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Updated: Wednesday, February 10, 2021

xorriso (1)


xorriso - creates, loads, manipulates and writes ISO 9660 filesystem images with Rock Ridge extensions.


xorriso [settings|actions]


XORRISO(1)                  General Commands Manual                 XORRISO(1)

       xorriso  -  creates,  loads, manipulates and writes ISO 9660 filesystem
       images with Rock Ridge extensions.

       xorriso [settings|actions]

       xorriso is a program which copies file  objects  from  POSIX  compliant
       filesystems  into Rock Ridge enhanced ISO 9660 filesystems and performs
       session-wise  manipulation  of  such  filesystems.  It  can  load   the
       management information of existing ISO images and it writes the session
       results to optical media or to filesystem objects.
       Vice versa xorriso is able  to  copy  file  objects  out  of  ISO  9660

       A  special property of xorriso is that it needs neither an external ISO
       9660 formatter program nor an external burn program for CD, DVD  or  BD
       but rather incorporates the libraries of libburnia-project.org .

   Overview of features:
       Operates on an existing ISO image or creates a new one.
       Copies files from disk filesystem into the ISO image.
       Copies files from ISO image to disk filesystem (see osirrox).
       Renames or deletes file objects in the ISO image.
       Changes file properties in the ISO image.
       Updates ISO subtrees incrementally to match given disk subtrees.
       Writes  result  either  as completely new image or as add-on session to
       optical media or filesystem objects.
       Can activate ISOLINUX and GRUB boot images via El Torito and MBR.
       Can perform multi-session tasks as emulation of mkisofs and cdrecord.
       Can record and restore hard links and ACL.
       Content may get zisofs compressed or filtered by external processes.
       Can issue commands to mount older sessions on GNU/Linux or FreeBSD.
       Can check media for damages and copy readable blocks to disk.
       Can attach MD5 checksums to each data file and the whole session.
       Scans for optical drives, blanks re-useable optical media.
       Reads its instructions from command line arguments, dialog, and files.
       Provides navigation commands for interactive ISO image manipulation.
       Adjustable thresholds for abort, exit value, and problem reporting.

       Note that xorriso does not write audio CDs and that it does not produce
       UDF filesystems which are specified for official video DVD or BD.

   General information paragraphs:
       Session model
       Media types and states
       Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing
       Libburn drives
       Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr
       Command processing
       Dialog, Readline, Result pager

       Maybe you first want to have a look at section EXAMPLES near the end of
       this text before reading the  next  few  hundred  lines  of  background

   Session model:
       Unlike  other  filesystems, ISO 9660 (aka ECMA-119) is not intended for
       read-write operation but rather for being generated in a  single  sweep
       and being written to media as a session.
       The data content of the session is called filesystem image.

       The  written  image in its session can then be mounted by the operating
       system for being used read-only. GNU/Linux is able to mount ISO  images
       from  block  devices, which may represent optical media, other media or
       via a loop device even from regular  disk  files.  FreeBSD  mounts  ISO
       images from devices that represent arbitrary media or from regular disk

       This session usage model has been extended on CD media by  the  concept
       of multi-session , which adds information to the CD and gives the mount
       programs of the operating systems the addresses of the entry points  of
       each   session.  The  mount  programs  recognize  block  devices  which
       represent CD media and will by default mount  the  image  in  the  last
       This  session  usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole
       medium which governs the data contents in all recorded sessions.  So in
       the  view  of  the  mount  program  all sessions of a particular medium
       together form a single filesystem image.
       Adding a session to an existing ISO image is in this text  referred  as
       The multi-session model of the MMC standard does not apply to all media
       types. But program growisofs by Andy Polyakov showed how to extend this
       functionality  to  overwriteable  media or disk files which carry valid
       ISO 9660 filesystems.

       xorriso provides growing as well as an own method named modifying which
       produces  a  completely  new  ISO  image  from  the  old  one  and  the
       modifications.   See  paragraph  Creating,  Growing,  Modifying,  Blind
       Growing below.

       xorriso  adopts  the  concept  of  multi-session  by  loading  an image
       directory tree if present, by offering  to  manipulate  it  by  several
       actions, and by writing the new image to the target medium.
       The  first  session  of  a  xorriso run begins by the definition of the
       input drive with the ISO image or by the definition of an output drive.
       The  session  ends by command -commit which triggers writing. A -commit
       is done automatically when the program ends regularly.

       After -commit a new session begins with  the  freshly  written  one  as
       input.   A new input drive can only be chosen as long as the loaded ISO
       image was not altered. Pending alteration can  be  revoked  by  command

       Writing  a  session  to  the target is supposed to be very expensive in
       terms of time and of consumed space on appendable or write-once  media.
       Therefore  all  intended manipulations of a particular ISO image should
       be done in a single session. But in principle it is possible  to  store
       intermediate states and to continue with image manipulations.

   Media types and states:
       There are two families of media in the MMC standard:
       Multi-session  media are CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD+R/DL, BD-R, and
       unformatted DVD-RW. These  media  provide  a  table  of  content  which
       describes their existing sessions. See command -toc.
       Similar  to  multi-session  media  are  DVD-R  DL and minimally blanked
       DVD-RW.  They record only a single session of which the  size  must  be
       known  in advance.  xorriso will write onto them only if command -close
       is set to "on".
       Overwriteable media are DVD-RAM, DVD+RW, BD-RE, and  formatted  DVD-RW.
       They  offer  random  write  access but do not provide information about
       their session history. If they contain one or more  ISO  9660  sessions
       and  if  the  first  session  was  written  by xorriso, then a table of
       content can be emulated. Else only a single  overall  session  will  be
       DVD-RW  media  can  be  formatted  by -format "full".  They can be made
       unformatted by -blank "deformat".
       Regular files and block devices are  handled  as  overwriteable  media.
       Pipes and other writeable file types are handled as blank multi-session

       These media can assume several states in  which  they  offer  different
       Blank  media  can  be  written  from scratch. They contain no ISO image
       suitable for xorriso.
       Blank is the state of newly purchased optical media.  With  used  CD-RW
       and   DVD-RW   it   can  be  achieved  by  action  -blank  "as_needed".
       Overwriteable media are considered blank if they are  new  or  if  they
       have been marked as blank by xorriso.  Action -blank "as_needed" can be
       used to do this marking on overwriteable media, or to  apply  mandatory
       formatting to new media if necessary.
       Appendable   media   accept  further  sessions.  Either  they  are  MMC
       multi-session media in appendable  state,  or  they  are  overwriteable
       media which contain an ISO image suitable for xorriso.
       Appendable  is  the  state  after writing a session with command -close
       Closed media cannot be written. They may contain an ISO image  suitable
       for xorriso.
       Closed  is  the state of DVD-ROM media and of multi-session media which
       were written with command -close on. If the drive is read-only hardware
       then it will probably show any media as closed CD-ROM or DVD-ROM.
       Overwriteable  media  assume  this state in such read-only drives or if
       they contain unrecognizable data in the first 32 data blocks.
       Read-only drives may or may not show session histories of multi-session
       media. Often only the first and the last session are visible. Sometimes
       not even that. Command -rom_toc_scan might or might not  help  in  such

   Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing:
       A  new  empty  ISO image gets created if there is no input drive with a
       valid ISO 9660 image when the first time an output  drive  is  defined.
       This  is  achieved by command -dev on blank media or by command -outdev
       on media in any state.
       The new empty image  can  be  populated  with  directories  and  files.
       Before  it can be written, the medium in the output drive must get into
       blank state if it was not blank already.

       If there is a input drive with a valid ISO image, then this image  gets
       loaded as foundation for manipulations and extension. The constellation
       of input and output drive determines which write method will  be  used.
       They have quite different capabilities and constraints.

       The method of growing adds new data to the existing data on the medium.
       These data comprise of new file content and they override the  existing
       ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge directory tree. It is possible to hide files from
       previous sessions but they still exist on  the  medium  and  with  many
       types  of  optical  media  it is quite easy to recover them by mounting
       older sessions.
       Growing is achieved by command -dev.

       The write method of modifying produces compact filesystem  images  with
       no outdated files or directory trees. Modifying can write its images to
       target  media  which  are  completely  unsuitable   for   multi-session
       operations.    E.g.    DVD-RW    which   were   treated   with   -blank
       deformat_quickest, DVD-R DL, named pipes, character  devices,  sockets.
       On  the  other  hand  modified sessions cannot be written to appendable
       media but to blank media only.
       So for this method one needs either two optical drives or has  to  work
       with filesystem objects as source and/or target medium.
       Modifying  takes place if input drive and output drive are not the same
       and if command -grow_blindly is set to  its  default  "off".   This  is
       achieved by commands -indev and -outdev.

       If  command -grow_blindly is set to a non-negative number and if -indev
       and -outdev are both set to different drives,  then  blind  growing  is
       performed.  It  produces  an  add-on  session  which is ready for being
       written to the given block address. This is the usage model of
        mkisofs -M $indev -C $msc1,$msc2 -o $outdev
       which gives much room for wrong parameter combinations and should  thus
       only  be employed if a strict distinction between ISO formatter xorriso
       and the burn program is desired. -C $msc1,$msc2 is equivalent to:
        -load sbsector $msc1 -grow_blindly $msc2

   Libburn drives:
       Input drive, i.e. source of an existing or empty ISO image, can be  any
       random access readable libburn drive: optical media with readable data,
       blank optical media, regular files, block devices.
       Output drive, i.e. target for writing, can be any libburn drive.   Some
       drive  types  do not support the method of growing but only the methods
       of modifying and blind growing. They all are suitable for newly created

       All  drive  file  objects  have  to  offer rw-permission to the user of
       xorriso.  Even those which will not  be  useable  for  reading  an  ISO
       With  any type of drive object, the data are considered to be organized
       in blocks of 2 KiB. Access happens in terms of  Logical  Block  Address
       (LBA) which gives the number of a particular data block.

       MMC  compliant (i.e. optical) drives on GNU/Linux usually get addressed
       by the path of their block device or of their generic character device.
         -dev /dev/sr0
         -dev /dev/hdc
         -dev /dev/sg2
       By  default  xorriso  will try to map the given address to /dev/hd* and
       /dev/sr*.  The command -scsi_dev_family can redirect the  mapping  from
       sr  to  scd  or  sg.   The  latter does not suffer from the concurrency
       problems which plague /dev/sr of Linux kernels since version 3. But  it
       does  not  yield  the  same  addresses which are used by mount(8) or by
       open(2) for read(2).
       On FreeBSD the device files have names like
         -dev /dev/cd0
       On NetBSD:
         -dev /dev/rcd0d
       On OpenSolaris:
         -dev /dev/rdsk/c4t0d0s2
       Get a list of accessible drives by command
       It might be necessary to do this as  superuser  in  order  to  see  all
       drives and to then allow rw-access for the intended users.  Consider to
       bundle the authorized users in a group like old "floppy".

       Filesystem objects of nearly  any  type  can  be  addressed  by  prefix
       "stdio:" and their path in the filesystem. E.g.:
         -dev stdio:/dev/sdc
       The  default  setting  of -drive_class allows the user to address files
       outside the /dev tree without that prefix. E.g.:
         -dev /tmp/pseudo_drive
       If path leads to a regular file or to a block device then the  emulated
       drive  is  random  access  readable  and  can be used for the method of
       growing if it already contains a valid ISO 9660 image. Any  other  file
       type  is  not  readable via "stdio:" and can only be used as target for
       the method of  modifying  or  blind  growing.   Non-existing  paths  in
       existing directories are handled as empty regular files.

       A very special kind of pseudo drive are open file descriptors. They are
       depicted by "stdio:/dev/fd/" and descriptor number (see man 2 open).
       Addresses  "-"  or  "stdio:/dev/fd/1"  depict  standard  output,  which
       normally  is  the  output channel for result texts.  To prevent a fatal
       intermingling of ISO image and text  messages,  all  result  texts  get
       redirected  to  stderr  if  -*dev "-" or "stdio:/dev/fd/1" is among the
       start arguments of the program.
       Standard output is currently suitable  for  creating  one  session  per
       program  run without dialog. Use in other situations is discouraged and
       several restrictions apply:
       It is not allowed to use standard output as pseudo drive if it was  not
       among  the  start  arguments.  Do not try to fool this ban via backdoor
       addresses to stdout.
       If stdout is used as drive, then -use_readline is permanently disabled.
       Use of backdoors can cause severe memory and/or tty corruption.

       Be  aware  that  especially the superuser can write into any accessible
       file or device by using its path with the "stdio:" prefix.  By  default
       any  address in the /dev tree without prefix "stdio:" will work only if
       it leads to a MMC drive.
       One may use command -ban_stdio_write to surely prevent this risk and to
       restrict drive usage to MMC drives.
       One  may  prepend  "mmc:"  to  a  path to surely disallow any automatic
       By command -drive_class one may  ban  certain  paths  or  allow  access
       without prefix "stdio:" to other paths.

   Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr:
       Rock Ridge is the name of a set of additional information which enhance
       an ISO 9660 filesystem so that  it  can  represent  a  POSIX  compliant
       filesystem  with  ownership,  access  permissions,  symbolic links, and
       other attributes.
       This is what xorriso uses for a decent representation of the disk files
       within  the  ISO  image.  xorriso  produces  Rock  Ridge information by
       default. It is strongly discouraged to disable this feature.

       xorriso is  not  named  "porriso"  because  POSIX  only  guarantees  14
       characters  of  filename  length.  It  is  the  X/Open System Interface
       standard XSI which demands a file name length of up to  255  characters
       and paths of up to 1024 characters. Rock Ridge fulfills this demand.

       An  El Torito boot record points the BIOS bootstrapping facility to one
       or more boot images, which are binary program files stored in  the  ISO
       image.   The  content of the boot image files is not in the scope of El
       Most bootable GNU/Linux CDs are equipped with  ISOLINUX  or  GRUB  boot
       images.   xorriso  is  able  to  create or maintain an El Torito object
       which  makes  such  an  image  bootable.  For   details   see   command
       It  is  possible  to  make  ISO images bootable from USB stick or other
       hard-disk-like media.  Several  options  install  a  MBR  (Master  Boot
       Record),  It  may  get  adjusted according to the needs of the intended
       boot firmware and the involved boot loaders, e.g. GRUB2 or ISOLINUX.  A
       MBR  contains  boot  code  and  a  partition  table.   The new MBR of a
       follow-up session can get in effect only on overwriteable media.
       MBR is read by PC-BIOS when booting from USB stick or hard disk, and by
       PowerPC  CHRP  or  PReP  when  booting.  An MBR partiton with type 0xee
       indicates the presence of GPT.
       Emulation -as mkisofs supports the example options out of the  ISOLINUX
       wiki, the options used in GRUB script grub-mkrescue, and the example in
       the FreeBSD AvgLiveCD wiki.
       A GPT (GUID Partition Table) marks partitions in a more modern way.  It
       is  read  by  EFI  when booting from USB stick or hard disk, and may be
       used for finding and mounting a HFS+ partition inside the ISO image.
       An APM (Apple Partition Map) marks the HFS+ partition.  It is  read  by
       Macs for booting and for mounting.
       MBR,  GPT and APM are combinable. APM occupies the first 8 bytes of MBR
       boot code. All three do not hamper El Torito booting from CDROM.
       There is support for further facilities: MIPS Big  Endian  (SGI),  MIPS
       Little  Endian  (DEC),  SUN  SPARC,  HP-PA.   Those  are  mutually  not
       combinable and also not combinable with MBR, GPT, or APM.

       ACL are an advanced way  of  controlling  access  permissions  to  file
       objects.  Neither ISO 9660 nor Rock Ridge specify a way to record ACLs.
       So libisofs has introduced a standard conformant extension  named  AAIP
       for that purpose.  It uses this extension if enabled by command -acl.
       AAIP  enhanced  images  are  supposed to be mountable normally, but one
       cannot expect that the mounted filesystem will  show  and  respect  the
       ACLs.   For  now,  only xorriso is able to retrieve those ACLs.  It can
       bring them into effect when files get restored to an ACL  enabled  file
       system or it can print them in a format suitable for tool setfacl.
       Files  with ACL show as group permissions the setting of entry "mask::"
       if that entry exists. Nevertheless the  non-listed  group  members  get
       handled  according  to  entry "group::". When removing ACL from a file,
       xorriso brings "group::" into effect.
       Recording and restoring of ACLs from and to local files works currently
       only on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD.

       xattr  (aka  EA,  or  extattr) are pairs of name and value which can be
       attached to file objects. AAIP is able to represent  them  and  xorriso
       can  record  and  restore  pairs  which  have  names  out  of  the user
       namespace. I.e. those  which  begin  with  "user.",  like  "user.x"  or
       "user.whatever".  Name  has  to be a 0 terminated string.  Value may be
       any array of bytes which does not exceed the size of 4095 bytes.  xattr
       processing happens only if it is enabled by command -xattr.
       As with ACL, currently only xorriso is able to retrieve xattr from AAIP
       enhanced images, to restore them to xattr capable file systems,  or  to
       print them.
       Recording  and  restoring  of  xattr  from  and  to  local  files works
       currently only on GNU/Linux  and  FreeBSD,  where  they  are  known  as

   Command processing:
       Commands  are either actions which happen immediately or settings which
       influence following actions. So their sequence does matter, unless they
       are given as program arguments and command -x is among them.
       Commands  consist of a command word, followed by zero or more parameter
       words. If the list of parameter words is of variable length  (indicated
       by  "[...]"  or  "[***]") then it must be terminated by either the list
       delimiter, occur at the end of the argument list, or occur at  the  end
       of an input line.

       At  program  start  the list delimiter is the string "--".  This may be
       changed with the -list_delimiter command in  order  to  allow  "--"  as
       parameter  in  a variable length list.  However, it is advised to reset
       the delimiter to "--" immediately afterwards.
       For brevity the list delimiter is  referred  as  "--"  throughout  this
       The  list  delimiter  is  silently  ignored  if  it  appears  after the
       parameters of a command with a fixed list  length.  It  is  handled  as
       normal text if it appears among the parameters of such a command.

       Pattern  expansion  converts  a  list  of  pattern words into a list of
       existing file addresses.  Unmatched pattern words will appear unaltered
       in that result list.
       Pattern  matching  supports  the  usual  shell parser wildcards '*' '?'
       '[xyz]' and respects '/' as the  path  separator,  which  may  only  be
       matched literally.
       Pattern  expansion  is a property of some particular commands and not a
       general feature. It  is  controlled  by  commands  -iso_rr_pattern  and
       -disk_pattern.   Commands which use pattern expansion all have variable
       parameter lists which are specified in this text by "[***]" rather than
       Some other commands perform pattern matching unconditionally.

       Command and parameter words are either read from the program arguments,
       where one argument is one word, or from quoted input lines where  words
       are recognized similar to the quotation rules of a shell parser.
       xorriso  is  not a shell, although it might appear so at first glimpse.
       Be aware that the interaction of quotation marks  and  pattern  symbols
       like  "*" differs from the usual shell parsers. In xorriso, a quotation
       mark does not make a pattern symbol literal.

       Quoted input converts whitespace-separated text into words.  The double
       quotation mark " and the single quotation mark ' can be used to enclose
       whitespace and make it part of words (e.g. of file  names).  Each  mark
       type  can  enclose  the marks of the other type. A trailing backslash \
       outside quotations or an open quotation cause the next input line to be
       Quoted  input accepts any 8-bit character except NUL (0) as the content
       of the quotes.  Nevertheless it can  be  cumbersome  for  the  user  to
       produce  those  characters directly. Therefore quoted input and program
       arguments offer optional Backslash Interpretation which  can  represent
       all 8-bit characters except NUL (0) via backslash codes as in $'...' of
       This is not enabled by default. See command -backslash_codes.

       When the program starts then it first looks  for  argument  -no_rc.  If
       this is not present then it looks for its startup files and reads their
       content  as  command  input  lines.  Then  it  interprets  the  program
       arguments  as commands and parameters. Finally it enters dialog mode if
       command -dialog "on" has been executed by this point.

       The program ends either by command -end,  or  by  the  end  of  program
       arguments  if  dialog  mode has not been enabled at that point, or by a
       problem event which triggers the threshold of command -abort_on.

   Dialog, Readline, Result pager:
       Dialog mode prompts for a quoted input line, parses it into words,  and
       performs  them as commands with their parameters. It provides assisting
       services to make dialog more comfortable.

       Readline is an enhancement for the input line. You may already know  it
       from  the bash shell. Whether it is available in xorriso depends on the
       availability of package readline-dev at the time when xorriso was built
       from its sourcecode.
       Readline  lets  the  user  move the cursor over the text in the line by
       help of the Left and the Right arrow keys.  Text may be inserted at the
       cursor position. The Delete key removes the character under the cursor.
       Up and Down arrow keys navigate through the history of  previous  input
       See man readline for more info about libreadline.

       Command  -page  activates  a  built-in  result  text pager which may be
       convenient in dialog mode. After an action has output the given  number
       of terminal lines, the pager prompts the user for a line of input.
       An empty line lets xorriso resume work until the next page is output.
       The single character "@" disables paging for the current action.
       "@@@", "x", "q", "X", or "Q" request that the current action aborts and
       suppress further result output.
       Any other line input will  be  interpreted  as  new  dialog  line.  The
       current  action  is  requested  to abort. Afterwards, the input line is

       Some actions apply paging to their info output, too.
       The request to abort may or may not be obeyed by  the  current  action.
       All actions try to abort as soon as possible.

       All  command  words are shown with a leading dash although this dash is
       not mandatory for the command to  be  recognized.  Nevertheless  within
       command -as the dashes of the emulated commands are mandatory.
       Normally any number of leading dashes is ignored with command words and
       inner dashes are interpreted as underscores.

       Execution order of program arguments:

       By default the program arguments of a xorriso run are interpreted as  a
       sequence  of  commands  which get performed exactly in the given order.
       This requires the user to write commands for  desired  settings  before
       the commands which shall be influenced by those settings.
       Many  other programs support program arguments in an arbitrary ordering
       and perform settings and actions in a sequence at their own discretion.
       xorriso  provides  an  option  to enable such a behavior at the cost of
       loss of expressivity.

       -x     Enable automatic sorting of program arguments  into  a  sequence
              that  (most  likely)  is sensible.  This command may be given at
              any position among the commands which are handed over as program
              Note:  It works only if it is given as program argument and with
              a single dash (i.e. "-x"). It will not work  in  startup  files,
              nor  with -options_from_file, nor in dialog mode, nor as "x" and
              finally not as "--x".  It affects only  the  commands  given  as
              program arguments.

              List  all xorriso commands in the order which applies if command
              -x is in effect.
              This list may also be helpful without -x for a user who  ponders
              over  the sequence in which to put commands. Deviations from the
              listed sorting order may well make sense, though.

       Acquiring source and target drive:

       The effect of acquiring a drive may depend on several commands  in  the
       next  paragraph  "Influencing  the  behavior  of  image  loading".   If
       desired, their enabling  commands  have  to  be  performed  before  the
       commands which acquire the drive.

       -dev address
              Set  input  and output drive to the same address and load an ISO
              image if it is present.  If there is no ISO image then create  a
              blank one.  Set the image expansion method to growing.
              This  is  only  allowed as long as no changes are pending in the
              currently loaded ISO image. If changes are pending, then one has
              to perform -commit or -rollback first.
              Special  address  string  "-"  means  standard  output, to which
              several  restrictions  apply.  See  above   paragraph   "Libburn
              An  empty  address string "" gives up the current device without
              acquiring a new one.

       -indev address
              Set input drive and load an ISO image if present.   If  the  new
              input  drive  differs  from  -outdev then switch from growing to
              modifying or to blind growing.  It depends  on  the  setting  of
              -grow_blindly  which of both gets activated.  The same rules and
              restrictions apply as with -dev.

       -outdev address
              Set output drive and if it differs from  the  input  drive  then
              switch  from  growing  to  modifying or to blind growing. Unlike
              -dev and -indev this action does not load a new ISO image. So it
              can be performed even if there are pending changes.
              -outdev  can  be  performed  without previous -dev or -indev. In
              that case an empty ISO image with no changes pending is created.
              It  can  either  be populated by help of -map, -add et.al. or it
              can be discarded  silently  if  -dev  or  -indev  are  performed
              Special  address  string  "-"  means  standard  output, to which
              several  restrictions  apply.  See  above   paragraph   "Libburn
              An  empty  address  string  "" gives up the current output drive
              without acquiring a new one. No writing is possible  without  an
              output drive.

       -scsi_dev_family "default"|"sr"|"scd"|"sg"
              GNU/Linux specific:
              By  default,  xorriso  tries  to  map  Linux  drive addresses to
              /dev/sr* before they get opened for operating  the  drive.  This
              coordinates  well  with  other use cases of optical drives, like
              mount(8). But since year 2010 all /dev/sr* share a  global  lock
              which allows only one drive to process an SCSI command while all
              others have to wait  for  its  completion.   This  yields  awful
              throughput  if  more  than  one  drive  is  writing  or  reading
              simultaneously.  The global lock is not applied to device  files
              /dev/sg*  and also not if the xorriso drive address is prepended
              by "stdio:".
              So  for  simultaneous  burn  runs  on  modern  GNU/Linux  it  is
              advisable  to  perform  -scsi_dev_family  "sg"  before any -dev,
              -indev, or -outdev. The drive addresses may then well  be  given
              as  /dev/sr*  but  will  nevertheless  get  used as the matching
              If you decide so, consider to put  the  command  into  a  global
              startup file like /etc/opt/xorriso/rc.

       -grow_blindly "off"|predicted_nwa
              If  predicted_nwa  is  a  non-negative number then perform blind
              growing rather than modifying if -indev and -outdev are  set  to
              different  drives.   "off" or "-1" switch to modifying, which is
              the default.
              predicted_nwa is the block address where the add-on  session  of
              blind  growing  will finally end up. It is the responsibility of
              the user to ensure this final position and the presence  of  the
              older sessions. Else the overall ISO image will not be mountable
              or will produce read errors when accessing file content. xorriso
              will write the session to the address as obtained from examining
              -outdev and not necessarily to predicted_nwa.
              During a run of blind growing,  the  input  drive  is  given  up
              before  output begins. The output drive is given up when writing
              is done.

       Influencing the behavior of image loading:

       The following commands should normally be performed before  loading  an
       image  by  acquiring  an  input drive. In rare cases it is desirable to
       activate them only after image loading.

       -read_speed code|number[k|m|c|d|b]
              Set the speed for reading. Default is "none",  which  avoids  to
              send a speed setting command to the drive before reading begins.
              Further special speed codes are:
              "max" (or "0") selects maximum speed as announced by the drive.
              "min" (or "-1") selects minimum speed as announced by the drive.
              Speed  can  be  given in media dependent numbers or as a desired
              throughput per second in MMC compliant kB (= 1000) or MB (= 1000
              kB).  Media  x-speed factor can be set explicitly by "c" for CD,
              "d" for DVD, "b" for BD, "x" is optional.
              Example speeds:
               706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
               5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
              If there is no hint about the  speed  unit  attached,  then  the
              medium in the -indev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
              Depending  on  the  drive,  the  reported  read  speeds  can  be
              deceivingly low or high. Therefore "min"  cannot  become  higher
              than  1x  speed  of  the  involved medium type. Read speed "max"
              cannot become lower than 52xCD, 24xDVD, or 20xBD,  depending  on
              the medium type.
              MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take the
              speed value given by the burn program only as hint for their own

       -load entity id
              Load  a  particular (possibly outdated) ISO session from -dev or
              -indev.  Usually all available sessions are shown  with  command
              entity depicts the kind of addressing. id depicts the particular
              address. The following entities are defined:
              "auto" with any id addresses the last session in -toc.  This  is
              the default.
              "session"  with  id  being  a number as of a line "ISO session",
              column "Idx".
              "track" with id being a number as of a line "ISO track",  column
              "lba" or "sbsector" with a number as of a line "ISO ...", column
              "volid" with a search pattern for a text as of a line "ISO ...",
              column "Volume Id".
              Addressing a non-existing entity or one which does not represent
              an ISO image will either abandon -indev or at least  lead  to  a
              blank image.
              If  an  input drive is set at the moment when -load is executed,
              then the addressed ISO image is loaded  immediately.  Else,  the
              setting will be pending until the next -dev or -indev. After the
              image has been loaded once, the setting is valid  for  -rollback
              until next -dev or -indev, where it will be reset to "auto".

       -displacement [-]lba
              Compensate  a displacement of the image versus the start address
              for which the image was prepared. This affects only  loading  of
              ISO  images and reading of their files. The multi-session method
              of growing is not allowed as long as -displacement is  non-zero.
              I.e. -indev and -outdev must be different. The displacement gets
              reset to 0 before the drive gets re-acquired after writing.
              If a track of a CD starts at block 123456 and gets copied  to  a
              disk  file  where  it  begins  at block 0, then this copy can be
              loaded with -displacement -123456.
              If an ISO image was written onto  a  partition  with  offset  of
              640000  blocks of 512 bytes, then it can be loaded from the base
              device by -displacement 160000.
              In both cases, the ISO sessions should be self  contained,  i.e.
              not  add-on  sessions  to  an  ISO  image outside their track or

       -drive_class "harmless"|"banned"|"caution"|"clear_list" disk_pattern
              Add a drive path pattern to one of  the  safety  lists  or  make
              those  lists  empty.   There  are  three lists defined which get
              tested in the following sequence:
              If a drive address path matches the  "harmless"  list  then  the
              drive  will  be  accepted.  If  it  is not a MMC device then the
              prefix "stdio:" will be prepended automatically.  This  list  is
              empty by default.
              Else  if  the path matches the "banned" list then the drive will
              not be accepted by xorriso but rather lead to a  FAILURE  event.
              This list is empty by default.
              Else  if  the path matches the "caution" list and if it is not a
              MMC device, then its address must have the prefix "stdio:" or it
              will be rejected.  This list has by default one entry: "/dev".
              If   a  drive  path  matches  no  list  then  it  is  considered
              "harmless". By default these are all paths which  do  not  begin
              with directory "/dev".
              A  path  matches  a  list  if  one of its parent paths or itself
              matches a list entry. Address prefix "stdio:" or "mmc:" will  be
              ignored when testing for matches.
              By   pseudo-class  "clear_list"  and  pseudo-patterns  "banned",
              "caution", "harmless", or "all", the lists may be made empty.
              E.g.: -drive_class clear_list banned
              One will normally define the -drive_class lists in  one  of  the
              xorriso Startup Files.
              Note: This is not a security feature but rather a bumper for the
              superuser to prevent inadverted mishaps. For  reliably  blocking
              access  to  a device file you have to deny its rw-permissions in
              the filesystem.

       -read_fs "any"|"norock"|"nojoliet"|"ecma119"
              Specify which kind of filesystem tree to load if present. If the
              wish  cannot  be  fulfilled,  then ECMA-119 names are loaded and
              converted according to -ecma119_map.
              "any" first tries to read Rock Ridge. If not present, Joliet  is
              "norock" does not try Rock Ridge.
              "nojoliet" does not try Joliet.
              "ecma119" tries neither Rock Ridge nor Joliet.

       -assert_volid pattern severity
              Refuse to load ISO images with volume IDs which do not match the
              given search pattern. When refusing an image, give up the  input
              drive  and  issue  an event of the given severity (like FAILURE,
              see -abort_on). An empty search pattern accepts any image.
              This command does not hamper the creation of an empty image from
              blank input media and does not discard an already loaded image.

       -in_charset character_set_name
              Set  the  character  set  from  which to convert file names when
              loading an  image.  See  paragraph  "Character  sets"  for  more
              explanations.   When loading the written image after -commit the
              setting of -out_charset will be copied to -in_charset.

       -auto_charset "on"|"off"
              Enable or disable recording and  interpretation  of  the  output
              character  set  name  in  an  xattr  attribute of the image root
              directory. If enabled and if a recorded character  set  name  is
              found,  then  this  name  will  be  used  as  name  of the input
              character set when reading an image.
              Note that the default output charset is the local character  set
              of  the  terminal  where  xorriso  runs. Before attributing this
              local character set to the produced ISO image, check whether the
              terminal  properly  displays  all intended filenames, especially
              exotic national characters.

       -hardlinks mode[:mode...]
              Enable or disable loading and recording of hardlink relations.
              In default mode "off", iso_rr files lose their inode numbers  at
              image  load  time.  Each  iso_rr  file object which has no inode
              number at image generation time will  get  a  new  unique  inode
              number if -compliance is set to new_rr.
              Mode  "on" preserves inode numbers from the loaded image if such
              numbers were recorded.  When committing a  session  it  searches
              for families of iso_rr files which stem from the same disk file,
              have identical content filtering and have identical  properties.
              The family members all get the same inode number.  Whether these
              numbers are respected at mount time  depends  on  the  operating
              Command -lsl displays hardlink counts if "lsl_count" is enabled.
              This can slow down the command substantially  after  changes  to
              the   ISO  image  have  been  made.  Therefore  the  default  is
              Commands -update and -update_r track splits and fusions of  hard
              links in filesystems which have stable device and inode numbers.
              This can cause automatic last minute changes before the  session
              gets written. Command -hardlinks "perform_update" may be used to
              do these changes earlier, e.g. if you need to apply  filters  to
              all updated files.
              Mode  "without_update"  avoids hardlink processing during update
              commands.  Use this if your filesystem situation does not  allow
              -disk_dev_ino "on".
              xorriso  commands  which  extract files from an ISO image try to
              hardlink files with identical inode number. The normal scope  of
              this operation is from image load to image load. One may give up
              the   accumulated   hard   link    addresses    by    -hardlinks
              A  large number of hardlink families may exhaust -temp_mem_limit
              if     not     -osirrox     "sort_lba_on"     and     -hardlinks
              "cheap_sorted_extract"  are  both in effect. This restricts hard
              linking to other files  restored  by  the  same  single  extract
              command.   -hardlinks   "normal_extract"   re-enables  wide  and
              expensive hardlink accumulation.

       -acl "on"|"off"
              Enable or disable processing of ACLs.  If enabled, then  xorriso
              will  obtain  ACLs from disk file objects, store ACLs in the ISO
              image using the libisofs specific AAIP format,  load  AAIP  data
              from  ISO  images,  test ACL during file comparison, and restore
              ACLs to disk files when extracting them from  ISO  images.   See
              also commands -getfacl, -setfacl.

       -xattr "on"|"off"
              Enable  or  disable  processing  of  xattr  attributes  in  user
              namespace.  If enabled, then xorriso will handle  xattr  similar
              to  ACL.   See  also  commands  -getfattr,  -setfattr  and above
              paragraph about xattr.

       -md5 "on"|"all"|"off"|"load_check_off"
              Enable or disable processing of MD5 checksums  for  the  overall
              session  and  for  each single data file. If enabled then images
              with checksum tags get loaded only if the tags of superblock and
              directory  tree  match properly. The MD5 checksums of data files
              and whole session get loaded from the image if there are any.
              With commands -compare and -update the recorded MD5  of  a  file
              will  be  used to avoid content reading from the image. Only the
              disk file content will be read and compared with that MD5.  This
              can save much time if -disk_dev_ino "on" is not suitable.
              At  image  generation time they are computed for each file which
              gets its data written into the new  session.  The  checksums  of
              files  which  have  their data in older sessions get copied into
              the new session.  Superblock,  tree  and  whole  session  get  a
              checksum tag each.
              Mode  "all"  will  additionally  check  during  image generation
              whether the checksum of a data file  changed  between  the  time
              when  its reading began and the time when it ended. This implies
              reading every file twice.
              Mode "load_check_off" together with  "on"  or  "all"  will  load
              recorded  MD5  sums  but  not test the recorded checksum tags of
              superblock and directory tree.  This is necessary  if  growisofs
              was  used  as  burn  program,  because it does not overwrite the
              superblock  checksum  tag  of  the  first  session.    Therefore
              load_check_off  is  in effect when xorriso -as mkisofs option -M
              is performed.
              The test can be re-enabled by mode "load_check_on".
              Checksums   can   be   exploited   via   commands    -check_md5,
              -check_md5_r,  via  find  actions  get_md5,  check_md5,  and via

              Enable all extra features which help to produce  or  to  restore
              backups  with  highest  fidelity  of file properties.  Currently
              this is a shortcut for: -hardlinks on -acl on -xattr on -md5 on.

       -ecma119_map "stripped"|"unmapped"|"lowercase"|"uppercase"
              Choose the conversion of file names from the loaded  session  if
              neither  a  Rock  Ridge name nor a Joliet name was read from the
              Mode "stripped" is the default. It shows the names as  found  in
              the ISO but removes trailing ";1" or ".;1" if present.
              Mode   "unmapped"   shows   names   as  found  without  removing
              Mode "lowercase" is like  "stripped"  but  also  maps  uppercase
              letters  to  lowercase  letters.  This  is compatible to default
              GNU/Linux mount behavior.
              Mode "uppercase" is like "stripped" but maps  lowercase  letters
              to   uppercase,  if  any  occur  despite  the  prescriptions  of

       -disk_dev_ino "on"|"ino_only"|"off"
              Enable or disable processing  of  recorded  file  identification
              numbers  (dev_t  and ino_t). If enabled they are stored as xattr
              and can substantially accelerate file comparison. The root  node
              gets  a global start timestamp. If during comparison a file with
              younger timestamps is  found  in  the  ISO  image,  then  it  is
              suspected to have inconsistent content.
              If  device numbers and inode numbers of the disk filesystems are
              persistent and if no  irregular  alterations  of  timestamps  or
              system  clock  happen,  then  potential  content  changes can be
              detected without reading that content.  File content  change  is
              assumed  if  any  of mtime, ctime, device number or inode number
              have changed.
              Mode "ino_only" replaces the precondition  that  device  numbers
              are stable by the precondition that mount points in the compared
              tree always lead to the same filesystems. Use this if mode  "on"
              always sees all files changed.
              The  speed  advantage  appears  only  if  the loaded session was
              produced with -disk_dev_ino "on" too.
              Note that -disk_dev_ino "off"  is  totally  in  effect  only  if
              -hardlinks is "off", too.

       -file_name_limit [+]number
              Set  the  maximum permissible length for file names in the range
              of 64 to 255.  Path components which are longer than  the  given
              number   will  get  truncated  and  have  their  last  33  bytes
              overwritten by a colon ':' and the hex representation of the MD5
              of  the  first 4095 bytes of the whole oversized name. Potential
              incomplete  UTF-8  characters  will  get  their  leading   bytes
              replaced by '_'.
              iso_rr_paths  with  the  long  components  will still be able to
              access the file paths with truncated components.
              If -file_name_limit is executed while an ISO  tree  is  present,
              the  file  names  in  the  ISO  tree  get  checked  for existing
              truncated  file  names  of  the  current  limit  and  for   name
              collisions between newly truncated files and existing files.  In
              both cases, the setting will be refused with a SORRY event.
              One may lift this ban by prepending the  character  "+"  to  the
              argument  of  -file_name_limit. Truncated filenames may then get
              truncated  again,  invalidating  their   MD5   part.   Colliding
              truncated names are made unique, consuming at least 9 more bytes
              of the remaining name part.
              If writing of xattr is enabled, then the length will  be  stored
              in  "isofs.nt"  of  the  root directory.  If reading of xattr is
              enabled and "isofs.nt" is found, then the found length will  get
              into  effect  if  it  is  smaller  than  the  current setting of
              File name patterns will only work if they  match  the  truncated
              name.  This might change in future.
              Files   with   truncated   names   get   deleted   and  re-added
              unconditionally during -update and -update_r. This might  change
              in future.
              Linux  kernels  up  to at least 4.1 misrepresent names of length
              254 and 255.  If you expect such names in  or  under  disk_paths
              and plan to mount the ISO by such Linux kernels, consider to set
              -file_name_limit 253.  Else just avoid  names  longer  than  253

       -rom_toc_scan "on"|"force"|"off"[:"emul_off"][:"emul_wide"]
              Read-only  drives do not tell the actual media type but show any
              media as ROM (e.g. as  DVD-ROM).  The  session  history  of  MMC
              multi-session media might be truncated to first and last session
              or  even  be  completely  false.   (The  emulated   history   of
              overwriteable media is not affected by this.)
              To  have  in  case  of  failure  a chance of getting the session
              history and especially the address of the last session, there is
              a scan for ISO 9660 filesystem headers which might help but also
              might yield worse results than the drive's table of content.  At
              its end it can cause read attempts to invalid addresses and thus
              ugly drive behavior.  Setting "on" enables that scan for alleged
              read-only media.
              Some  operating  systems  are  not able to mount the most recent
              session of multi-session DVD or BD. If on such a system  xorriso
              has  no own MMC capabilities then it may still find that session
              from a scanned table of content.  Setting  "force"  handles  any
              media like a ROM medium with setting "on".
              On   the   other  hand  the  emulation  of  session  history  on
              overwriteable media can hamper reading of partly damaged  media.
              Setting   "off:emul_off"   disables   the  elsewise  trustworthy
              table-of-content scan for those media.
              The  table-of-content  scan  on  overwriteable  media   normally
              searches only up to the end of the session that is pointed to by
              the superblock at block 0.  Setting "on:emul_wide" lets the scan
              continue  up to the end of the medium.  This may be useful after
              copying a medium with -check_media patch_lba0=on  when  not  the
              last session was loaded.

       -calm_drive "in"|"out"|"all"|"revoke"|"on"|"off"
              Reduce  drive noise until it is actually used again. Some drives
              stay alert for substantial time after they have  been  used  for
              reading.  This  reduces  the  startup  time  for  the next drive
              operation but can be loud and waste energy if no  i/o  with  the
              drive is expected to happen soon.
              Modes  "in", "out", "all" immediately calm down -indev, -outdev,
              or both, respectively.  Mode "revoke" immediately  alerts  both.
              Mode "on" causes -calm_drive to be performed automatically after
              each -dev, -indev, and -outdev. Mode "off" disables this.

              Allow for writing only the usage of MMC optical drives. Disallow
              to  write  the result into files of nearly arbitrary type.  Once
              set, this command cannot be revoked.

       -early_stdio_test "on"|"appendable_wo"|"off"
              If enabled by "on" then regular  files  and  block  devices  get
              tested  for  effective  access  permissions. This implies to try
              opening those files for writing,  which  otherwise  will  happen
              only later and only if actual writing is desired.
              The  test  result  is  used for classifying the pseudo drives as
              overwriteable, read-only, write-only, or uselessly  empty.  This
              may  lead to earlier detection of severe problems, and may avoid
              some less severe error events.
              Mode "appendable_wo" is like "on" with the  additional  property
              that  non-empty  write-only  files  are  regarded  as appendable
              rather than blank.

       -data_cache_size number_of_tiles blocks_per_tile
              Set the size and granularity of the data  cache  which  is  used
              when  ISO  images  are loaded and when file content is read from
              ISO images. The cache consists  of  several  tiles,  which  each
              consists  of several blocks. A larger cache reduces the need for
              tiles being read multiple times. Larger tiles might additionally
              improve  the data throughput from the drive, but can be wasteful
              if the data are scattered over the medium.
              Larger cache sizes help best with image loading from MMC drives.
              They   are   an   inferior   alternative   to   -osirrox  option
              blocks_per_tile must be a power of 2. E.g. 16, 32,  or  64.  The
              overall  cache  size  must not exceed 1 GiB.  The default values
              can be restored by parameter "default" instead of one or both of
              the numbers.  Currently the default is 32 tiles of 32 blocks = 2

       Inserting files into ISO image:

       The following commands expect file addresses of two kinds:
       disk_path is a path to an object in the local filesystem tree.
       iso_rr_path is the Rock Ridge name of a file object in the  ISO  image.
       If  no Rock Ridge information is recorded in the loaded ISO image, then
       you will see ISO 9660 names which are of limited length  and  character
       set.   If  no Rock Ridge information shall be stored in an emerging ISO
       image, then their names will get mapped to  such  restricted  ISO  9660
       (aka ECMA-119) names.

       Note that in the ISO image you are as powerful as the superuser. Access
       permissions of the existing files in the image do  not  apply  to  your
       write  operations. They are intended to be in effect with the read-only
       mounted image.

       If the iso_rr_path of a newly inserted file leads to an  existing  file
       object in the ISO image, then the following collision handling happens:
       If  both  objects  are  directories then they get merged by recursively
       inserting the subobjects from filesystem into ISO image.  If other file
       types collide then the setting of command -overwrite decides.
       Renaming  of  files has similar collision handling, but directories can
       only be replaced, not merged. Note that if the target directory exists,
       then  -mv  inserts  the  source objects into this directory rather than
       attempting to replace it. Command  -move,  on  the  other  hand,  would
       attempt to replace it.

       The  commands  in  this  section  alter the ISO image and not the local

       -disk_pattern "on"|"ls"|"off"
              Set the pattern expansion mode for the disk_path  parameters  of
              several commands which support this feature.
              Setting  "off"  disables this feature for all commands which are
              marked in this man page by "disk_path  [***]"  or  "disk_pattern
              Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
              Setting  "ls"  enables  it  only  for  those which are marked by
              "disk_pattern [***]".
              Default is "ls".

       -add pathspec [...] | disk_path [***]
              Insert the given files or directory trees from  filesystem  into
              the ISO image.
              If  -pathspecs  is  set  to  "on"  or  "as_mkisofs" then pattern
              expansion is always disabled and character  '='  has  a  special
              meaning. It separates the ISO image path from the disk path:
              Character '=' in the iso_rr_path must be escaped by '\' (i.e. as
              With -pathspecs "on", the character '\' must not be escaped. The
              character '=' in the disk_path must not be escaped.
              With -pathspecs "as_mkisofs", all characters '\' must be escaped
              in both, iso_rr_path and disk_path. The character '=' may or may
              not be escaped in the disk_path.
              If  iso_rr_path  does  not begin with '/' then -cd is prepended.
              If disk_path does not begin with '/' then -cdx is prepended.
              If no '=' is given then the word is used  as  both,  iso_rr_path
              and disk path.  If in this case the word does not begin with '/'
              then -cdx is prepended to the disk_path and -cd is prepended  to
              the iso_rr_path.
              If  -pathspecs  is  set  to  "off"  then -disk_pattern expansion
              applies, if enabled.  The resulting  words  are  used  as  both,
              iso_rr_path and disk path. Relative path words get prepended the
              setting  of  -cdx  to  disk_path  and  the  setting  of  -cd  to

       -add_plainly mode
              If  set  to  mode  "unknown" then any command word that does not
              begin with "-" and is not recognized as known  command  will  be
              subject  to  a  virtual  -add  command.  I.e. it will be used as
              pathspec or as disk_path and added to the  image.   If  enabled,
              -disk_pattern expansion applies to disk_paths.
              Mode "dashed" is similar to "unknown" but also adds unrecognized
              command words even if they begin with "-".
              Mode "any" announces that all further words are to be  added  as
              pathspecs or disk_paths. This does not work in dialog mode.
              Mode  "none"  is  the  default. It prevents any words from being
              understood as files to  add,  if  they  are  not  parameters  to
              appropriate commands.

       -path_list disk_path
              Like  -add  but  read the parameter words from file disk_path or
              standard input if disk_path  is  "-".   The  list  must  contain
              exactly one pathspec or disk_path pattern per line.

       -quoted_path_list disk_path
              Like  -path_list  but with quoted input reading rules. Lines get
              split into parameter words for -add. Whitespace  outside  quotes
              is discarded.

       -map disk_path iso_rr_path
              Insert  file object disk_path into the ISO image as iso_rr_path.
              If disk_path is a directory then its whole sub tree is  inserted
              into the ISO image.

       -map_single disk_path iso_rr_path
              Like  -map, but if disk_path is a directory then its sub tree is
              not inserted.

       -map_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
              Perform -map with each of the disk_path parameters.  iso_rr_path
              will  be  composed  from  disk_path  by replacing disk_prefix by

       -update disk_path iso_rr_path
              Compare file object disk_path with file object  iso_rr_path.  If
              they   do   not   match,   then   perform  the  necessary  image
              manipulations to make iso_rr_path a matching copy of  disk_path.
              By  default  this  comparison will imply lengthy content reading
              before a decision is made. Commands -disk_dev_ino  or  -md5  may
              accelerate  comparison  if  they were already in effect when the
              loaded session was recorded.
              If disk_path is a directory and iso_rr_path does not exist  yet,
              then  the  whole  subtree  will be inserted. Else only directory
              attributes will be updated.

       -update_r disk_path iso_rr_path
              Like -update but working  recursively.  I.e.  all  file  objects
              below both addresses get compared whether they have counterparts
              below the other address and whether both counterparts match.  If
              there  is  a  mismatch then the necessary update manipulation is
              Note that the comparison result may depend on  command  -follow.
              Its  setting  should always be the same as with the first adding
              of disk_path as iso_rr_path.
              If iso_rr_path does not  exist  yet,  then  it  gets  added.  If
              disk_path does not exist, then iso_rr_path gets deleted.

       -update_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
              Perform   -update_r  with  each  of  the  disk_path  parameters.
              iso_rr_path  will  be  composed  from  disk_path  by   replacing
              disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.

       -update_li iso_rr_prefix disk_prefix iso_rr_path [***]
              Perform  -update_r  with  each  of  the  iso_rr_path parameters.
              disk_path  will  be  composed  from  iso_rr_path  by   replacing
              iso_rr_prefix by disk_prefix.

       -update_lxi disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
              Perform -update_r with each of the disk_path parameters and with
              iso_rr_paths in the ISO filesystem which are  derived  from  the
              disk_path    parameters    after   exchanging   disk_prefix   by
              iso_rr_prefix. So, other than -update_l,  this  detects  missing
              matches of disk_path and deletes the corresponding iso_rr_path.
              Note   that  relative  disk_paths  and  disk_path  patterns  are
              interpreted as sub paths of the current disk  working  directory
              -cdx.  The  corresponding iso_rr_paths are derived by exchanging
              disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix before pattern  expansion  happens.
              The current -cdi directory has no influence.

       -cut_out disk_path byte_offset byte_count iso_rr_path
              Map  a  byte interval of a regular disk file into a regular file
              in the ISO image.  This may be necessary if  the  disk  file  is
              larger  than  a  single medium, or if it exceeds the traditional
              limit of 2 GiB - 1 for old operating systems, or the limit of  4
              GiB  -  1  for newer ones. Only the newest Linux kernels seem to
              read properly files >= 4 GiB - 1.
              A clumsy remedy for this limit is to backup file pieces  and  to
              concatenate them at restore time. A well tested chopping size is
              2047m.  It is permissible to request a  higher  byte_count  than
              available.  The  resulting file will be truncated to the correct
              size of a final piece.  To request  a  byte_offset  higher  than
              available  yields  no  file  in the ISO image but a SORRY event.
               -cut_out /my/disk/file 0 2047m \
               /file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \
               -cut_out /my/disk/file 2047m 2047m \
               /file/part_2_of_3_at_2047m_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \
               -cut_out /my/disk/file 4094m 2047m \
              While command -split_size is set  larger  than  0,  and  if  all
              pieces  of a file reside in the same ISO directory with no other
              files, and  if  the  names  look  like  above,  then  their  ISO
              directory  will  be  recognized and handled like a regular file.
              This  affects  commands  -compare*,  -update*,   and   overwrite
              situations.  See command -split_size for details.

       -cpr disk_path [***] iso_rr_path
              Insert  the  given files or directory trees from filesystem into
              the ISO image.
              The rules for generating the ISO addresses are similar  as  with
              shell   command   cp   -r.   Nevertheless,  directories  of  the
              iso_rr_path are created  if  necessary.  Especially  a  not  yet
              existing  iso_rr_path  will  be handled as directory if multiple
              disk_paths  are  present.   The  leafnames   of   the   multiple
              disk_paths will be grafted under that directory as would be done
              with an existing directory.
              If a single disk_path is present then a non-existing iso_rr_path
              will get the same type as the disk_path.
              If  a  disk_path does not begin with '/' then -cdx is prepended.
              If  the  iso_rr_path  does  not  begin  with  '/'  then  -cd  is

       -mkdir iso_rr_path [...]
              Create empty directories if they do not exist yet.  Existence as
              directory generates a WARNING event,  existence  as  other  file
              causes a FAILURE event.

       -lns target_text iso_rr_path
              Create  a symbolic link with address iso_rr_path which points to
              target_text.  iso_rr_path may not exist yet.
              Hint: Command -clone produces the ISO equivalent of a hard link.

       -clone iso_rr_path_original iso_rr_path_copy
              Create a copy of the ISO file object  iso_rr_path_original  with
              the new address iso_rr_path_copy. If the original is a directory
              then   copy   all   files   and   directories   underneath.   If
              iso_rr_path_original  is  a  boot catalog file, then it gets not
              copied but is silently ignored.
              The copied ISO file objects have  the  same  attributes.  Copied
              data  files refer to the same content source as their originals.
              The copies  may  then  be  manipulated  independendly  of  their
              This    command   will   refuse   execution   if   the   address
              iso_rr_path_copy already exists in the ISO tree.

       -cp_clone iso_rr_path_original [***] iso_rr_path_dest
              Create copies of one or more ISO file objects  as  with  command
              -clone.   In  case  of collision merge directories with existing
              ones, but do not overwrite existing ISO file objects.
              The rules for generating the copy addresses are the same as with
              command -cpr (see above) or shell command cp -r. Other than with
              -cpr, relative iso_rr_path_original will get prepended  the  -cd
              path  and not the -cdx path. Consider to -mkdir iso_rr_path_dest
              before -cp_clone so the copy address  does  not  depend  on  the
              number of iso_rr_path_original parameters.

       Settings for file insertion:

       -file_size_limit value [value [...]] --
              Set  the  maximum  permissible  size for a single data file. The
              values get summed up for the actual limit. If the only value  is
              "off"  then the file size is not limited by xorriso.  Default is
              a limit of 100 extents, 4g -2k each:
               -file_size_limit 400g -200k --
              When mounting ISO 9660 filesystems, old  operating  systems  can
              handle  only  files up to 2g -1 --. Newer ones are good up to 4g
              -1 --.  You need quite a new Linux kernel to read correctly  the
              final  bytes  of a file >= 4g if its size is not aligned to 2048
              byte blocks.
              xorriso's  own  data  read  capabilities  are  not  affected  by
              operating  system  size  limits.  Such  limits apply to mounting
              only. Nevertheless, the target filesystem of an -extract must be
              able to take the file size.

       -not_mgt code[:code[...]]
              Control the behavior of the exclusion lists.
              Exclusion processing happens before disk_paths get mapped to the
              ISO image and before disk files get compared with  image  files.
              The  absolute  disk  path  of  the source is matched against the
              -not_paths list.  The leafname  of  the  disk  path  is  matched
              against  the  patterns  in  the  -not_leaf  list.  If a match is
              detected then the disk path will not be regarded as an  existing
              file and not be added to the ISO image.
              Several  codes are defined.  The _on/_off settings persist until
              they are revoked by their_off/_on counterparts.
              "erase" empties the lists which were accumulated  by  -not_paths
              and -not_leaf.
              "reset" is like "erase" but also re-installs default behavior.
              "off"   disables   exclusion   processing   temporarily  without
              invalidating the lists and settings.
              "on" re-enables exclusion processing.
              "param_off" applies exclusion processing  only  to  paths  below
              disk_path   parameter   of   commands.   I.e.  explicitly  given
              disk_paths are exempted from exclusion processing.
              "param_on" applies exclusion processing to command parameters as
              well as to files below such parameters.
              "subtree_off"  with  "param_on" excludes parameter paths only if
              they match a -not_paths item exactly.
              "subtree_on" additionally excludes parameter paths which lead to
              a file address below any -not_paths item.
              "ignore_off" treats excluded disk files as if they were missing.
              I.e. they get reported with -compare and deleted from the  image
              with -update.
              "ignore_on"  keeps  excluded  files  out  of -compare or -update

       -not_paths disk_path [***]
              Add the given paths to the list of excluded absolute disk paths.
              If  a given path is relative, then the current -cdx is prepended
              to form an absolute path.  Pattern matching, if enabled, happens
              at definition time and not when exclusion checks are made.
              (Do not forget to end the list of disk_paths by "--")

       -not_leaf pattern
              Add  a  single  shell  parser  style  pattern  to  the  list  of
              exclusions for disk leafnames. These patterns are evaluated when
              the exclusion checks are made.

       -not_list disk_path
              Read  lines  from  disk_path  and  use  each  of  them either as
              -not_paths parameter, if they  contain  a  /  character,  or  as
              -not_leaf pattern.

       -quoted_not_list disk_path
              Like -not_list but with quoted input reading rules. Each word is
              handled as one parameter for -not_paths or -not_leaf.

       -follow occasion[:occasion[...]]
              Enable or disable resolution of symbolic links  and  mountpoints
              under  disk_paths.  This  applies to actions -add, -du*x, -ls*x,
              -findx, -concat, and to -disk_pattern expansion.
              There are three kinds of follow decisison to be made:
              link is the hop from a symbolic link to its target  file  object
              for  the  purpose  of reading. I.e. not for command -concat.  If
              enabled then symbolic links are handled  as  their  target  file
              objects, else symbolic links are handled as themselves.
              mount  is  the  hop  from  one filesystem to another subordinate
              filesystem.  If enabled then mountpoint directories are  handled
              as  any  other  directory, else mountpoints are handled as empty
              directories  if  they  are   encountered   in   directory   tree
              concat is the hop from a symbolic link to its target file object
              for the purpose of writing. I.e. for command -concat. This is  a
              security risk !
              Less general than above occasions:
              pattern is mount and link hopping, but only during -disk_pattern
              param is  link  hopping  for  parameter  words  (after  eventual
              pattern  expansion).   If  enabled then -ls*x will show the link
              targets rather than the links  themselves.  -du*x,  -findx,  and
              -add  will  process  the link targets but not follow links in an
              eventual directory tree below  the  targets  (unless  "link"  is
              Occasions  can  be  combined  in  a  colon  separated  list. All
              occasions mentioned in the list will then  lead  to  a  positive
              follow decision.
              off  prevents  any  positive follow decision. Use it if no other
              occasion applies.
              default is equivalent to "pattern:mount:limit=100".
              on always decides positive. Equivalent to "link:mount:concat".

              Not an occasion but an optional setting is:
              limit=<number> which sets the maximum number of  link  hops.   A
              link  hop  consists  of a sequence of symbolic links and a final
              target of different type.  Nevertheless  those  hops  can  loop.
                $ ln -s .. uploop
              Link  hopping  has a built-in loop detection which stops hopping
              at the first repetition of a link target. Then the repeated link
              is handled as itself and not as its target.  Regrettably one can
              construct link networks which cause exponential workload  before
              their  loops  get  detected.  The number given with "limit=" can
              curb this workload at the  risk  of  truncating  an  intentional
              sequence of link hops.

       -pathspecs "on"|"off"|"as_mkisofs"
              Control  parameter  interpretation with xorriso actions -add and
              Mode "as_mkisofs" enables pathspecs of the form
              like with program mkisofs -graft-points.
              All characters '\' must be  escaped  in  both,  iso_rr_path  and
              disk_path.  The character '=' must be escaped in the iso_rr_path
              and may or may not be  escaped  in  the  disk_path.   This  mode
              temporarily disables -disk_pattern expansion for command -add.
              Mode  "on" does nearly the same. But '=' must only be escaped in
              the iso_rr_path and '\' must not be escaped at all. This has the
              disadvantage  that  one cannot express an iso_rr_path which ends
              by '\'.
              Mode "off" disables pathspecs  of  the  form  target=source  and
              re-enables -disk_pattern expansion.

       -overwrite "on"|"nondir"|"off"
              Allow or disallow overwriting of existing files in the ISO image
              by files with the same name.
              With  setting  "off",  name  collisions  with   at   least   one
              non-directory  file  cause  FAILURE  events.  Collisions  of two
              directories lead to merging of their file lists.
              With setting "nondir", only directories are  protected  by  such
              events,  other  existing  file types get treated with -rm before
              the new file gets added.  Setting "on" enables automatic  -rm_r.
              I.e.  a  non-directory can replace an existing directory and all
              its subordinates.
              If restoring of  files  is  enabled,  then  the  overwrite  rule
              applies  to the target file objects on disk as well, but "on" is
              downgraded to "nondir".

       -split_size number["k"|"m"]
              Set the threshold for automatic splitting of regular files. Such
              splitting  maps  a  large  disk  file  onto a ISO directory with
              several part files in it.  This is necessary if the size of  the
              disk file exceeds -file_size_limit.  Older operating systems can
              handle files in mounted ISO 9660 filesystems only  if  they  are
              smaller than 2 GiB or in other cases 4 GiB.
              Default   is   0   which   will   exclude   files   larger  than
              -file_size_limit by a FAILURE event.  A well tested  -split_size
              is 2047m. Sizes above -file_size_limit are not permissible.
              While  command -split_size is set larger than 0 such a directory
              with split file pieces will be recognized  and  handled  like  a
              regular  file by commands -compare* , -update*, and in overwrite
              situations. There are -ossirox parameters "concat_split_on"  and
              "concat_split_off"  which  control  the  handling when files get
              restored to disk.
              In order to be recognizable, the names of the part files have to
              describe the splitting by 5 numbers:
              which are embedded in the following text form:
              Scaling  characters like "m" or "k" are taken into respect.  All
              digits are interpreted as decimal, even  if  leading  zeros  are
              E.g: /file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821
              No  other  files are allowed in the directory. All parts have to
              be  present  and  their  numbers  have  to  be  plausible.  E.g.
              byte_count  must  be  valid  as  -cut_out  parameter  and  their
              contents may not overlap.

       File manipulations:

       The following commands manipulate files in the  ISO  image,  regardless
       whether they stem from the loaded image or were newly inserted.

       -iso_rr_pattern "on"|"ls"|"off"
              Set the pattern expansion mode for the iso_rr_path parameters of
              several commands which support this feature.
              Setting "off" disables pattern expansion for all commands  which
              are   marked   in  this  man  page  by  "iso_rr_path  [***]"  or
              "iso_rr_pattern [***]".
              Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
              Setting "ls" enables it only  for  those  which  are  marked  by
              "iso_rr_pattern [***]".
              Default is "on".

       -rm iso_rr_path [***]
              Delete the given files from the ISO image.
              Note: This does not free any space on the -indev medium, even if
              the deletion is committed to that same medium.
              The image size  will  shrink  if  the  image  is  written  to  a
              different medium in modification mode.

       -rm_r iso_rr_path [***]
              Delete  the  given  files or directory trees from the ISO image.
              See also the note with command -rm.

       -rmdir iso_rr_path [***]
              Delete empty directories.

       -move iso_rr_path iso_rr_path
              Rename the file given by the first (origin) iso_rr_path  to  the
              second  (destination)  iso_rr_path.  Deviate from rules of shell
              command mv by not moving the origin file underneath an  existing
              destination  directory. The origin file will rather replace such
              a directory, if this is allowed by command -overwrite.

       -mv iso_rr_path [***] iso_rr_path
              Rename the given file objects  in  the  ISO  tree  to  the  last
              parameter  in the list. Use the same rules as with shell command
              If pattern expansion  is  enabled  and  if  the  last  parameter
              contains  wildcard  characters  then  it  must match exactly one
              existing file address, or else the command fails with a  FAILURE

       -chown uid iso_rr_path [***]
              Set  ownership  of file objects in the ISO image. uid may either
              be a decimal number or the name of a user known to the operating

       -chown_r uid iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -chown but affecting all files below eventual directories.

       -chgrp gid iso_rr_path [***]
              Set  group  attribute of file objects in the ISO image. gid  may
              either be a decimal number or the name of a group known  to  the
              operating system.

       -chgrp_r gid iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -chgrp but affecting all files below eventual directories.

       -chmod mode iso_rr_path [***]
              Equivalent  to  shell  command  chmod in the ISO image.  mode is
              either an octal number beginning with "0" or a  comma  separated
              list of statements of the form [ugoa]*[+-=][rwxst]* .
              Like: go-rwx,u+rwx .
              Personalities: u=user, g=group, o=others, a=all
              Operators:   +   adds   given   permissions,   -  revokes  given
              permissions, = revokes all old permissions  and  then  adds  the
              given ones.
              Permissions:       r=read,      w=write,      x=execute|inspect,
              s=setuid|setgid, t=sticky bit
              For octal numbers see man 2 stat.

       -chmod_r mode iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -chmod but affecting all files below eventual directories.

       -setfacl acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
              Attach the given ACL to the given  iso_rr_paths.  If  the  files
              already  have  ACLs,  then those get deleted before the new ones
              get into effect.  If acl_text is empty,  or  contains  the  text
              "clear"  or the text "--remove-all", then the existing ACLs will
              be removed and no new ones will be attached. Any  other  content
              of acl_text will be interpreted as a list of ACL entries. It may
              be in the long multi-line format as put out by -getfacl but  may
              also be abbreviated as follows:
              ACL  entries  are  separated by comma or newline. If an entry is
              empty text or begins with "#" then it will be ignored.  A  valid
              entry  has  to  begin  by  a  letter  out  of {ugom} for "user",
              "group", "other", "mask". It has to contain two  colons  ":".  A
              non-empty  text  between  those ":" gives a user id or group id.
              After the second ":" there may be letters out of {rwx- #}.   The
              first  three  give  read, write, or execute permission.  Letters
              "-", " " and TAB are ignored. "#" causes the rest of  the  entry
              to  be  ignored.  Letter  "X"  or  any  other  letters  are  not
              supported. Examples:
              A valid entry may be prefixed by "d", some following  characters
              and  ":".   This  indicates that the entry goes to the "default"
              ACL rather than to the "access" ACL. Example:

       -setfacl_r acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
              Like  -setfacl  but   affecting   all   files   below   eventual

       -setfacl_list disk_path
              Read  the  output  of -getfacl_r or shell command getfacl -R and
              apply it to the iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "#
              file:".  This  will change ownership, group and ACL of the given
              files.  If disk_path is "-" then lines are  read  from  standard
              input. Line "@" ends the list, "@@@" aborts without changing the
              pending iso_rr_path.
              Since -getfacl and getfacl -R strip leading "/" from file paths,
              the setting of -cd does always matter.

       -setfattr [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
              Attach  the  given  xattr  pair  of  name and value to the given
              iso_rr_paths.  If the given name is prefixed by  "-",  then  the
              pair with that name gets removed from the xattr list. If name is
              "--remove-all" then  all  user  namespace  xattr  of  the  given
              iso_rr_paths  get deleted. In case of deletion, value must be an
              empty text.
              Only names from the user namespace are allowed. I.e. a name  has
              to begin with "user.", like "user.x" or "user.whatever".
              Values and names undergo the normal input processing of xorriso.
              See also  command  -backslash_codes.  Other  than  with  command
              -setfattr_list,  the  byte  value  0  cannot  be  expressed  via

       -setfattr_r [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
              Like  -setfattr  but  affecting   all   files   below   eventual

       -setfattr_list disk_path
              Read the output of -getfattr_r or shell command getfattr -Rd and
              apply it to the iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "#
              file:".  All  previously  existing user space xattr of the given
              iso_rr_paths will be deleted.  If disk_path is  "-"  then  lines
              are read from standard input.
              Since  -getfattr  and  getfattr  -Rd strip leading "/" from file
              paths, the setting of -cd does always matter.
              Empty input lines and lines which begin by "#" will  be  ignored
              (except "# file:"). Line "@" ends the list, "@@@" aborts without
              changing the pending iso_rr_path. Other input  lines  must  have
              the form
              Name must be from user namespace. I.e. user.xyz where xyz should
              consist of printable characters only. The separator "="  is  not
              allowed  in names.  Value may contain any kind of bytes. It must
              be in quotes. Trailing whitespace after the end  quote  will  be
              ignored.  Non-printables bytes and quotes must be represented as
              \XYZ by their octal 8-bit code XYZ.  Use code \000 for 0-bytes.

       -alter_date type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
              Alter the date entries of files in the ISO image.  type  may  be
              one of the following:
              "a" sets access time, updates ctime.
              "m" sets modification time, updates ctime.
              "b" sets access time and modification time, updates ctime.
              "a-c", "m-c", and "b-c" set the times without updating ctime.
              "c" sets the ctime.
              timestring  may  be  in  the following formats (see also section
              As expected by program date:
              As produced by program date:
               [Day] MMM DD hh:mm:ss [TZON] YYYY
              Relative times counted from current clock time:
              where "s"  means  seconds,  "h"  hours,  "d"  days,  "w"  weeks,
              "m"=30d, "y"=365.25d plus 1d added to multiplication result.
              Absolute seconds counted from Jan 1 1970:
              xorriso's own timestamps:
              scdbackup timestamps:
              where "A0" is year 2000, "B0" is 2010, etc.
              ECMA-119 volume timestamps:
              These  are  normally given as GMT. The suffix "LOC" causes local
              timezone conversion. E.g. 2013010720574700, 2013010720574700LOC.
              The  last two digits cc (centiseconds) will be ignored, but must
              be present in order to make the format recognizable.
                -alter_date m-c 2013.11.27.103951 /file1 /file2 --
              This command does not persistently apply to  the  boot  catalog,
              which   gets   fresh   timestamps   at   -commit  time.  Command
              -volume_date "uuid" can set this time value.

       -alter_date_r type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
              Like  -alter_date  but  affecting  all  files   below   eventual

       -hide hide_state iso_rr_path [***]
              Prevent  the  names  of  the  given files from showing up in the
              directory trees of ISO 9660 and/or Joliet and/or HFS+  when  the
              image  gets written.  The data content of such hidden files will
              be included in the resulting image, even if they do not show  up
              in  any directory.  But you will need own means to find nameless
              data in the image.
              Warning: Data which are hidden from the ISO 9660 tree  will  not
              be copied by the write method of modifying.
              Possible  values of hide_state are: "iso_rr" for hiding from ISO
              9660 tree, "joliet" for Joliet tree, "hfsplus"  for  HFS+,  "on"
              for them all.  "off" means visibility in all directory trees.
              These values may be combined.  E.g.: joliet:hfsplus
              This  command  does  not apply to the boot catalog.  Rather use:
              -boot_image "any" "cat_hidden=on"

       Tree traversal command -find:

       -find iso_rr_path [test [op] [test ...]] [-exec action [params]] --
              A restricted substitute for shell command find in the ISO image.
              It  performs  an  action  on  matching  file objects at or below
              If not used as last command in the line then the parameter  list
              needs to get terminated by "--".
              Tests  are  optional. If they are omitted then action is applied
              to all file objects. If tests are given then they form  together
              an  expression.   The  action  is applied only if the expression
              matches the file object.  Default  expression  operator  between
              tests is -and, i.e. the expression matches only if all its tests
              Available tests are:
              -name pattern : Matches if pattern matches the file  leaf  name.
              If  the  pattern  does  not contain any of the characters "*?[",
              then it will be truncated according to -file_name_limit and thus
              match the truncated name in the ISO filesystem.
              -wholename pattern : Matches if pattern matches the file path as
              it would be printed by  action  "echo".  Character  '/'  can  be
              matched  by  wildcards.  If  pattern  pieces  between '/' do not
              contain any of the characters  "*?[",  they  will  be  truncated
              according to -file_name_limit.
              -disk_name pattern : Like -name but testing the leaf name of the
              file source on disk.  Can match only data  files  which  do  not
              stem  from  the loaded image, or for directories above such data
              files. With directories the result can change between -find runs
              if their content stems from multiple sources.
              -disk_path  disk_path  : Matches if the given disk_path is equal
              to the path of the file source on disk.  The  same  restrictions
              apply as with -disk_name.
              -type  type_letter  :  Matches files of the given type: "block",
              "char", "dir", "pipe", "file", "link", "socket", "eltorito", and
              "Xotic" which matches what is not matched by the other types.
              Only the first letter is interpreted.  E.g.: -find / -type d
              -maxdepth  number  : Matches only files which are at most at the
              given depth  level  relative  to  the  iso_rr_path  where  -find
              starts.  That  path itself is at depth 0, its directory children
              are at 1, their directory children at 2, and so on.
              -mindepth number : Matches only files which are at least at  the
              given depth level.
              -damaged : Matches files which use data blocks marked as damaged
              by a previous run of -check_media. The damage info vanishes when
              a new ISO image gets loaded.
              Note  that a MD5 session mismatch marks all files of the session
              as damaged.  If finer distinction is desired, perform  -md5  off
              before -check_media.
              -pending_data  :  Matches  files  which  get  their content from
              outside the loaded ISO image.
              -lba_range start_lba block_count : Matches files which use  data
              blocks     within     the     range     of     start_lba     and
              -has_acl : Matches files which have a non-trivial ACL.
              -has_xattr : Matches files which  have  xattr  name-value  pairs
              from user namespace.
              -has_aaip : Matches files which have ACL or any xattr.
              -has_any_xattr  :  Matches files which have any xattr other than
              -has_md5 : Matches data files which have MD5 checksums.
              -has_hfs_crtp creator type : Matches files which have the  given
              HFS+ creator and type attached.  These are codes of 4 characters
              which get stored if -hfsplus is enabled. Use a single  dash  '-'
              as wildcard that matches any such code.  E.g:.
               -has_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
               -has_hfs_crtp - -
              -has_hfs_bless  blessing  :  Matches  files which bear the given
              HFS+   blessing.   It   may   be   one   of   :   "ppc_bootdir",
              "intel_bootfile",   "show_folder",  "os9_folder",  "osx_folder",
              "any". See also action set_hfs_bless.
              -has_filter : Matches files which are filtered by -set_filter.
              -hidden hide_state : Matches files which are hidden in  "iso_rr"
              tree,  in "joliet" tree, in "hfsplus" tree, in all trees ("on"),
              or not hidden in any tree ("off").
              Those which are hidden in some tree match -not -hidden "off".
              -bad_outname namespace : Matches files with names  which  change
              when  converted  forth  and back between the local character set
              and one of  the  namespaces  "rockridge",  "joliet",  "ecma119",
              All  applicable  -compliance rules are taken into respect.  Rule
              "omit_version"  is  always  enabled,  because  else   namespaces
              "joliet"   and   "ecma119"   would   cause  changes  with  every
              non-directory   name.    Consider   to   also    enable    rules
              "no_force_dots" and "no_j_force_dots".
              The  namespaces  use  different character sets and apply further
              restrictions  to  name  length,  permissible   characters,   and
              mandatory  name  components.  "rockridge" uses the character set
              defined by -out_charset, "joliet" uses UCS-2BE,  "ecma119"  uses
              ASCII, "hfsplus" uses UTF-16BE.
              -name_limit_blocker  length  :  Matches  file  names which would
              prevent command -file_name_limit  with  the  given  length.  The
              command itself reports only the first problem file.
              -prune  :  If  this  test  is  reached  and the tested file is a
              directory then -find will not dive  into  that  directory.  This
              test itself does always match.
              -use_pattern   "on"|"off"   :  This  pseudo  test  controls  the
              interpretation of wildcards with tests  -name,  -wholename,  and
              -disk_name.  Default  is  "on". If interpretation is disabled by
              "off", then the parameters of -name, -wholename, and  -disk_name
              have  to  match  literally  rather than as search pattern.  This
              test itself does always match.
              -or_use_pattern   "on"|"off"   :    Like    -use_pattern,    but
              automatically  appending  the  test  by -or rather than by -and.
              Further the test itself does never match. So a  subsequent  test
              -or will cause its other operand to be performed.
              -decision  "yes"|"no"  :  If  this  test  is  reached  then  the
              evaluation ends immediately  and  action  is  performed  if  the
              decision is "yes" or "true". See operator -if.
              -true  and  -false  :  Always  match or match not, respectively.
              Evaluation goes on.
              -sort_lba : Always match.  This  causes  -find  to  perform  its
              action  in a sequence sorted by the ISO image block addresses of
              the files. It may improve throughput  with  actions  which  read
              data  from  optical  drives. Action will always get the absolute
              path as parameter.
              Available operators are:
              -not : Matches if the next  test  or  sub  expression  does  not
              match.  Several tests do this specifically:
              -undamaged,  -lba_range  with  negative  start_lba, -has_no_acl,
              -has_no_xattr, -has_no_aaip, -has_no_filter .
              -and : Matches if both neighboring tests or expressions match.
              -or : Matches if at least  one  of  both  neighboring  tests  or
              expressions matches.
              -sub  ...  -subend  or  ( ... ) : Enclose a sub expression which
              gets evaluated first  before  it  is  processed  by  neighboring
              operators.  Normal precedence is: -not, -or , -and.
              -if  ...  -then ...  -elseif  ...  -then ...  -else ... -endif :
              Enclose one or more  sub  expressions.  If  the  -if  expression
              matches, then the -then expression is evaluated as the result of
              the whole  expression  up  to  -endif.  Else  the  next  -elseif
              expression is evaluated and if it matches, its -then expression.
              Finally in case of no match, the -else expression is  evaluated.
              There  may  be  more than one -elseif. Neither -else nor -elseif
              are mandatory.  If -else is missing and would be hit,  then  the
              result is a non-match.
              -if-expressions are the main use case for above test -decision.

              Default  action  is echo, i.e. to print the address of the found
              file. Other actions  are  certain  xorriso  commands  which  get
              performed  on the found files.  These commands may have specific
              parameters. See also their particular descriptions.
              chown and chown_r change the ownership and get the  user  id  as
              parameter. E.g.: -exec chown thomas --
              chgrp  and  chgrp_r change the group attribute and get the group
              id as parameter. E.g.: -exec chgrp_r staff --
              chmod and chmod_r change  access  permissions  and  get  a  mode
              string as parameter.  E.g.: -exec chmod a-w,a+r --
              alter_date  and  alter_date_r  change the timestamps. They get a
              type character and a timestring as parameters.
              E.g.: -exec alter_date "m" "Dec 30 19:34:12 2007" --
              set_to_mtime sets the ctime and atime  to  the  value  found  in
              lsdl prints file information like shell command ls -dl.
              compare performs command -compare with the found file address as
              iso_rr_path  and  the  corresponding  file  address  below   its
              parameter disk_path_start. For this the iso_rr_path of the -find
              command gets replaced by the disk_path_start.
              E.g.: -find /thomas -exec compare /home/thomas --
              update performs command -update with the found file  address  as
              iso_rr_path.  The  corresponding file address is determined like
              with above action "compare".
              update_merge is like update but does not delete the  found  file
              if  it  is  missing  on  disk.   It may be run several times and
              records with all visited files whether their counterpart on disk
              has already been seen by one of the update_merge runs.  Finally,
              a -find run with action "rm_merge" may remove all files that saw
              no counterpart on disk.
              Up  to  the  next "rm_merge" or "clear_merge" all newly inserted
              files will get marked as having a disk counterpart.
              rm removes the found iso_rr_path from the image if it is  not  a
              directory with files in it. I.e. this "rm" includes "rmdir".
              rm_r  removes  the  found  iso_rr_path from the image, including
              whole directory trees.
              rm_merge removes the found iso_rr_path if it was visited by  one
              or  more  previous actions "update_merge" and saw no counterpart
              on disk in any of them. The marking from the update  actions  is
              removed in any case.
              clear_merge    removes   an   eventual   marking   from   action
              report_damage classifies files whether they  hit  a  data  block
              that  is  marked as damaged. The result is printed together with
              the address of the first  damaged  byte,  the  maximum  span  of
              damages, file size, and the path of the file.
              report_lba  prints  files  which  are  associated  to image data
              blocks.  It tells the logical block address, the  block  number,
              the  byte size, and the path of each file. There may be reported
              more than one line per file  if  the  file  has  more  than  one
              section.   In  this case each line has a different extent number
              in column "xt".
              report_sections like report_lba but telling the  byte  sizes  of
              the particular sections rather than the overall byte size of the
              getfacl prints access permissions in ACL text form to the result
              setfacl  attaches ACLs after removing existing ones. The new ACL
              is given in text form as defined with command -setfacl.
              E.g.: -exec setfacl u:lisa:rw,u::rw,g::r,o::-,m::rw --
              getfattr prints xattr name-value pairs from  user  namespace  to
              the result channel.
              get_any_xattr  prints  xattr name-value pairs from any namespace
              except ACL to the result channel. This is mostly  for  debugging
              of namespace "isofs".
              list_extattr  mode  prints a script to the result channel, which
              would use FreeBSD command setextattr to  set  the  file's  xattr
              name-value pairs of user namespace.  Parameter mode controls the
              form of the output of names and values.  Default mode "e" prints
              harmless  characters  in  shell  quotation marks, but represents
              texts with octal 001 to 037 and 0177 to 0377 by an embedded echo
              -e  command.   Mode "q" prints any characters in shell quotation
              marks. This might not be terminal-safe but should work in script
              files.   Mode  "r"  uses no quotation marks. Not safe.  Mode "b"
              prints backslash encoding. Not suitable for shell parsing.
              E.g. -exec list_extattr e --
              Command -backslash_codes does not affect the output.
              get_md5 prints the MD5 sum,  if  recorded,  together  with  file
              check_md5  compares  the  MD5  sum,  if  recorded, with the file
              content and reports if mismatch.
              E.g.: -find / -not -pending_data -exec check_md5 FAILURE --
              make_md5 equips a data file with an  MD5  sum  of  its  content.
              Useful  to  upgrade  the  files  in the loaded image to full MD5
              coverage by the next commit with -md5 "on".
              E.g.: -find / -type f -not -has_md5 -exec make_md5 --
              setfattr sets or deletes xattr name value pairs.
              E.g.: -find / -has_xattr -exec setfattr --remove-all '' --
              set_hfs_crtp adds, changes, or removes  HFS+  creator  and  type
              E.g.: -exec set_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
              E.g.: -find /my/dir -prune -exec set_hfs_crtp --delete -
              get_hfs_crtp   prints  the  HFS+  creator  and  type  attributes
              together with the iso_rr_path, if the file has  such  attributes
              at all.
              E.g.: -exec get_hfs_crtp
              set_hfs_bless  applies or removes HFS+ blessings. They are roles
              which can be attributed to up to four  directories  and  a  data
              "ppc_bootdir",  "intel_bootfile",  "show_folder",  "os9_folder",
              They may be abbreviated as "p", "i", "s", "9", and "x".
              Each such role can be attributed to at  most  one  file  object.
              "intel_bootfile" is the one that would apply to a data file. All
              others apply to directories.  The -find run will end as soon  as
              the  first  blessing  is  issued.  The  previous  bearer  of the
              blessing will lose it then.  No file object can bear  more  than
              one blessing.
              E.g.: -find /my/blessed/directory -exec set_hfs_bless p
              Further  there  is  blessing  "none"  or  "n"  which revokes any
              blessing from the found files. This -find run will not stop when
              the first match is reached.
              E.g.: -find / -has_hfs_bless any -exec set_hfs_bless none
              get_hfs_bless prints the HFS+ blessing role and the iso_rr_path,
              if the file is blessed at all.
              E.g.: -exec get_hfs_bless
              set_filter applies or removes filters.
              E.g.: -exec set_filter --zisofs --
              mkisofs_r applies the rules of mkisofs -r to the file object:
              user id and group id become 0, all  r-permissions  get  granted,
              all  w  denied.   If there is any x-permission, then all three x
              get granted.  s- and t-bits get removed.
              sort_weight attributes a LBA weight number to regular files.
              The number may range from -2147483648 to 2147483647. The  higher
              it  is,  the lower will be the block address of the file data in
              the emerging ISO  image.   Currently  the  boot  catalog  has  a
              hardcoded  weight  of  1 billion.  Normally it should occupy the
              block with the lowest possible address.
              Data files which are loaded by  -indev  or  -dev  get  a  weight
              between  1  and 2 exp 28 = 268,435,456, depending on their block
              address. This shall keep them roughly in the same order  if  the
              write method of modifying is applied.
              Data  files  which  are  added  by other commands get an initial
              weight of 0.  Boot image files have a default weight of 2.
              E.g.: -exec sort_weight 3 --
              show_stream shows the content stream chain of a data file.
              show_stream_id is like  show_stream,  but  also  prints  between
              stream  type  and  first  ":"  in  square  brackets  libisofs id
              numbers: [fs_id,dev_id,ino_id].
              hide brings the file into one of the hide states "on", "iso_rr",
              "joliet",   "hfsplus",   "off".  They  may  be  combined.  E.g.:
                -find / -disk_name *_secret -exec hide on
              print_outname  prints  in  the  first  line  the   filename   as
              registered  by  the  program  model,  and in the second line the
              filename after conversion forth and back between local character
              set  and one of the namespaces "rockridge", "joliet", "ecma119",
              or "hfsplus". The third output line is "--" .
              The name conversion does not take into respect  the  possibility
              of  name collisions in the target namespace. Such collisions are
              most likely in "joliet" and "ecma119", where they  get  resolved
              by automatic file name changes.
                -find / -bad_outname joliet -exec print_outname joliet
              estimate_size  prints  a  lower  and  an upper estimation of the
              number of blocks which the found files together will  occupy  in
              the   emerging  ISO  image.   This  does  not  account  for  the
              superblock, for the directories in the -find path, or for  image
              find performs another run of -find on the matching file address.
              It accepts the same params as -find, except iso_rr_path.
                -find / -name '???' -type d -exec find  -name  '[abc]*'  -exec
              chmod a-w,a+r --

       Filters for data file content:

       Filters  may be installed between data files in the ISO image and their
       content source outside the image. They may  also  be  used  vice  versa
       between data content in the image and target files on disk.
       Built-in filters are "--zisofs" and "--zisofs-decode". The former is to
       be applied via -set_filter, the  latter  is  automatically  applied  if
       zisofs  compressed content is detected with a file when loading the ISO
       Another built-in filter pair is "--gzip"  and  "--gunzip"  with  suffix
       ".gz".   They  behave  about  like  external  gzip and gunzip but avoid
       forking a process for each single file. So  they  are  much  faster  if
       there are many small files.

       -external_filter name option[:option] program_path [arguments] --
              Register  a  content filter by associating a name with a program
              path, program  arguments,  and  some  behavioral  options.  Once
              registered  it  can be applied to multiple data files in the ISO
              image, regardless whether their content resides  in  the  loaded
              ISO image or in the local filesystem.  External filter processes
              may produce synthetic  file  content  by  reading  the  original
              content  from  stdin  and  writing to stdout whatever they want.
              They must deliver the same output on the same input in  repeated
              Options are:
               "default" means that no other option is intended.
               "suffix=..."  sets  a file name suffix. If it is not empty then
              it will be appended to the file name or removed from it.
               "remove_suffix" will remove a  file  name  suffix  rather  than
              appending it.
               "if_nonempty" will leave 0-sized files unfiltered.
               "if_reduction"  will try filtering and revoke it if the content
              size does not shrink.
               "if_block_reduction" will revoke if the number of 2  kB  blocks
              does not shrink.
               "used=..." is ignored. Command -status shows it with the number
              of files which currently have the filter applied.
               -external_filter bzip2 suffix=.bz2:if_block_reduction \
                                /usr/bin/bzip2 --
               -external_filter bunzip2 suffix=.bz2:remove_suffix \
                                /usr/bin/bunzip2 --

       -unregister_filter name
              Remove an -external_filter registration. This is  only  possible
              if the filter is not applied to any file in the ISO image.

              Irrevocably  ban  commands -concat "pipe", -external_filter, and
              -unregister_filter, but not -set_filter.  Use  this  to  prevent
              external  filtering  in general or when all intended filters are
              registered  and  -concat  mode  "pipe"  shall   be   disallowed.
              External  filters  may also be banned totally at compile time of
              xorriso.  By default they  are  banned  if  xorriso  runs  under
              setuid permission.

       -set_filter name iso_rr_path [***]
              Apply an -external_filter or a built-in filter to the given data
              files in the ISO image.  If the filter suffix  is  not  empty  ,
              then it will be applied to the file name.  Renaming only happens
              if the filter really gets attached and is  not  revoked  by  its
              options.   By  default  files which already bear the suffix will
              not get filtered. The others will get  the  suffix  appended  to
              their names.  If the filter has option "remove_suffix", then the
              filter will only be applied if the suffix is present and can  be
              removed.   Name  oversize  or  collision caused by suffix change
              will prevent filtering.
              With most filter types this command  will  immediately  run  the
              filter once for each file in order to determine the output size.
              Content reading operations like -extract ,  -compare  and  image
              generation will perform further filter runs and deliver filtered
              At image generation time the filter output  must  still  be  the
              same  as  the  output  from  the  first run. Filtering for image
              generation does not happen with files from the loaded ISO  image
              if  the  write  method  of  growing is in effect (i.e -indev and
              -outdev are identical).
              The  reserved   filter   name   "--remove-all-filters"   revokes
              filtering.  This  will  revoke  suffix  renamings  as well.  Use
              "--remove-all-filters+" to prevent any suffix renaming.
              Attaching or detaching filters  will  not  alter  the  state  of
              -changes_pending.  If the filter manipulations shall be the only
              changes in a write run, then explicitly execute -changes_pending

       -set_filter_r name iso_rr_path [***]
              Like  -set_filter  but  affecting  all data files below eventual

       Writing the result, drive control:

       (see also paragraph about settings below)

              Discard the manipulated ISO image and  reload  it  from  -indev.
              (Use -rollback_end if immediate program end is desired.)

       -changes_pending "no"|"yes"|"mkisofs_printed"|"show_status"
              Write  runs are performed only if a change of the image has been
              made since the image was loaded or created blank. Vice versa the
              program  will start a write run for pending changes when it ends
              normally (i.e. not by abort and not by command -rollback_end).
              The  command  -changes_pending  can  be  used  to  override  the
              automatically  determined  state.  This  is  mainly  useful  for
              setting state "yes" despite  no  real  changes  were  made.  The
              sequence -changes_pending "no" -end is equivalent to the command
              -rollback_end. State "mkisofs_printed" is  caused  by  emulation
              command -as mkisofs if option -print-size is present.
              The  pseudo-state "show_status" can be used to print the current
              state to result channel.
              Image loading or manipulations which happen after  this  command
              will again update automatically the change status of the image.

              Perform the write operation. Afterwards, if -outdev is readable,
              make it the new -dev and load the image from there.   Switch  to
              growing  mode.  (A subsequent -outdev will activate modification
              mode or blind growing.)  -commit is performed  automatically  at
              end of program if there are uncommitted manipulations pending.
              So,  to  perform a final write operation with no new -dev and no
              new loading of image, rather execute command -end.  If you  want
              to  go  on  without image loading, execute -commit_eject "none".
              To eject after write without image  loading,  use  -commit_eject
              To suppress a final write, execute -rollback_end.

              Writing  can last quite a while. It is not unnormal with several
              types of media that there is no progress visible for  the  first
              few  minutes  or  that  the  drive gnaws on the medium for a few
              minutes after all data have been transmitted.  xorriso  and  the
              drives  are  in  a  client-server relationship.  The drives have
              much freedom about what to do with the media.  Some combinations
              of  drives and media simply do not work, despite the promises by
              their vendors.  If writing fails then try other media or another
              drive. The reason for such failure is hardly ever in the code of
              the various burn programs but you may well  try  some  of  those
              listed below under SEE ALSO.

       -eject "in"|"out"|"all"
              Eject   the   medium   in   -indev,  -outdev,  or  both  drives,
              respectively.  Note: It is not possible yet to effectively eject
              disk files.

       -commit_eject "in"|"out"|"all"|"none"
              Combined  -commit  and  -eject. When writing has finished do not
              make -outdev the new -dev, and load no ISO image.  Rather  eject
              -indev and/or -outdev. Give up any non-ejected drive.

       -blank mode
              Make  media  ready  for  writing  from scratch (if not -dummy is
              This affects only the -outdev not the -indev.   If  both  drives
              are  the same and if the ISO image was altered then this command
              leads to a FAILURE event.  Defined modes are:
                as_needed, fast, all, deformat, deformat_quickest
              "as_needed"  cares  for  used  CD-RW,  DVD-RW   and   for   used
              overwriteable  media  by  applying  -blank  "fast".  It  applies
              -format "full" to  yet  unformatted  DVD-RAM  and  BD-RE.  Other
              media in blank state are gracefully ignored.  Media which cannot
              be made ready for writing from scratch cause a FAILURE event.
              "fast"  makes  CD-RW  and  unformatted  DVD-RW   re-usable,   or
              invalidates  overwriteable  ISO  images.  "all"  might work more
              thoroughly and need more time.
              "deformat" converts overwriteable DVD-RW into unformatted ones.
              "deformat_quickest" is a faster way to deformat or blank  DVD-RW
              but produces media which are only suitable for a single session.
              Some drives announce this state by not offering feature 21h, but
              some  drives  offer  it anyway.  If feature 21h is missing, then
              xorriso will refuse to write on DVD-RW if not command -close  is
              set to "on".
              The  progress  reports  issued by some drives while blanking are
              quite unrealistic. Do not conclude success or failure  from  the
              reported  percentages. Blanking was successful if no SORRY event
              or worse occurred.
              Mode may be prepended by  "force:"  in  order  to  override  the
              evaluation  of  the  medium state by libburn. E.g. "force:fast".
              Blanking will nevertheless only succeed if the drive is  willing
              to do it.

       -format mode
              Convert  unformatted  DVD-RW  into  overwriteable ones, "de-ice"
              DVD+RW, format newly purchased BD-RE or BD-R, re-format  DVD-RAM
              or BD-RE.
              Defined modes are:
                as_needed, full, fast, by_index_<num>, fast_by_index_<num>,
                by_size_<num>, fast_by_size_<num>, without_spare
              "as_needed"  formats  yet unformatted DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or
              blank unformatted BD-R. Other media are left untouched.
              "full" (re-)formats DVD-RW, DVD+RW,  DVD-RAM,  BD-RE,  or  blank
              unformatted BD-R.
              "fast" does the same as "full" but tries to be quicker.
              "by_index_"  selects  a format out of the descriptor list issued
              by command -list_formats. The index number from that list is  to
              be appended to the mode word. E.g: "by_index_3".
              "fast_by_index_"  does  the  same as "by_index_" but tries to be
              "by_size_" selects a format out of  the  descriptor  list  which
              provides at least the given size. That size is to be appended to
              the mode word.  E.g: "by_size_4100m". This applies to media with
              Defect  Management.   On  BD-RE  it will not choose format 0x31,
              which offers no Defect Management.
              "fast_by_size_" does the same as  "by_size_"  but  tries  to  be
              "without_spare" selects the largest format out of the descriptor
              list which provides no Spare  Area  for  Defect  Management.  On
              BD-RE this will be format 0x31.
              The  formatting  action  has  no  effect  on  media if -dummy is
              Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a
              medium, if ever. But it is a reason for re-formatting if:
               DVD-RW was deformatted by -blank,
               DVD+RW has read failures (re-format before next write),
               DVD-RAM or BD-RE shall change their amount of defect reserve.
              BD-R may be written unformatted or may be formatted before first
              use.  Formatting activates  Defect  Management  which  tries  to
              catch  and repair bad spots on media during the write process at
              the expense of half speed even with flawless media.
              The progress reports issued by some drives while formatting  are
              quite  unrealistic.  Do not conclude success or failure from the
              reported percentages. Formatting  was  successful  if  no  SORRY
              event  or  worse  occurred.  Be  patient  with apparently frozen

              Put out a list of format descriptors as reported by  the  output
              drive  for  the  current medium. The list gives the index number
              after "Format idx", a MMC format code,  the  announced  size  in
              blocks (like "2236704s") and the same size in MiB.
              MMC format codes are manifold. Most important are: "00h" general
              formatting, "01h" increases reserve space for DVD-RAM, "26h" for
              DVD+RW,  "30h"  for  BD-RE  with  reserve space, "31h" for BD-RE
              without reserve space, "32h" for BD-R.
              Smaller format size with DVD-RAM,  BD-RE,  or  BD-R  means  more
              reserve space.

              Put  out  a  list of speed values as reported by the drives with
              the loaded media. The list tells read speeds of the input  drive
              and  of  the  output drive. Further it tells write speeds of the
              output drive.
              The list of write speeds does  not  necessarily  mean  that  the
              medium is writable or that these speeds are actually achievable.
              Especially the lists reported with empty drive or with ROM media
              obviously advertise speeds for other media.
              It is not mandatory to use speed values out of the listed range.
              The drive is supposed to choose a safe speed that is as near  to
              the desired speed as possible.
              At  the end of the list, "Write speed L" and "Write speed H" are
              the best guesses for lower and upper write speed limit.   "Write
              speed  l"  and  "Write  speed  h"  may  appear  only with CD and
              eventually override the list of other speed offers.
              Only if the drive reports contradicting speed information  there
              will  appear  "Write  speed 0", which tells the outcome of speed
              selection by command -speed 0, if it deviates from "Write  speed
              "Read  speed  L" and "Read speed H" tell the minimum and maximum
              read speeds, as reported by the drive. They would be  chosen  by
              -read_speed  "min"  or  "max"  if  they  undercut or surpass the
              built-in limits. These are "1x", "52xCD", "24xDVD", "20xBD".

       -close_damaged "as_needed"|"force"
              Try to close  the  upcoming  track  and  session  if  the  drive
              reported  the  medium as damaged. This may apply to CD-R, CD-RW,
              DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R, DVD+R DL, or BD-R media. It  is  indicated
              by  warning  messages  when  the  drive  gets acquired, and by a
              remark "but next track is damaged" with the line  "Media  status
              :" of command -toc.
              The  setting  of  command  -close  determines whether the medium
              stays appendable.
              Mode "as_needed" gracefully  refuses  on  media  which  are  not
              reported  as  damaged. Mode "force" attempts the close operation
              even with media which appear undamaged.
              No image changes are allowed to be pending before  this  command
              is  performed.   After  closing  was  attempted, both drives are
              given up.

       -list_profiles "in"|"out"|"all"
              Put out a list of media types supported by -indev,  -outdev,  or
              both,  respectively.  The currently recognized type is marked by
              text "(current)".

       Settings for result writing:

       Rock Ridge info will be generated by default.   ACLs  will  be  written
       according to the setting of command -acl.

       -joliet "on"|"off"
              If  enabled by "on", generate Joliet tree additional to ISO 9660
              + Rock Ridge tree.

       -hfsplus "on"|"off"
              If enabled by "on", generate a HFS+ filesystem  inside  the  ISO
              9660  image  and mark it by Apple Partition Map (APM) entries in
              the System Area, the first 32 KiB of the image.
              This  may   collide   with   data   submitted   by   -boot_image
              system_area=.   The  first  8  bytes  of  the  System  Area  get
              overwritten by { 0x45, 0x52, 0x08 0x00, 0xeb, 0x02, 0xff, 0xff }
              which  can  be  executed  as  x86  machine code without negative
              effects.  So if an MBR gets combined with this feature, then its
              first 8 bytes should contain no essential commands.
              The  next blocks of 2 KiB in the System Area will be occupied by
              APM entries.  The first one covers the part  of  the  ISO  image
              before  the  HFS+  filesystem metadata. The second one marks the
              range from HFS+ metadata to the end of  file  content  data.  If
              more  ISO  image  data follow, then a third partition entry gets
              produced. Other features of xorriso might  cause  the  need  for
              more APM entries.
              The HFS+ filesystem is not suitable for add-on sessions produced
              by the multi-session method of growing. An  existing  ISO  image
              may  nevertheless  be  the  base for a new image produced by the
              method of modifying.  If -hfsplus is enabled when -indev or -dev
              gets  executed,  then  AAIP attributes get loaded from the input
              image and checked for information about HFS  creator,  filetype,
              or blessing. If found, then they get enabled as settings for the
              next image production.  Therefore it  is  advisable  to  perform
              -hfsplus "on" before -indev or -dev.
              Information  about  HFS creator, type, and blessings gets stored
              by xorriso if -hfsplus is enabled at -commit time. It is  stored
              as  copy  outside  the HFS+ partition, but rather along with the
              Rock Ridge information.  xorriso does not read  any  information
              from the HFS+ meta data.
              Be  aware  that  HFS+ is case-insensitive although it can record
              file names with upper-case and  lower-case  letters.  Therefore,
              file  names  from  the  iso_rr name tree may collide in the HFS+
              name tree. In this case they get changed  by  adding  underscore
              characters  and counting numbers. In case of very long names, it
              might be necessary to map them to "MANGLED_...".

       -rockridge "on"|"off"
              Mode "off" disables production of Rock Ridge information for the
              ISO 9660 file objects. The multi-session capabilities of xorriso
              depend much on the naming fidelity  of  Rock  Ridge.  So  it  is
              strongly discouraged to deviate from default setting "on".

       -compliance rule[:rule...]
              Adjust the compliance to specifications of ISO 9660/ECMA-119 and
              its contemporary extensions.  In  some  cases  it  is  worth  to
              deviate a bit in order to circumvent bugs of the intended reader
              system or to get unofficial extra features.
              There are several adjustable rules which have a keyword each. If
              they  are mentioned with this command then their rule gets added
              to the relaxation  list.  This  list  can  be  erased  by  rules
              "strict"  or  "clear".  It  can be reset to its start setting by
              "default". All of the following relaxation rules can be  revoked
              individually by appending "_off". Like "deep_paths_off".
              Rule keywords are:
              "iso_9660_level="number  chooses  level 1 with ECMA-119 names of
              the form 8.3 and -file_size_limit <= 4g - 1,  or  level  2  with
              ECMA-119 names up to length 32 and the same -file_size_limit, or
              level 3 with ECMA-119 names up to length 32 and -file_size_limit
              >= 400g -200k. If necessary -file_size_limit gets adjusted.
              "allow_dir_id_ext"  allows ECMA-119 names of directories to have
              a name extension as with other file types.  It  does  not  force
              dots  and  it  omits  the  version number, though. This is a bad
              tradition of mkisofs which violates  ECMA-119.   Especially  ISO
              level  1  only  allows  8 characters in a directory name and not
              "omit_version" does not add  versions  (";1")  to  ECMA-119  and
              Joliet file names.
              "only_iso_version"  does  not add versions (";1") to Joliet file
              "deep_paths" allows ECMA-119 file paths deeper than 8 levels.
              "long_paths"  allows  ECMA-119  file  paths  longer   than   255
              "long_names"  allows  up  to  37  characters  with ECMA-119 file
              "no_force_dots" does not add a dot to ECMA-119 file names  which
              have none.
              "no_j_force_dots"  does not add a dot to Joliet file names which
              have none.
              "lowercase" allows lowercase characters in ECMA-119 file names.
              "7bit_ascii" allows nearly all 7-bit characters in ECMA-119 file
              names.   Not  allowed  are  0x0  and  '/'. If not "lowercase" is
              enabled, then lowercase letters get converted to uppercase.
              "full_ascii" allows all 8-bit characters except 0x0 and  '/'  in
              ECMA-119 file names.
              "untranslated_names"  might  be  dangerous for inadverted reader
              programs which rely on the restriction to at most 37  characters
              in ECMA-119 file names.  This rule allows ECMA-119 file names up
              to 96 characters with no character conversion. If  a  file  name
              has   more   characters,   then   image   production  will  fail
              "untranslated_name_len="number enables untranslated_names with a
              smaller  limit  for  the  length  of file names. 0 disables this
              feature, -1 chooses maximum length limit, numbers larger than  0
              give the desired length limit.
              "joliet_long_names"   allows   Joliet   leaf  names  up  to  103
              characters rather than 64.
              "joliet_long_paths"  allows  Joliet  paths   longer   than   240
              "joliet_utf16"  encodes  Joliet  names  in  UTF-16BE rather than
              UCS-2.  The difference is with characters which are not  present
              in  UCS-2  and  get encoded in UTF-16 by 2 words of 16 bit each.
              Both words then stem from a reserved subset of UCS-2.
              "always_gmt"  stores  timestamps  in  GMT  representation   with
              timezone 0.
              "rec_mtime"  records  with  non-RockRidge  directory entries the
              disk file's mtime and not the creation time of the  image.  This
              applies to the ECMA-119 tree (plain ISO 9660), to Joliet, and to
              ISO 9660:1999. "rec_time"  is  default.  If  disabled,  it  gets
              automatically   re-enabled  by  -as  mkisofs  emulation  when  a
              pathspec is encountered.
              "new_rr" uses Rock Ridge version 1.12  (suitable  for  GNU/Linux
              but  not  for  older  FreeBSD  or  for  Solaris).  This  implies
              "aaip_susp_1_10_off"  which  may  be   changed   by   subsequent
              Default  is  "old_rr"  which  uses Rock Ridge version 1.10. This
              implies also "aaip_susp_1_10" which may be changed by subsequent
              "aaip_susp_1_10"   allows  AAIP  to  be  written  as  unofficial
              extension of  RRIP  rather  than  as  official  extension  under
              "no_emul_toc"   saves   64   kB   with   the  first  session  on
              overwriteable media but makes the image incapable of  displaying
              its session history.
              "iso_9660_1999" causes the production of an additional directory
              tree compliant to ISO 9660:1999. It can  record  long  filenames
              for readers which do not understand Rock Ridge.
              "old_empty" uses the old way of of giving block addresses in the
              range of [0,31] to files with no own data content. The  new  way
              is to have a dedicated block to which all such files will point.
              Default setting is
              Note:  The  term  "ECMA-119 name" means the plain ISO 9660 names
              and attributes which get visible  if  the  reader  ignores  Rock

       -rr_reloc_dir name
              Specify  the  name  of  the  relocation  directory in which deep
              directory subtrees shall be placed  if  -compliance  is  set  to
              "deep_paths_off"  or  "long_paths_off".  A deep directory is one
              that has a chain of 8 parent directories (including root)  above
              itself,  or  one  that  contains a file with an ECMA-119 path of
              more than 255 characters.
              The overall directory tree  will  appear  originally  deep  when
              interpreted as Rock Ridge tree. It will appear as re-arranged if
              only ECMA-119 information is considered.
              The default relocation  directory  is  the  root  directory.  By
              giving  a  non-empty name with -rr_reloc_dir, a directory in the
              root directory may get this role.  If that  directory  does  not
              already  exist  at  -commit  time,  then it will get created and
              marked for Rock  Ridge  as  relocation  artefact.  At  least  on
              GNU/Linux it will not be displayed in mounted Rock Ridge images.
              The name must not contain a '/' character and must not be longer
              than 255 bytes.

       -volid text
              Specify  the  volume  ID,  which  most  operating  systems  will
              consider to be the volume name of the image or medium.
              xorriso  accepts  any text up to 32 characters, but according to
              rarely obeyed specs stricter rules apply:
              ECMA-119 demands ASCII characters out of [A-Z0-9_]. Like:
              Joliet allows 16 UCS-2 characters. Like:
                "Windows name"
              Be aware that the volume id might get used automatically as  the
              name  of  the  mount  point  when  the medium is inserted into a
              playful computer system.
              If an ISO image gets loaded  while  the  volume  ID  is  set  to
              default  "ISOIMAGE"  or  to "", then the volume ID of the loaded
              image will become the effective volume id  for  the  next  write
              run. But as soon as command -volid is performed afterwards, this
              pending ID is overridden by the new setting.
              Consider this when setting -volid  "ISOIMAGE"  before  executing
              -dev, -indev, or -rollback.  If you insist in -volid "ISOIMAGE",
              set it again after those commands.

       -volset_id text
              Set the volume set  ID  string  to  be  written  with  the  next
              -commit.   Permissible  are  up  to 128 characters. This setting
              gets overridden by image loading.

       -publisher text
              Set the publisher ID string to be written with the next -commit.
              This  may identify the person or organisation who specified what
              shall be recorded.  Permissible are up to 128  characters.  This
              setting gets overridden by image loading.

       -application_id text
              Set  the  application  ID  string  to  be  written with the next
              -commit. This may identify the specification of how the data are
              recorded.   Permissible  are  up to 128 characters. This setting
              gets overridden by image loading.
              The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the ID string  of
              xorriso which is normally written as -preparer_id. It is a wrong
              tradition to write the program ID as -application_id.

       -system_id text
              Set the system ID string to be written with  the  next  -commit.
              This  may  identify  the system which can recognize and act upon
              the content of  the  System  Area  in  image  blocks  0  to  15.
              Permissible   are   up  to  32  characters.  This  setting  gets
              overridden by image loading.

       -volume_date type timestring
              Set one of the four  overall  timestamps  for  subsequent  image
              writing.  Available types are:
              "c"  time when the volume was created.
              "m"  time when volume was last modified.
              "x"  time when the information in the volume expires.
              "f"  time since when the volume is effectively valid.
              "all_file_dates"   sets mtime, atime, and ctime of all files and
              directories  to  the  given   time.   If   the   timestring   is
              "set_to_mtime",  then  the  atime  and  ctime  of  each file and
              directory get set to the value found in their mtime.
              These actions stay delayed until actual ISO  production  begins.
              Up  to  then  they can be revoked by "all_file_dates" with empty
              timestring or timestring "default".
              The timestamps of the El Torito boot catalog file get  refreshed
              when the ISO is produced. They can be influenced by "uuid".
              "uuid"   sets  a  timestring  that  overrides  "c" and "m" times
              literally and sets the time of the El Torito boot  catalog.   It
              must  consist  of 16 decimal digits which form YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc,
              with YYYY between 1970 and  2999.  Time  zone  is  GMT.   It  is
              supposed to match this GRUB line:
               search --fs-uuid --set YYYY-MM-DD-hh-mm-ss-cc
              E.g. 2010040711405800 is 7 Apr 2010 11:40:58 (+0 centiseconds).
              Timestrings  for  the  other  types may be given as with command
              -alter_date.  Some of them are prone to  timezone  computations.
              The   timestrings   "default"   or  "overridden"  cause  default
              settings: "c" and "m"  will  show  the  current  time  of  image
              creation.  "x"  and "f" will be marked as insignificant.  "uuid"
              will be deactivated.
              At -commit time, some timestamps get set to the maximum value of
              effectively  written  volume  creation and modification time: El
              Torito boot catalog, HFS+ superblock, ECMA-119 file modification
              time  if  -compliance  "no_rec_mtime".   The isohybrid MBR id is
              computed from "uuid" if given, else from  the  effective  volume
              modification date.

       -copyright_file text
              Set the copyright file name to be written with the next -commit.
              This should be the ISO 9660 path of a file in  the  image  which
              contains  a  copyright  statement.   Permissible  are  up  to 37
              characters. This setting gets overridden by image loading.

       -abstract_file text
              Set the abstract file name to be written with the next  -commit.
              This  should  be  the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which
              contains  an  abstract  statement  about  the   image   content.
              Permissible   are   up  to  37  characters.  This  setting  gets
              overridden by image loading.

       -biblio_file text
              Set the biblio file name to be written with  the  next  -commit.
              This  should  be  the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which
              contains  bibliographic  records.   Permissible  are  up  to  37
              characters. This setting gets overridden by image loading.

              Set  the preparer ID string to be written with the next -commit.
              This may identify the person or other entity which controls  the
              preparation  of  the data which shall be recorded. Normally this
              should be the ID of xorriso and not of  the  person  or  program
              which operates xorriso.  Please avoid to change it.  Permissible
              are up to 128 characters.
              The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the ID string  of
              xorriso which is default at program startup.
              Unlike other ID strings, this setting is not influenced by image

       -application_use character|0xXY|disk_path
              Specify the content of the Application Use field which can  take
              at most 512 bytes.
              If  the  parameter  of  this command is empty, then the field is
              filled with 512 0-bytes. If it is a single  character,  then  it
              gets  repeated  512 times.  If it begins by "0x" followed by two
              hex digits [0-9a-fA-F], then the digits are read as  byte  value
              which gets repeated 512 times.
              Any  other  parameter  text  is used as disk_path to open a data
              file and to read up to 512 bytes from it. If the file is smaller
              than 512 bytes, then the remaining bytes in the field get set to
              binary 0.
              This setting is not influenced by image loading.

       -out_charset character_set_name
              Set the character set to which file  names  get  converted  when
              writing  an  image.  See  paragraph  "Character  sets"  for more
              explanations.  When loading the written image after -commit  the
              setting of -out_charset will be copied to -in_charset.

       -uid uid
              User  id  to  be  used  for all files when the new ISO tree gets
              written to media.

       -gid gid
              Group id to be used for all files when the  new  ISO  tree  gets
              written to media.

       -zisofs option[:options]
              Set  global  parameters for zisofs compression. This data format
              is recognized  and  transparently  uncompressed  by  some  Linux
              kernels.  It  is  to  be  applied  via  command -set_filter with
              built-in filter "--zisofs".  Parameters are:
               "level="[0-9] zlib compression: 0=none, 1=fast,..., 9=slow
               "block_size="32k|64k|128k size of compression blocks
               "by_magic=on" enables an expensive  test  at  image  generation
              time  which  checks  files  from  disk  whether they already are
              zisofs compressed, e.g. by program mkzftree.
               "default" same as "level=6:block_size=32k:by_magic=off"

       -speed code|number[k|m|c|d|b]
              Set the burn speed. Default is "max" (or "0") = maximum speed as
              announced by the drive.  Further special speed codes are:
              "min" (or "-1") selects minimum speed as announced by the drive.
              "none"  avoids  to  send  a  speed  setting command to the drive
              before burning begins.
              Speed can be given in media dependent numbers or  as  a  desired
              throughput per second in MMC compliant kB (= 1000) or MB (= 1000
              kB). Media x-speed factor can be set explicitly by "c"  for  CD,
              "d" for DVD, "b" for BD, "x" is optional.
              Example speeds:
               706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
               5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
              If  there  is  no  hint  about the speed unit attached, then the
              medium in the -outdev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
              MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take the
              speed  value  given  by the burn program only as upper limit for
              their own decision.

       -stream_recording "on"|"off"|"full"|"data"|number
              Setting "on" tries to circumvent the management  of  defects  on
              DVD-RAM,  BD-RE, or BD-R. Defect management keeps partly damaged
              media usable. But it reduces write speed to half  nominal  speed
              even  if  the  medium  is  in  perfect  shape.   For the case of
              flawless media, one may use -stream_recording "on" to  get  full
              "full"  tries full speed with all write operations, whereas "on"
              does this only above byte address 32s. One may give a number  of
              at least 16s in order to set an own address limit.
              "data"  causes full speed to start when superblock and directory
              entries are written and writing of file content blocks begins.

       -dvd_obs "default"|"32k"|"64k"
              GNU/Linux specific: Set the number of bytes  to  be  transmitted
              with  each write operation to DVD or BD media. A number of 64 KB
              may improve throughput  with  bus  systems  which  show  latency
              problems.   The  default  depends  on  media  type,  on  command
              -stream_recording , and on compile time options.

       -modesty_on_drive parameter[:parameters]
              Control whether the drive buffer  shall  be  kept  from  getting
              completely  filled.   Parameter  "on" (or "1") keeps the program
              from trying to write to the burner drive while its buffer is  in
              danger  to  be  filled  over  a  given  limit.  If this limit is
              exceeded then the program will wait until the filling reaches  a
              given low percentage value.
              This  can ease the load on operating system and drive controller
              and thus help with achieving better input bandwidth if disk  and
              burner are not on independent controllers (like hda and hdb). It
              may also help with throughput problems of simultaneous burns  on
              different  burners  with  Linux  kernels  like  3.16, if one has
              reason not to fix the problem by -scsi_dev_family "sg".  On  the
              other  hand  it  increases the risk of buffer underflow and thus
              reduced write speed.
              Some burners are not suitable because they  report  buffer  fill
              with  granularity  too  coarse  in size or time, or expect their
              buffer to be filled to the top before they go to full speed.
              Parameters "off" or "0" disable this feature.
              The threshold for  beginning  to  wait  is  given  by  parameter
              "max_percent=".   Parameter "min_percent=" defines the threshold
              for resuming transmission.  Percentages are permissible  in  the
              range  of  25  to 100. Numbers in this range without a prepended
              name are interpreted as "on:min_percent=".
              E.g.: -modesty_on_drive 75
              The optimal values depend on the buffer behavior of the drive.
              Parameter   "timeout_sec="   defines   after   which   time   of
              unsuccessful  waiting  the  modesty shall be disabled because it
              does not work.
              Parameter "min_usec=" defines the  initial  sleeping  period  in
              microseconds.   If  the  drive buffer appears to be too full for
              sending more data, the program will  wait  the  given  time  and
              inquire  the buffer fill state again.  If repeated inquiry shows
              not enough free space, the sleep time will slowly  be  increased
              to what parameter "max_usec=" defines.
              Parameters,  which  are  not  mentioned with a -modesty_on_drive
              command, stay unchanged.  Default is:
                -modesty_on_drive off:min_percent=90:max_percent=95:

       -use_immed_bit "on"|"off"|"default"
              Control whether several long  lasting  SCSI  commands  shall  be
              executed  with the Immed bit, which makes the commands end early
              while the drive  operation  is  still  going  on.  xorriso  then
              inquires progress indication until the drive reports to be ready
              again.  If  this  feature  is  turned  off,  then  blanking  and
              formatting will show no progress indication.
              It  may depend on the operating system whether -use_immed_bit is
              set to "off" by default. Command -status will tell by  appending
              "/on"  or  "/off"  if  a  drive  has  already  been acquired and
              -use_immed_bit  is  currently   set   to   "default".    Command
              -use_immed_bit tolerates and ignores such appended text.

       -stdio_sync "on"|"off"|"end"|number
              Set  the  number  of bytes after which to force output to stdio:
              pseudo drives.  This forcing keeps the memory from being clogged
              with  lots of pending data for slow devices. Default "on" is the
              same as "16m".  Forced output can be disabled by  "off",  or  be
              delayed  by  "end"  until  all data are produced. If a number is
              chosen, then it must be at least 64k.

       -dummy "on"|"off"
              If "on" then simulate burning or refuse with FAILURE event if no
              simulation is possible, do neither blank nor format.

       -fs number["k"|"m"]
              Set  the size of the fifo buffer which smoothens the data stream
              from ISO image generation to media burning. Default  is  4  MiB,
              minimum  64  kiB,  maximum 1 GiB.  The number may be followed by
              letter "k" or "m" which means unit is kiB (=  1024)  or  MiB  (=
              1024 kiB).

       -close "on"|"off"|"as_needed"
              If  -close  is  set  to "on" then mark the written medium as not
              appendable any more. This will have no  effect  on  overwritable
              media  types.   Setting  "on" is the contrary of cdrecord option
              -multi, and is one aspect of growisofs option -dvd-compat.
              If set to "off" then keep the medium writable  for  an  appended
              If  set  to "as_needed" then use "on" only if "off" is predicted
              to fail with the given medium and its state.
              Not all drives correctly  recognize  fast-blanked  DVD-RW  which
              need  "on".   If there is well founded suspicion that a burn run
              failed due to -close "off", then  -close  "as_needed"  causes  a
              re-try with "on".
              Note that emulation command -as "cdrecord" temporarily overrides
              the current setting of -close by its own default -close "on"  if
              its option -multi is missing.

       -write_type "auto"|"tao"|"sao/dao"
              Set the write type for the next burn run. "auto" will select SAO
              with blank CD media, DAO with blank DVD-R[W] if -close is  "on",
              and  elsewise  CD  TAO  or  the  equivalent  write  type  of the
              particular DVD/BD media.  Choosing  TAO  or  SAO/DAO  explicitly
              might  cause  the  burn run to fail if the desired write type is
              not possible with the given media state.

       -padding number["k"|"m"]|"included"|"appended"
              Append the given number of extra  bytes  to  the  image  stream.
              This  is  a  traditional  remedy  for a traditional bug in block
              device read drivers. Needed only for CD recordings in TAO  mode.
              Since  one  can  hardly predict on what media an image might end
              up, xorriso adds the traditional 300k of padding by  default  to
              all images.
              For  images  which  will  never  get  to  a CD it is safe to use
              -padding 0 .
              Normally padding is not written as part of  the  ISO  image  but
              appended after the image end. This is -padding mode "appended".
              Emulation command -as "mkisofs" and command -jigdo cause padding
              to be written as part of the image.  The same effect is achieved
              by -padding mode "included".

       Bootable ISO images:

       Contrary to published specifications many BIOSes will load an El Torito
       record from the first session on media and not from the last one, which
       gets  mounted  by  default.  This  makes no problems with overwriteable
       media, because they appear to inadverted readers as one single session.
       But with multi-session media CD-R[W], DVD-R[W], DVD+R, it implies  that
       the  whole  bootable  system has to reside already in the first session
       and that the last session still has to bear all files which the  booted
       system expects after mounting the ISO image.
       If  a  boot image from ISOLINUX or GRUB is known to be present on media
       then it is advised to patch it when a follow-up session  gets  written.
       But  one should not rely on the capability to influence the bootability
       of the existing sessions, unless one can assume overwriteable media.
       Normally the boot images are data files inside the ISO  filesystem.  By
       special  path  "--interval:appended_partition_NNN:all::" it is possible
       to refer to an appended partition. The number NNN gives  the  partition
       number as used with the corresponding option -append_partition.  E.g.:
         -append_partition 2 0xef /tmp/efi.img
         -e --interval:appended_partition_2:all::
       There  are  booting mechanisms which do not use an El Torito record but
       rather start at the first bytes of the image: PC-BIOS MBR  or  EFI  GPT
       for hard-disk-like devices, APM partition entries for Macs which expect
       HFS+ boot images, MIPS Volume Header for old SGI  computers,  DEC  Boot
       Block for old MIPS DECstation, SUN Disk Label for SPARC machines, HP-PA
       boot sector for HP PA-RISC machines, DEC Alpha SRM boot sector for  old
       DEC Alpha machines.

       Several  of  the following commands expect disk paths as input but also
       accept description strings for the libisofs interval reader,  which  is
       able  to cut out data from disk files or -indev and to zeroize parts of
       the  content:  command  -append_partition,  boot  specs   system_area=,
       grub2_mbr=, prep_boot_part=, efi_boot_part=.
       The  description string consists of the following components, separated
       by colon ':'
       The component "--interval" states that this is not a  plain  disk  path
       but  rather an interval reader description string.  The component Flags
       modifies the further interpretation:
       "local_fs" demands to read from a file depicted by the path in Source.
       "imported_iso" demands to read from the  -indev.  This  works  only  if
       -outdev is not the same as -indev. The Source component is ignored.
       "appended_partition_NNN"  with  a  decimal  number  NNN  works only for
       -boot_image bootspecs  which  announce  El  Torito  boot  image  paths:
       bin_path=,  efi_path=.   The  number gives the partition number as used
       with the corresponding option -append_partition.
       The component Interval consists of two byte address  numbers  separated
       by a "-" character. E.g. "0-429" means to read bytes 0 to 429.
       The  component  Zeroizers  consists  of  zero  or  more comma separated
       strings.  They define which part of the  read  data  to  zeroize.  Byte
       number  0  means  the  byte read from the Interval start address.  Each
       string may be one of:
       "zero_mbrpt" demands to zeroize the MBR partition table  if  bytes  510
       and 511 bear the MBR signature 0x55 0xaa.
       "zero_gpt"  demands  to check for a GPT header in bytes 512 to 1023, to
       zeroize it and its partition table blocks.
       "zero_apm" demands to check for an APM  block  0  and  to  zeroize  its
       partition table blocks.
       Start_byte"-"End_byte  demands  to  zeroize the read-in bytes beginning
       with number Start_byte and ending after End_byte.
       The component Source is the file path with flag "local_fs", and ignored
       with flag "imported_iso".
       Byte  numbers  may  be  scaled by a suffix out of {k,m,g,t,s,d} meaning
       multiplication by {1024, 1024k, 1024m,  1024g,  2048,  512}.  A  scaled
       value end number depicts the last byte of the scaled range.
       E.g. "0d-0d" is "0-511".

       -boot_image "any"|"isolinux"|"grub"
              Define  the equipment of the emerging filesystem with boot entry
              With systems which boot via BIOS or EFI this  is  a  set  of  El
              Torito  boot  images,  possibly  MBR  boot  code,  and  possibly
              partition tables of type MBR, GPT, or APM.  Such file  sets  get
              produced by boot loader systems like ISOLINUX or GRUB.

              Each  -boot_image  command has two parameters: type and setting.
              More than one -boot_image command may  be  used  to  define  the
              handling of one or more boot images. Sequence matters.
              Types  isolinux and grub care for known peculiarities.  Type any
              makes no assumptions about the origin of the boot images.

              When loading an ISO filesystem, system area and El  Torito  boot
              images  get  loaded,  too.  The default behavior is not to write
              loaded El Torito boot images and to write the loaded system area
              content without alterations.
              discard gives up the El Torito boot catalog and its boot images.
              regardless whether loaded from an ISO filesystem or  defined  by
              commands.   Any  BIOS  or  EFI related boot options get revoked.
              Nevertheless, loaded system area data stay  valid.  If  desired,
              they have to be erased by
               -boot_image any system_area=/dev/zero
              keep  keeps or copies El Torito boot images unaltered and writes
              a new catalog.
              patch applies patching to existing El Torito boot images if they
              seem to bear a boot info table.
              A  boot  info table needs to be patched when the boot image gets
              newly introduced into the ISO image or if an existing image gets
              relocated.   This  is  automatically  done if type "isolinux" or
              "grub" is given, but not with "any".
              If patching is enabled, then boot images from previous  sessions
              will  be checked whether they seem to bear a boot info table. If
              not, then they stay unpatched. This check is not infallible.  So
              if  you  do  know  that  the  images need no patching, use "any"
              "keep".    "grub"   "patch"   will   not   patch   EFI    images
              replay is a more modern version of "patch", which not only cares
              for  existing  El  Torito  boot  equipment  but  also  for   the
              recognizable boot provisions in the System Area. It discards any
              existing -boot_image setting and executes the commands  proposed
              by command -report_el_torito "cmd".
              This  action  will only succeed if the file objects mentioned in
              the  output  of  command  -report_el_torito  "cmd"   are   still
              available.  Do  not  remove  or  rename  boot  image files after
              Drop unknown El Torito:  -boot_image "any" "discard"
              Maintain recognizable stuff:  -boot_image "any" "replay"
              El Torito only for GRUB:  -boot_image "grub" "patch"
              El Torito only for ISOLINUX:  -boot_image "isolinux" "patch"
              show_status will print what  is  known  about  the  loaded  boot
              images and their designated fate.

              A  bootspec  is  a  word  of  the form name=value. It is used to
              describe the parameters of a boot  feature.   The  names  "dir",
              "bin_path",  "efi_path" lead to El Torito bootable images.  Name
              "system_area" activates a  given  file  as  MBR  or  other  disk
              On all media types this is possible within the first session. In
              further sessions an existing boot image can get  replaced  by  a
              new  one,  but  depending  on  the  media type this may have few
              effect at boot time. See above.
              El Torito boot images have to be  added  to  the  ISO  image  by
              normal  means  (image  loading,  -map,  -add,  ...).  In case of
              ISOLINUX the files should reside either in ISO  image  directory
              /isolinux  or  in  /boot/isolinux .  In that case it suffices to
              use    as    bootspec    the     text     "dir=/isolinux"     or
              "dir=/boot/isolinux". E.g.:
               -boot_image isolinux dir=/boot/isolinux
              which bundles these individual settings:
               -boot_image isolinux bin_path=/boot/isolinux/isolinux.bin
               -boot_image isolinux cat_path=/boot/isolinux/boot.cat
               -boot_image isolinux load_size=2048
               -boot_image any boot_info_table=on
              An  El Torito boot catalog file gets inserted into the ISO image
              with address cat_path= with the first -boot_image  "any"  "next"
              or  at  -commit  time.   It  is subject to normal -overwrite and
              -reassure processing if there is already a file  with  the  same
              name.  The catalog lists the boot images and is read by the boot
              facility to choose one  of  the  boot  images.  But  it  is  not
              necessary  that it appears in the directory tree at all. One may
              hide it in all trees by cat_hidden=on.   Other  possible  values
              are  "iso_rr",  "joliet", "hfsplus", and the default "off".  The
              timestamps of the boot catalog  file  are  refreshed  at  commit
              time.   Command  -volume_date  "uuid"  can  be used to set their
              bin_path= depicts an El Torito boot image file, a binary program
              which  is  to be started by the hardware boot facility (e.g. the
              BIOS) at boot time.
              efi_path= depicts an El Torito boot image file that is ready for
              EFI  booting. This is normally a FAT filesystem image not larger
              than 65535 blocks of 512 bytes (= 32 MiB - 512).  Its  load_size
              is determined automatically, no boot info table gets written, no
              boot medium gets emulated, platform_id is 0xef.
              emul_type=  can   be   one   of   "no_emulation",   "hard_disk",
              "diskette".   It  controls  the  boot medium emulation code of a
              boot  image.   The  default  "no_emulation"  is   suitable   for
              ISOLINUX, GRUB, FreeBSD cdboot.
              load_size=  is a value which depends on the boot image.  Default
              is 2048 which matches the expectations of most boot images.  The
              special  value "full" means the full size of the boot image file
              rounded up to a multiple of 2048 bytes.  Maximum  is  33,552,384
              boot_info_table=on  causes  address patching to bytes 8 to 63 of
              the  boot  image  which   is   given   by   "any"   "bin_path=".
              "boot_info_table=off" disables this patching.
              grub2_boot_info=on  causes  address patching to byte 2548 of the
              boot image which is given by "any" "bin_path=".  The address  is
              written  as  64  bit  little-endian  number. It is the 2KB block
              address of the boot image content, multiplied  by  4,  and  then
              incremented by 5.  "grub2_boot_info=off" disables this patching.
              platform_id=  defines  by  a  hexadecimal  or decimal number the
              Platform ID of the boot image. "0x00" is 80x86  PC-BIOS,  "0x01"
              is PowerPC, "0x02" is Mac, "0xef" is EFI (decimal "239").
              id_string=text|56_hexdigits  defines  the  ID string of the boot
              catalog section where the boot image  will  be  listed.  If  the
              value consists of 56 characters [0-9A-Fa-f] then it is converted
              into 28 bytes, else  the  first  28  characters  become  the  ID
              string.   The  ID  string  of  the  first boot image becomes the
              overall catalog ID.  It  is  limited  to  24  characters.  Other
              id_strings become section IDs.
              sel_crit=hexdigits  defines  the  Selection Criteria of the boot
              image.  Up to 20  bytes  get  read  from  the  given  characters
              [0-9A-Fa-f].  They get attributed to the boot image entry in the
              next ends the definition of a boot image and starts a  new  one.
              Any  following  -bootimage  bootspecs will affect the new image.
              The first "next" discards loaded boot images and their catalog.
              system_area=disk_path copies at most 32768 bytes from the  given
              disk  file to the very start of the ISO image.  This System Area
              is reserved for system dependent  boot  software,  e.g.  an  MBR
              which can be used to boot from USB stick or hard disk.
              Other than an El Torito boot image, the file disk_path needs not
              to be added to the ISO image.
              -boot_image isolinux system_area= implies  "partition_table=on".
              In  this  case, the disk path should lead to one of the SYSLINUX
              files isohdp[fp]x*.bin or to a file which was derived  from  one
              of  those  files.   E.g. to the first 512 bytes from an ISOLINUX
              isohybrid ISO image.
              In this case, El Torito boot images (dir=, bin_path=, efi_path=)
              may  be  augmented  by  isolinux  partition_entry=gpt_basdat  or
              isolinux   partition_entry=gpt_hfsplus,    and    by    isolinux
              partition_entry=apm_hfsplus.    The  boot  image  will  then  be
              mentioned in GPT as Basic Data or GPT HFS+ partition, and in APM
              as  HFS+ partition.  The first three GPT partitions will also be
              marked by MBR partitions.
              In  multi-session  situations  the  existing  System   Area   is
              preserved  by  default.   In in this case, the special disk_path
              "." prevents reading of a  disk  file  but  nevertheless  causes
              adjustments in the loaded system area data. Such adjustments may
              get ordered by -boot_image commands.
              -boot_image any gpt_disk_guid=value controls whether an emerging
              GPT shall get a randomly generated disk GUID or whether the GUID
              is supplied by the  user.   Value  "random"  is  default.  Value
              "volume_date_uuid"  produces  a  low quality GUID from the value
              set by -volume_date "uuid".
              A string of 32 hex digits, or a RFC 4122 compliant  GUID  string
              may  be  used to set the disk GUID directly. UEFI prescribes the
              first  three  components  of  a  RFC  4122  GUID  string  to  be
              byte-swapped in the binary representation:
              E.g.  gpt_disk_guid=2303cd2a-73c7-424a-a298-25632da7f446  equals
              The partition GUIDs get generated by minimally varying the  disk
              -boot_image   any   part_like_isohybrid=on  enables  -boot_image
              isolinux  partition_entry=  even  if  no  -boot_image   isolinux
              system_area=  is given.  No MBR partition  of type 0xee emerges,
              even if GPT gets produced.  Gaps between GPT and APM  partitions
              will  not be filled by more partitions.  Appended partitions get
              mentioned in APM if other APM partitions emerge.
              -boot_image any iso_mbr_part_type=number sets the partition type
              of  the  MBR  partition  which  represents  the  ISO or at least
              protects it.  Number may be 0x00 to  0xff.  The  text  "default"
              re-enables  the default types of the various occasions to create
              an ISO MBR partition.
              This is without effect if no such  partition  emerges  by  other
              settings or if the partition type is prescribed mandatorily like
              0xee for GPT protective MBR or 0x96 for CHRP.
              grub2_mbr=disk_path   works   like   "any"   system_area=   with
              additional  patching  for  modern  GRUB  MBRs. The content start
              address of the first boot image is converted to a count  of  512
              byte blocks, and an offset of 4 is added.  The result is written
              as 64 bit little-endian number to byte address 0x1b0.
              This feature can be revoked either by grub2_mbr= with empty disk
              path, or by submitting a disk_path via system_area=.
              partition_table=on causes a simple partition table to be written
              into bytes 446 to 511 of the System Area.
              With type "isolinux" it shows a partition that begins at byte  0
              and it causes the LBA of the first boot image to be written into
              the  MBR.  For  the  first  session  this  works  only  if  also
              "system_area=" and "bin_path=" or "dir=" is given.
              With  types  "any"  and "grub" it shows a single partition which
              starts at byte 512 and ends where  the  ISO  image  ends.   This
              works with or without system_area= or boot image.
              Bootspecs  chrp_boot_part=,  prep_boot_part=, and efi_boot_part=
              overwrite this entry in the MBR partition table.
              If  types  "isolinux"  or  "grub"  are  set  to  "patch",   then
              "partition_table=on"  is  activated  without new boot image.  In
              this case the existing System Area gets checked whether it bears
              addresses   and   sizes   as   if   it  had  been  processed  by
              "partition_table=on". If so, then those parameters  get  updated
              when the new System Area is written.
              Special  "system_area=/dev/zero"  causes  32k of NUL-bytes.  Use
              this to discard an MBR which was loaded with the ISO image.
              appended_part_as=gpt marks partitions from -append_partition  in
              GPT  rather  than  in  MBR.  In this case the MBR shows a single
              partition of type 0xee which covers the whole output data.
              appended_part_as=mbr is the  default.  Appended  partitions  get
              marked in GPT only if GPT is produced because of other settings.
              If given  explicitly,  this  clears  setting  "gpt"  and  "apm".
              Nevertheless "apm" may be added to "mbr".
              appended_part_as=apm  marks partitions from -append_partition in
              APM additionally to "mbr" or "gpt".
              By default, appended partitions get marked in APM only if APM is
              produced    because    of    other    options    together   with
              chrp_boot_part=on causes a single partition in MBR which  covers
              the  whole  ISO  image and has type 0x96. This is not compatible
              with any other feature that produces MBR partition  entries.  It
              makes GPT unrecognizable.
              prep_boot_part=disk_path inserts the content of a data file into
              the image and marks it by an MBR partition  of  type  0x41.  The
              parts  of  the ISO image before and after this partition will be
              covered by further MBR partitions.  The data file is supposed to
              contain ELF executable code.
              efi_boot_part=disk_path  inserts the content of a data file into
              the  image  and  marks  it  by   a   GPT   partition.   If   not
              chrp_boot_part=on,  then  the  first  partition in MBR will have
              type 0xee to announce the presence of GPT.   The  data  file  is
              supposed to contain a FAT filesystem.
              Instead  of a disk_path, the word --efi-boot-image may be given.
              It exposes in GPT the content of the first El  Torito  EFI  boot
              image as EFI system partition. EFI boot images are introduced by
              bootspec efi_path=.  The affected EFI boot image cannot show  up
              in HFS+ because it is stored outside the HFS+ partition.
              partition_offset=2kb_block_adr  causes  a partition table with a
              single partition that begins at the given block address. This is
              counted  in  2048  byte  blocks,  not in 512 byte blocks. If the
              block address is non-zero  then  it  must  be  at  least  16.  A
              non-zero partition offset causes two superblocks to be generated
              and two sets of directory trees. The  image  is  then  mountable
              from its absolute start as well as from the partition start.
              The  offset  value  of  an  ISO  image gets preserved when a new
              session is added.  So the value defined here is only  in  effect
              if a new ISO image gets written.
              partition_hd_cyl=number  gives  the number of heads per cylinder
              for the partition table. 0 chooses a default value.  Maximum  is
              partition_sec_hd=number gives the number of sectors per head for
              the partition table. 0 chooses a default value. Maximum is 63.
              The product partition_sec_hd * partition_hd_cyl  *  512  is  the
              cylinder  size.  It should be divisible by 2048 in order to make
              exact  alignment  possible.   With   appended   partitions   and
              "appended_part_as=gpt"  there  is  no  limit  for  the number of
              cylinders. Else there may be at  most  1024  of  them.   If  the
              cylinder  size  is  too  small  to  stay  below  the limit, then
              appropriate  values  of   partition_hd_cyl   are   chosen   with
              partition_sec_hd   32  or  63.  If  the  image  is  larger  than
              8,422,686,720 bytes, then the cylinder size  constraints  cannot
              be fulfilled for MBR.
              partition_cyl_align=mode  controls  image  size  alignment to an
              integer number of cylinders. It is prescribed by isohybrid specs
              and  it  seems  to  please  program fdisk. Cylinder size must be
              divisible by  2048.   Images  larger  than  8,323,596,288  bytes
              cannot be aligned in MBR partition table.
              Mode  "auto"  is default. Alignment by padding happens only with
              "isolinux" "partition_table=on".
              Mode "on" causes alignment by padding with  "partition_table=on"
              for  any  type.   Mode  "all"  is  like  "on"  but  also pads up
              partitions from -append_partition to an aligned size.
              Mode "off" disables alignment for any type.
              mbr_force_bootable=mode   enforces   an   MBR   partition   with
              "bootable/active"  flag  if  options  like  partition_table=  or
              grub2_mbr= indicate production of a bootable MBR.  These options
              normally  cause  the flag to be set if there is an MBR partition
              of type other than 0xee or 0xef.  If no such  partition  exists,
              then  no  bootflag is set, unless mbr_force_bootable="on" forces
              creation of a dummy partition of type 0x00 which covers only the
              first block of the ISO image.
              If  no bootable MBR is indicated and a partition gets created by
              -append_partition,   then   mbr_force_bootable="on"   causes   a
              bootflag like it would do with a bootable MBR.
              mips_path=iso_rr_path  declares a data file in the image to be a
              MIPS Big Endian boot file and causes production of  a  MIPS  Big
              Endian Volume Header. This is mutually exclusive with production
              of other boot blocks like MBR.  It will overwrite the first  512
              bytes of any data provided by system_area=.  Up to 15 boot files
              can be declared by mips_path=.
              mipsel_path=iso_rr_path declares a data file in the image to  be
              the  MIPS  Little  Endian  boot file. This is mutually exclusive
              with other boot blocks.  It will overwrite the first  512  bytes
              of  any  data provided by system_area=.  Only a single boot file
              can be declared by mipsel_path=.
              sparc_label=text causes the production of a SUN Disk Label  with
              the given text as ASCII label. Partitions 2 to 8 may be occupied
              by appended images.  Partition 1 will always be the  ISO  image.
              See  command -append_partition.  The first 512 bytes of any data
              provided by system_area= will be overwritten.
              grub2_sparc_core=iso_rr_path causes the content address and size
              of  the  given file to be written after the SUN Disk Label. Both
              numbers are counted in bytes. The address is written as  64  bit
              big-endian  number  to byte 0x228. The size is written as 32 bit
              big-endian number to byte 0x230.
              hppa_cmdline=text sets the PALO command line for  HP-PA.  Up  to
              1023 characters are permitted by default. With hppa_hdrversion=4
              the limit is 127.
              Note that the first five hppa_ bootspecs are mandatory,  if  any
              of the hppa_ bootspecs is used. Only hppa_hdrversion= is allowed
              to be missing.
              hppa_bootloader=iso_rr_path designates the given path  as  HP-PA
              bootloader file.
              hppa_kernel_32=iso_rr_path designates the given path as HP-PA 32
              bit kernel file.
              hppa_kernel_64=iso_rr_path designates the given path as HP-PA 64
              bit kernel file.
              hppa_ramdisk=iso_rr_path  designates the given path as HP-PA RAM
              disk file.
              hppa_hdrversion=number chooses between  PALO  header  version  5
              (default)  and version 4.  For the appropriate value see in PALO
              source code: PALOHDRVERSION.
              alpha_boot=iso_rr_path declares a data file in the image  to  be
              the   DEC  Alpha  SRM  Secondary  Bootstrap  Loader  and  causes
              production of a  boot  sector  which  points  to  it.   This  is
              mutually  exclusive  with  production  of other boot blocks like
              mips_discard, sparc_discard, hppa_discard, alpha_discard  revoke
              any boot file declarations made for mips/mipsel, sparc, hppa, or
              alpha, respectively.  This removes  the  ban  on  production  of
              other boot blocks.
              hfsplus_serial=hexstring  sets  a string of 16 digits "0" to "9"
              and letters "a" to "f", which will  be  used  as  unique  serial
              number of an emerging HFS+ filesystem.
              hfsplus_block_size=number  sets  the allocation block size to be
              used when producing HFS+ filesystems. Permissible are 512, 2048,
              or 0.  The latter lets the program decide.
              apm_block_size=number  sets  the  block  size  to  be  used when
              describing partitions by an Apple Partition Map. Permissible are
              512, 2048, or 0. The latter lets the program decide.
              Note that size 512 is not compatible with production of GPT, and
              that size 2048 will not be mountable  -t  hfsplus  at  least  by
              older Linux kernels.

       -append_partition partition_number type_code disk_path
              Cause  a  prepared  filesystem  image  to be appended to the ISO
              image and to be described by a partition table entry in  a  boot
              block  at  the  start  of  the emerging ISO image. The partition
              entry will bear the size of the submitted file rounded up to the
              next  multiple  of  2048  bytes  or  to the next multiple of the
              cylinder size.
              Beware of subsequent multi-session runs. The appended  partition
              will get overwritten.
              Partitions may be appended with boot block type MBR and with SUN
              Disk Label.
              With MBR:
              partition_number may be 1 to 4. Number 1 will put the whole  ISO
              image  into  the unclaimed space before partition 1. So together
              with most xorriso MBR features,  number  2  would  be  the  most
              natural choice.
              The type_code may be "FAT12", "FAT16", "Linux", or a hexadecimal
              number between 0x00 and 0xff. Not all those numbers  will  yield
              usable  results.  For  a  list  of codes search the Internet for
              "Partition Types" or run fdisk command "L".
              If some other command causes the production  of  GPT,  then  the
              appended partitions will be mentioned there too.
              The  disk_path  must  provide the necessary data bytes at commit
              time.  An empty disk_path disables this feature  for  the  given
              partition number.
              With SUN Disk Label (selected by -boot_image any sparc_label=):
              partition_number  may be 2 to 8. Number 1 will always be the ISO
              image.  Partition start addresses are aligned to  320  KiB.  The
              type_code does not matter. Submit 0x0.
              Partition  image  name "." causes the partition to become a copy
              of the next lower valid one.

       Jigdo Template Extraction:

       From man genisoimage: "Jigdo is a tool to help in the  distribution  of
       large  files  like CD and DVD images; see http://atterer.net/jigdo/ for
       more details. Debian CDs and DVD ISO images are published on the web in
       jigdo format to allow end users to download them more efficiently."
       xorriso  can  produce  a  .jigdo  and  a .template file together with a
       single-session ISO image.   The  .jigdo  file  contains  checksums  and
       symbolic  file  addresses.   The .template file contains the compressed
       ISO image with reference tags instead  of  the  content  bytes  of  the
       listed files.
       Input  for  this process are the normal arguments for a xorriso session
       on a blank -outdev, and a .md5 file which lists those data files  which
       may  be  listed  in  the  .jigdo  file and externally referenced in the
       .template file.  Each designated file is represented in the  .md5  file
       by a single text line:
       MD5  as 32 hex digits, 2 blanks, size as 12 decimal digits or blanks, 2
       blanks, symbolic file address
       The file address in an .md5 line has to bear the same basename  as  the
       disk_path  of  the file which it shall match. The directory path of the
       file address is decisive for To=From mapping, not for file recognition.
       After  To=From  mapping,  the file address gets written into the .jigdo
       file. Jigdo restore tools will  convert  these  addresses  into  really
       reachable data source addresses from which they can read.
       If  the list of jigdo parameters is not empty, then xorriso will refuse
       to write to non-blank targets, it will disable multi-session emulation,
       and padding will be counted as part of the ISO image.

       -jigdo parameter_name value
              Clear   Jigdo  Template  Extraction  parameter  list  or  add  a
              parameter to that list.  The alias names are  the  corresponding
              genisoimage  options.  They  are  accepted as parameter names as
              well.  Especially  they  are  recognized  by  the  -as   mkisofs
              emulation command.
              Parameter  clear  with  any  value  empties  the whole list.  No
              .jigdo and .template file will be produced.
              template_path sets the disk_path for the .template file with the
              holed and compressed ISO image copy.
              Alias: -jigdo-template
              jigdo_path  sets  the  disk_path  for  the  .jigdo file with the
              checksums and  download  addresses  for  filling  the  holes  in
              Alias: -jigdo-jigdo
              md5_path sets the disk_path where to find the .md5 input file.
              Alias: -md5-list
              min_size  sets  the minimum size for a data file to be listed in
              the .jigdo file and being a hole in the .template file.
              Alias: -jigdo-min-file-size
              exclude  adds  a  regular  expression  pattern  which  will  get
              compared  with  the absolute disk_path of any data file. A match
              causes the file to stay in .template in any case.
              Alias: -jigdo-exclude
              demand_md5 adds a regular  expression  pattern  which  will  get
              compared  with  the absolute disk_path of any data file that was
              not found in the .md5 list. A match causes a MISHAP event.
              Alias: -jigdo-force-md5
              mapping adds a string pair of the form To=From to the  parameter
              list.  If a data file gets listed in the .jigdo file, then it is
              referred by the file address from its line  in  the  .md5  file.
              This  file  address gets checked whether it begins with the From
              string. If so, then this string  will  be  replaced  by  the  To
              string and a ':' character, before it goes into the .jigdo file.
              The From string should end by a '/' character.
              Alias: -jigdo-map
              compression chooses one of "bzip2" or "gzip" for the compression
              of the template file. The jigdo file is put out uncompressed.
              Alias: -jigdo-template-compress
              checksum_iso  chooses  one  or  more of "md5", "sha1", "sha256",
              "sha512" for the auxiliary "# Image Hex" checksums in the  jigdo
              file.  The  value  may  e.g.  look like "md5,sha1,sha512". Value
              "all" chooses all available algorithms.   Note  that  MD5  stays
              always enabled.
              Alias: -checksum_algorithm_iso
              checksum_template is like checksum_iso but for "# Template Hex".
              Alias: -checksum_algorithm_template

       Character sets:

       File names are strings of non-zero bytes with 8 bit each. Unfortunately
       the  same  byte  string  may  appear  as  different  peculiar  national
       characters on differently nationalized terminals.  The meanings of byte
       codes are defined in character sets which  have  names.  Shell  command
       iconv -l lists them.
       The  file  names  on  hard  disk are assumed to be encoded by the local
       character set which is also used for the communication with  the  user.
       Byte codes 32 to 126 of the local character set must match the US-ASCII
       characters of the same code. ISO-8859 and UTF-8 fulfill this demand.
       By default, xorriso uses the character set as  told  by  shell  command
       "locale" with argument "charmap". This may be influenced by environment
       variables LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, or LANG and should match  the  expectations
       of  the  terminal.  In some situations it may be necessary to set it by
       command -local_charset.
       Local character  sets  should  not  matter  as  long  as  only  english
       alphanumeric  characters  are  used  for  file  names or as long as all
       writers and readers of the media use  the  same  local  character  set.
       Outside  these  constraints  it may be necessary to let xorriso convert
       byte codes from and to other character sets.
       The Rock Ridge file names in ISO filesystems are assumed to be  encoded
       by  the  input  character  set.   The  Rock  Ridge file names which get
       written with ISO filesystems will be encoded by  the  output  character
       The  sets  can  be  defined  independently  by commands -in_charset and
       -out_charset. Normally one will have both identical,  if  ever.   Other
       than the local character set, these two character sets may deviate from
       The output character sets for Joliet and HFS+  are  not  influenced  by
       these  commands. Joliet uses output character set UCS-2 or UTF-16. HFS+
       uses UTF-16.
       The default output charset is the local character set of  the  terminal
       where  xorriso  runs. So by default no conversion happens between local
       filesystem names and emerging  Rock  Ridge  names  in  the  image.  The
       situation  stays  ambiguous and the reader has to riddle what character
       set was used.
       By command -auto_charset it is possible to attribute the output charset
       name  to  the  image. This makes the situation unambiguous. But if your
       terminal character set does not match the character set  of  the  local
       file  names,  then  this  attribute  can become plainly wrong and cause
       problems at read time.  To  prevent  this  it  is  necessary  to  check
       whether  the  terminal  properly displays all intended filenames. Check
       especially the exotic national characters.
       To enforce recording of a particular character  set  name  without  any
       conversion at image generation time, set -charset and -local_charset to
       the desired name, and enable -backslash_codes to avoid  evil  character
       display on your terminal.

       -charset character_set_name
              Set  the  character  set  from  which to convert file names when
              loading an image and to which to convert when writing an image.

       -local_charset character_set_name
              Override the system assumption of the local character set  name.
              If   this   appears   necessary,  one  should  consider  to  set
              -backslash_codes to "on" in  order  to  avoid  dangerous  binary
              codes being sent to the terminal.

       Exception processing:

       Since  the  tasks  of  xorriso  are  manifold  and  prone  to  external
       influence, there may arise the need for xorriso to  report  and  handle
       problem events.
       Those  events  get  classified  when  they  are  detected by one of the
       software modules and forwarded  to  reporting  and  evaluation  modules
       which decide about reactions. Event classes are sorted by severity:
       "NEVER" The upper end of the severity spectrum.
       "ABORT" The program is being aborted and on its way to end.
       "FATAL"  The  main  purpose  of the run failed or an important resource
       failed unexpectedly.
       "FAILURE" An important part of the job could not be performed.
       "MISHAP" A FAILURE which can be tolerated during ISO image generation.
       "SORRY" A less important part of the job could not be performed.
       "WARNING" A situation is suspicious of being not intended by the user.
       "HINT" A proposal to the user how to achieve better results.
       "NOTE" A harmless information about noteworthy circumstances.
       "UPDATE" A pacifier message during long running operations.
       "DEBUG" A message which would only interest the program developers.
       "ALL" The lower end of the severity spectrum.

       -abort_on severity
              Set the severity threshold for events to abort the program.
              Useful: "NEVER", "ABORT", "FATAL", "FAILURE" , "MISHAP", "SORRY"
              It may become necessary to abort the program anyway, despite the
              setting  by  this  command. Expect not many "ABORT" events to be
              A special property of this command is that it  works  preemptive
              if  given  as  program  start argument. I.e. the first -abort_on
              setting among the start arguments is in effect already when  the
              first  operations  of  xorriso begin. Only "-abort_on" with dash
              "-" is recognized that way.

       -return_with severity exit_value
              Set the threshold and exit_value to be returned at  program  end
              if  no  abort  has  happened.  This is to allow xorriso to go on
              after problems but to get a failure indicating exit  value  from
              the  program,  nevertheless.   Useful  is a value lower than the
              -abort_on threshold, down to "WARNING".
              exit_value may be either 0 (indicating success to the starter of
              the  program)  or  a  number  between  32  and  63.  Some  other
              exit_values are used by xorriso  if  it  decides  to  abort  the
              program run:
              1=abort due to external signal
              2=no program arguments given
              3=creation of xorriso main object failed
              4=failure to start libburnia-project.org libraries
              5=program abort during argument processing
              6=program abort during dialog processing

       -report_about severity
              Set the threshold for events to be reported.
              Useful:   "SORRY", "WARNING", "HINT", "NOTE", "UPDATE", "DEBUG",
              Regardless what is set by  -report_about,  messages  get  always
              reported if they reach the severity threshold of -abort_on .
              Event messages are sent to the info channel "I" which is usually
              stderr but may  be  influenced  by  command  -pkt_output.   Info
              messages  which  belong  to  no  event  get  attributed severity
              A  special  property  of  this  command  is   that   the   first
              -report_about  setting  among  the  start arguments is in effect
              already  when  the  first  operations  of  xorriso  begin.  Only
              "-report_about" with dash "-" is recognized that way.

       -signal_handling mode
              Control  the  installation of a signal handler which shall react
              on external signals (e.g.  from  program  "kill"  or  from  keys
              Ctrl+C) or on signals caused by severe program errors.
              Mode  "on" is the default. It uses the signal handler of libburn
              which produces ugly messages but puts much effort  in  releasing
              optical drives before xorriso ends.
              Mode  "off"  as first -signal_handling among the start arguments
              prevents all own signal precautions of xorriso. Inherited signal
              handler settings stay as they are.
              It works like "sig_dfl" if given after other signal handling was
              already established at program start.
              Mode "sig_dfl" uses the  system  provided  default  handling  of
              signals,  which  is  normally  a sudden abort of the program. To
              prevent  stuck  drives,  the  libburn  handler  is  used  during
              burning, blanking, and formatting on MMC drives.
              Mode "sig_ign" tries to ignore as many signal types as possible.
              This  imposes  the  risk  that  xorriso  refuses  to  end  until
              externally  kill -9 if performed.  kill -9 then imposes the risk
              that the drive is left in unusable state and needs  poweroff  to
              be  reset.  So during burning, blanking, and formatting wait for
              at least their normal run time before killing externally.
              A  special  property  of  this  command  is   that   the   first
              -signal_handling  setting among the start arguments is in effect
              already  when  the  first  operations  of  xorriso  begin.  Only
              "-signal_handling" with dash "-" is recognized that way.

       -error_behavior occasion behavior
              Control  the  program  behavior at problem event occasions.  For
              now this applies to occasions  "image_loading"  which  is  given
              while  an  image  tree  is  read  from  the input device, and to
              "file_extraction" which is  given  with  osirrox  commands  like
              With "image_loading" there are three behaviors available:
              "best_effort"  goes  on  with reading after events with severity
              below FAILURE if the threshold of command -abort_on allows this.
              "failure" aborts image tree reading on first event of  at  least
              SORRY.  It issues an own FAILURE event.  This is the default.
              "fatal" acts like "failure" but issues the own event as FATAL.
              With occasion "file_extraction" there are three behaviors:
              "keep"  maintains  incompletely extracted files on disk. This is
              the default.
              "delete" removes files which encountered errors  during  content
              "best_effort" starts a revovery attempt by means of -extract_cut
              if the file content stems from the loaded ISO image and  is  not

       Dialog mode control:

       -dialog "on"|"off"|"single_line"
              Enable  or  disable  to  enter  dialog  mode  after  all program
              arguments  are  processed.   In  dialog  mode  input  lines  get
              prompted via readline or from stdin.
              If  no  -abort_on  severity  was  set  when  dialog starts, then
              "NEVER" is set to avoid abort in most cases of  wrong  input  or
              other  problems.  Before dialog begins, the default is "FAILURE"
              which e.g. aborts on unknown commands.
              Mode "on" supports input of newline characters within  quotation
              marks  and  line  continuation  by  trailing  backslash  outside
              quotation marks.  Mode "single_line" does not.

       -page length width
              Describe terminal to the text pager. See also  above,  paragraph
              Result pager.
              If parameter length is nonzero then the user gets prompted after
              that number of terminal lines. Zero length disables paging.
              Parameter width is the number of characters per  terminal  line.
              It  is  used  to  compute the number of terminal lines which get
              occupied by an output line.  A usual terminal width is 80.

       -use_readline "on"|"off"
              If "on" then use readline for dialog. Else use plain stdin.
              See also above, paragraph Dialog, Readline, Result pager.

       -reassure "on"|"tree"|"off"
              If "on" then ask the user for "y" or "n":
              before deleting or overwriting any file in the ISO image,
              before overwriting any disk file during restore operations,
              before rolling back pending image changes,
              before committing image changes to media,
              before changing the input drive,
              before blanking or formatting media,
              before ending the program.
              With setting "tree" the reassuring prompt  will  appear  for  an
              eventual  directory only once and not for each file in its whole
              Setting "off" silently kills any kind of image file  object  and
              performs above irrevocable actions.
              To  really produce user prompts, command -dialog needs to be set
              to "on".  Note that the prompt does  not  appear  in  situations
              where file removal is forbidden by command -overwrite. -reassure
              only imposes an  additional  curb  for  removing  existing  file
              Be  aware  that  file  objects  get  deleted  from the ISO image
              immediately after  confirmation.  They  are  gone  even  if  the
              running  command  gets  aborted  and  its  desired  effect  gets
              revoked. In case of severe mess-up, consider to use -rollback to
              revoke the whole session.

       Drive and media related inquiry actions:

              Show  list  of  available MMC drives with the addresses of their
              libburn standard device files.
              This is only possible when no ISO  image  changes  are  pending.
              After  this  command was executed, there is no drive current and
              no image loaded.
              In order to be visible, a device  has  to  offer  rw-permissions
              with its libburn standard device file. Thus it might be only the
              superuser who is able to see all drives.
              Drives which are occupied by other processes get not shown.

              Like -devices, but  presenting  the  drives  with  addresses  of
              symbolic links which point to the actual device files.
              Modern  GNU/Linux  systems may shuffle drive addresses from boot
              to boot.  The udev daemon is  supposed  to  create  links  which
              always  point  to  the  same  drive,  regardless  of  its system
              address.  The command -device_links shows the addresses of  such
              links  if they begin by "/dev/dvd" or "/dev/cd".  Precedence is:
              "dvdrw", "cdrw", "dvd", "cdrom", "cd".

              Show media specific tables  of  content.  This  is  the  session
              history of the medium, not the ISO image directory tree.
              In case of overwriteable media holding a valid ISO image, it may
              happen that only a single session gets shown. But if  the  first
              session on the overwriteable media was written by xorriso then a
              complete session history can be emulated.
              A drive which is incapable of writing  may  show  any  media  as
              CD-ROM  or DVD-ROM with only one or two sessions on it. The last
              of these sessions is supposed to be the most recent real session
              Some  read-only  drives and media show no usable session history
              at all.  Command -rom_toc_scan might help.
              If input device and output device are both acquired and not  the
              same, then both tables-of-content get shown.

       -toc_of "in"|"out"|"all"[":short"]
              Like   command   -toc  but  explicitly  choosing  which  drive's
              table-of-content to show. "in" shows -indev or -dev, "out" shows
              -outdev or -dev, "all" shows the same as -toc.
              If  ":short" is appended to the drive choosing word, then only a
              short summary of drive state and medium content is printed.
              As further difference  to  -toc,  this  command  does  not  emit
              FAILURE events if the desired drive is not acquired.

       -mount_cmd drive entity id path
              Emit  an  appropriate  command line for mounting the ISO session
              indicated by drive, entity and id.  The result will be different
              on GNU/Linux and on FreeBSD or NetBSD.
              drive  can  be  "indev" or "outdev" to indicate already acquired
              drives, or it can be the path  of  a  not  yet  acquired  drive.
              Prefix "stdio:" for non-MMC drives is not mandatory.
              For  entity  and id, see also command -load. They must be either
              "sbsector" with the superblock sector address as id, or  "track"
              with  a  track number as id, or "session" with a session number,
              or "volid" with a search pattern for the volume  id,  or  "auto"
              with  which  any  text  as id mounts the first track of the last
              path will be used as mount point and must  already  exist  as  a
              directory on disk.
              The  command  gets  printed  to  the result channel. See command
              -mount for direct execution of this command.

       -mount_opts option[:option...]
              Set options which influence  -mount  and  -mount_cmd.  Currently
              there  is  only  option  "exclusive"  which  is  default and its
              counterpart "shared". The latter causes xorriso not to  give  up
              the  affected  drive  with command -mount.  On GNU/Linux it adds
              mount  option  "loop"  which  may  enable  mounting  of  several
              sessions  of  the same block device at the same time. One should
              not write to a mounted optical medium, of course. Take  care  to
              umount all sessions before ejecting.

       -session_string drive entity id format
              Print to the result channel a text which gets composed according
              to format and the parameters of the addressed session.
              Formats "linux:"path or "freebsd:"path  produce  the  output  of
              -mount_cmd for the given operating systems.
              In  other  texts xorriso will substitute the following parameter
              names.  An optional prefix "string:" will be removed.
              "%device%" will be substituted by the mountable device  path  of
              the drive address.
              "%sbsector%" will be substituted by the session start sector.
              "%track%",  "%session%",  "%volid%" will be substituted by track
              number, session number, or volume id of the depicted session.

              Print the foreseeable consumption of 2048 byte  blocks  by  next
              -commit.  This  can  last a while as a -commit gets prepared and
              only in last moment is revoked  by  this  command.   The  result
              depends  on  several  settings  and  also  on the kind of output
              device.  If no -jidgo  options  are  set  and  not  command  -as
              "mkisofs"  was  used,  then  -padding (300 kB by default) is not
              counted as part of the image size.
              If an El Torito  boot  image  file  is  already  depicted,  then
              command  -print_size  automatically  executes  -boot_image "any"
              "next".  This means that  the  properties  of  that  boot  image
              cannot be edited by subsequent commands.

              Print  available  space  on the output medium and the free space
              after  subtracting  already  foreseeable  consumption  by   next
              Note  that  the  title  of  the  prediction  "After commit :" is
              misleading.  It is rather the space that may still be filled  in
              this  session  without  making the next -commit fail from medium
              The free space after  the  next  -commit  might  be  smaller  by
              several  MB.   This  depends  on medium type, number of recorded
              sessions, and drive habits.

              Print various ID strings and timestamps which can  be  found  in
              loaded  ISO  images.  Some of the IDs may be changed by commands
              like -volid or -publisher.  For these IDs -pvd_info reports what
              would  be written with the next -commit.  The timestamps get not
              automatically propagated from  loaded  image  to  newly  written
              image.   The   ones  for  new  images  may  be  set  by  command
              -volume_date.  See there  for  the  meaning  of  the  particular

       -report_el_torito mode
              With  mode  plain  print a report about the information found in
              the El Torito boot catalog of the loaded ISO image.
              With mode help print a text which explains the  meaning  of  the
              lines put out by "plain".
              Mode cmd tries to print the xorriso commands which are necessary
              to produce the found boot equipment: disk identifiers, El Torito
              boot images, and System Area. Disk identifiers are strings which
              the  booting  operating  system  might  use  to  find  the   ISO
              filesystem  from  where  it comes. Currently known is the use of
              volume id and modification date.
              The intended use case  is  modification  of  the  filesystem  by
              having  -indev  and  -outdev  pointing  to  different  images or
              drives.   The  result  might  be  insufficient,  if  the   found
              equipment  cannot  be  produced by xorriso. Various SORRY events
              may arise in this case, but it is not  guaranteed  that  xorriso
              recognizes all its insufficiencies.
              Mode  as_mkisofs tries to print the xorriso -as mkisofs options,
              which  are  necessary  to  produce  the  found  equipment.   The
              intended use case is to use the mounted filesystem as input tree
              together with the printed options.

       -report_system_area mode
              With mode plain print a report about the  information  found  in
              the  System Area of the loaded ISO image. The report consists of
              zero to many lines with a header text, a colon, and  information
              With  mode  help  print a text which explains the meaning of the
              lines put out by "plain". You probably will  have  to  look  for
              more  documentation  which explains the technical details of the
              mentioned boot facilities.
              Modes   cmd   and   as_mkisofs   work    like    with    command
              -report_el_torito. See above.
              With  mode  gpt_disk_guid  print the GPT disk GUID of the loaded
              ISO in RFC 4122  text  format  to  result  channel.  It  is  not
              considered  an  error if no GPT is present. In this case nothing
              is printed to result channel.
              With mode gpt_crc_of:disk_path read up to 32 KiB from  the  disk
              file  with  the  path  given  after  the  colon. Compute the GPT
              compliant CRC number and print it to  the  result  channel.  The
              number  is  shown  like "0x690fd979".  The special disk_path "-"
              causes reading from standard input.
              With mode make_guid print a pseudo-random GUID in RFC 4122  text
              format to result channel.

       Navigation in ISO image and disk filesystem:

       -cd iso_rr_path
              Change  the current working directory in the ISO image.  This is
              prepended to iso_rr_paths which do not begin with '/'.
              It is possible to set the working directory to a path which does
              not exist yet in the ISO image. The necessary parent directories
              will be created when the first file object is inserted into that
              virtual  directory.   Use  -mkdir  if  you  want  to enforce the
              existence of the directory already at first insertion.

       -cdx disk_path
              Change the current working directory in  the  local  filesystem.
              To be prepended to disk_paths which do not begin with '/'.

              Tell the current working directory in the ISO image.

              Tell the current working directory in the local filesystem.

       -ls iso_rr_pattern [***]
              List  files  in  the  ISO image which match shell patterns (i.e.
              with wildcards '*' '?' '[a-z]').  If a pattern  does  not  begin
              with '/' then it is compared with addresses relative to -cd.
              Directories  are  listed  by their content rather than as single
              file item.
              Pattern expansion may be disabled by command -iso_rr_pattern.

       -lsd iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Like -ls but listing directories as themselves and not by  their
              content.  This resembles shell command ls -d.

       -lsl iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Like  -ls but also list some of the file attributes.  The output
              format resembles shell command ls -ln.
              File type 'e' indicates the El Torito boot catalog.
              If the file has non-trivial ACL, then a '+' is appended  to  the
              permission  info.  If the file is hidden, then 'I' for "iso_rr",
              'J' for "joliet", 'A' for "hfsplus",  'H'  for  multiple  hiding
              gets appended.  Together with ACL it is 'i', 'j', 'a', 'h'.

       -lsdl iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Like -lsd but also list some of the file attributes.  The output
              format resembles shell command ls -dln.

       -lsx disk_pattern [***]
              List files in the local filesystem which match  shell  patterns.
              Patterns which do not begin with '/' are used relative to -cdx.
              Directories  are  listed  by their content rather than as single
              file item.
              Pattern expansion may be disabled by command -disk_pattern.

       -lsdx disk_pattern [***]
              Like -lsx but listing directories as themselves and not by their
              content.  This resembles shell command ls -d.

       -lslx disk_pattern [***]
              Like  -lsx but also listing some of the file attributes.  Output
              format resembles shell command ls -ln.

       -lsdlx disk_pattern [***]
              Like -lsdx but also listing some of the file attributes.  Output
              format resembles shell command ls -dln.

       -getfacl iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Print the access permissions of the given files in the ISO image
              using the format of shell command getfacl. If a file has no  ACL
              then  it  gets  fabricated  from the -chmod settings. A file may
              have a real ACL if it was introduced into the  ISO  image  while
              command -acl was set to "on".

       -getfacl_r iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Like  -gefacl  but  listing  recursively  the  whole  file trees
              underneath eventual directories.

       -getfattr iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Print the xattr of the given files in the ISO image.  If a  file
              has no such xattr then noting is printed for it.

       -getfattr_r iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Like  -gefattr  but  listing  recursively  the  whole file trees
              underneath eventual directories.

       -du iso_rr_pattern [***]
              Recursively list size of directories and files in the ISO  image
              which  match  one  of the patterns.  similar to shell command du

       -dus iso_rr_pattern [***]
              List size of directories and files in the ISO image which  match
              one of the patterns.  Similar to shell command du -sk.

       -dux disk_pattern [***]
              Recursively  list  size  of  directories  and files in the local
              filesystem which match one of the  patterns.  Similar  to  shell
              command du -k.

       -dusx disk_pattern [***]
              List size of directories and files in the local filesystem which
              match one of the patterns.  Similar to shell command du -sk.

       -findx disk_path [-name pattern] [-type t] [-exec action [params]] --
              Like -find but operating on local filesystem and not on the  ISO
              image.  This is subject to the settings of -follow.
              -findx  accepts the same -type parameters as -find. Additionally
              it  recognizes  type  "mountpoint"  (or   "m")   which   matches
              subdirectories  which  reside  on  a different device than their
              parent. It never matches the disk_path given  as  start  address
              for -findx.
              -findx  accepts  the -exec actions as does -find. But except the
              following few actions it will always perform action "echo".
              in_iso reports the path if its counterpart  exists  in  the  ISO
              image.   For  this  the  disk_path  of  the  -findx command gets
              replaced by the iso_rr_path given as parameter.
              E.g.: -findx /home/thomas -exec in_iso /thomas_on_cd --
              not_in_iso reports the path if its counterpart does not exist in
              the  ISO  image.  The  report format is the same as with command
              add_missing iso_rr_path_start adds the counterpart  if  it  does
              not  yet  exist  in the ISO image and marks it for "rm_merge" as
              E.g.: -findx /home/thomas -exec add_missing /thomas_on_cd --
              is_full_in_iso reports if  the  counterpart  in  the  ISO  image
              contains  files.  To  be  used  with  -type  "m" to report mount
              empty_iso_dir deletes all files from the counterpart in the  ISO
              image. To be used with -type "m" to truncate mount points.
              estimate_size  prints  a  lower  and  an upper estimation of the
              number of blocks which the found files together will  occupy  in
              the   emerging  ISO  image.   This  does  not  account  for  the
              superblock, for the directories in the -findx path, or for image
              list_extattr  mode  prints a script to the result channel, which
              would use FreeBSD command setextattr to  set  the  file's  xattr
              name-value pairs of user namespace.  See -find for a description
              of parameter mode.
              E.g. -exec list_extattr e --

       -compare disk_path iso_rr_path
              Compare  attributes  and  eventual  data  file  content   of   a
              fileobject in the local filesystem with a file object in the ISO
              image. The iso_rr_path may well point to an  image  file  object
              which is not yet committed, i.e. of which the data content still
              resides in the local filesystem. Such data content is  prone  to
              externally caused changes.
              If  iso_rr_path  is  empty then disk_path is used as path in the
              ISO image too.
              Differing attributes are reported in detail,  differing  content
              is  summarized.   Both  to  the  result  channel.  In case of no
              differences no result lines are emitted.

       -compare_r disk_path iso_rr_path
              Like -compare but working recursively.  I.e.  all  file  objects
              below both addresses get compared whether they have counterparts
              below the other address and whether both counterparts match.

       -compare_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
              Perform  -compare_r  with  each  of  the  disk_path  parameters.
              iso_rr_path   will  be  composed  from  disk_path  by  replacing
              disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.

       -show_stream iso_rr_path [***]
              Display the content stream chain of data files in the ISO image.
              The  chain  consists of the iso_rr_name and one or more streams,
              separated by " < " marks.  A stream description consists of  one
              or  more  texts,  separated  by  ":" characters.  The first text
              tells the stream type, the following ones, if ever, describe its
              individual properties.  Frequently used types are:
               disk:'disk_path'  for local filesystem objects.
               image:'iso_rr_path'  for ISO image file objects.
               cout:'disk_path offset count'  for -cut_out files.
               extf:'filter_name' for external filters.
               '/abc/xyz.gz' < extf:'gzip' < disk:'/home/me/x'

       -show_stream_r iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -show_stream but working recursively.

       Evaluation of readability and recovery:

       It  is not uncommon that optical media produce read errors. The reasons
       may be various and get obscured by error correction which is  performed
       by  the drives and based on extra data on the media. If a drive returns
       data then one can quite trust that they are valid. But at  some  degree
       of  read problems the correction will fail and the drive is supposed to
       indicate error.
       xorriso can scan a medium  for  readable  data  blocks,  classify  them
       according  to  their read speed, save them to a file, and keep track of
       successfully saved blocks for further tries on the same medium.
       By command -md5 checksums may get recorded with data  files  and  whole
       sessions.  These  checksums  are  reachable only via indev and a loaded
       image.  They work independently  of  the  media  type  and  can  detect
       transmission errors.

       -check_media [option [option ...]] --
              Try  to  read  data blocks from the indev drive, optionally copy
              them to a disk file, and finally report  about  the  encountered
              quality.  Several  options  may  be  used  to modify the default
              The parameters given with  this  command  override  the  default
              settings    which    may    have   been   changed   by   command
              -check_media_defaults. See there for a description of  available
              The  result  list  tells  intervals  of  2 KiB blocks with start
              address, number of blocks and  quality.  Qualities  which  begin
              with  "+" are supposed to be valid readable data. Qualities with
              "-" are unreadable or corrupted data.  "0"  indicates  qualities
              which  are not covered by the check run or are regularly allowed
              to be unreadable (e.g. gaps between tracks).
              Alternatively it is possible to report damaged files rather than
              If  -md5 is "on" then the default mode what=tracks looks out for
              libisofs checksum tags for the ISO session data and checks  them
              against the checksums computed from the data stream.

       -check_media_defaults [option [option ...]] --
              Preset  options  for  runs  of  -check_media,  -extract_cut  and
              best_effort file extraction.  Options  given  with  -check_media
              will  override  the  preset  options. -extract_cut will override
              some options automatically.
              An option consists of a keyword, a "=" character, and  a  value.
              Options may override each other. So their sequence matters.
              The default setting at program start is:
              use=indev what=tracks min_lba=-1 max_lba=-1 retry=default
              time_limit=28800 item_limit=100000 data_to='' event=ALL
              sector_map='' map_with_volid=off patch_lba0=off report=blocks
              bad_limit=invalid slow_limit=1.0 chunk_size=0s async_chunks=0
              Option "reset=now" restores these startup defaults.
              Non-default options are:
              report="files"  lists  the  files  which use damaged blocks (not
              with  use=outdev).   The  format  is  like   with   find   -exec
              report_damage.  Note that a MD5 session mismatch marks all files
              of the session as damaged.  If  finer  distinction  is  desired,
              perform -md5 off before -check_media.
              report="blocks_files"   first  lists  damaged  blocks  and  then
              affected files.
              use="outdev" reads from the output drive instead  of  the  input
              drive. This avoids loading the ISO image tree from media.
              use="sector_map"  does  not  read  any  media but loads the file
              given by option sector_map= and processes this virtual outcome.
              what="disc"  scans  the  payload  range  of  a  medium   without
              respecting track gaps.
              what="image"  similar  to  "disc", but restricts scanning to the
              range of the ISO 9660 image, if present.
              min_lba=limit omits all blocks with addresses lower than limit.
              max_lba=limit switches to what=disc and omits all  blocks  above
              chunk_size=size  sets  the  number  of  bytes  to be read in one
              low-level read operation.  This gets rounded down to full blocks
              of 2048 bytes. 0 means automatic size.
              retry="on"  forces read retries with minimal senseful chunk size
              when the normal read chunk produces a read error. This  size  is
              1s  with CD and stdio files, 16s with DVD (1 ECC Block), and 32s
              with BD (1 Cluster).  By default, retries are only enabled  with
              CD media. "retry=off" forbits retries for all media types.
              abort_file=disk_path  gives the path of the file which may abort
              a scan run. Abort happens if the file exists and  its  mtime  is
              not  older  than  the  start  time of the run. Use shell command
              "touch" to trigger this.  Other than  an  aborted  program  run,
              this  will  report the tested and untested blocks and go on with
              running xorriso.
              time_limit=seconds gives the number of seconds after  which  the
              scan shall be aborted. This is useful for unattended scanning of
              media which may else overwork the drive in its effort to squeeze
              out  some  readable  blocks.   Abort may be delayed by the drive
              gnawing on the last  single  read  operation.   Value  -1  means
              unlimited time.
              item_limit=number  gives  the  number of report list items after
              which to abort.  Value -1 means unlimited item number.
              data_to=disk_path copies the valid blocks to the given file.
              event=severity sets the given severity for a problem event which
              shall  be  issued  at the end of a check run if data blocks were
              unreadable or failed to match recorded MD5  checksums.  Severity
              "ALL" disables this event.
              sector_map=disk_path  tries  to read the file given by disk_path
              as sector bitmap and to store such a map  file  after  the  scan
              run.   The bitmap tells which blocks have been read successfully
              in previous runs.  It is the persistent memory for several scans
              on  the  same  medium, even with intermediate eject, in order to
              collect readable blocks whenever the drive is  lucky  enough  to
              produce  them.  The stored file contains a human readable TOC of
              tracks and their  start  block  addresses,  followed  by  binary
              bitmap data.
              By  default,  untested blocks are not considered bad, but rather
              as  intentionally  unread.  If   you   expect   time_limit=   or
              item_limit=   to   abort   the   run,   then   consider  to  use
              map_with_volid="on" examines tracks whether they are ISO  images
              and  prints  their  volume  IDs  into  the human readable TOC of
              patch_lba0="on" transfers within the data_to= file a copy of the
              currently  loaded  session  head  to  the start of that file and
              patches it to be valid at that position.  This makes the  loaded
              session  the  last  valid session of the image file when it gets
              mounted or loaded as stdio: drive. New sessions will be appended
              after  this  last  session and will overwrite any sessions which
              have followed it.
              patch_lba0="force"  performs  patch_lba0="on"  even  if  xorriso
              believes that the copied data are not valid.
              patch_lba0=  may also bear a number. If it is 32 or higher it is
              taken as start address of the session to be copied. In this case
              it  is  not  necessary  to  have  an  -indev and a loaded image.
              ":force" may be appended after the number.
              bad_limit=threshold sets the  highest  quality  which  shall  be
              considered  as  damage.   Choose  one  of  "good",  "md5_match",
              "slow", "partial", "valid",  "untested",  "invalid",  "tao_end",
              "off_track", "md5_mismatch", "unreadable".
              "valid"  and  "invalid" are qualities imported from a sector_map
              file.  "tao_end" and "off_track" are intentionally not readable,
              but  not  bad  either.   "partial"  are  blocks retrieved from a
              partially readable chunk. They are supposed to be  ok  but  stem
              from a suspicious neighborhood.
              "md5_match"  and  "md5_mismatch" regions overlap with regions of
              other quality.
              slow_limit=threshold sets the time threshold for a  single  read
              chunk  to  be  considered  slow. This may be a fractional number
              like 0.1 or 1.5.
              async_chunks=number  enables  asynchronous  MD5  processing   if
              number  is  2  or larger.  In this case the given number of read
              chunks is allocated as fifo buffer.  On  very  fast  MMC  drives
              try: chunk_size=64s async_chunks=16.

       -check_md5 severity iso_rr_path [***]
              Compare  the data content of the given files in the loaded image
              with their recorded MD5 checksums, if there are any. In case  of
              any  mismatch  an  event of the given severity is issued. It may
              then be handled by appropriate settings of commands -abort_on or
              -return_with  which  both  can cause non-zero exit values of the
              program run. Severity ALL suppresses that event.
              This command reports match and mismatch of  data  files  to  the
              result  channel.   Non-data  files cause NOTE events. There will
              also be UPDATE events from data reading.
              If no iso_rr_path is given then  the  whole  loaded  session  is
              compared  with  its  MD5 sum. Be aware that this covers only one
              session and not the whole image if there are older sessions.

       -check_md5_r severity iso_rr_path [***]
              Like -check_md5 but checking all data files underneath the given
              paths.  Only mismatching data files will be reported.

       osirrox ISO-to-disk restore commands:

       Normally  xorriso  only writes to disk files which were given as stdio:
       pseudo-drives or as log files.  But its alter ego osirrox  is  able  to
       extract  file  objects  from  ISO  images  and to create, overwrite, or
       delete file objects on disk.
       Disk file exclusions by -not_mgt, -not_leaf, -not_paths apply.  If disk
       file  objects  already  exist  then  the  settings  of  -overwrite  and
       -reassure apply. But -overwrite "on"  only  triggers  the  behavior  of
       -overwrite "nondir". I.e. directories cannot be deleted.
       Access permissions of files in the ISO image do not restrict restoring.
       The directory permissions on disk have to allow rwx.

       -osirrox setting[:option:...]
              Setting "off" disables disk filesystem  manipulations.  This  is
              the  default  unless  the  program  was  started  with  leafname
              "osirrox". Elsewise the  capability  to  restore  files  can  be
              enabled  explicitly  by  -osirrox  "on".   It can be irrevocably
              disabled by -osirrox "banned".
              The setting "blocked" is like "off". But it can only be  revoked
              by  setting  "unblock", which elsewise is like "on". This can be
              used to curb command scripts which might use "on" undesiredly.
              To enable  restoring  of  special  files  by  "device_files"  is
              potentially  dangerous.   The meaning of the number st_rdev (see
              man 2 stat) depends much on the operating  system.  Best  is  to
              restore  device  files  only  to the same system from where they
              were copied. If not enabled, device files in the ISO  image  are
              ignored during restore operations.
              Due  to  a  bug of previous versions, device files from previous
              sessions might have been altered to major=0,  minor=1.  So  this
              combination does not get restored.
              Option  "concat_split_on"  is  default.  It enables restoring of
              split file directories as data files if the directory contains a
              complete   collection   of  -cut_out  part  files.  With  option
              "concat_split_off" such directories are handled like  any  other
              ISO image directory.
              Option  "auto_chmod_off"  is  default. If "auto_chmod_on" is set
              then access restrictions for disk directories  get  circumvented
              if  those  directories  are owned by the effective user who runs
              xorriso. This happens by temporarily granting rwx permission  to
              the owner.
              Option  "sort_lba_on"  may improve read performance with optical
              drives. It can restore  large  numbers  of  hard  links  without
              exhausting -temp_mem_limit. It does not preserve directory mtime
              and it needs -osirrox option auto_chmod_on in order  to  extract
              directories   which   offer  no  write  permission.  Default  is
              Option "o_excl_on" is the default unless the program was started
              with  leafname  "osirrox".  On GNU/Linux it tries to avoid using
              drives which are mounted or in use by  other  libburn  programs.
              Option  "o_excl_off" on GNU/Linux enables access to such drives.
              Drives which get acquired while "o_excl_off" will refuse to  get
              blanked,  formatted, written, or ejected. But be aware that even
              harmless inquiries  can  spoil  ongoing  burns  of  CD-R[W]  and
              Option  "strict_acl_off" is default. It tolerates on FreeBSD the
              presence of directory "default" ACLs  in  the  ISO  image.  With
              "strict_acl_on"  these GNU/Linux ACLs cause on FreeBSD a FAILURE
              event during restore with -acl "on".

       -extract iso_rr_path disk_path
              Copy the file objects at and  underneath  iso_rr_path  to  their
              corresponding  addresses  at  and underneath disk_path.  This is
              the inverse of -map or -update_r.
              If iso_rr_path is a  directory  and  disk_path  is  an  existing
              directory  then  both trees will be merged. Directory attributes
              get extracted only if the disk directory is newly created by the
              copy  operation.   Disk files get removed only if they are to be
              replaced by file objects from the ISO image.
              As many attributes as possible are copied together with restored
              file objects.

       -extract_single iso_rr_path disk_path
              Like  -extract,  but  if iso_rr_path is a directory then its sub
              tree gets not restored.

       -extract_l iso_rr_prefix disk_prefix iso_rr_path [***]
              Perform  -extract  with  each  of  the  iso_rr_path  parameters.
              disk_path   will  be  composed  from  iso_rr_path  by  replacing
              iso_rr_prefix by disk_prefix.

       -extract_cut iso_rr_path byte_offset byte_count disk_path
              Copy a byte interval from a data file out of an ISO image into a
              newly  created disk file.  The main purpose for this is to offer
              a way of handling large files if they are not supported by mount
              -t  iso9660  or if the target disk filesystem cannot store large
              If the data bytes of iso_rr_path are stored in  the  loaded  ISO
              image,  and  no filter is applied, and byte_offset is a multiple
              of 2048, then a special run of -check_media is performed. It may
              be quicker and more rugged than the general reading method.

       -cpx iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
              Copy  single leaf file objects from the ISO image to the address
              given by disk_path. If more then one iso_rr_path is  given  then
              disk_path  must  be  a  directory or non-existent. In the latter
              case it gets created and the extracted files get installed in it
              with the same leafnames.
              Missing  directory  components in disk_path will get created, if
              Directories  are  allowed  as  iso_rr_path  only  with  -osirrox
              "concat_split_on" and only if they actually represent a complete
              collection of -cut_out split file parts.

       -cpax iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
              Like -cpx but restoring mtime, atime as in ISO image and  trying
              to set ownership and group as in ISO image.

       -cp_rx iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
              Like -cpx but also extracting whole directory trees from the ISO
              The resulting disk paths are determined as with shell command cp
              -r  :  If disk_path is an existing directory then the trees will
              be inserted or merged underneath this directory  and  will  keep
              their  leaf  names.  The  ISO directory "/" has no leaf name and
              thus gets mapped directly to disk_path.

       -cp_rax iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
              Like -cp_rx but restoring mtime,  atime  as  in  ISO  image  and
              trying to set ownership and group as in ISO image.

       -paste_in iso_rr_path disk_path byte_offset byte_count
              Read  the  content  of  a ISO data file and write it into a data
              file on  disk  beginning  at  the  byte_offset.  Write  at  most
              byte_count bytes.  This is the inverse of command -cut_out.

       -concat mode [target | lim prog [args [...]] lim] iso_rr_path [***]
              Copy the data content of one or more data files of the ISO image
              into a disk file object, into a  file  descriptor,  or  start  a
              program  and  copy the data into its standard input.  The latter
              is subject to the security restrictions for external filters.
              Modes overwrite and append write into the target which is  given
              by  the  second  parameter.  This may be the path to a disk file
              object, or "-" which means standard output, or  a  text  of  the
              form  /dev/fd/number,  where  number  is an open file descriptor
              (e.g. standard error is /dev/fd/2).  An existing target file  is
              not  removed  before  writing  begins. If it is not able to take
              content data, then this command fails.  Mode overwrite truncates
              regular data files to 0 size before writing into them.  Example:
               -concat append /home/me/accumulated_text /my/iso/text --

              Mode  pipe  expects  as  second parameter a delimiter word which
              shall mark the end of  the  program  argument  list.  The  third
              argument  is  the  disk_path  to the program. It must contain at
              least one '/'. $PATH is not applied.  Further parameters  up  to
              the  announced  delimiter  word  are  used as arguments with the
              program start. Example:
               -iso_rr_pattern on \
               -concat pipe + /usr/bin/wc + "/my/iso/files*" --

              The further parameters in all modes are the iso_rr_paths of data
              files.  Their content gets concatenated in the copy.

       -mount drive entity id path
              Produce  the  same  line  as  -mount_cmd  and then execute it as
              external program run after giving up  the  depicted  drive.  See
              also  -mount_opts.   This  demands  -osirrox  to  be enabled and
              normally will succeed only for the superuser. For safety reasons
              the  mount  program  is  only  executed  if  it  is reachable as
              /bin/mount or /sbin/mount.

       Command compatibility emulations:

       Writing of ISO 9660 on CD is traditionally done by program  mkisofs  as
       ISO 9660 image producer and cdrecord as burn program.  xorriso does not
       strive for their comprehensive emulation.  Nevertheless it is ready  to
       perform  some of its core tasks under control of commands which in said
       programs trigger comparable actions.

       -as personality option [options] --
              Perform the variable length option list as sparse  emulation  of
              the program depicted by the personality word.

              Personality "mkisofs" accepts the options listed with:
                -as mkisofs -help --
              Among  them:  -R  (always  on),  -r,  -J, -o, -M, -C, -dir-mode,
              -file-mode,  -path-list,  -m,  -exclude-list,  -f,  -print-size,
              -pad,    -no-pad,   -V,   -v,   -version,   -graft-points,   -z,
              -no-emul-boot,  -b,   -c,   -boot-info-table,   -boot-load-size,
              -input-charset,  -G,  -output-charset,  -U, -hide, -hide-joliet,
              -hide-list, -hide-joliet-list, file paths and pathspecs.  A  lot
              of  options are not supported and lead to failure of the mkisofs
              emulation. Some are ignored, but better  do  not  rely  on  this
              The supported options are documented in detail in xorrisofs.info
              and in man xorrisofs. The description here  is  focused  on  the
              effect of mkisofs emulation in the context of a xorriso run.
              Other than with the "cdrecord" personality there is no automatic
              -commit at  the  end  of  a  "mkisofs"  option  list.  Verbosity
              settings  -v  (=  "UPDATE")  and -quiet (= "SORRY") persist. The
              output  file  persists  until  things   happen   like   -commit,
              -rollback, -dev, or end of xorriso.
              Options  which affect all file objects in the ISO image, like -r
              or -dir-mode, will be applied only to files which are present in
              the  ISO image when the command -as ends. If you use several -as
              mkisofs commands in the same run,  then  consider  to  put  such
              options into the last -as command.
              If  files  are  added  to  the image, then -pacifier gets set to
              "mkisofs" and -stdio_sync is  defaulted  to  "off"  if  no  such
              setting was made yet.
              -graft-points   is   equivalent  to  -pathspecs  on.  Note  that
              pathspecs without "="  are  interpreted  differently  than  with
              xorriso  command  -add.   Directories  get  merged with the root
              directory of the ISO image, other filetypes get mapped into that
              root directory.
              If  pathspecs  are given and if no output file was chosen before
              or during  the  "mkisofs"  option  list,  then  standard  output
              (-outdev  "-")  will get into effect.  If -o points to a regular
              file, then it will be truncated to 0 bytes when finally  writing
              begins.  This  truncation does not happen if the drive is chosen
              by xorriso  commands  before  -as  mkisofs  or  after  its  list
              delimiter.  Directories  and  symbolic  links  are  no  valid -o
              Writing to stdout is possible only if -as  "mkisofs"  was  among
              the  start  arguments  or  if  other start arguments pointed the
              output drive to standard output.
              -print-size inhibits automatic image production at program  end.
              This  ban  is  lifted  only  if  the  pending  image changes get
              Padding is counted as part  of  the  ISO  image  if  not  option
              --emul-toc is given.
              If no -iso-level is given, then level 1 is chosen when the first
              file or directory is added to the image. At  the  same  occasion
              directory   names   get  allowed  to  violate  the  standard  by
              -compliance option allow_dir_id_ext.  This  may  be  avoided  by
              option -disallow_dir_id_ext.
              Option  -root  is  supported. Option -old-root is implemented by
              xorriso commands  -mkdir,  -cp_clone,  -find  update_merge,  and
              -find  rm_merge.   -root and -old-root set command -disk_dev_ino
              to "ino_only" and -md5 to "on", by default.   -disk_dev_ino  can
              be   set   to   "off"   by   --old-root-no-ino  or  to  "on"  by
              --old-root-devno   .    -md5   can   be   set   to   "off"    by
              --old-root-no-md5 .
              Not   original   mkisofs   options   are   --quoted_path_list  ,
              --hardlinks , --acl , --xattr , --md5  ,  --stdio_sync  .   They
              work  like the xorriso commands with the same name and hardcoded
              parameter  "on",  e.g.  -acl  "on".   Explicit  parameters   are
              expected by --stdio_sync and --scdbackup_tag.
              The    capability   to   preserve   multi-session   history   on
              overwriteable media gets disabled by default. It can be  enabled
              by  using  --emul-toc  with  the  first session. See -compliance
              --sort-weight gets as parameters a number  and  an  iso_rr_path.
              The  number  becomes  the  LBA  sorting  weight  of regular file
              iso_rr_path  or  of  all  regular  files  underneath   directory
              iso_rr_path.  (See -find -exec sort_weight).
              Adopted  from  grub-mkisofs  are  --protective-msdos-label  (see
              -boot_image         grub         partition_table=on)         and
              --modification-date=YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc  (see  -volume_date  uuid).
              For EFI bootable GRUB boot images use --efi-boot.   It  performs
              -boot_image  grub  efi_path= surrounded by two -boot_image "any"
              "next".  Alternative option  -e  from  Fedora  genisoimage  sets
              bin_path and platform_id for EFI, but performs no "next".
              For  MBR  bootable ISOLINUX images there is -isohybrid-mbr FILE,
              where FILE is one of the Syslinux files  mbr/isohdp[fp]x*.bin  .
              Use  this  instead  of  -G  to  apply  the effect of -boot_image
              isolinux partition_table=on.
              --boot-catalog-hide is -boot_image any cat_hidden=on.
              -mips-boot is the same as -boot_image any mips_path= .
              -mipsel-boot leads to mipsel_path= .
              -partition_offset      number      is      -boot_image       any
              Command -append_partition is supported.
              -untranslated_name_len        number        is       -compliance
              --old-empty is -compliance old_empty.
              The  options  of  genisoimage  Jigdo  Template  Extraction   are
              recognized  and  performed  via  xorriso command -jigdo. See the
              "Alias:" names there for the meaning of the genisoimage options.

              Personalities "xorrisofs",  "genisoimage",  and  "genisofs"  are
              aliases for "mkisofs".
              If  xorriso  is  started  with one of the leafnames "xorrisofs",
              "genisofs",  "mkisofs",  or  "genisoimage",  then  it   performs
              -read_mkisofsrc  and  prepends  -as  "genisofs"  to  the program
              arguments.  I.e. all arguments will be interpreted mkisofs style
              until   "--"  is  encountered.   From  then  on,  arguments  are
              interpreted as xorriso commands.
              --no_rc as first argument  of  such  a  program  start  prevents
              interpretation of startup files. See section FILES below.

              Personality "cdrecord" accepts the options listed with:
                -as cdrecord -help --
              Among  them:  -v,  dev=,  speed=,  blank=,  fs=,  -eject, -atip,
              padsize=,      tsize=,      -isosize,      -multi,      -msinfo,
              --grow_overwriteable_iso,   write_start_address=,  track  source
              file path or "-" for standard input as track source.
              It ignores most  other  options  of  cdrecord  and  cdrskin  but
              refuses  on  -audio,  -scanbus, and on blanking modes unknown to
              The scope is only a single data track per session to be  written
              to  blank,  overwriteable,  or appendable media. The medium gets
              closed if  closing  is  applicable  and  not  option  -multi  is
              If  an  input  drive was acquired, then it is given up.  This is
              only allowed if no image changes are pending.
              dev= must be given as xorriso  device  address.  Addresses  like
              0,0,0 or ATA:1,1,0 are not supported.
              If a track source is given, then an automatic -commit happens at
              the end of the "cdrecord" option list.
              --grow_overwriteable_iso enables emulation of  multi-session  on
              overwriteable  media.   To  enable emulation of a TOC, the first
              session  needs  -C  0,32  with  -as  mkisofs  (but  no  -M)  and
              --grow_overwriteable_iso    write_start_address=32s   with   -as
              A much more elaborate libburn based  cdrecord  emulator  is  the
              program cdrskin.
              Personalites "xorrecord", "wodim", and "cdrskin" are aliases for
              If xorriso is started with one  of  the  leafnames  "xorrecord",
              "cdrskin",   "cdrecord",   or  "wodim",  then  it  automatically
              prepends -as  "cdrskin"  to  the  program  arguments.  I.e.  all
              arguments  will  be  interpreted  cdrecord  style  until "--" is
              encountered.  From then on, arguments are interpreted as xorriso
              --no_rc  as  first  argument  of  such  a program start prevents
              interpretation of xorriso  startup  files.   See  section  FILES

              Try one by one to open for reading:
               ./.mkisofsrc   ,  $MKISOFSRC  ,  $HOME/.mkisofsrc  ,  $(dirname
              On  success  interpret  the  file  content  as  of  man  mkisofs
              CONFIGURATION,  and  end this command. Do not try further files.
              The last address  is  used  only  if  start  argument  0  has  a
              non-trivial dirname.
              The  reader currently interprets the following NAME=VALUE pairs:
              APPI (-application_id) , PUBL (-publisher) , SYSI (-system_id) ,
              VOLI (-volid) , VOLS (-volset_id)
              Any other lines will be silently ignored.

       -pacifier behavior_code
              Control  behavior  of  UPDATE pacifiers during write operations.
              The following behavior codes are defined:
              "xorriso" is the default format:
              Writing: sector XXXXX of YYYYYY  [fifo active, nn% fill]
              "cdrecord" looks like:
              X of Y MB written (fifo nn%) [buf mmm%]
              nn% done, estimate finish Tue Jul 15 20:13:28 2008
              The frequency of the messages can be adjusted by
              where number gives the seconds between two messages. Permissible
              settings are 0.1 to 60.0.

       -scdbackup_tag list_path record_name
              Set  the  parameter  "name" for a scdbackup checksum record.  It
              will be appended in  an  scdbackup  checksum  tag  to  the  -md5
              session tag if the image starts at LBA 0. This is the case if it
              gets written as first session onto a sequential medium, or piped
              into a program, named pipe or character device.
              If  list_path is not empty then the record will also be appended
              to the data file given by this path.
              Program scdbackup_verify will recognize and verify tag and  file
              An empty record_name disables this feature.

       Scripting, dialog and program control features:

              Only  if  used  as  first program argument this command prevents
              reading and interpretation of startup files. See  section  FILES

       -options_from_file fileaddress
              Read  quoted  input  from fileaddress and execute it like dialog
              lines.  Empty lines and lines which  begin  by  #  are  ignored.
              Normally  one  line  should hold one xorriso command and all its
              parameters.   Nevertheless  lines  may  be  concatenated  by   a
              trailing backslash.
              See also section "Command processing", paragraph "Quoted input".

              Print helptext.

              Print program name and version, component versions, license.

       -list_extras code
              Tell  whether  certain  extra  features  were enabled at compile
              time.  Code "all" lists all  features  and  a  headline.   Other
              codes  pick  a  single  feature.   Code "codes" lists them. They
              share names with related commands (see also there):
              "acl" tells whether xorriso has an adapter for local filesystems
              "xattr"   tells   whether  xorriso  has  an  adapter  for  local
              filesystems EA.
              "jigdo" tells whether production of Jigdo files is possible.
              "zisofs" tells whether zisofs  and  built-in  gzip  filters  are
              "external_filter"  tells  whether  external filter processes are
              allowed and whether  they  are  allowed  if  real  user  id  and
              effective user id differ.
              "dvd_obs" tells whether 64 kB output to DVD media is default.
              "use_readline"  tells  whether readline may be enabled in dialog

       -history textline
              Copy textline into libreadline history.

       -status mode|filter
              Print the current settings of xorriso.  Modes:
                short... print only important or altered settings
                long ... print all settings including defaults
                long_history  like long plus history lines
              Filters begin with '-' and are compared  literally  against  the
              output  lines of -status:long_history. A line is put out only if
              its start matches the filter text. No wildcards.

       -status_history_max number
              Set maximum number of history lines to be reported with  -status

       -list_delimiter word
              Set the list delimiter to be used instead of "--".  It has to be
              a single word, must not be empty, not longer than 80 characters,
              and must not contain quotation marks.
              For  brevity  the  list delimiter is referred as "--" throughout
              this text.

       -sh_style_result "on"|"off"
              Make the result output of some  filesystem  inspection  commands
              look more like the output of equivalent shell commands. The most
              important effect is to prevent the wrapping  of  file  addresses
              into quotation marks with commands
                -pwd -pwdx -ls -lsd -lsl -lsdl -lsx -lsdx -lslx -lsdlx
                -du -dus -dux -dusx -findx -find
              This  will make ambiguous the representation of file names which
              contain  newline  characters.  On  the  other  hand  it   should
              facilitate  integration  of  xorriso  into  shell  scripts which
              already use the corresponding shell commands.

       -backslash_codes "on"|"off"|mode[:mode]
              Enable or disable the interpretation of symbolic representations
              of  special  characters  with  quoted  input,  or  with  program
              arguments, or with program text output. If enabled the following
              translations apply:
               \a=bell(007) \b=backspace(010) \e=Escape(033) \f=formfeed(014)
               \n=linefeed(012) \r=carriage_return(015) \t=tab(011)
               \v=vtab(013) \\=backslash(134) \[0-7][0-7][0-7]=octal_code
               \x[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]=hex_code \cC=control-C
              Translations can occur with quoted input in 3 modes:
               "in_double_quotes" translates only inside " quotation.
               "in_quotes" translates inside " and ' quotation.
               "with_quoted_input" translates inside and outside quotes.
              With the start program arguments there is mode:
               "with_program_arguments" translates program arguments.
              Mode  "encode_output"  encodes  output  characters.  It combines
              "encode_results" with "encode_infos". Inside  single  or  double
              quotation  marks  encoding applies to 8-bit characters octal 001
              to 037 , 177 to 377 and to  backslash(134).   Outside  quotation
              marks  some  harmless  ASCII  control characters stay unencoded:
              bell(007),     backspace(010),     tab(011),      linefeed(012),
              formfeed(014), carriage_return(015).
              Mode  "off"  is default and disables any translation.  Mode "on"
              is "with_quoted_input:with_program_arguments:encode_output".

       -temp_mem_limit number["k"|"m"]
              Set the maximum size of temporary memory to be  used  for  image
              dependent   buffering.   Currently   this   applies  to  pattern
              expansion, LBA sorting, restoring of hard links.
              Default is 16m = 16 MiB, minimum 64k = 64 kiB, maximum 1024m = 1

       -print  text
              Print  a  text  line  to  the result channel which is by default

       -print_info  text
              Print a text line to  the  info  channel  which  is  by  default

       -print_mark  text
              Print  a  text  line  to  the  mark  channel which is by default
              directed to both, result and info channel. An  empty  text  will
              cause no output at all.

       -prompt text
              Show  text  at beginning of output line and wait for the user to
              hit the Enter key or to send a line via stdin.

       -sleep seconds
              Wait for the given number of seconds before performing the  next
              command.    Expect  coarse  granularity  no  better  than  1/100

       -errfile_log mode path|channel
              If  problem  events  are  related  to  input  files   from   the
              filesystem,  then their disk_paths can be logged to a file or to
              output channels R or I.
              Mode can either be "plain" or "marked". The latter causes marker
              lines which give the time of log start, burn session start, burn
              session end, log end or program end. In mode "plain",  only  the
              file paths are logged.
              If  path  is  "-" or "-R" then the log is directed to the result
              channel.  Path "-I" directs it to the info message channel.  Any
              text  that does not begin with "-" is used as path for a file to
              append the log lines.
              Problematic files can be  recorded  multiple  times  during  one
              program  run.  If the program run aborts then the list might not
              be complete  because  some  input  files  might  not  have  been
              processed at all.
              The  errfile  paths  are  transported  as  messages  of very low
              severity  "ERRFILE".   This  transport  becomes   visible   with
              -report_about "ALL".

       -session_log path
              If  path  is not empty it gives the address of a plain text file
              where a log record gets appended after each  session.  This  log
              can  be  used  to determine the start_lba of a session for mount
              options -o sbsector= (on GNU/Linux) or -s (on FreeBSD) from date
              or volume ID.
              Record format is: timestamp start_lba size volume-id
              The  first three items are single words, the rest of the line is
              the volume ID.

       -scsi_log "on"|"off"
              Mode "on" enables very verbous  logging  of  SCSI  commands  and
              drive  replies.   Logging messages get printed to stderr, not to
              any of the xorriso output channels.
              A special property of this command is that the  first  -scsi_log
              setting  among the start arguments is in effect already when the
              first operations of xorriso begin.  Only "-scsi_log"  with  dash
              "-" is recognized that way.

              End program after writing pending changes.

              Discard pending changes. End program immediately.

       # any text
              Only  in  dialog  or  file  execution  mode,  and  only as first
              non-whitespace in line: Do not execute the line but store it  in
              readline history.

       Support for frontend programs via stdin and stdout:

       -pkt_output "on"|"off"
              Consolidate  text  output  on stdout and classify each line by a
              channel indicator:
               'R:' for result lines,
               'I:' for notes and error messages,
               'M:' for -mark texts.
              Next is a decimal number of which only bit 0 has a  meaning  for
              now.   0  means  no  newline at end of payload, 1 means that the
              newline character at the end of the output line belongs  to  the
              payload.  After  another  colon  and a blank follows the payload
               I:1: enter option and parameters :

       -logfile channel fileaddress
              Copy output of a channel to the given file. Channel may  be  one
              of:  "." for all channels, "I" for info messages, "R" for result
              lines, "M" for -mark texts.

       -mark text
              If text is not empty it will get put out  on  "M"  channel  each
              time xorriso is ready for the next dialog line or before xorriso
              performs a command that was entered to the pager prompt.

       -msg_op opcode parameter_text
              This  command  shall   facilitate   extraction   of   particular
              information  from the message output of other commands. It gives
              access to the C API function  Xorriso_parse_line()  and  to  the
              message  sieve  that  is provided by the C API.  Please refer to
              their descriptions in  file  xorriso.h.   Further  it  helps  to
              interpret the severity codes of info messages.
              Intended  users  are  frontend programs which operate xorriso in
              dialog mode.
              The result output of this command is not caught by  the  message
              The following opcodes are defined:
              Install  the  message  sieve as of Xorriso_sieve_big() and start
              watching program messages. The parameter_text has no meaning.
              Show a list of filter rule  names.  The  parameter_text  has  no
              meaning.   The  list  begins  by a line with the return value of
              Xorriso_sieve_get_result() with flag  bit3.  If  this  value  is
              larger than 0, then the next line tells the number of names. The
              following lines show one name each.
              Use the parameter_text as name of a filter rule and inquire  its
              next  recorded  result.   See  Xorriso_sieve_big() for a list of
              names and reply strings.
              The recorded strings are put out on  result  channel.  They  get
              wrapped  into  lines which tell their structure.  The first line
              tells the return value of Xorriso_sieve_get_result().  The  next
              line  tells  the number of strings. Each string begins by a line
              that tells the number of lines of the string. Then follow  these
              lines.  They  are  to  be  concatenated with a newline character
              between each of them.  Finally the  number  of  still  available
              recorded results of the given name is put out.
              Dispose  all  recorded  strings  and  continue  watching program
              messages.  The parameter_text has no meaning.
              Dispose the sieve  with  its  filter  rules  and  stop  watching
              program messages.  The parameter_text has no meaning.
              Read   a   text   from   dialog   input   and   submit   it   to
              Xorriso_parse_line().  The parameter_text word shall consist  of
              several  words separated by blanks.  It will be necessary to use
              both kinds of quotation marks.
              E.g. "'ISO session  :' '' 0 0 1"
              The five parameter words  are:  prefix,  separators,  max_words,
              flag, number_of_input_lines.  The former four are handed over to
              Xorriso_parse_line(). The number of input lines minus one  tells
              xorriso how many newline characters are part of the input text.
              The  announced  number  of  text  lines will be read from dialog
              input, concatenated with a newline  character  between  each  of
              them,  and  submitted to Xorriso_parse_line() as parameter line.
              Note that newlines outside of quotation marks are interpreted as
              separators if the separators parameter is empty.
              The  parsed  strings  are  put  out  on result channel. They get
              wrapped into lines which tell their structure.  The  first  line
              tells  the  return value of Xorriso_parse_line().  The next line
              tells the number of strings. Each string begins by a  line  that
              tells  the  number  of  lines  of  the string. Then follow these
              lines. They are to be  concatenated  with  a  newline  character
              between each of them.
              If -backslash_codes "encode_output" is enabled, then the strings
              undergo encoding as if they were enclosed in quotes. Escpecially
              each string will be put out as a single result line.
              Like   "parse",   but   with  the  fifth  parameter  word  being
              number_of_input_texts rather  than  number_of_input_lines.  Each
              input   text   has   to   be  preceded  by  a  line  that  tells
              number_of_input_lines as with "parse".  Then come the  announced
              number of text lines.
              All  input  texts  will  be read before printing of result lines
              begins.    This   consumes   memory   in   xorriso.    So    the
              number_of_input_texts should not be extremely high. On the other
              hand, large transactions of command, input  texts,  and  results
              are desirable if connection latency is an issue.
              Like  "parse"  but not issuing a prompting message. Confusing to
              Like "parse_bulk" but not issuing a prompting message. Confusing
              to humans.
              The  parameter_text  should contain two comma separated severity
              texts as issued by this program. Like "SORRY,UPDATE".  See  also
              paragraph "Exception processing".
              These  two severity texts get compared and a number gets printed
              to the result channel. This number is 0 if both  severities  are
              equal.   It is -1 if the first severity is lower than the second
              one.  It is 1 is the first severity is higher  than  the  second
              Above example "SORRY,UPDATE" will yield 1.
              Print  to  the  result  channel  a  blank  separated list of all
              severity names.  Sorted from low to high severity.

       -named_pipe_loop    mode[:mode]    disk_path_stdin     disk_path_stdout
              Temporarily replace standard input, standard output and standard
              error by named pipes. Enter dialog mode without readline.
              Defined modes are:
              "cleanup" removes the submitted pipe files when the loop ends.
              "keep" does not delete them. This is the default.
              "buffered" reads all lines from the input pipe until EOF  before
              it opens the output pipes and processes the input lines.
              "direct"  opens  the output pipes after the first input line was
              read.  Each line is executed directly after it is read. This  is
              the default.
              The other three parameters must either be disk paths to existing
              named pipes, or be "-"  to  leave  the  according  standard  i/o
              channel unreplaced.
              xorriso  will open the stdin pipe, read and execute dialog lines
              from it until the sender closes the pipe. The output  pipes  get
              opened depending on mode "buffered" or "direct". After all lines
              are executed, xorriso will close its side of the pipes and enter
              a new cycle of opening, reading and executing.
              If an input line consists only of the word "end_named_pipe_loop"
              then -named_pipe_loop will end and further xorriso commands  may
              be executed from other sources.

       -launch_frontend program [arguments ...] --
              Start  the  program that is given as first parameter. Submit the
              other parameters as program  arguments.  Enable  xorriso  dialog
              Two  nameless  pipe  objects are created. xorriso standard input
              gets connected to the standard output of  the  started  program.
              xorriso  standard output and standard error get connected to the
              standard input of that program.
              xorriso will abort when the started program ends or if it cannot
              be  started at all. In both cases it will return a non-zero exit
              value.  The exit value will be zero if the frontend  sends  -end
              or -rollback_end before ending itself.
              This  command may be totaly banned at compile time. It is banned
              by default if xorriso runs under setuid permissions.
              The program name will not be searched in the $PATH  directories.
              To  make  this  clear, it must contain at least one /-character.
              Best is an absolute path.
                xorriso -launch_frontend "$(which xorriso-tcltk)" -stdio --
              The frontend program should first send via its standard output:
                -mark 0 -pkt_output on -msg_op start_sieve - -reassure off
              It should be ready to decode -pkt_output and to react  on  -mark
              messages.  Best is to increment the -mark number after each sent
              command sequence and then to wait for the new number to show  up
              in a mark message:
                ...some...commands... -mark <incremented_number>
              Further are advised:
                -report_about UPDATE -abort_on NEVER
                -iso_rr_pattern off -disk_pattern off
              A  check of the xorriso version should be done, in order to make
              sure that all desired features are present.
              Command -launch_frontend will only work once  per  xorriso  run.
              If no command parameters are submitted or if program is an empty
              text,  then  no  program  will  be  started   but   nevertheless
              -launch_frontend will be irrevocably disabled.

       -prog text
              Use text as name of this program in subsequent messages

       -prog_help text
              Use text as name of this program and perform -help.

   Overview of examples:
       As superuser learn about available drives
       Blank medium and compose a new ISO image as batch run
       A dialog session doing about the same
       Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same medium
       Copy modified ISO image from one medium to another
       Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto medium and make it bootable
       Change existing file name tree from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8
       Operate on storage facilities other than optical drives
       Burn an existing ISO image file to medium
       Perform multi-session runs as of cdrtools traditions
       Let xorriso work underneath growisofs
       Adjust thresholds for verbosity, exit value and program abort
       Examples of input timestrings
       Incremental backup of a few directory trees
       Restore directory trees from a particular ISO session to disk
       Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged medium

   As superuser learn about available drives
       On  Linux,  FreeBSD  or NetBSD consider to give rw-permissions to those
       users or groups which shall be able to use the drives with xorriso.  On
       Solaris  use  pfexec.  Consider  to  restrict  privileges of xorriso to
       "base,sys_devices" and to give r-permission to user or group.
       $ xorriso -device_links
       1  -dev '/dev/cdrom1' rwrw-- :  'TSSTcorp' 'DVD-ROM SH-D162C
       1  -dev '/dev/cdrw'   rwrw-- :  'TSSTcorp' 'CDDVDW SH-S223B'
       2  -dev '/dev/cdrw3'  rwrw-- :  'HL-DT-ST' 'BDDVDRW_GGC-H20L'

   Blank medium and compose a new ISO image as batch run
       Acquire drive /dev/sr2, make medium ready for writing a new image, fill
       the image with the files from hard disk directories /home/me/sounds and
       Because no -dialog "on" is given, the program will then end by  writing
       the session to the medium.
       $ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr2 \
        -blank as_needed \
        -map /home/me/sounds /sounds \
        -map /home/me/pictures /pictures

       The ISO image may be shaped in a more elaborate way like the following:
       Omit some unwanted stuff by removing it from the image directory  tree.
       Reintroduce some wanted stuff.
       $ cd /home/me
       $ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr2 \
        -blank as_needed \
        -map /home/me/sounds /sounds \
        -map /home/me/pictures /pictures \
        -rm_r \
          /sounds/indecent \
          '/pictures/*private*' \
          /pictures/confidential \
          -- \
        -cd / \
        -add pictures/confidential/work* --
       Note  that  '/pictures/*private*'  is  a pattern for iso_rr_paths while
       pictures/confidential/work* gets expanded by the shell  with  addresses
       from  the  hard  disk.  Commands -add and -map have different parameter
       rules but finally the same effect: they put files into the image.

   A dialog session doing about the same
       Some settings are already given as start argument. The other activities
       are  done  as  dialog  input.  The  pager  gets  set  to 20 lines of 80
       The drive is acquired by command -dev rather than -outdev in  order  to
       see  the  message  about  its  current  content. By command -blank this
       content is made ready for being overwritten and the loaded ISO image is
       made empty.
       In  order  to  be  able  to  eject  the medium, the session needs to be
       committed explicitly.
       $ xorriso -dialog on -page 20 80 -disk_pattern on
       enter option and arguments :
       -dev /dev/sr2
       enter option and arguments :
       -blank as_needed
       enter option and arguments :
       -map /home/me/sounds /sounds -map /home/me/pictures /pictures
       enter option and arguments :
       -rm_r /sounds/indecent /pictures/*private* /pictures/confidential
       enter option and arguments :
       -cdx /home/me/pictures -cd /pictures
       enter option and arguments :
       -add confidential/office confidential/factory
       enter option and arguments :
       -du /
       enter option and arguments :
       -commit_eject all -end

   Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same medium
       Load image from drive.  Remove (i.e. hide) directory  /sounds  and  its
       subordinates.      Rename     directory    /pictures/confidential    to
       /pictures/restricted.    Change   access   permissions   of   directory
       /pictures/restricted.   Add  new  directory  trees /sounds and /movies.
       Burn to the same medium, check whether the  tree  can  be  loaded,  and
       $ xorriso -dev /dev/sr2 \
        -rm_r /sounds -- \
        -mv \
          /pictures/confidential \
          /pictures/restricted \
          -- \
        -chmod go-rwx /pictures/restricted -- \
        -map /home/me/prepared_for_dvd/sounds_dummy /sounds \
        -map /home/me/prepared_for_dvd/movies /movies \
        -commit -eject all

   Copy modified ISO image from one medium to another
       Load  image  from  input  drive.  Do  the  same manipulations as in the
       previous example. Acquire output drive and blank it. Burn the  modified
       image as first and only session to the output drive.
       $ xorriso -indev /dev/sr2 \
        -rm_r /sounds -- \
        -outdev /dev/sr0 -blank as_needed \
        -commit -eject all

   Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto medium and make it bootable
       The  user  has  already created a suitable file tree on disk and copied
       the ISOLINUX files into subdirectory ./boot/isolinux of that tree.  Now
       xorriso can burn an El Torito bootable medium:
       $ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -blank as_needed \
          -map /home/me/ISOLINUX_prepared_tree / \
          -boot_image isolinux dir=/boot/isolinux

   Change existing file name tree from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8
       This  example  assumes  that  the  existing  ISO image was written with
       character set ISO-8859-1 but that the readers expected UTF-8. Now a new
       session gets added with converted file names.  Command -changes_pending
       "yes" enables writing despite the lack of any manipulation command.
       In order to avoid any weaknesses  of  the  local  character  set,  this
       command  pretends  that  it  uses  already  the final target set UTF-8.
       Therefore strange file names may appear in messages, which will be made
       terminal-safe by command -backslash_codes.
       $ xorriso -in_charset ISO-8859-1 -local_charset UTF-8 \
          -out_charset UTF-8 -backslash_codes on -dev /dev/sr0 \
          -changes_pending yes -commit -eject all

   Operate on storage facilities other than optical drives
       Full  read-write  operation  is  possible  with regular files and block
       $ xorriso -dev /tmp/regular_file ...
       Paths underneath /dev normally need prefix "stdio:"
       $ xorriso -dev stdio:/dev/sdb ...
       If /dev/sdb is to be used frequently and /dev/sda is the  system  disk,
       then  consider  to place the following lines in a xorriso Startup File.
       They allow you to use /dev/sdb without prefix and protect disk /dev/sda
       from xorriso:
         -drive_class banned   /dev/sda*
         -drive_class harmless /dev/sdb
       Other writeable file types are supported write-only:
       $ xorriso -outdev /tmp/named_pipe ...
       Among the write-only drives is standard output:
       $ xorriso -outdev - \
        | gzip >image.iso.gz

   Burn an existing ISO image file to medium
       Actually this works with any kind of data, not only ISO images:
       $ xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=as_needed image.iso

   Perform multi-session runs as of cdrtools traditions
       Between  both processes there can be performed arbitrary transportation
       or filtering.
       The first session is written like this:
       $ xorriso -as mkisofs prepared_for_iso/tree1 | \
        xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=fast -multi -eject -
       Follow-up sessions are written like this:
       $ dd if=/dev/sr0 count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1
       $ m=$(xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -msinfo)
       $ xorriso -as mkisofs -M /dev/sr0 -C $m prepared_for_iso/tree2 | \
        xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 -waiti -multi -eject -
       Always eject the drive tray between sessions. The old sessions get read
       via  /dev/sr0.  Its  device  driver  might  not be aware of the changed
       content before it loads the medium again.  In this  case  the  previous
       session  would not be loaded and the new session would contain only the
       newly added files.
       For the same reason do not let xorriso -as cdrecord  load  the  medium,
       but rather do this manually or by a program that reads from /dev/sr0.
       This  example  works  for multi-session media only.  Add cdrskin option
       --grow_overwriteable_iso to all -as cdrecord runs in  order  to  enable
       multi-session emulation on overwriteable media.

   Let xorriso work underneath growisofs
       growisofs expects an ISO formatter program which understands options -C
       and -M. If xorriso gets started by name "xorrisofs" then it is suitable
       for that.
       $ export MKISOFS="xorrisofs"
       $ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd /some/files
       $ growisofs -M /dev/dvd /more/files
       If  no  "xorrisofs"  is available on your system, then you will have to
       create a link pointing to the xorriso binary and tell growisofs to  use
       it.  E.g. by:
       $ ln -s $(which xorriso) "$HOME/xorrisofs"
       $ export MKISOFS="$HOME/xorrisofs"
       One  may  quit  mkisofs  emulation by argument "--" and make use of all
       xorriso commands. growisofs dislikes options which start with "-o"  but
       -outdev must be set to "-".  So use "outdev" instead:
       $ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -- outdev - -update_r /my/files /files
       $ growisofs -M /dev/dvd -- outdev - -update_r /my/files /files
       growisofs has excellent burn capabilities with DVD and BD.  It does not
       emulate session history on overwriteable media, though.

   Adjust thresholds for verbosity, exit value and program abort
       Be quite verbous, exit 32 if severity "FAILURE" was encountered, do not
       abort prematurely but forcibly go on until the end of commands.
       $ xorriso ... \
        -report_about UPDATE \
        -return_with FAILURE 32 \
        -abort_on NEVER \

   Examples of input timestrings
       As printed by program date: 'Thu Nov 8 14:51:13 CET 2007'
       The same without ignored parts: 'Nov 8 14:51:13 2007'
       The same as expected by date: 110814512007.13
       Four weeks in the future: +4w
       The current time: +0
       Three hours ago: -3h
       Seconds since Jan 1 1970: =1194531416

   Incremental backup of a few directory trees
       This  changes  the  directory trees /projects and /personal_mail in the
       ISO image so that they become exact copies of their disk  counterparts.
       ISO  file objects get created, deleted or get their attributes adjusted
       ACL, xattr, hard links and MD5 checksums will be recorded.  Accelerated
       comparison is enabled at the expense of potentially larger backup size.
       Only media with the expected volume ID or  blank  media  are  accepted.
       Files with names matching *.o or *.swp get excluded explicitly.
       When  done  with  writing  the new session gets checked by its recorded
       $ xorriso \
        -abort_on FATAL \
        -for_backup -disk_dev_ino on \
        -assert_volid 'PROJECTS_MAIL_*' FATAL \
        -dev /dev/sr0 \
        -volid PROJECTS_MAIL_"$(date '+%Y_%m_%d_%H%M%S')" \
        -not_leaf '*.o' -not_leaf '*.swp' \
        -update_r /home/thomas/projects /projects \
        -update_r /home/thomas/personal_mail /personal_mail \
        -commit -toc -check_md5 FAILURE -- -eject all
       To be used several times on the same medium, whenever an update of  the
       two  disk trees to the medium is desired. Begin with a blank medium and
       update it until the run fails gracefully due to lack of remaining space
       on the old one.
       This  makes  sense  if  the  full  backup  leaves substantial remaining
       capacity on media and if the expected changes are much smaller than the
       full backup.  To apply zisofs compression to those data files which get
       newly  copied  from  the  local  filesystem,  insert   these   commands
       immediately before -commit :
        -hardlinks perform_update \
        -find / -type f -pending_data -exec set_filter --zisofs -- \
       Commands  -disk_dev_ino  and  -for_backup  depend  on stable device and
       inode numbers on disk. Without them, an update run may use -md5 "on" to
       match  recorded MD5 sums against the current file content on hard disk.
       This is usually much  faster  than  the  default  which  compares  both
       contents directly.
       With  mount  option  -o  "sbsector="  on  GNU/Linux or -s on FreeBSD or
       NetBSD it is possible to access the session trees which  represent  the
       older  backup  versions. With CD media, GNU/Linux mount accepts session
       numbers directly by its option "session=".
       Multi-session media and most overwriteable media written by xorriso can
       tell  the  sbsectors  of  their sessions by xorriso command -toc.  Used
       after -commit the following command prints the matching  mount  command
       for the newly written session (here for mount point /mnt):
        -mount_cmd "indev" "auto" "auto" /mnt
       Commands  -mount_cmd  and  -mount  are  also  able to produce the mount
       commands for older sessions in the table-of-content. E.g. as superuser:
        # osirrox -mount /dev/sr0 "volid" '*2008_12_05*' /mnt

       Above example produces a result similar to  -root /  -old-root  /  with
       mkisofs.   For  getting  the  session  trees  accumulated  in  the  new
       sessions, let all -update commands use a common  parent  directory  and
       clone it after updating is done:
        -update_r /home/thomas/projects /current/projects \
        -update_r /home/thomas/personal_mail /current/personal_mail \
        -clone /current /"$(date '+%Y_%m_%d_%H%M%S')" \
       The cloned tree will have a name like /2011_02_12_155700.

       Sessions  on  multi-session media are separated by several MB of unused
       blocks.  So  with  small  sessions  the  payload  capacity  can  become
       substantially  lower  than the overall media capacity. If the remaining
       space on a medium does not suffice for  the  next  gap,  the  drive  is
       supposed to close the medium automatically.

       Better  do  not  use your youngest backup for -update_r.  Have at least
       two media which you  use  alternatingly.  So  only  older  backups  get
       endangered  by  the  new  write  operation,  while the newest backup is
       stored safely on a different medium.
       Always have a blank medium ready to perform a full backup in  case  the
       update  attempt  fails  due  to  insufficient  remaining capacity. This
       failure will not spoil the old medium, of course.

   Restore directory trees from a particular ISO session to disk
       This is an alternative to mounting the medium  and  using  normal  file
       First check which backup sessions are on the medium:
       $ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -toc
       Then  enable  restoring  of ACL, xattr and hard links. Load the desired
       session  and  copy  the  file  trees  to   disk.    Avoid   to   create
       /home/thomas/restored without rwx-permission.
       $ xorriso -for_backup \
        -load volid 'PROJECTS_MAIL_2008_06_19*' \
        -indev /dev/sr0 \
        -osirrox on:auto_chmod_on \
        -chmod u+rwx / -- \
        -extract /projects /home/thomas/restored/projects \
        -extract /personal_mail /home/thomas/restored/personal_mail \
       The  final  command  -rollback_end  prevents an error message about the
       altered image being discarded.

   Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged medium
       $ xorriso -abort_on NEVER -indev /dev/sr0 \
        -check_media time_limit=1800 report=blocks_files \
        data_to="$HOME"/dvd_copy sector_map="$HOME"/dvd_copy.map --
       This can be repeated several times, if necessary with  -eject  or  with
       other    -indev    drives.    See    the   human   readable   part   of
       "$HOME"/dvd_copy.map   for   addresses   which   can   be    used    on
       "$HOME"/dvd_copy with mount option -o sbsector= or -s.

   Program alias names:
       Normal  installation  of xorriso creates three links or copies which by
       their program name pre-select certain settings:
       xorrisofs starts xorriso with -as mkisofs emulation.
       xorrecord starts xorriso with -as cdrecord emulation.
       osirrox starts  with  -osirrox  "on:o_excl_off"  which  allows  further
       commands  to  copy  files  from  ISO image to disk and to apply command
       -mount to one or more of the existing ISO sessions.

   Startup files:
       If not -no_rc is given as the first argument then xorriso  attempts  on
       startup to read and execute lines from the following files:
       The  files  are  read  in the sequence given above, but none of them is
       required  to  exist.  The  line  format  is  described   with   command
       If   mkisofs   emulation  was  enabled  by  program  name  "xorrisofs",
       "mkisofs",    "genisoimage",    or    "genisofs",    then    afterwards
       -read_mkisofsrc is performed, which reads .mkisofsrc files. See there.

   Runtime control files:
       The default setting of -check_media abort_file= is:

       The following environment variables influence the program behavior:
       HOME is used to find startup files of xorriso and mkisofs.
       SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH  belongs to the specs of reproducible-builds.org.  It
       is supposed to be either undefined or to contain a decimal number which
       tells the seconds since january 1st 1970. If it contains a number, then
       it is used as time value to set the default  of  -volume  date  "uuid",
       sets  -boot_image  "any"  "gpt_disk_guid="  to  "volume_date_uuid", and
       -volume_date "all_file_dates" to "set_to_mtime",
       Startup  files  and  program  options  can  override  the   effect   of

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | media/xorriso    |
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
       For the mkisofs emulation of xorriso

       For the cdrecord emulation of xorriso

       For mounting xorriso generated ISO 9660 images (-t iso9660)

       Libreadline, a comfortable input line facility

       Other programs which produce ISO 9660 images
              mkisofs(8), genisoimage(8)

       Other programs which burn sessions to optical media
              growisofs(1), cdrecord(1), wodim(1), cdrskin(1)

       ACL and xattr
              getfacl(1), setfacl(1), getfattr(1), setfattr(1)

       MD5 checksums

       On FreeBSD the commands for xattr and MD5 differ
              getextattr(8), setextattr(8), md5(1)

       To  report  bugs,  request  help,  or suggest enhancements for xorriso,
       please send electronic mail to the public  list  <bug-xorriso@gnu.org>.
       If more privacy is desired, mail to <scdbackup@gmx.net>.
       Please describe what you expect xorriso to do, the program arguments or
       dialog commands by which you tried  to  achieve  it,  the  messages  of
       xorriso, and the undesirable outcome of your program run.
       Expect to get asked more questions before solutions can be proposed.

       Thomas Schmitt <scdbackup@gmx.net>
       for libburnia-project.org

       Copyright (c) 2007 - 2017 Thomas Schmitt
       Permission  is granted to distribute this text freely. It shall only be
       modified in sync with the technical properties of xorriso.  If you make
       use  of the license to derive modified versions of xorriso then you are
       entitled to modify this text under that same license.

       xorriso is in part  based  on  work  by  Vreixo  Formoso  who  provides
       libisofs  together  with Mario Danic who also leads the libburnia team.
       Vladimir Serbinenko contributed the HFS+ filesystem  code  and  related
       knowledge.   Thanks  to Andy Polyakov who invented emulated growing, to
       Derek Foreman and Ben Jansens who once founded libburn.
       Compliments towards Joerg Schilling whose cdrtools served  me  for  ten

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source                was                downloaded                from

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.gnu.org/software/xorriso.

                                                   Version 1.4.8, Sep 12, 2017