectories  which  reside  on  a different device than their
              parent. It never matches the disk_path given  as  start  address
              for -findx.
              -findx  accepts  the -exec actions as does -find. But except the
              following few actions it will always perform action "echo".
              in_iso reports the path if its counterpart  exists  in  the  ISO
              image.   For  this  the  disk_path  of  the  -findx command gets
              replaced by the iso_rr_path given as parameter.
              E.g.: -findx /home/thomas -exec in_iso /thomas_on_cd --
              not_in_iso reports the path if its counterpart does not exist in
              the  ISO  image.  The  report format is the same as with command
              add_missing iso_rr_path_start adds the counterpart  if  it  does
              not  yet  exist  in the ISO image and marks it for "rm_merge" as
              E.g.: -findx /home/thomas -exec add_missing /thomas_on_cd --
              is_full_in_iso reports if  the  counterpart  in  the  ISO  image
              contains  files.  To  be  used  with  -type  "m" to report mount
              empty_iso_dir deletes all files from the counterpart in the  ISO
              image. To be used with -type "m" to truncate mount points.
              estimate_size  prints  a  lower  and  an upper estimation of the
              number of blocks which the found files together will  occupy  in
              the   emerging  ISO  image.   This  does  not  account  for  the
              superblock, for the directories in the -findx path, or for image
              list_extattr  mode  prints a script to the result channel, which
              would use FreeBSD command setextattr to  set  the  file's  xattr
              name-value pairs of user namespace.  See -find for a description
              of parameter mode.
              E.g. -exec list_extattr e --

       -compare disk_path iso_rr_path
              Compare  attributes  and  eventual  data  file  content   of   a
              fileobject in the local filesystem with a file object in the ISO
              image. The iso_rr_path may well point to an  image  file  object
              which is not yet committed, i.e. of which the data content still
              resides in the local filesystem. Such data content is  prone  to
              externally caused changes.
              If  iso_rr_path  is  empty then disk_path is used as path in the
              ISO image too.
              Differing attributes are reported in detail,  differing  content
              is  summarized.   Both  to  the  result  channel.  In case of no
              differences no result lines are emitted.

       -compare_r disk_path iso_rr_path
              Like -compare but working recursively.  I.e.  all  file  objects
              below both addresses get compared whether they have counterparts
              below the other address and whether both counterparts match.

       -compare_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
              Perform  -compare_r  with  each  of  the  disk_path  parameters.
              iso_rr_path   will  be  composed  from  disk_path  by  replacing
              disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.

       -show_stream iso_rr_path [***]
              Display the content stream chain of data files in the ISO image.
              The  chain  consists of the iso_rr_name and one or more streams,
              separated by " < " marks.  A stream description consists of  one
              or  more  texts,  separated  by  ":" characters.  The first text
              tells the stream type, the following ones, if ever, describe its
              individual properties.  Frequently used types are:
               disk:'disk_path'  for local filesystem objects.
               image:'iso_rr_path'  for ISO image file objects.
               cout:'disk_path offset count'  for -cut_out files.
               extf:'filter_name' for external filters.
               '/abc/xyz.gz' < extf:'gzip' < disk:'/home/me/x'

       -show_stream_r iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -show_stream but working recursively.

       Evaluation of readability and recovery:

       It  is not uncommon that optical media produce read errors. The reasons
       may be various and get obscured by error correction which is  performed
       by  the drives and based on extra data on the media. If a drive returns
       data then one can quite trust that they are valid. But at  some  degree
       of  read problems the correction will fail and the drive is supposed to
       indicate error.
       xorriso can scan a medium  for  readable  data  blocks,  classify  them
       according  to  their read speed, save them to a file, and keep track of
       successfully saved blocks for further tries on the same medium.
       By command -md5 checksums may get recorded with data  files  and  whole
       sessions.  These  checksums  are  reachable only via indev and a loaded
       image.  They work independently  of  the  media  type  and  can  detect
       transmission errors.

       -check_media [option [option ...]] --
              Try  to  read  data blocks from the indev drive, optionally copy
              them to a disk file, and finally report  about  the  encountered
              quality.  Several  options  may  be  used  to modify the default
              The parameters given with  this  command  override  the  default
              settings    which    may    have   been   changed   by   command
              -check_media_defaults. See there for a description of  available
              The  result  list  tells  intervals  of  2 KiB blocks with start
              address, number of blocks and  quality.  Qualities  which  begin
              with  "+" are supposed to be valid readable data. Qualities with
              "-" are unreadable or corrupted data.  "0"  indicates  qualities
              which  are not covered by the check run or are regularly allowed
              to be unreadable (e.g. gaps between tracks).
              Alternatively it is possible to report damaged files rather than
              If  -md5 is "on" then the default mode what=tracks looks out for
              libisofs checksum tags for the ISO session data and checks  them
              against the checksums computed from the data stream.

       -check_media_defaults [option [option ...]] --
              Preset  options  for  runs  of  -check_media,  -extract_cut  and
              best_effort file extraction.  Options  given  with  -check_media
              will  override  the  preset  options. -extract_cut will override
              some options automatically.
              An option consists of a keyword, a "=" character, and  a  value.
              Options may override each other. So their sequence matters.
              The default setting at program start is:
              use=indev what=tracks min_lba=-1 max_lba=-1 retry=default
              time_limit=28800 item_limit=100000 data_to='' event=ALL
              sector_map='' map_with_volid=off patch_lba0=off report=blocks
              bad_limit=invalid slow_limit=1.0 chunk_size=0s async_chunks=0
              Option "reset=now" restores these startup defaults.
              Non-default options are:
              report="files"  lists  the  files  which use damaged blocks (not
              with  use=outdev).   The  format  is  like   with   find   -exec
              report_damage.  Note that a MD5 session mismatch marks all files
              of the session as damaged.  If  finer  distinction  is  desired,
              perform -md5 off before -check_media.
              report="blocks_files"   first  lists  damaged  blocks  and  then
              affected files.
              use="outdev" reads from the output drive instead  of  the  input
              drive. This avoids loading the ISO image tree from media.
              use="sector_map"  does  not  read  any  media but loads the file
              given by option sector_map= and processes this virtual outcome.
              what="disc"  scans  the  payload  range  of  a  medium   without
              respecting track gaps.
              what="image"  similar  to  "disc", but restricts scanning to the
              range of the ISO 9660 image, if present.
              min_lba=limit omits all blocks with addresses lower than limit.
              max_lba=limit switches to what=disc and omits all  blocks  above
              chunk_size=size  sets  the  number  of  bytes  to be read in one
              low-level read operation.  This gets rounded down to full blocks
              of 2048 bytes. 0 means automatic size.
              retry="on"  forces read retries with minimal senseful chunk size
              when the normal read chunk produces a read error. This  size  is
              1s  with CD and stdio files, 16s with DVD (1 ECC Block), and 32s
              with BD (1 Cluster).  By default, retries are only enabled  with
              CD media. "retry=off" forbits retries for all media types.
              abort_file=disk_path  gives the path of the file which may abort
              a scan run. Abort happens if the file exists and  its  mtime  is
              not  older  than  the  start  time of the run. Use shell command
              "touch" to trigger this.  Other than  an  aborted  program  run,
              this  will  report the tested and untested blocks and go on with
              running xorriso.
              time_limit=seconds gives the number of seconds after  which  the
              scan shall be aborted. This is useful for unattended scanning of
              media which may else overwork the drive in its effort to squeeze
              out  some  readable  blocks.   Abort may be delayed by the drive
              gnawing on the last  single  read  operation.   Value  -1  means
              unlimited time.
              item_limit=number  gives  the  number of report list items after
              which to abort.  Value -1 means unlimited item number.
              data_to=disk_path copies the valid blocks to the given file.
              event=severity sets the given severity for a problem event which
              shall  be  issued  at the end of a check run if data blocks were
              unreadable or failed to match recorded MD5  checksums.  Severity
              "ALL" disables this event.
              sector_map=disk_path  tries  to read the file given by disk_path
              as sector bitmap and to store such a map  file  after  the  scan
              run.   The bitmap tells which blocks have been read successfully
              in previous runs.  It is the persistent memory for several scans
              on  the  same  medium, even with intermediate eject, in order to
              collect readable blocks whenever the drive is  lucky  enough  to
              produce  them.  The stored file contains a human readable TOC of
              tracks and their  start  block  addresses,  followed  by  binary
              bitmap data.
              By  default,  untested blocks are not considered bad, but rather
              as  intentionally  unread.  If   you   expect   time_limit=   or
              item_limit=   to   abort   the   run,   then   consider  to  use
              map_with_volid="on" examines tracks whether they are ISO  images
              and  prints  their  volume  IDs  into  the human readable TOC of
              patch_lba0="on" transfers within the data_to= file a copy of the
              currently  loaded  session  head  to  the start of that file and
              patches it to be valid at that position.  This makes the  loaded
              session  the  last  valid session of the image file when it gets
              mounted or loaded as stdio: drive. New sessions will be appended
              after  this  last  session and will overwrite any sessions which
              have followed it.
              patch_lba0="force"  performs  patch_lba0="on"  even  if  xorriso
              believes that the copied data are not valid.
              patch_lba0=  may also bear a number. If it is 32 or higher it is
              taken as start address of the session to be copied. In this case
              it  is  not  necessary  to  have  an  -indev and a loaded image.
              ":force" may be appended after the number.
              bad_limit=threshold sets the  highest  quality  which  shall  be
              considered  as  damage.   Choose  one  of  "good",  "md5_match",
              "slow",   "partial",   "valid",   "untested",    "md5_mismatch",
              "invalid", "tao_end", "off_track", "unreadable".
              "valid"  and  "invalid" are qualities imported from a sector_map
              file.  "tao_end" and "off_track" are intentionally not readable,
              but  not  bad  either.   "partial"  are  blocks retrieved from a
              partially readable chunk. They are supposed to be  ok  but  stem
              from a suspicious neighborhood.
              "md5_match"  and  "md5_mismatch" regions overlap with regions of
              other quality.  The former is a strong confirmation for quality,
              the latter only tells that one or more blocks of the region must
              be wrong.
              By default bad_limit is set higher than  md5_mismatch,  so  that
              mismatches  are classified as quality class "0" rather than "-".
              This means that the sectors of a MD5 mismatch range are recorded
              in the sector_map as successfully read, if the drive handed them
              out at all. Set "bad_limit=md5_mismatch" to let  the  sector_map
              record the whole mismatching range as yet not retrieved.
              slow_limit=threshold  sets  the time threshold for a single read
              chunk to be considered slow. This may  be  a  fractional  number
              like 0.1 or 1.5.
              async_chunks=number   enables  asynchronous  MD5  processing  if
              number is 2 or larger.  In this case the given  number  of  read
              chunks  is  allocated  as  fifo buffer.  On very fast MMC drives
              try: chunk_size=64s async_chunks=16.

       -check_md5 severity iso_rr_path [***]
              Compare the data content of the given files in the loaded  image
              with  their recorded MD5 checksums, if there are any. In case of
              any mismatch an event of the given severity is  issued.  It  may
              then be handled by appropriate settings of commands -abort_on or
              -return_with which both can cause non-zero exit  values  of  the
              program run. Severity ALL suppresses that event.
              This  command  reports  match  and mismatch of data files to the
              result channel.  Non-data files cause NOTE  events.  There  will
              also be UPDATE events from data reading.
              If  no  iso_rr_path  is  given  then the whole loaded session is
              compared with its MD5 sum. Be aware that this  covers  only  one
              session and not the whole image if there are older sessions.

       -check_md5_r severity iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -check_md5 but checking all data files underneath the given
              paths.  Only mismatching data files will be reported.

       osirrox ISO-to-disk restore commands:

       Normally xorriso only writes to disk files which were given  as  stdio:
       pseudo-drives  or  as  log files.  But its alter ego osirrox is able to
       extract file objects from ISO  images  and  to  create,  overwrite,  or
       delete file objects on disk.
       Disk file exclusions by -not_mgt, -not_leaf, -not_paths apply.  If disk
       file  objects  already  exist  then  the  settings  of  -overwrite  and
       -reassure  apply.  But  -overwrite  "on"  only triggers the behavior of
       -overwrite "nondir". I.e. directories cannot be deleted.
       Access permissions of files in the ISO image do not restrict restoring.
       The directory permissions on disk have to allow rwx.

       -osirrox setting[:option:...]
              Setting  "off"  disables  disk filesystem manipulations. This is
              the  default  unless  the  program  was  started  with  leafname
              "osirrox".  Elsewise  the  capability  to  restore  files can be
              enabled explicitly by -osirrox  "on".   It  can  be  irrevocably
              disabled by -osirrox "banned".
              The  setting "blocked" is like "off". But it can only be revoked
              by setting "unblock", which elsewise is like "on". This  can  be
              used to curb command scripts which might use "on" undesiredly.
              To  enable  restoring  of  special  files  by  "device_files" is
              potentially dangerous.  The meaning of the number  st_rdev  (see
              man  2  stat)  depends  much on the operating system. Best is to
              restore device files only to the same  system  from  where  they
              were  copied.  If not enabled, device files in the ISO image are
              ignored during restore operations.
              Due to a bug of previous versions, device  files  from  previous
              sessions  might  have  been altered to major=0, minor=1. So this
              combination does not get restored.
              Option "concat_split_on" is default.  It  enables  restoring  of
              split file directories as data files if the directory contains a
              complete  collection  of  -cut_out  part  files.   With   option
              "concat_split_off"  such  directories are handled like any other
              ISO image directory.
              Option "auto_chmod_off" is default. If  "auto_chmod_on"  is  set
              then  access  restrictions for disk directories get circumvented
              if those directories are owned by the effective  user  who  runs
              xorriso.  This happens by temporarily granting rwx permission to
              the owner.
              Option "sort_lba_on" may improve read performance  with  optical
              drives.  It  can  restore  large  numbers  of hard links without
              exhausting -temp_mem_limit. It does not preserve directory mtime
              and  it  needs -osirrox option auto_chmod_on in order to extract
              directories  which  offer  no  write  permission.   Default   is
              Option "o_excl_on" is the default unless the program was started
              with leafname "osirrox". On GNU/Linux it tries  to  avoid  using
              drives  which  are  mounted or in use by other libburn programs.
              Option "o_excl_off" on GNU/Linux enables access to  such  drives
              by  the  equivalent  of  -drive_access  "shared:readonly".  I.e.
              drives which get acquired while "o_excl_off" will refuse to  get
              blanked,  formatted, written, or ejected. But be aware that even
              harmless inquiries  can  spoil  ongoing  burns  of  CD-R[W]  and
              Option  "strict_acl_off" is default. It tolerates on FreeBSD the
              presence of directory "default" ACLs  in  the  ISO  image.  With
              "strict_acl_on"  these GNU/Linux ACLs cause on FreeBSD a FAILURE
              event during restore with -acl "on".

       -extract iso_rr_path disk_path
              Copy the file objects at and  underneath  iso_rr_path  to  their
              corresponding  addresses  at  and underneath disk_path.  This is
              the inverse of -map or -update_r.
              If iso_rr_path is a  directory  and  disk_path  is  an  existing
              directory  then  both trees will be merged. Directory attributes
              get extracted only if the disk directory is newly created by the
              copy  operation.   Disk files get removed only if they are to be
              replaced by file objects from the ISO image.
              As many attributes as possible are copied together with restored
              file objects.

       -extract_single iso_rr_path disk_path
              Like  -extract,  but  if iso_rr_path is a directory then its sub
              tree gets not restored.

       -extract_l iso_rr_prefix disk_prefix iso_rr_path [***]
              Perform  -extract  with  each  of  the  iso_rr_path  parameters.
              disk_path   will  be  composed  from  iso_rr_path  by  replacing
              iso_rr_prefix by disk_prefix.

       -extract_cut iso_rr_path byte_offset byte_count disk_path
              Copy a byte interval from a data file out of an ISO image into a
              newly  created disk file.  The main purpose for this is to offer
              a way of handling large files if they are not supported by mount
              -t  iso9660  or if the target disk filesystem cannot store large
              If the data bytes of iso_rr_path are stored in  the  loaded  ISO
              image,  and  no filter is applied, and byte_offset is a multiple
              of 2048, then a special run of -check_media is performed. It may
              be quicker and more rugged than the general reading method.

       -cpx iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
              Copy  single leaf file objects from the ISO image to the address
              given by disk_path. If more then one iso_rr_path is  given  then
              disk_path  must  be  a  directory or non-existent. In the latter
              case it gets created and the extracted files get installed in it
              with the same leafnames.
              Missing  directory  components in disk_path will get created, if
              Directories  are  allowed  as  iso_rr_path  only  with  -osirrox
              "concat_split_on" and only if they actually represent a complete
              collection of -cut_out split file parts.

       -cpax iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
              Like -cpx but restoring mtime, atime as in ISO image and  trying
              to set ownership and group as in ISO image.

       -cp_rx iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
              Like -cpx but also extracting whole directory trees from the ISO
              The resulting disk paths are determined as with shell command cp
              -r  :  If disk_path is an existing directory then the trees will
              be inserted or merged underneath this directory  and  will  keep
              their  leaf  names.  The  ISO directory "/" has no leaf name and
              thus gets mapped directly to disk_path.

       -cp_rax iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
              Like -cp_rx but restoring mtime,  atime  as  in  ISO  image  and
              trying to set ownership and group as in ISO image.

       -paste_in iso_rr_path disk_path byte_offset byte_count
              Read  the  content  of  a ISO data file and write it into a data
              file on  disk  beginning  at  the  byte_offset.  Write  at  most
              byte_count bytes.  This is the inverse of command -cut_out.

       -concat mode [target | lim prog [args [...]] lim] iso_rr_path [***]
              Copy the data content of one or more data files of the ISO image
              into a disk file object, into a  file  descriptor,  or  start  a
              program  and  copy the data into its standard input.  The latter
              is subject to the security restrictions for external filters.
              Modes overwrite and append write into the target which is  given
              by  the  second  parameter.  This may be the path to a disk file
              object, or "-" which means standard output, or  a  text  of  the
              form  /dev/fd/number,  where  number  is an open file descriptor
              (e.g. standard error is /dev/fd/2).  An existing target file  is
              not  removed  before  writing  begins. If it is not able to take
              content data, then this command fails.  Mode overwrite truncates
              regular data files to 0 size before writing into them.  Example:
               -concat append /home/me/accumulated_text /my/iso/text --

              Mode  pipe  expects  as  second parameter a delimiter word which
              shall mark the end of  the  program  argument  list.  The  third
              argument  is  the  disk_path  to the program. It must contain at
              least one '/'. $PATH is not applied.  Further parameters  up  to
              the  announced  delimiter  word  are  used as arguments with the
              program start. Example:
               -iso_rr_pattern on \
               -concat pipe + /usr/bin/wc + "/my/iso/files*" --

              The further parameters in all modes are the iso_rr_paths of data
              files.  Their content gets concatenated in the copy.

       -mount drive entity id path
              Produce  the  same  line  as  -mount_cmd  and then execute it as
              external program run after giving up  the  depicted  drive.  See
              also  -mount_opts.   This  demands  -osirrox  to  be enabled and
              normally will succeed only for the superuser. For safety reasons
              the  mount  program  is  only  executed  if  it  is reachable as
              /bin/mount or /sbin/mount.

       Command compatibility emulations:

       Writing of ISO 9660 on CD is traditionally done by program  mkisofs  as
       ISO 9660 image producer and cdrecord as burn program.  xorriso does not
       strive for their comprehensive emulation.  Nevertheless it is ready  to
       perform  some of its core tasks under control of commands which in said
       programs trigger comparable actions.

       -as personality option [options] --
              Perform the variable length option list as sparse  emulation  of
              the program depicted by the personality word.

              Personality "mkisofs" accepts the options listed with:
                -as mkisofs -help --
              Among  them:  -R  (always  on),  -r,  -J, -o, -M, -C, -dir-mode,
              -file-mode,  -path-list,  -m,  -exclude-list,  -f,  -print-size,
              -pad,    -no-pad,   -V,   -v,   -version,   -graft-points,   -z,
              -no-emul-boot,  -b,   -c,   -boot-info-table,   -boot-load-size,
              -input-charset,  -G,  -output-charset,  -U, -hide, -hide-joliet,
              -hide-list, -hide-joliet-list, file paths and pathspecs.  A  lot
              of  options are not supported and lead to failure of the mkisofs
              emulation. Some are ignored, but better  do  not  rely  on  this
              The supported options are documented in detail in xorrisofs.info
              and in man xorrisofs. The description here  is  focused  on  the
              effect of mkisofs emulation in the context of a xorriso run.
              Other than with the "cdrecord" personality there is no automatic
              -commit at  the  end  of  a  "mkisofs"  option  list.  Verbosity
              settings  -v  (=  "UPDATE")  and -quiet (= "SORRY") persist. The
              output  file  persists  until  things   happen   like   -commit,
              -rollback, -dev, or end of xorriso.
              Options  which affect all file objects in the ISO image, like -r
              or -dir-mode, will be applied only to files which are present in
              the  ISO image when the command -as ends. If you use several -as
              mkisofs commands in the same run,  then  consider  to  put  such
              options into the last -as command.
              If  files  are  added  to  the image, then -pacifier gets set to
              "mkisofs" and -stdio_sync is  defaulted  to  "off"  if  no  such
              setting was made yet.
              -graft-points   is   equivalent  to  -pathspecs  on.  Note  that
              pathspecs without "="  are  interpreted  differently  than  with
              xorriso  command  -add.   Directories  get  merged with the root
              directory of the ISO image, other filetypes get mapped into that
              root directory.
              If  pathspecs  are given and if no output file was chosen before
              or during  the  "mkisofs"  option  list,  then  standard  output
              (-outdev  "-")  will get into effect.  If -o points to a regular
              file, then it will be truncated to 0 bytes when finally  writing
              begins.  This  truncation does not happen if the drive is chosen
              by xorriso  commands  before  -as  mkisofs  or  after  its  list
              delimiter.  Directories  and  symbolic  links  are  no  valid -o
              Writing to stdout is possible only if -as  "mkisofs"  was  among
              the  start  arguments  or  if  other start arguments pointed the
              output drive to standard output.
              -print-size inhibits automatic image production at program  end.
              This  ban  is  lifted  only  if  the  pending  image changes get
              Padding is counted as part  of  the  ISO  image  if  not  option
              --emul-toc is given.
              If no -iso-level is given, then level 1 is chosen when the first
              file or directory is added to the image. At  the  same  occasion
              directory   names   get  allowed  to  violate  the  standard  by
              -compliance option allow_dir_id_ext.  This  may  be  avoided  by
              option -disallow_dir_id_ext.
              Option  -root  is  supported. Option -old-root is implemented by
              xorriso commands  -mkdir,  -cp_clone,  -find  update_merge,  and
              -find  rm_merge.   -root and -old-root set command -disk_dev_ino
              to "ino_only" and -md5 to "on", by default.   -disk_dev_ino  can
              be   set   to   "off"   by   --old-root-no-ino  or  to  "on"  by
              --old-root-devno   .    -md5   can   be   set   to   "off"    by
              --old-root-no-md5 .
              Not   original   mkisofs   options   are   --quoted_path_list  ,
              --hardlinks , --acl , --xattr , --md5  ,  --stdio_sync  .   They
              work  like the xorriso commands with the same name and hardcoded
              parameter  "on",  e.g.  -acl  "on".   Explicit  parameters   are
              expected by --stdio_sync and --scdbackup_tag.
              The    capability   to   preserve   multi-session   history   on
              overwriteable media gets disabled by default. It can be  enabled
              by  using  --emul-toc  with  the  first session. See -compliance
              --sort-weight gets as parameters a number  and  an  iso_rr_path.
              The  number  becomes  the  LBA  sorting  weight  of regular file
              iso_rr_path  or  of  all  regular  files  underneath   directory
              iso_rr_path.  (See -find -exec sort_weight).
              Adopted  from  grub-mkisofs  are  --protective-msdos-label  (see
              -boot_image         grub         partition_table=on)         and
              --modification-date=YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc  (see  -volume_date  uuid).
              For EFI bootable GRUB boot images use --efi-boot.   It  performs
              -boot_image  grub  efi_path= surrounded by two -boot_image "any"
              "next".  Alternative option  -e  from  Fedora  genisoimage  sets
              bin_path and platform_id for EFI, but performs no "next".
              For  MBR  bootable ISOLINUX images there is -isohybrid-mbr FILE,
              where FILE is one of the Syslinux files  mbr/isohdp[fp]x*.bin  .
              Use  this  instead  of  -G  to  apply  the effect of -boot_image
              isolinux partition_table=on.
              --boot-catalog-hide is -boot_image any cat_hidden=on.
              -mips-boot is the same as -boot_image any mips_path= .
              -mipsel-boot leads to mipsel_path= .
              -partition_offset      number      is      -boot_image       any
              Command -append_partition is supported.
              -untranslated_name_len        number        is       -compliance
              --old-empty is -compliance old_empty.
              The  options  of  genisoimage  Jigdo  Template  Extraction   are
              recognized  and  performed  via  xorriso command -jigdo. See the
              "Alias:" names there for the meaning of the genisoimage options.

              Personalities "xorrisofs",  "genisoimage",  and  "genisofs"  are
              aliases for "mkisofs".
              If  xorriso  is  started  with one of the leafnames "xorrisofs",
              "genisofs",  "mkisofs",  or  "genisoimage",  then  it   performs
              -read_mkisofsrc  and  prepends  -as  "genisofs"  to  the program
              arguments.  I.e. all arguments will be interpreted mkisofs style
              until   "--"  is  encountered.   From  then  on,  arguments  are
              interpreted as xorriso commands.
              --no_rc as first argument  of  such  a  program  start  prevents
              interpretation of startup files. See section FILES below.

              Personality "cdrecord" accepts the options listed with:
                -as cdrecord -help --
              Among  them:  -v,  dev=,  speed=,  blank=,  fs=,  -eject, -atip,
              padsize=,      tsize=,      -isosize,      -multi,      -msinfo,
              --grow_overwriteable_iso,   write_start_address=,  track  source
              file path or "-" for standard input as track source.
              It ignores most  other  options  of  cdrecord  and  cdrskin  but
              refuses  on  -audio,  -scanbus, and on blanking modes unknown to
              The scope is only a single data track per session to be  written
              to  blank,  overwriteable,  or appendable media. The medium gets
              closed if  closing  is  applicable  and  not  option  -multi  is
              If  an  input  drive was acquired, then it is given up.  This is
              only allowed if no image changes are pending.
              dev= must be given as xorriso  device  address.  Addresses  like
              0,0,0 or ATA:1,1,0 are not supported.
              If a track source is given, then an automatic -commit happens at
              the end of the "cdrecord" option list.
              --grow_overwriteable_iso enables emulation of  multi-session  on
              overwriteable  media.   To  enable emulation of a TOC, the first
              session  needs  -C  0,32  with  -as  mkisofs  (but  no  -M)  and
              --grow_overwriteable_iso    write_start_address=32s   with   -as
              A much more elaborate libburn based  cdrecord  emulator  is  the
              program cdrskin.
              Personalites "xorrecord", "wodim", and "cdrskin" are aliases for
              If xorriso is started with one  of  the  leafnames  "xorrecord",
              "cdrskin",   "cdrecord",   or  "wodim",  then  it  automatically
              prepends -as  "cdrskin"  to  the  program  arguments.  I.e.  all
              arguments  will  be  interpreted  cdrecord  style  until "--" is
              encountered.  From then on, arguments are interpreted as xorriso
              --no_rc  as  first  argument  of  such  a program start prevents
              interpretation of xorriso  startup  files.   See  section  FILES

              Try one by one to open for reading:
               ./.mkisofsrc   ,  $MKISOFSRC  ,  $HOME/.mkisofsrc  ,  $(dirname
              On  success  interpret  the  file  content  as  of  man  mkisofs
              CONFIGURATION,  and  end this command. Do not try further files.
              The last address  is  used  only  if  start  argument  0  has  a
              non-trivial dirname.
              The  reader currently interprets the following NAME=VALUE pairs:
              APPI (-application_id) , PUBL (-publisher) , SYSI (-system_id) ,
              VOLI (-volid) , VOLS (-volset_id)
              Any other lines will be silently ignored.

       -pacifier behavior_code
              Control  behavior  of  UPDATE pacifiers during write operations.
              The following behavior codes are defined:
              "xorriso" is the default format:
              Writing: sector XXXXX of YYYYYY  [fifo active, nn% fill]
              "cdrecord" looks like:
              X of Y MB written (fifo nn%) [buf mmm%]
              nn% done, estimate finish Tue Jul 15 20:13:28 2008
              The frequency of the messages can be adjusted by
              where number gives the seconds between two messages. Permissible
              settings are 0.1 to 60.0.

       -scdbackup_tag list_path record_name
              Set  the  parameter  "name" for a scdbackup checksum record.  It
              will be appended in  an  scdbackup  checksum  tag  to  the  -md5
              session tag if the image starts at LBA 0. This is the case if it
              gets written as first session onto a sequential medium, or piped
              into a program, named pipe or character device.
              If  list_path is not empty then the record will also be appended
              to the data file given by this path.
              Program scdbackup_verify will recognize and verify tag and  file
              An empty record_name disables this feature.

       Scripting, dialog and program control features:

              Only  if  used  as  first program argument this command prevents
              reading and interpretation of startup files. See  section  FILES

       -options_from_file fileaddress
              Read  quoted  input  from fileaddress and execute it like dialog
              lines.  Empty lines and lines which  begin  by  #  are  ignored.
              Normally  one  line  should hold one xorriso command and all its
              parameters.   Nevertheless  lines  may  be  concatenated  by   a
              trailing backslash.
              See also section "Command processing", paragraph "Quoted input".

              Print helptext.

              Print program name and version, component versions, license.

       -list_extras code
              Tell  whether  certain  extra  features  were enabled at compile
              time.  Code "all" lists all  features  and  a  headline.   Other
              codes  pick  a  single  feature.   Code "codes" lists them. They
              share names with related commands (see also there):
              "acl" tells whether xorriso has an adapter for local filesystems
              "xattr"   tells   whether  xorriso  has  an  adapter  for  local
              filesystems EA.
              "jigdo" tells whether production of Jigdo files is possible.
              "zisofs" tells whether zisofs  and  built-in  gzip  filters  are
              "external_filter"  tells  whether  external filter processes are
              allowed and whether  they  are  allowed  if  real  user  id  and
              effective user id differ.
              "dvd_obs" tells whether 64 kB output to DVD media is default.
              "use_readline"  tells  whether readline may be enabled in dialog

       -history textline
              Copy textline into libreadline history.

       -status mode|filter
              Print the current settings of xorriso.  Modes:
                short... print only important or altered settings
                long ... print all settings including defaults
                long_history  like long plus history lines
              Filters begin with '-' and are compared  literally  against  the
              output  lines of -status:long_history. A line is put out only if
              its start matches the filter text. No wildcards.

       -status_history_max number
              Set maximum number of history lines to be reported with  -status

       -list_delimiter word
              Set the list delimiter to be used instead of "--".  It has to be
              a single word, must not be empty, not longer than 80 characters,
              and must not contain quotation marks.
              For  brevity  the  list delimiter is referred as "--" throughout
              this text.

       -sh_style_result "on"|"off"
              Make the result output of some  filesystem  inspection  commands
              look more like the output of equivalent shell commands. The most
              important effect is to prevent the wrapping  of  file  addresses
              into quotation marks with commands
                -pwd -pwdx -ls -lsd -lsl -lsdl -lsx -lsdx -lslx -lsdlx
                -du -dus -dux -dusx -findx -find
              This  will make ambiguous the representation of file names which
              contain  newline  characters.  On  the  other  hand  it   should
              facilitate  integration  of  xorriso  into  shell  scripts which
              already use the corresponding shell commands.

       -backslash_codes "on"|"off"|mode[:mode]
              Enable or disable the interpretation of symbolic representations
              of  special  characters  with  quoted  input,  or  with  program
              arguments, or with program text output. If enabled the following
              translations apply:
               \a=bell(007) \b=backspace(010) \e=Escape(033) \f=formfeed(014)
               \n=linefeed(012) \r=carriage_return(015) \t=tab(011)
               \v=vtab(013) \\=backslash(134) \[0-7][0-7][0-7]=octal_code
               \x[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]=hex_code \cC=control-C
              Translations can occur with quoted input in 3 modes:
               "in_double_quotes" translates only inside " quotation.
               "in_quotes" translates inside " and ' quotation.
               "with_quoted_input" translates inside and outside quotes.
              With the start program arguments there is mode:
               "with_program_arguments" translates program arguments.
              Mode  "encode_output"  encodes  output  characters.  It combines
              "encode_results" with "encode_infos". Inside  single  or  double
              quotation  marks  encoding applies to 8-bit characters octal 001
              to 037 , 177 to 377 and to  backslash(134).   Outside  quotation
              marks  some  harmless  ASCII  control characters stay unencoded:
              bell(007),     backspace(010),     tab(011),      linefeed(012),
              formfeed(014), carriage_return(015).
              Mode  "off"  is default and disables any translation.  Mode "on"
              is "with_quoted_input:with_program_arguments:encode_output".

       -temp_mem_limit number["k"|"m"]
              Set the maximum size of temporary memory to be  used  for  image
              dependent   buffering.   Currently   this   applies  to  pattern
              expansion, LBA sorting, restoring of hard links.
              Default is 16m = 16 MiB, minimum 64k = 64 kiB, maximum 1024m = 1

       -print  text
              Print  a  text  line  to  the result channel which is by default

       -print_info  text
              Print a text line to  the  info  channel  which  is  by  default

       -print_mark  text
              Print  a  text  line  to  the  mark  channel which is by default
              directed to both, result and info channel. An  empty  text  will
              cause no output at all.

       -prompt text
              Show  text  at beginning of output line and wait for the user to
              hit the Enter key or to send a line via stdin.

       -sleep seconds
              Wait for the given number of seconds before performing the  next
              command.    Expect  coarse  granularity  no  better  than  1/100

       -errfile_log mode path|channel
              If  problem  events  are  related  to  input  files   from   the
              filesystem,  then their disk_paths can be logged to a file or to
              output channels R or I.
              Mode can either be "plain" or "marked". The latter causes marker
              lines which give the time of log start, burn session start, burn
              session end, log end or program end. In mode "plain",  only  the
              file paths are logged.
              If  path  is  "-" or "-R" then the log is directed to the result
              channel.  Path "-I" directs it to the info message channel.  Any
              text  that does not begin with "-" is used as path for a file to
              append the log lines.
              Problematic files can be  recorded  multiple  times  during  one
              program  run.  If the program run aborts then the list might not
              be complete  because  some  input  files  might  not  have  been
              processed at all.
              The  errfile  paths  are  transported  as  messages  of very low
              severity  "ERRFILE".   This  transport  becomes   visible   with
              -report_about "ALL".

       -session_log path
              If  path  is not empty it gives the address of a plain text file
              where a log record gets appended after each  session.  This  log
              can  be  used  to determine the start_lba of a session for mount
              options -o sbsector= (on GNU/Linux) or -s (on FreeBSD) from date
              or volume ID.
              Record format is: timestamp start_lba size volume-id
              The  first three items are single words, the rest of the line is
              the volume ID.

       -scsi_log "on"|"off"
              Mode "on" enables very verbose  logging  of  SCSI  commands  and
              drive  replies.   Logging messages get printed to stderr, not to
              any of the xorriso output channels.
              A special property of this command is that the  first  -scsi_log
              setting  among the start arguments is in effect already when the
              first operations of xorriso begin.  Only "-scsi_log"  with  dash
              "-" is recognized that way.

              End program after writing pending changes.

              Discard pending changes. End program immediately.

       # any text
              Only  in  dialog  or  file  execution  mode,  and  only as first
              non-whitespace in line: Do not execute the line but store it  in
              readline history.

       Support for frontend programs via stdin and stdout:

       -pkt_output "on"|"off"
              Consolidate  text  output  on stdout and classify each line by a
              channel indicator:
               'R:' for result lines,
               'I:' for notes and error messages,
               'M:' for -mark texts.
              Next is a decimal number of which only bit 0 has a  meaning  for
              now.   0  means  no  newline at end of payload, 1 means that the
              newline character at the end of the output line belongs  to  the
              payload.  After  another  colon  and a blank follows the payload
               I:1: enter option and parameters :

       -logfile channel fileaddress
              Copy output of a channel to the given file. Channel may  be  one
              of:  "." for all channels, "I" for info messages, "R" for result
              lines, "M" for -mark texts.

       -mark text
              If text is not empty it will get put out  on  "M"  channel  each
              time xorriso is ready for the next dialog line or before xorriso
              performs a command that was entered to the pager prompt.

       -msg_op opcode parameter_text
              This  command  shall   facilitate   extraction   of   particular
              information  from the message output of other commands. It gives
              access to the C API function  Xorriso_parse_line()  and  to  the
              message  sieve  that  is provided by the C API.  Please refer to
              their descriptions in  file  xorriso.h.   Further  it  helps  to
              interpret the severity codes of info messages.
              Intended  users  are  frontend programs which operate xorriso in
              dialog mode.
              The result output of this command is not caught by  the  message
              The following opcodes are defined:
              Install  the  message  sieve as of Xorriso_sieve_big() and start
              watching program messages. The parameter_text has no meaning.
              Show a list of filter rule  names.  The  parameter_text  has  no
              meaning.   The  list  begins  by a line with the return value of
              Xorriso_sieve_get_result() with flag  bit3.  If  this  value  is
              larger than 0, then the next line tells the number of names. The
              following lines show one name each.
              Use the parameter_text as name of a filter rule and inquire  its
              next  recorded  result.   See  Xorriso_sieve_big() for a list of
              names and reply strings.
              The recorded strings are put out on  result  channel.  They  get
              wrapped  into  lines which tell their structure.  The first line
              tells the return value of Xorriso_sieve_get_result().  The  next
              line  tells  the number of strings. Each string begins by a line
              that tells the number of lines of the string. Then follow  these
              lines.  They  are  to  be  concatenated with a newline character
              between each of them.  Finally the  number  of  still  available
              recorded results of the given name is put out.
              Dispose  all  recorded  strings  and  continue  watching program
              messages.  The parameter_text has no meaning.
              Dispose the sieve  with  its  filter  rules  and  stop  watching
              program messages.  The parameter_text has no meaning.
              Read   a   text   from   dialog   input   and   submit   it   to
              Xorriso_parse_line().  The parameter_text word shall consist  of
              several  words separated by blanks.  It will be necessary to use
              both kinds of quotation marks.
              E.g. "'ISO session  :' '' 0 0 1"
              The five parameter words  are:  prefix,  separators,  max_words,
              flag, number_of_input_lines.  The former four are handed over to
              Xorriso_parse_line(). The number of input lines minus one  tells
              xorriso how many newline characters are part of the input text.
              The  announced  number  of  text  lines will be read from dialog
              input, concatenated with a newline  character  between  each  of
              them,  and  submitted to Xorriso_parse_line() as parameter line.
              Note that newlines outside of quotation marks are interpreted as
              separators if the separators parameter is empty.
              The  parsed  strings  are  put  out  on result channel. They get
              wrapped into lines which tell their structure.  The  first  line
              tells  the  return value of Xorriso_parse_line().  The next line
              tells the number of strings. Each string begins by a  line  that
              tells  the  number  of  lines  of  the string. Then follow these
              lines. They are to be  concatenated  with  a  newline  character
              between each of them.
              If -backslash_codes "encode_output" is enabled, then the strings
              undergo encoding as if they were enclosed in quotes. Escpecially
              each string will be put out as a single result line.
              Like   "parse",   but   with  the  fifth  parameter  word  being
              number_of_input_texts rather  than  number_of_input_lines.  Each
              input   text   has   to   be  preceded  by  a  line  that  tells
              number_of_input_lines as with "parse".  Then come the  announced
              number of text lines.
              All  input  texts  will  be read before printing of result lines
              begins.    This   consumes   memory   in   xorriso.    So    the
              number_of_input_texts should not be extremely high. On the other
              hand, large transactions of command, input  texts,  and  results
              are desirable if connection latency is an issue.
              Like  "parse"  but not issuing a prompting message. Confusing to
              Like "parse_bulk" but not issuing a prompting message. Confusing
              to humans.
              The  parameter_text  should contain two comma separated severity
              texts as issued by this program. Like "SORRY,UPDATE".  See  also
              paragraph "Exception processing".
              These  two severity texts get compared and a number gets printed
              to the result channel. This number is 0 if both  severities  are
              equal.   It is -1 if the first severity is lower than the second
              one.  It is 1 is the first severity is higher  than  the  second
              Above example "SORRY,UPDATE" will yield 1.
              Print  to  the  result  channel  a  blank  separated list of all
              severity names.  Sorted from low to high severity.

       -named_pipe_loop    mode[:mode]    disk_path_stdin     disk_path_stdout
              Temporarily replace standard input, standard output and standard
              error by named pipes. Enter dialog mode without readline.
              Defined modes are:
              "cleanup" removes the submitted pipe files when the loop ends.
              "keep" does not delete them. This is the default.
              "buffered" reads all lines from the input pipe until EOF  before
              it opens the output pipes and processes the input lines.
              "direct"  opens  the output pipes after the first input line was
              read.  Each line is executed directly after it is read. This  is
              the default.
              The other three parameters must either be disk paths to existing
              named pipes, or be "-"  to  leave  the  according  standard  i/o
              channel unreplaced.
              xorriso  will open the stdin pipe, read and execute dialog lines
              from it until the sender closes the pipe. The output  pipes  get
              opened depending on mode "buffered" or "direct". After all lines
              are executed, xorriso will close its side of the pipes and enter
              a new cycle of opening, reading and executing.
              If an input line consists only of the word "end_named_pipe_loop"
              then -named_pipe_loop will end and further xorriso commands  may
              be executed from other sources.

       -launch_frontend program [arguments ...] --
              Start  the  program that is given as first parameter. Submit the
              other parameters as program  arguments.  Enable  xorriso  dialog
              Two  nameless  pipe  objects are created. xorriso standard input
              gets connected to the standard output of  the  started  program.
              xorriso  standard output and standard error get connected to the
              standard input of that program.
              xorriso will abort when the started program ends or if it cannot
              be  started at all. In both cases it will return a non-zero exit
              value.  The exit value will be zero if the frontend  sends  -end
              or -rollback_end before ending itself.
              This  command may be totaly banned at compile time. It is banned
              by default if xorriso runs under setuid permissions.
              The program name will not be searched in the $PATH  directories.
              To  make  this  clear, it must contain at least one /-character.
              Best is an absolute path.
                xorriso -launch_frontend "$(which xorriso-tcltk)" -stdio --
              The frontend program should first send via its standard output:
                -mark 0 -pkt_output on -msg_op start_sieve - -reassure off
              It should be ready to decode -pkt_output and to react  on  -mark
              messages.  Best is to increment the -mark number after each sent
              command sequence and then to wait for the new number to show  up
              in a mark message:
                ...some...commands... -mark <incremented_number>
              Further are advised:
                -report_about UPDATE -abort_on NEVER
                -iso_rr_pattern off -disk_pattern off
              A  check of the xorriso version should be done, in order to make
              sure that all desired features are present.
              Command -launch_frontend will only work once  per  xorriso  run.
              If no command parameters are submitted or if program is an empty
              text,  then  no  program  will  be  started   but   nevertheless
              -launch_frontend will be irrevocably disabled.

       -prog text
              Use text as name of this program in subsequent messages

       -prog_help text
              Use text as name of this program and perform -help.

   Overview of examples:
       As superuser learn about available drives
       Blank medium and compose a new ISO image as batch run
       A dialog session doing about the same
       Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same medium
       Copy modified ISO image from one medium to another
       Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto medium and make it bootable
       Change existing file name tree from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8
       Operate on storage facilities other than optical drives
       Burn an existing ISO image file to medium
       Perform multi-session runs as of cdrtools traditions
       Let xorriso work underneath growisofs
       Adjust thresholds for verbosity, exit value and program abort
       Examples of input timestrings
       Incremental backup of a few directory trees
       Restore directory trees from a particular ISO session to disk
       Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged medium

   As superuser learn about available drives
       On  Linux,  FreeBSD  or NetBSD consider to give rw-permissions to those
       users or groups which shall be able to use the drives with xorriso.  On
       Solaris  use  pfexec.  Consider  to  restrict  privileges of xorriso to
       "base,sys_devices" and to give r-permission to user or group.
       $ xorriso -device_links
       1  -dev '/dev/cdrom1' rwrw-- :  'TSSTcorp' 'DVD-ROM SH-D162C
       1  -dev '/dev/cdrw'   rwrw-- :  'TSSTcorp' 'CDDVDW SH-S223B'
       2  -dev '/dev/cdrw3'  rwrw-- :  'HL-DT-ST' 'BDDVDRW_GGC-H20L'

   Blank medium and compose a new ISO image as batch run
       Acquire drive /dev/sr2, make medium ready for writing a new image, fill
       the image with the files from hard disk directories /home/me/sounds and
       Because no -dialog "on" is given, the program will then end by  writing
       the session to the medium.
       $ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr2 \
        -blank as_needed \
        -map /home/me/sounds /sounds \
        -map /home/me/pictures /pictures

       The ISO image may be shaped in a more elaborate way like the following:
       Omit some unwanted stuff by removing it from the image directory  tree.
       Reintroduce some wanted stuff.
       $ cd /home/me
       $ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr2 \
        -blank as_needed \
        -map /home/me/sounds /sounds \
        -map /home/me/pictures /pictures \
        -rm_r \
          /sounds/indecent \
          '/pictures/*private*' \
          /pictures/confidential \
          -- \
        -cd / \
        -add pictures/confidential/work* --
       Note  that  '/pictures/*private*'  is  a pattern for iso_rr_paths while
       pictures/confidential/work* gets expanded by the shell  with  addresses
       from  the  hard  disk.  Commands -add and -map have different parameter
       rules but finally the same effect: they put files into the image.

   A dialog session doing about the same
       Some settings are already given as start argument. The other activities
       are  done  as  dialog  input.  The  pager  gets  set  to 20 lines of 80
       The drive is acquired by command -dev rather than -outdev in  order  to
       see  the  message  about  its  current  content. By command -blank this
       content is made ready for being overwritten and the loaded ISO image is
       made empty.
       In  order  to  be  able  to  eject  the medium, the session needs to be
       committed explicitly.
       $ xorriso -dialog on -page 20 80 -disk_pattern on
       enter option and arguments :
       -dev /dev/sr2
       enter option and arguments :
       -blank as_needed
       enter option and arguments :
       -map /home/me/sounds /sounds -map /home/me/pictures /pictures
       enter option and arguments :
       -rm_r /sounds/indecent /pictures/*private* /pictures/confidential
       enter option and arguments :
       -cdx /home/me/pictures -cd /pictures
       enter option and arguments :
       -add confidential/office confidential/factory
       enter option and arguments :
       -du /
       enter option and arguments :
       -commit_eject all -end

   Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same medium
       Load image from drive.  Remove (i.e. hide) directory  /sounds  and  its
       subordinates.      Rename     directory    /pictures/confidential    to
       /pictures/restricted.    Change   access   permissions   of   directory
       /pictures/restricted.   Add  new  directory  trees /sounds and /movies.
       Burn to the same medium, check whether the  tree  can  be  loaded,  and
       $ xorriso -dev /dev/sr2 \
        -rm_r /sounds -- \
        -mv \
          /pictures/confidential \
          /pictures/restricted \
          -- \
        -chmod go-rwx /pictures/restricted -- \
        -map /home/me/prepared_for_dvd/sounds_dummy /sounds \
        -map /home/me/prepared_for_dvd/movies /movies \
        -commit -eject all

   Copy modified ISO image from one medium to another
       Load  image  from  input  drive.  Do  the  same manipulations as in the
       previous example. Acquire output drive and blank it. Burn the  modified
       image as first and only session to the output drive.
       $ xorriso -indev /dev/sr2 \
        -rm_r /sounds -- \
        -outdev /dev/sr0 -blank as_needed \
        -commit -eject all

   Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto medium and make it bootable
       The  user  has  already created a suitable file tree on disk and copied
       the ISOLINUX files into subdirectory ./boot/isolinux of that tree.  Now
       xorriso can burn an El Torito bootable medium:
       $ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -blank as_needed \
          -map /home/me/ISOLINUX_prepared_tree / \
          -boot_image isolinux dir=/boot/isolinux

   Change existing file name tree from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8
       This  example  assumes  that  the  existing  ISO image was written with
       character set ISO-8859-1 but that the readers expected UTF-8. Now a new
       session gets added with converted file names.  Command -changes_pending
       "yes" enables writing despite the lack of any manipulation command.
       In order to avoid any weaknesses  of  the  local  character  set,  this
       command  pretends  that  it  uses  already  the final target set UTF-8.
       Therefore strange file names may appear in messages, which will be made
       terminal-safe by command -backslash_codes.
       $ xorriso -in_charset ISO-8859-1 -local_charset UTF-8 \
          -out_charset UTF-8 -backslash_codes on -dev /dev/sr0 \
          -changes_pending yes -commit -eject all

   Operate on storage facilities other than optical drives
       Full  read-write  operation  is  possible  with regular files and block
       $ xorriso -dev /tmp/regular_file ...
       Paths underneath /dev normally need prefix "stdio:"
       $ xorriso -dev stdio:/dev/sdb ...
       If /dev/sdb is to be used frequently and /dev/sda is the  system  disk,
       then  consider  to place the following lines in a xorriso Startup File.
       They allow you to use /dev/sdb without prefix and protect disk /dev/sda
       from xorriso:
         -drive_class banned   /dev/sda*
         -drive_class harmless /dev/sdb
       Other writeable file types are supported write-only:
       $ xorriso -outdev /tmp/named_pipe ...
       Among the write-only drives is standard output:
       $ xorriso -outdev - \
        | gzip >image.iso.gz

   Burn an existing ISO image file to medium
       Actually this works with any kind of data, not only ISO images:
       $ xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=as_needed image.iso

   Perform multi-session runs as of cdrtools traditions
       Between  both processes there can be performed arbitrary transportation
       or filtering.
       The first session is written like this:
       $ xorriso -as mkisofs prepared_for_iso/tree1 | \
        xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=fast -multi -eject -
       Follow-up sessions are written like this (the run of dd is only to give
       demons a chance to spoil it):
       $ m=$(xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -msinfo)
       $ dd if=/dev/sr0 count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1
       $ xorriso -as mkisofs -M /dev/sr0 -C $m prepared_for_iso/tree2 | \
        xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 -waiti -multi -eject -
       Always eject the drive tray between sessions.
       The  run  of  xorriso -as mkisofs will read old sessions via the CD-ROM
       driver of /dev/sr0. This driver might  not  be  aware  of  the  changed
       content  as  long  as  the medium is not loaded again. In this case the
       previous session would not be properly assessed by xorriso and the  new
       session would contain only the newly added files.
       Some  systems  have not enough patience with automatic tray loading and
       some demons may interfere with a first CD-ROM driver read attempt  from
       a freshly loaded medium.
       When  loading  the  tray  manually, wait 10 seconds after the drive has
       stopped blinking.
       A safe automatic way seems to be a separate run of xorriso for  loading
       the  tray  with  proper waiting, and a subsequent run of dd which shall
       offer itself to any problems caused by  demons  assessing  the  changed
       drive  status.   If  this  does  not  help,  insert a run of "sleep 10"
       between xorriso and dd.
       This example works for multi-session media only.   Add  cdrskin  option
       --grow_overwriteable_iso  to  all  -as cdrecord runs in order to enable
       multi-session emulation on overwriteable media.

   Let xorriso work underneath growisofs
       growisofs expects an ISO formatter program which understands options -C
       and -M. If xorriso gets started by name "xorrisofs" then it is suitable
       for that.
       $ export MKISOFS="xorrisofs"
       $ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd /some/files
       $ growisofs -M /dev/dvd /more/files
       If no "xorrisofs" is available on your system, then you  will  have  to
       create  a link pointing to the xorriso binary and tell growisofs to use
       it.  E.g. by:
       $ ln -s $(which xorriso) "$HOME/xorrisofs"
       $ export MKISOFS="$HOME/xorrisofs"
       One may quit mkisofs emulation by argument "--" and  make  use  of  all
       xorriso  commands. growisofs dislikes options which start with "-o" but
       -outdev must be set to "-".  So use "outdev" instead:
       $ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -- outdev - -update_r /my/files /files
       $ growisofs -M /dev/dvd -- outdev - -update_r /my/files /files
       growisofs has excellent burn capabilities with DVD and BD.  It does not
       emulate session history on overwriteable media, though.

   Adjust thresholds for verbosity, exit value and program abort
       Be quite verbose, exit 32 if severity "FAILURE" was encountered, do not
       abort prematurely but forcibly go on until the end of commands.
       $ xorriso ... \
        -report_about UPDATE \
        -return_with FAILURE 32 \
        -abort_on NEVER \

   Examples of input timestrings
       As printed by program date: 'Thu Nov 8 14:51:13 CET 2007'
       The same without ignored parts: 'Nov 8 14:51:13 2007'
       The same as expected by date: 110814512007.13
       Four weeks in the future: +4w
       The current time: +0
       Three hours ago: -3h
       Seconds since Jan 1 1970: =1194531416

   Incremental backup of a few directory trees
       This changes the directory trees /projects and  /personal_mail  in  the
       ISO  image so that they become exact copies of their disk counterparts.
       ISO file objects get created, deleted or get their attributes  adjusted
       ACL, xattr, hard links and MD5 checksums will be recorded.  Accelerated
       comparison is enabled at the expense of potentially larger backup size.
       Only  media  with  the  expected volume ID or blank media are accepted.
       Files with names matching *.o or *.swp get excluded explicitly.
       When done with writing the new session gets  checked  by  its  recorded
       $ xorriso \
        -abort_on FATAL \
        -for_backup -disk_dev_ino on \
        -assert_volid 'PROJECTS_MAIL_*' FATAL \
        -dev /dev/sr0 \
        -volid PROJECTS_MAIL_"$(date '+%Y_%m_%d_%H%M%S')" \
        -not_leaf '*.o' -not_leaf '*.swp' \
        -update_r /home/thomas/projects /projects \
        -update_r /home/thomas/personal_mail /personal_mail \
        -commit -toc -check_md5 FAILURE -- -eject all
       To  be used several times on the same medium, whenever an update of the
       two disk trees to the medium is desired. Begin with a blank medium  and
       update it until the run fails gracefully due to lack of remaining space
       on the old one.
       This makes sense  if  the  full  backup  leaves  substantial  remaining
       capacity on media and if the expected changes are much smaller than the
       full backup.  To apply zisofs compression to those data files which get
       newly   copied   from  the  local  filesystem,  insert  these  commands
       immediately before -commit :
        -hardlinks perform_update \
        -find / -type f -pending_data -exec set_filter --zisofs -- \
       Commands -disk_dev_ino and -for_backup  depend  on  stable  device  and
       inode numbers on disk. Without them, an update run may use -md5 "on" to
       match recorded MD5 sums against the current file content on hard  disk.
       This  is  usually  much  faster  than  the  default which compares both
       contents directly.
       With mount option -o "sbsector=" on  GNU/Linux  or  -s  on  FreeBSD  or
       NetBSD  it  is possible to access the session trees which represent the
       older backup versions. With CD media, GNU/Linux mount  accepts  session
       numbers directly by its option "session=".
       Multi-session media and most overwriteable media written by xorriso can
       tell the sbsectors of their sessions by  xorriso  command  -toc.   Used
       after  -commit  the following command prints the matching mount command
       for the newly written session (here for mount point /mnt):
        -mount_cmd "indev" "auto" "auto" /mnt
       Commands -mount_cmd and -mount are  also  able  to  produce  the  mount
       commands for older sessions in the table-of-content. E.g. as superuser:
        # osirrox -mount /dev/sr0 "volid" '*2008_12_05*' /mnt

       Above  example  produces  a result similar to  -root / -old-root / with
       mkisofs.   For  getting  the  session  trees  accumulated  in  the  new
       sessions,  let  all  -update commands use a common parent directory and
       clone it after updating is done:
        -update_r /home/thomas/projects /current/projects \
        -update_r /home/thomas/personal_mail /current/personal_mail \
        -clone /current /"$(date '+%Y_%m_%d_%H%M%S')" \
       The cloned tree will have a name like /2011_02_12_155700.

       Sessions on multi-session media are separated by several MB  of  unused
       blocks.   So  with  small  sessions  the  payload  capacity  can become
       substantially lower than the overall media capacity. If  the  remaining
       space  on  a  medium  does  not  suffice for the next gap, the drive is
       supposed to close the medium automatically.

       Better do not use your youngest backup for -update_r.   Have  at  least
       two  media  which  you  use  alternatingly.  So  only older backups get
       endangered by the new write  operation,  while  the  newest  backup  is
       stored safely on a different medium.
       Always  have  a blank medium ready to perform a full backup in case the
       update attempt fails  due  to  insufficient  remaining  capacity.  This
       failure will not spoil the old medium, of course.

   Restore directory trees from a particular ISO session to disk
       This  is  an  alternative  to mounting the medium and using normal file
       First check which backup sessions are on the medium:
       $ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -toc
       Then enable restoring of ACL, xattr and hard links.  Load  the  desired
       session   and   copy   the   file  trees  to  disk.   Avoid  to  create
       /home/thomas/restored without rwx-permission.
       $ xorriso -for_backup \
        -load volid 'PROJECTS_MAIL_2008_06_19*' \
        -indev /dev/sr0 \
        -osirrox on:auto_chmod_on \
        -chmod u+rwx / -- \
        -extract /projects /home/thomas/restored/projects \
        -extract /personal_mail /home/thomas/restored/personal_mail \
       The final command -rollback_end prevents an  error  message  about  the
       altered image being discarded.

   Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged medium
       $ xorriso -abort_on NEVER -indev /dev/sr0 \
        -check_media time_limit=1800 report=blocks_files \
        data_to="$HOME"/dvd_copy sector_map="$HOME"/dvd_copy.map --
       This  can  be  repeated several times, if necessary with -eject or with
       other   -indev   drives.   See   the    human    readable    part    of
       "$HOME"/dvd_copy.map    for    addresses   which   can   be   used   on
       "$HOME"/dvd_copy with mount option -o sbsector= or -s.

   Program alias names:
       Normal installation of xorriso creates three links or copies  which  by
       their program name pre-select certain settings:
       xorrisofs starts xorriso with -as mkisofs emulation.
       xorrecord starts xorriso with -as cdrecord emulation.
       osirrox  starts  with  -osirrox  "on:o_excl_off"  which  allows further
       commands to copy files from ISO image to  disk  and  to  apply  command
       -mount to one or more of the existing ISO sessions.

   Startup files:
       If  not  -no_rc is given as the first argument then xorriso attempts on
       startup to read and execute lines from the following files:
       The files are read in the sequence given above, but  none  of  them  is
       required   to   exist.  The  line  format  is  described  with  command
       If  mkisofs  emulation  was  enabled  by  program   name   "xorrisofs",
       "mkisofs",    "genisoimage",    or    "genisofs",    then    afterwards
       -read_mkisofsrc is performed, which reads .mkisofsrc files. See there.

   Runtime control files:
       The default setting of -check_media abort_file= is:

       The following environment variables influence the program behavior:
       HOME is used to find startup files of xorriso and mkisofs.
       SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH belongs to the specs of reproducible-builds.org.   It
       is supposed to be either undefined or to contain a decimal number which
       tells the seconds since january 1st 1970. If it contains a number, then
       it  is  used  as  time value to set the default of -volume date "uuid",
       sets  -boot_image   "any"   "gpt_disk_guid="   to   "volume_date_uuid",
       -volume_date  "all_file_dates"  to  "set_to_mtime", and -iso_nowtime to
       Startup  files  and  program  options  can  override  the   effect   of

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | media/xorriso-core |
       |Stability      | Uncommitted        |

       For the mkisofs emulation of xorriso

       For the cdrecord emulation of xorriso

       For mounting xorriso generated ISO 9660 images (-t iso9660)

       Libreadline, a comfortable input line facility

       Other programs which produce ISO 9660 images
              mkisofs(8), genisoimage(1)

       Other programs which burn sessions to optical media
              growisofs(1), cdrecord(1), wodim(1), cdrskin(1)

       ACL and xattr
              getfacl(1), setfacl(1), getfattr(1), setfattr(1)

       MD5 checksums

       On FreeBSD the commands for xattr and MD5 differ
              getextattr(8), setextattr(8), md5(1)

       To  report  bugs,  request  help,  or suggest enhancements for xorriso,
       please send electronic mail to the public  list  <bug-xorriso@gnu.org>.
       If more privacy is desired, mail to <scdbackup@gmx.net>.
       Please describe what you expect xorriso to do, the program arguments or
       dialog commands by which you tried  to  achieve  it,  the  messages  of
       xorriso, and the undesirable outcome of your program run.
       Expect to get asked more questions before solutions can be proposed.

       Thomas Schmitt <scdbackup@gmx.net>
       for libburnia-project.org

       Copyright (c) 2007 - 2019 Thomas Schmitt
       Permission  is granted to distribute this text freely. It shall only be
       modified in sync with the technical properties of xorriso.  If you make
       use  of the license to derive modified versions of xorriso then you are
       entitled to modify this text under that same license.

       xorriso is in part  based  on  work  by  Vreixo  Formoso  who  provides
       libisofs  together  with Mario Danic who also leads the libburnia team.
       Vladimir Serbinenko contributed the HFS+ filesystem  code  and  related
       knowledge.   Thanks  to Andy Polyakov who invented emulated growing, to
       Derek Foreman and Ben Jansens who once founded libburn.
       Compliments towards Joerg Schilling whose cdrtools served  me  for  ten

       Source  code  for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source                was                downloaded                from

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.gnu.org/software/xorriso.

                                                   Version 1.5.2, Oct 26, 2019